Network Working Group                                        J. Peterson
Internet-Draft                                                   Neustar
Intended status: Standards Track                               S. Turner
Expires: January 6, 2016                                            IECA
                                                            July 5, 2015

          Secure Telephone Identity Credentials: Certificates


   In order to prove ownership of telephone numbers on the Internet,
   some kind of public infrastructure needs to exist that binds
   cryptographic keys to authority over telephone numbers.  This
   document describes a certificate-based credential system for
   telephone numbers, which could be used as a part of a broader
   architecture for managing telephone numbers as identities in
   protocols like SIP.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 6, 2016.

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   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Enrollment and Authorization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Certificate Scope and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Provisioning Private Keying Material  . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Acquiring Credentials to Verify Signatures  . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Verifying Certificate Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Certificate Freshness and Revocation  . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.2.1.  Choosing a Verification Method  . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.2.2.  Using OCSP with STIR Certificates . . . . . . . . . .   9  OCSP Extension Specification  . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.2.3.  Acquiring TN Lists By Reference . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  ASN.1 Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   As is discussed in the STIR problem statement
   [I-D.ietf-stir-problem-statement], the primary enabler of
   robocalling, vishing, swatting and related attacks is the capability
   to impersonate a calling party number.  The starkest examples of
   these attacks are cases where automated callees on the PSTN rely on
   the calling number as a security measure, for example to access a
   voicemail system.  Robocallers use impersonation as a means of
   obscuring identity; while robocallers can, in the ordinary PSTN,
   block (that is, withhold) their caller identity, callees are less
   likely to pick up calls from blocked identities, and therefore
   appearing to calling from some number, any number, is preferable.
   Robocallers however prefer not to call from a number that can trace
   back to the robocaller, and therefore they impersonate numbers that
   are not assigned to them.

   One of the most important components of a system to prevent
   impersonation is an authority responsible for issuing credentials to
   parties who control telephone numbers.  With these credentials,
   parties can prove that they are in fact authorized to use telephony
   numbers, and thus distinguish themselves from impersonators unable to
   present credentials.  This document describes a credential system for

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   telephone numbers based on X.509 version 3 certificates in accordance
   with [RFC5280].  While telephone numbers have long been a part of the
   X.509 standard, the certificates described in this document may
   contain telephone number blocks or ranges, and accordingly it uses an
   alternate syntax.

   In the STIR in-band architecture, two basic types of entities need
   access to these credentials: authentication services, and
   verification services (or verifiers); see [I-D.ietf-stir-rfc4474bis].
   An authentication service must be operated by an entity enrolled with
   the certification authority (see Section 3), whereas a verifier need
   only trust the root certificate of the authority, and have a means to
   acquire and validate certificates.

   This document attempts to specify only the basic elements necessary
   for this architecture.  Only through deployment experience will it be
   possible to decide directions for future work.

2.  Terminology

   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as
   described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119] and RFC 6919 [RFC6919].

3.  Enrollment and Authorization

   This document assumes a threefold model for certificate enrollment.

   The first enrollment model is one where the certification authority
   acts in concert with national numbering authorities to issue
   credentials to those parties to whom numbers are assigned.  In the
   United States, for example, telephone number blocks are assigned to
   Local Exchange Carriers (LECs) by the North American Numbering Plan
   Administrator (NANPA), who is in turn directed by the national
   regulator.  LECs may also receive numbers in smaller allocations,
   through number pooling, or via an individual assignment through
   number portability.  LECs assign numbers to customers, who may be
   private individuals or organizations - and organizations take
   responsibility for assigning numbers within their own enterprise.

   The second enrollment model is one where a certification authority
   requires that an entity prove control by means of some sort of test.
   For example, an authority might send a text message to a telephone
   number containing a URL (which might be dereferenced by the
   recipient) as a means of verifying that a user has control of
   terminal corresponding to that number.  Checks of this form are
   frequently used in commercial systems today to validate telephone

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   numbers provided by users.  This is comparable to existing enrollment
   systems used by some certificate authorities for issuing S/MIME
   credentials for email by verifying that the party applying for a
   credential receives mail at the email address in question.

   The third enrollment model is delegation: that is, the holder of a
   certificate (assigned by either of the two methods above) may
   delegate some or all of their authority to another party.  In some
   cases, multiple levels of delegation could occur: a LEC, for example,
   might delegate authority to customer organization for a block of 100
   numbers, and the organization might in turn delegate authority for a
   particular number to an individual employee.  This is analogous to
   delegation of organizational identities in traditional hierarchical
   Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs) who use the name constraints
   extension [RFC5280]; the root CA delegates names in sales to the
   sales department CA, names in development to the development CA, etc.
   As lengthy certificate delegation chains are brittle, however, and
   can cause delays in the verification process, this document considers
   optimizations to reduce the complexity of verification.

