TSVWG                                                      M. Westerlund
Internet-Draft                                         J. Preuß Mattsson
Obsoletes: 6083 (if approved)                                 C. Porfiri
Intended status: Standards Track                                Ericsson
Expires: 28 April 2022                                   25 October 2021


      Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) over Stream Control
                      Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
                 draft-ietf-tsvwg-dtls-over-sctp-bis-02

Abstract

   This document describes the usage of the Datagram Transport Layer
   Security (DTLS) protocol to protect user messages sent over the
   Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).  It is an improved
   update of the existing rfc6083.

   DTLS over SCTP provides mutual authentication, confidentiality,
   integrity protection, and replay protection for applications that use
   SCTP as their transport protocol and allows client/server
   applications to communicate in a way that is designed to give
   communications privacy and to prevent eavesdropping and detect
   tampering or message forgery.

   Applications using DTLS over SCTP can use almost all transport
   features provided by SCTP and its extensions.  This document intends
   to obsolete RFC 6083 and removes the 16 kB limitation due to DTLS on
   user message size by defining a secure user message fragmentation so
   that multiple DTLS records can be used to protect a single user
   message.  It further updates the DTLS versions to use, as well as the
   HMAC algorithms for SCTP-AUTH, and simplifies secure implementation
   by some stricter requirements on the establishment procedures.

Discussion Venues

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the TSVWG Working Group
   mailing list (tsvwg@ietf.org), which is archived at
   https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/browse/tsvwg/.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/gloinul/draft-westerlund-tsvwg-dtls-over-sctp-bis.







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Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 28 April 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       1.1.1.  Comparison with TLS for SCTP  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       1.1.2.  Changes from RFC 6083 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.2.  DTLS Version  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     1.4.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   3.  DTLS Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1.  Version of DTLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Cipher Suites and Cryptographic Parameters  . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  Message Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.4.  Replay Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  Path MTU Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.6.  Retransmission of Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10



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   4.  SCTP Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Mapping of DTLS Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  DTLS Connection Handling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.3.  Payload Protocol Identifier Usage . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.4.  Stream Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.5.  Chunk Handling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.6.  SCTP-AUTH Hash Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.7.  Parallel DTLS connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.8.  Renegotiation and KeyUpdate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       4.8.1.  DTLS 1.2 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.8.2.  DTLS 1.3 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.9.  DTLS Epochs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.9.1.  DTLS 1.2 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.9.2.  DTLS 1.3 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.10. Handling of Endpoint-Pair Shared Secrets  . . . . . . . .  18
       4.10.1.  DTLS 1.2 Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       4.10.2.  DTLS 1.3 Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.11. Shutdown  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.  DTLS over SCTP Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.1.  Adaptation Layer Indication in INIT/INIT-ACK  . . . . . .  19
     5.2.  DTLS over SCTP Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.3.  Client Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.4.  Server Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.5.  RFC 6083 Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.  Socket API Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.1.  Socket Option to Get the HMAC Identifier being Sent
           (SCTP_SEND_HMAC_IDENT)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.2.  Exposing the HMAC Identifiers being Received  . . . . . .  22
     6.3.  Socket Option to Expose HMAC Identifier Usage
           (SCTP_EXPOSE_HMAC_IDENT_CHANGES)  . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     7.1.  TLS Exporter Label  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     7.2.  SCTP Adaptation Layer Indication Code Point . . . . . . .  23
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     8.1.  Cryptographic Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     8.2.  Downgrade Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     8.3.  Authentication and Policy Decisions . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     8.4.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     8.5.  Pervasive Monitoring  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   9.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   Appendix A.  Motivation for Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32





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1.  Introduction

1.1.  Overview

   This document describes the usage of the Datagram Transport Layer
   Security (DTLS) protocol, as defined in DTLS 1.2 [RFC6347], and DTLS
   1.3 [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13], over the Stream Control Transmission
   Protocol (SCTP), as defined in [RFC4960] with Authenticated Chunks
   for SCTP (SCTP-AUTH) [RFC4895].