   [TBD] Future versions of this specification may address adding a
   level of assurance indication to certificates to differentiate those
   enrolled from proof-of-possession versus delegation.

   [TBD] Future versions of this specification may also discuss methods
   of partial delegation, where certificate holders delegate only part
   of their authority.  For example, individual assignees may want to
   delegate to a service authority for text messages associated with
   their telephone number, but not for other functions.

3.1.  Certificate Scope and Structure

   The subjects of telephone number certificates are the administrative
   entities to whom numbers are assigned or delegated.  For example, a
   LEC might hold a certificate for a range of telephone numbers.

   [TBD - what if the subject is considered a privacy leak?]

   This specification places no limits on the number of telephone
   numbers that can be associated with any given certificate.  Some
   service providers may be assigned millions of numbers, and may wish
   to have a single certificate that is capable of signing for any one
   of those numbers.  Others may wish to compartmentalize authority over
   subsets of the numbers they control.

   Moreover, service providers may wish to have multiple certificates
   with the same scope of authority.  For example, a service provider
   with several regional gateway systems may want each system to be

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   capable of signing for each of their numbers, but not want to have
   each system share the same private key.

   The set of telephone numbers for which a particular certificate is
   valid is expressed in the certificate through a certificate
   extension; the certificate's extensibility mechanism is defined in
   [RFC5280] but the telephone number authorization extension is defined
   in this document.

3.2.  Provisioning Private Keying Material

   In order for authentication services to sign calls via the procedures
   described in [I-D.ietf-stir-rfc4474bis], they must possess a private
   key corresponding to a certificate with authority over the calling
   number.  This specification does not require that any particular
   entity sign requests, only that it be an entity with an appropriate
   private key; the authentication service role may be instantiated by
   any entity in a SIP network.  For a certificate granting authority
   only over a particular number which has been issued to an end user,
   for example, an end user device might hold the private key and
   generate the signature.  In the case of a service provider with
   authority over large blocks of numbers, an intermediary might hold
   the private key and sign calls.

   The specification recommends distribution of private keys through
   PKCS#8 objects signed by a trusted entity, for example through the
   CMS package specified in [RFC5958].

4.  Acquiring Credentials to Verify Signatures

   This specification documents multiple ways that a verifier can gain
   access to the credentials needed to verify a request.  As the
   validity of certificates does not depend on the circumstances of
   their acquisition, there is no need to standardize any single
   mechanism for this purpose.  All entities that comply with
   [I-D.ietf-stir-rfc4474bis] necessarily support SIP, and consequently
   SIP itself can serve as a way to acquire certificates.  This specific
   does allow delivery through alternate means as well.

   The simplest way for a verifier to acquire the certificate needed to
   verify a signature is for the certificate be conveyed along with the
   signature itself.  In SIP, for example, a certificate could be
   carried in a multipart MIME body [RFC2046], and the URI in the
   Identity-Info header could specify that body with a CID URI
   [RFC2392].  However, in many environments this is not feasible due to
   message size restrictions or lack of necessary support for multipart

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   Alternatively, the Identity-Info header of a SIP request may contain
   a URI that the verifier dereferences with a network call.
   Implementations of this specification are required to support the use
   of SIP for this function (via the SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY mechanism), as
   well as HTTP, via the Enrollment over Secure Transport mechanisms
   described in RFC 7030 [RFC7030].

   A verifier can however have access to a service that grants access to
   certificates for a particular telephone number.  Note however that
   there may be multiple valid certificates that can sign a call setup
   request for a telephone number, and that as a consequence, there
   needs to be some discriminator that the signer uses to identify their
   credentials.  The Identity-Info header itself can serve as such a

4.1.  Verifying Certificate Scope

   The subjects of these certificates are the administrative entities to
   whom numbers are assigned or delegated.  When a verifier is
   validating a caller's identity, local policy always determines the
   circumstances under which any particular subject may be trusted, but
   for the purpose of validating a caller's identity, this certificate
   extension establishes whether or not a signer is authorized to sign
   for a particular number.

   The Telephony Number (TN) Authorization List certificate extension is
   identified by the following object identifier:

              id-ce-TNAuthList OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { TBD }

   The TN Authorization List certificate extension has the following

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      TNAuthorizationList ::= SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF TNAuthorization

      TNAuthorization ::= SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF TNEntry

      TNEntry ::= CHOICE {

         spid  ServiceProviderIdentifierList,

         range TelephoneNumberRange,

         one   E164Number }

      ServiceProviderIdentifierList ::= SEQUENCE SIZE (1..3) OF

                                   OCTET STRING

        -- When all three are present: SPID, Alt SPID, and Last Alt SPID

      TelephoneNumberRange ::= SEQUENCE {

         start E164Number,

         count INTEGER }

      E164Number ::= IA5String (SIZE (1..15)) (FROM ("0123456789"))

   [TBD- do we really need to do IA5String?  The alternative would be
   UTF8String, e.g.: UTF8String (SIZE (1..15)) (FROM ("0123456789")) ]

   The TN Authorization List certificate extension indicates the
   authorized phone numbers for the call setup signer.  It indicates one
   or more blocks of telephone number entries that have been authorized
   for use by the call setup signer.  There are three ways to identify
   the block: 1) a Service Provider Identifier (SPID) can be used to
   indirectly name all of the telephone numbers associated with that
   service provider, 2) telephone numbers can be listed in a range, and
   3) a single telephone number can be listed.

   Note that because large-scale service providers may want to associate
   many numbers, possibly millions of numbers, with a particular
   certificate, optimizations are required for those cases to prevent
   certificate size from becoming unmanageable.  In these cases, the TN

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   Authorization List may be given by reference rather than by value,
   through the presence of a separate certificate extension that permits
   verifiers to either securely download the list of numbers associated
   with a certificate, or to verify that a single number is under the
   authority of this certificate.  This optimization will be detailed in
   future version of this specification.

4.2.  Certificate Freshness and Revocation

   The problem of certificate freshness gains a new wrinkle in the
   telephone number context, because verifiers must establish not only
   that a certificate remains valid, but also that the certificate's
   scope contains the telephone number that the verifier is validating.
   Dynamic changes to number assignments can occur due to number
   portability, for example.  So even if a verifier has a valid cached
   certificate for a telephone number (or a range containing the
   number), the verifier must determine that the entity that signed is
   still a proper authority for that number.

   To verify the status of the certificate, the verifier needs the
   certificate, which is included with the call, and then would need to

      Rely on short-lived certificates and not check the certificate's
      status, or

      Rely on status information from the authority

   The tradeoff between short lived certificates and using status
   information is the former's burden is on the front end (i.e.,
   enrollment) and the latter's burden is on the back end (i.e.,
   verification).  Both impact call setup time, but it is assumed that
   performing enrollment for each call is more of an impact that using
   status information.  This document therefore recommends relying on
   status information.

4.2.1.  Choosing a Verification Method

   There are three common certificate verification mechanisms employed
   by CAs:

      Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) [RFC5280]

      Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) [RFC6960], and

      Server-based Certificate Validation Protocol (SCVP) [RFC5055].

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   When relying on status information, the verifier needs to obtain the
   status information - but before that can happen, the verifier needs
   to know where to locate it.  Placing the location of the status
   information in the certificate makes the certificate larger, but it
   eases the client workload.  The CRL Distribution Point certificate
   extension includes the location of the CRL and the Authority
   Information Access certificate extension includes the location of
   OCSP and/or SCVP servers; both of these extensions are defined in
   [RFC5280].  In all cases, the status information location is provided
   in the form of an URI.

   CRLs are an obviously attractive solution because they are supported
   by every CA.  CRLs have a reputation of being quite large (10s of
   MBytes), because CAs maintain and issue one monolithic CRL with all
   of their revoked certificates, but CRLs do support a variety of
   mechanisms to scope the size of the CRLs based on revocation reasons
   (e.g., key compromise vs CA compromise), user certificates only, and
   CA certificates only as well as just operationally deciding to keep
   the CRLs small.  However, scoping the CRL introduces other issues
   (i.e., does the RP have all of the CRL partitions).

   CAs in the STIR architecture will likely all create CRLs for audit
   purposes, but it NOT RECOMMENDED that they be relying upon for status
   information.  Instead, one of the two "online" options is preferred.
   Between the two, OCSP is much more widely deployed and this document
   therefore recommends the use of OCSP in high-volume environments for
   validating the freshness of certificates, based on [RFC6960],
   incorporating some (but not all) of the optimizations of [RFC5019].