   This specification provides mutual authentication of endpoints,
   confidentiality, integrity protection, and replay protection of user
   messages for applications that use SCTP as their transport protocol.
   Thus, it allows client/server applications to communicate in a way
   that is designed to give communications privacy and to prevent
   eavesdropping and detect tampering or message forgery.  DTLS/SCTP
   uses DTLS for mutual authentication, key exchange with perfect
   forward secrecy for SCTP-AUTH, and confidentiality of user messages.
   DTLS/SCTP use SCTP and SCTP-AUTH for integrity protection and replay
   protection of user messages.

   Applications using DTLS over SCTP can use almost all transport
   features provided by SCTP and its extensions.  DTLS/SCTP supports:

   *  preservation of message boundaries.

   *  a large number of unidirectional and bidirectional streams.

   *  ordered and unordered delivery of SCTP user messages.

   *  the partial reliability extension as defined in [RFC3758].

   *  the dynamic address reconfiguration extension as defined in
      [RFC5061].

   *  User messages of a size up to 2^64-1.

   The method described in this document requires that the SCTP
   implementation supports the optional feature of fragmentation of SCTP
   user messages as defined in [RFC4960].  The implementation is
   required to have an SCTP API (for example the one described in
   [RFC6458]) that supports partial user message delivery and also
   recommended that I-DATA chunks as defined in [RFC8260] is used to
   efficiently implement and support larger user messages.

   To simplify implementation and reduce the risk for security holes,
   limitations have been defined such that STARTTLS as specified in
   [RFC3788] is no longer supported.



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1.1.1.  Comparison with TLS for SCTP

   TLS, from which DTLS was derived, is designed to run on top of a
   byte-stream-oriented transport protocol providing a reliable, in-
   sequence delivery.  TLS over SCTP as described in [RFC3436] has some
   serious limitations:

   *  It does not support the unordered delivery of SCTP user messages.

   *  It does not support partial reliability as defined in [RFC3758].

   *  It only supports the usage of the same number of streams in both
      directions.

   *  It uses a TLS connection for every bidirectional stream, which
      requires a substantial amount of resources and message exchanges
      if a large number of streams is used.

1.1.2.  Changes from RFC 6083

   The DTLS over SCTP solution defined in RFC 6083 had the following
   limitations:

   *  The maximum user message size is 2^14 (16384) bytes, which is a
      single DTLS record limit.

   *  DTLS 1.0 has been deprecated for RFC 6083 requiring at least DTLS
      1.2 [RFC8996].  This creates additional limitation as discussed in
      Section 1.2.

   This update that replaces RFC 6083 defines the following changes:

   *  Removes the limitations on user messages sizes by defining a
      secure fragmentation mechanism.

   *  Enable DTLS key-change without draining

   *  Mandates that more modern DTLS version are required (DTLS 1.2 or
      1.3)

   *  Mandates support of modern HMAC algorithm (SHA-256) in the SCTP
      authentication extension [RFC4895].

   *  Recommends support of [RFC8260] to enable interleaving of large
      SCTP user messages to avoid scheduling issues.

   *  Applies stricter requirements on always using DTLS for all user
      messages in the SCTP association.



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   *  Requires that SCTP-AUTH is applied to all SCTP Chunks that can be
      authenticated.

   *  Requires support of partial delivery of user messages.

1.2.  DTLS Version

   *  The number of renegotiations in DTLS 1.2 is limited to 65534
      compared to unlimited in DTLS 1.0.

   Using DTLS 1.2 instead of using DTLS 1.0 limits the lifetime of a
   DTLS connection and the data volume which can be transferred over a
   DTLS connection.  This is caused by:

   *  The number of renegotiations in DTLS 1.2 is limited to 65534
      compared to unlimited in DTLS 1.0.

   *  While the AEAD limits in DTLS 1.3 does not formally apply to DTLS
      1.2 the mathematical limits apply equally well to DTLS 1.2.

   DTLS 1.3 comes with a large number of significant changes.

   *  Renegotiations are not supported and instead partly replaced by
      KeyUpdates.  The number of KeyUpdates is limited to 2^64.

   *  Strict AEAD significantly limits on how much many packets can be
      sent before rekeying.