4.2.2.  Using OCSP with STIR Certificates

   Certificates compliant with this specification therefore SHOULD
   include a URL pointing to an OCSP service in the Authority
   Information Access (AIA) certificate extension, via the "id-ad-ocsp"
   accessMethod specified in [RFC5280].  Baseline OCSP however supports
   only three possible response values: good, revoked, or unknown.  With
   some extension, OCSP would not indicate whether the certificate is
   authorized for a particular telephone number that the verifier is

   [TBD] What would happen in the unknown case?  Can we profile OCSP
   usage so that unknown is never returned for our extension?

   At a high level, there are two ways that a client might pose this
   authorization question:

      For this certificate, is the following number currently in its
      scope of validity?

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      What are all the telephone numbers associated with this
      certificate, or this certificate subject?

   Only the former lends itself to piggybacking on the OCSP status
   mechanism; since the verifier is already asking an authority about
   the certificate's status, why not reuse that mechanism, instead of
   creating a new service that requires additional round trips?  Like
   most PKIX-developed protocols, OCSP is extensible; OCSP supports
   request extensions (including sending multiple requests at once) and
   per-request extensions.  It seems unlikely that the verifier will be
   requesting authorization checks on multiple telephone numbers in one
   request, so a per-request extension is what is needed.

   [TBD] HVE OCSP requires SHA-1 be used as the hash algorithm,
   we're6960 obviously going to change this to be SHA-256.

   The requirement to consult OCSP in real time results in a network
   round-trip time of day, which is something to consider because it
   will add to the call setup time.  OCSP server implementations
   commonly pre-generate responses, and to speed up HTTPS connections,
   servers often provide OCSP responses for each certificate in their
   hierarchy.  If possible, both of these OCSP concepts should be
   adopted for use with STIR.  OCSP Extension Specification

   The extension mechanism for OCSP follows X.509 v3 certificate
   extensions, and thus requires an OID, a criticality flag, and ASN.1
   syntax as defined by the OID.  The criticality specified here is
   optional: per [RFC6960] Section 4.4, support for all OCSP extensions
   is optional.  If the OCSP server does not understand the requested
   extension, it will still provide the baseline validation of the
   certificate itself.  Moreover, in practical STIR deployments, the
   issuer of the certificate will set the accessLocation for the OCSP
   AIA extension to point to an OCSP service that supports this
   extension, so the risk of interoperability failure due to lack of
   support for this extension is minimal.

   The OCSP TNQuery extension is included as one of the
   requestExtensions in requests.  It may also appear in the
   responseExtensions.  When an OCSP server includes a number in the
   responseExtensions, this informs the client that the certificate is
   still valid for the number that appears in the TNQuery extension
   field.  If the TNQuery is absent from a response to a query
   containing a TNQuery in its requestExtensions, then the server is not
   able to validate that the number is still in the scope of authority
   of the certificate.

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           id-pkix-ocsp-stir-tn     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-pkix-ocsp TBD }

           TNQuery ::= E164Number

   Note that HVE OCSP profile [RFC5019] prohibits the use of per-request
   extensions.  As it is anticipated that STIR will use OCSP in a high-
   volume environment, many of the optimizations recommended by HVE are
   desirable for the STIR environment.  This document therefore uses
   these extensions in a baseline OCSP environment with some HVE
   optimizations.  [More TBD]

   Ideally, once a certificate has been acquired by a verifier, some
   sort of asynchronous mechanism could notify and update the verifier
   if the scope of the certificate changes so that verifiers could
   implement a cache.  While not all possible categories of verifiers
   could implement such behavior, some sort of event-driven notification
   of certificate status is another potential subject of future work.
   One potential direction is that a future SIP SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY-based
   accessMethod for AIA might be defined (which would also be applicable
   to the method described in the following section) by some future

4.2.3.  Acquiring TN Lists By Reference

   Acquiring a list of the telephone numbers associated with a
   certificate or its subject lends itself to an application-layer
   query/response interaction outside of OCSP, one which could be
   initiated through a separate URI included in the certificate.  The
   AIA extension (see [RFC5280]) supports such a mechanism: it
   designates an OID to identify the accessMethod and an accessLocation,
   which would most likely be a URI.  A verifier would then follow the
   URI to ascertain whether the list of TNs authorized for use by the

   HTTPS is the most obvious candidate for a protocol to be used for
   fetching the list of telephone number associated with a particular
   certificate.  This document defines a new AIA accessMethod, called
   "id-ad-stir-tn", which uses the following AIA OID:

              id-ad-stir-tn     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-ad TBD }

   When the "id-ad-stir-tn" accessMethod is used, the accessLocation
   MUST be an HTTPS URI.  The document returned by dereferencing that
   URI will contain the complete TN Authorization List (see Section 4.1)
   for the certificate.