   Many applications using DTLS/SCTP are of semi-permanent nature and
   use SCTP associations with expected lifetimes of months or even
   years, and where there is a significant cost of bringing down the
   SCTP association in order to restart it.  Such DTLS/SCTP usages that
   need:

   *  Periodic re-authentication of both endpoints (not only the DTLS
      client).

   *  Periodic rerunning of Diffie-Hellman key-exchange to provide
      Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) to reduce the impact any key-reveal.

   *  Perform SCTP-AUTH re-keying.










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   At the time of publication DTLS 1.3 does not support any of these,
   where DTLS 1.2 renegotiation functionality can provide this
   functionality in the context of DTLS/SCTP.  To address these
   requirements from semi-permanent applications, this document use
   several overlapping DTLS connections with either DTLS 1.2 or 1.3.
   Having uniform procedures reduces the impact when upgrading from 1.2
   to 1.3 and avoids using the renegotiation mechanism which is disabled
   by default in many DTLS implementations.

   To address known vulnerabilities in DTLS 1.2 this document describes
   and mandates implementation constraints on ciphers and protocol
   options.  The DTLS 1.2 renegotiation mechanism is forbidden to be
   used as it creates need for additional mechanism to handle race
   conditions and interactions between using DTLS connections in
   parallel.

   In the rest of the document, unless the version of DTLS is
   specifically called out the text applies to both versions of DTLS.

1.3.  Terminology

   This document uses the following terms:

   Association: An SCTP association.

   Connection: An DTLS connection.  It is uniquely identified by a
   connection identifier.

   Stream: A unidirectional stream of an SCTP association.  It is
   uniquely identified by a stream identifier.

1.4.  Abbreviations

   AEAD: Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data

   DTLS: Datagram Transport Layer Security

   HMAC: Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code

   MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit

   PFS: Perfect Forward Secrecy

   PPID: Payload Protocol Identifier

   SCTP: Stream Control Transmission Protocol

   SCTP-AUTH: Authenticated Chunks for SCTP



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   TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

   TLS: Transport Layer Security

   ULP: Upper Layer Protocol

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  DTLS Considerations

3.1.  Version of DTLS

   This document defines the usage of either DTLS 1.3
   [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13], or DTLS 1.2 [RFC6347].  Earlier versions of
   DTLS MUST NOT be used (see [RFC8996]).  DTLS 1.3 is RECOMMENDED for
   security and performance reasons.  It is expected that DTLS/SCTP as
   described in this document will work with future versions of DTLS.

3.2.  Cipher Suites and Cryptographic Parameters

   For DTLS 1.2, the cipher suites forbidden by [RFC7540] MUST NOT be
   used.  For all versions of DTLS, cryptographic parameters giving
   confidentiality and Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) MUST be used.

3.3.  Message Sizes

   DTLS/SCTP, automatically fragments and reassembles user messages.
   This specification defines how to fragment the user messages into
   DTLS records, where each DTLS record allows a maximum of 2^14
   protected bytes.  Each DTLS record adds some overhead, thus using
   records of maximum possible size are recommended to minimize the
   transmitted overhead.  DTLS 1.3 has much less overhead than DTLS 1.2
   per record.

   The sequence of DTLS records is then fragmented into DATA or I-DATA
   Chunks to fit the path MTU by SCTP.  The largest possible user
   messages using the mechanism defined in this specification is 2^64-1
   bytes.

   The security operations and reassembly process requires that the
   protected user message, i.e., with DTLS record overhead, is buffered
   in the receiver.  This buffer space will thus put a limit on the



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   largest size of plain text user message that can be transferred
   securely.  However, by mandating the use of the partial delivery of
   user messages from SCTP and assuming that no two messages received on
   the same stream are interleaved (as it is the case when using the API
   defined in [RFC6458]) the required buffering prior to DTLS processing
   can be limited to a single DTLS record per used incoming stream.
   This enables the DTLS/SCTP implementation to provide the Upper Layer
   Protocol (ULP) with each DTLS record's content when it has been
   decrypted and its integrity been verified enabling partial user
   message delivery to the ULP.  Implementations can trade-off buffer
   memory requirements in the DTLS layer with transport overhead by
   using smaller DTLS records.