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   Delivering the entire list of telephone numbers associated with a
   particular certificate will divulge to STIR verifiers information
   about telephone numbers other than the one associated with the
   particular call that the verifier is checking.  In some environments,
   where STIR verifiers handle a high volume of calls, maintaining an
   up-to-date and complete cache for the numbers associated with crucial
   certificate holders could give an important boost to performance.

5.  Acknowledgments

   Russ Housley, Brian Rosen, Cullen Jennings and Eric Rescorla provided
   key input to the discussions leading to this document.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes use of object identifiers for the TN Certificate
   Extension defined in Section 4.1, TN-HVE OCSP extension in
   Section, and the TN by reference AIA access descriptor
   defined in Section 4.2.3.  It therefore requests that the IANA make
   the following assignments:

      - TN Certificate Extension in the SMI Security for PKIX
      Certificate Extension registry:

      - TN-HVE OCSP extension in the SMI Security for PKIX Online
      Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) registry:

      - TNS by reference access descriptor in the SMI Security for PKIX
      Access Descriptor registry:

7.  Security Considerations

   This document is entirely about security.  For further information on
   certificate security and practices, see RFC 3280 [RFC3280], in
   particular its Security Considerations.

8.  Informative References

              Peterson, J., Schulzrinne, H., and H. Tschofenig, "Secure
              Telephone Identity Problem Statement and Requirements",
              draft-ietf-stir-problem-statement-05 (work in progress),
              May 2014.

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              Peterson, J., Jennings, C., and E. Rescorla,
              "Authenticated Identity Management in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", draft-ietf-stir-rfc4474bis-03
              (work in progress), March 2015.

              Peterson, J., "Retargeting and Security in SIP: A
              Framework and Requirements", draft-peterson-sipping-
              retarget-00 (work in progress), February 2005.

   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              November 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2392]  Levinson, E., "Content-ID and Message-ID Uniform Resource
              Locators", RFC 2392, August 1998.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3263]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263, June

   [RFC3280]  Housley, R., Polk, W., Ford, W., and D. Solo, "Internet
              X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and
              Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC 3280,
              April 2002.

   [RFC5019]  Deacon, A. and R. Hurst, "The Lightweight Online
              Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) Profile for High-Volume
              Environments", RFC 5019, September 2007.

   [RFC5055]  Freeman, T., Housley, R., Malpani, A., Cooper, D., and W.
              Polk, "Server-Based Certificate Validation Protocol
              (SCVP)", RFC 5055, December 2007.

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   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.

   [RFC5958]  Turner, S., "Asymmetric Key Packages", RFC 5958, August

   [RFC6919]  Barnes, R., Kent, S., and E. Rescorla, "Further Key Words
              for Use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", RFC 6919,
              April 2013.

   [RFC6960]  Santesson, S., Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A.,
              Galperin, S., and C. Adams, "X.509 Internet Public Key
              Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP",
              RFC 6960, June 2013.

   [RFC7030]  Pritikin, M., Yee, P., and D. Harkins, "Enrollment over
              Secure Transport", RFC 7030, October 2013.

   [RFC7299]  Housley, R., "Object Identifier Registry for the PKIX
              Working Group", RFC 7299, July 2014.

   [X.680]    USC/Information Sciences Institute, "Information
              Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One.", ITU-T X.680,
              ISO/IEC 8824-1:2002, 2002.

   [X.681]    USC/Information Sciences Institute, "Information
              Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One: Information
              Object Specification", ITU-T X.681, ISO/IEC 8824-2:2002,

   [X.682]    USC/Information Sciences Institute, "Information
              Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One: Constraint
              Specification", ITU-T X.682, ISO/IEC 8824-3:2002, 2002.

   [X.683]    USC/Information Sciences Institute, "Information
              Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One:
              Parameterization of ASN.1 Specifications", ITU-T X.683,
              ISO/IEC 8824-4:2002, 2002.

Appendix A.  ASN.1 Module

   This appendix provides the normative ASN.1 [X.680] definitions for
   the structures described in this specification using ASN.1, as
   defined in [X.680] through [X.683].


Peterson & Turner        Expires January 6, 2016               [Page 14]

Internet-Draft                 STIR Certs                      July 2015

Authors' Addresses

   Jon Peterson
   Neustar, Inc.
   1800 Sutter St Suite 570
   Concord, CA  94520


   Sean Turner
   IECA, Inc.
   3057 Nutley Street, Suite 106
   Farifax, VA  22031


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