   The DTLS/SCTP implementation is expected to behave very similar to
   just SCTP when it comes to handling of user messages and dealing with
   large user messages and their reassembly and processing.  Making it
   the ULP responsible for handling any resource contention related to
   large user messages.

3.4.  Replay Protection

   SCTP-AUTH [RFC4895] does not have explicit replay protection.
   However, the combination of SCTP-AUTH's protection of DATA or I-DATA
   chunks and SCTP user message handling will prevent third party
   attempts to inject or replay SCTP packets resulting in impact on the
   received protected user message.  In fact, this document's solution
   is dependent on SCTP-AUTH and SCTP to prevent reordering,
   duplication, and removal of the DTLS records within each protected
   user message.  This includes detection of changes to what DTLS
   records start and end the SCTP user message, and removal of DTLS
   records before an increment to the epoch.  Without SCTP-AUTH, these
   would all have required explicit handling.

   DTLS optionally supports record replay detection.  Such replay
   detection could result in the DTLS layer dropping valid messages
   received outside of the DTLS replay window.  As DTLS/SCTP provides
   replay protection even without DTLS replay protection, the replay
   detection of DTLS MUST NOT be used.

3.5.  Path MTU Discovery

   DTLS Path MTU Discovery MUST NOT be used.  Since SCTP provides Path
   MTU discovery and fragmentation/reassembly for user messages, and
   according to Section 3.3, DTLS can send maximum sized DTLS Records.







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3.6.  Retransmission of Messages

   SCTP provides a reliable and in-sequence transport service for DTLS
   messages that require it.  See Section 4.4.  Therefore, DTLS
   procedures for retransmissions MUST NOT be used.

4.  SCTP Considerations

4.1.  Mapping of DTLS Records

   The SCTP implementation MUST support fragmentation of user messages
   using DATA [RFC4960], and optionally I-DATA [RFC8260] chunks.

   DTLS/SCTP works as a shim layer between the user message API and
   SCTP.  The fragmentation works similar as the DTLS fragmentation of
   handshake messages.  On the sender side a user message fragmented
   into fragments m0, m1, m2, each no larger than 2^14 = 16384 bytes.

      m0 | m1 | m2 | ... = user_message

   The resulting fragments are protected with DTLS and the records are
   concatenated

      user_message' = DTLS( m0 ) | DTLS( m1 ) | DTLS( m2 ) ...

   The new user_message', i.e., the protected user message, is the input
   to SCTP.

   On the receiving side DTLS is used to decrypt the individual records.
   There are three failure cases an implementation needs to detect and
   then act on:

   1.  Failure in decryption and integrity verification process of any
       DTLS record.  Due to SCTP-AUTH preventing delivery of injected or
       corrupt fragments of the protected user message this should only
       occur in case of implementation errors or internal hardware
       failures or the necessary security context has been prematurely
       discarded.

   2.  In case the SCTP layer indicates an end to a user message, e.g.,
       when receiving a MSG_EOR in a recvmsg() call when using the API
       described in [RFC6458], and the last buffered DTLS record length
       field does not match, i.e., the DTLS record is incomplete.








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   3.  Unable to perform the decryption processes due to lack of
       resources, such as memory, and have to abandon the user message
       fragment.  This specification is defined such that the needed
       resources for the DTLS/SCTP operations are bounded for a given
       number of concurrent transmitted SCTP streams or unordered user
       messages.

   The above failure cases all result in the receiver failing to
   recreate the full user message.  This is a failure of the transport
   service that is not possible to recover from in the DTLS/SCTP layer
   and the sender could believe the complete message have been
   delivered.  This error MUST NOT be ignored, as SCTP lacks any
   facility to declare a failure on a specific stream or user message,
   the DTLS connection and the SCTP association SHOULD be terminated.  A
   valid exception to the termination of the SCTP association is if the
   receiver is capable of notifying the ULP about the failure in
   delivery and the ULP is capable of recovering from this failure.

   Note that if the SCTP extension for Partial Reliability (PR-SCTP)
   [RFC3758] is used for a user message, user message may be partially
   delivered or abandoned.  These failures are not a reason for
   terminating the DTLS connection and SCTP association.

   The DTLS Connection ID MUST be negotiated
   ([I-D.ietf-tls-dtls-connection-id] or Section 9 of
   [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13]).  If DTLS 1.3 is used, the length field in the
   record layer MUST be included.  A 16-bit sequence number SHOULD be
   used rather than 8-bit to minimize issues with DTLS record sequence
   number wrapping.

   The ULP may use multiple messages simultanous, and the progress and
   delivery of these messages are progressing indepentely, thus the
   recieving DTLS/SCTP implementation may not receive records in order
   in case of packet loss.  Assuming that the sender will send the DTLS
   records in order the DTLS records where created (which may not be
   certain in some implementations), then there is a risk that DTLS
   sequence number have wrapped if the amount of data in flight is more
   than the sequence number covers.  Thus, for 8-bit sequence number
   space with 16384 bytes records the receiver window only needs to be
   256*16384 = 4,194,304 bytes for this risk to defintely exist.  While
   a 16-bit sequence number should not have any sequence number wraps
   for receiver windows up to 1 Gbyte.  The DTLS/SCTP may not be tightly
   integrated and the DTLS records may not be requested to be sent in
   strict sequence order, in these case additional guard ranges are
   needed.






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   Also, if smaller DTLS records are used, this limit will be
   correspondingly reduced.  The DTLS/SCTP Sender needs to choose
   sequence number length and DTLS Record size so that the product is
   larger than the used receiver window, preferably twice as large.
   Receiver implementations that are offering receiver windows larger
   than the product 65536*16384 bytes MUST be capable of handling
   sequence number wraps through trial decoding with a lower values in
   the higher bits of the extended sequence number.

   Section 4 of [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls-connection-id] states "If, however,
   an implementation chooses to receive different lengths of CID, the
   assigned CID values must be self-delineating since there is no other
   mechanism available to determine what connection (and thus, what CID
   length) is in use.".  As this solution requires multiple connection
   IDs, using a zero-length CID will be highly problematic as it could
   result in that any DTLS records with a zero length CID ends up in
   another DTLS connection context, and there fail the decryption and
   integrity verification.  And in that case to avoid losing the DTLS
   record, it would have to be forwarded to the zero-length CID using
   DTLS Connection and decryption and validation must be tried.
   Resulting in higher resource utilization.  Thus, it is RECOMMENDED to
   not use the zero length CID values and instead use a single common
   length for the CID values.  A single byte should be sufficient, as
   reuse of old CIDs is possible as long as the implementation ensure
   they are not used in near time to the previous usage.

4.2.  DTLS Connection Handling

   A DTLS connection MUST be established at the beginning of the SCTP
   association.  All DTLS connections are terminated when the SCTP
   association is terminated.  A DTLS connection MUST NOT span multiple
   SCTP associations.

   As it is required to establish the DTLS connection at the beginning
   of the SCTP association, either of the peers should never send any
   SCTP user messages that are not protected by DTLS.  So, the case that
   an endpoint receives data that is not either DTLS messages on Stream
   0 or protected user messages in the form of a sequence of DTLS
   Records on any stream is a protocol violation.  The receiver MAY
   terminate the SCTP association due to this protocol violation.

   Whenever a mutual authentication, updated security parameters, rerun
   of Diffie-Hellman key-exchange , or SCTP-AUTH rekeying is needed, a
   new DTLS connection is instead setup in parallel with the old
   connection (i.e., there may be up to two simultaneous DTLS
   connections within one association).





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4.3.  Payload Protocol Identifier Usage

   SCTP Payload Protocol Identifiers are assigned by IANA.  Application
   protocols using DTLS over SCTP SHOULD register and use a separate
   Payload Protocol Identifier (PPID) and SHOULD NOT reuse the PPID that
   they registered for running directly over SCTP.

   Using the same PPID does not harm as long as the application can
   determine whether or not DTLS is used.  However, for protocol
   analyzers, for example, it is much easier if a separate PPID is used.

   This means, in particular, that there is no specific PPID for DTLS.

4.4.  Stream Usage

   DTLS records with a content type different from "application_data"
   (e.g., "handshake", "alert", ...) MUST be transported on stream 0
   with unlimited reliability and with the ordered delivery feature.

   DTLS records of content type "application_data", which carries the
   protected user messages MAY be sent in SCTP messages on any stream,
   including stream 0.  On stream 0 the DTLS record containing the part
   of protected message, as well as any DTLS messages that aren't record
   protocol will be mixed, thus the additional head of line blocking can
   occur.  Therefore, applications are RECOMMENDED to send its protected
   user messages using multiple streams, and on other streams than
   stream 0.

4.5.  Chunk Handling

   DATA chunks of SCTP MUST be sent in an authenticated way as described
   in SCTP-AUTH [RFC4895].  All other chunks that can be authenticated,
   i.e., all chunk types that can be listed in the Chunk List Parameter
   [RFC4895], MUST also be sent in an authenticated way.  This makes
   sure that an attacker cannot modify the stream in which a message is
   sent or affect the ordered/unordered delivery of the message.

   If PR-SCTP as defined in [RFC3758] is used, FORWARD-TSN chunks MUST
   also be sent in an authenticated way as described in [RFC4895].  This
   makes sure that it is not possible for an attacker to drop messages
   and use forged FORWARD-TSN, SACK, and/or SHUTDOWN chunks to hide this
   dropping.









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   I-DATA chunk type as defined in [RFC8260] is RECOMMENDED to be
   supported to avoid some of the down sides that large user messages
   have on blocking transmission of later arriving high priority user
   messages.  However, the support is not mandated and negotiated
   independently from DTLS/SCTP.  If I-DATA chunks are used, then they
   MUST be sent in an authenticated way as described in [RFC4895].

4.6.  SCTP-AUTH Hash Function

   When using DTLS/SCTP, the SHA-256 Message Digest Algorithm MUST be
   supported in the SCTP-AUTH [RFC4895] implementation.  SHA-1 MUST NOT
   be used when using DTLS/SCTP.  [RFC4895] requires support and
   inclusion of SHA-1 in the HMAC-ALGO parameter, thus, to meet both
   requirements the HMAC-ALGO parameter will include both SHA-256 and
   SHA-1 with SHA-256 listed prior to SHA-1 to indicate the preference.

4.7.  Parallel DTLS connections

   To enable SCTP-AUTH re-rekeying, periodic authentication of both
   endpoints, and force attackers to dynamic key extraction [RFC7624],
   DTLS/SCTP per this specification defines the usage of parallel DTLS
   connections over the same SCTP association.  This solution ensures
   that there are no limitations to the lifetime of the SCTP association
   due to DTLS, it also avoids dependency on version specific DTLS
   mechanisms such as renegotiation in DTLS 1.2, which is disabled by
   default in many DTLS implementations, or post-handshake messages in
   DTLS 1.3, which does not allow mutual endpoint re-authentication or
   re-keying of SCTP-AUTH.  Parallel DTLS connections enable opening a
   new DTLS connection performing a handshake, while the existing DTLS
   connection is kept in place.  On handshake completion switch to the
   security context of the new DTLS connection and then ensure delivery
   of all the SCTP chunks using the old DTLS connections security
   context.  When that has been achieved close the old DTLS connection
   and discard the related security context.

   As specified in Section 4.1 the usage of DTLS connection ID is
   required to ensure that the receiver can correctly identify the DTLS
   connection and its security context when performing its de-protection
   operations.  There is also only a single SCTP-AUTH key exported per
   DTLS connection ensuring that there is clear mapping between the DTLS
   connection ID and the SCTP-AUTH security context for each key-id.

   Application writers should be aware that establishing a new DTLS
   connections may result in changes of security parameters.  See
   Section 8 for security considerations regarding rekeying.






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   A DTLS/SCTP Endpoint MUST NOT have more than two DTLS connections
   open at the same time.  Either of the endpoints MAY initiate a new
   DTLS connection by performing a full DTLS handshake.  As either
   endpoint can initiate a DTLS handshake on either side at the same
   time, either endpoint may receive a DTLS ClientHello when it has sent
   its own ClientHello.  In this case the ClientHello from the endpoint
   that had the DTLS Client role in the establishment of the existing
   DTLS connection shall be continued to be processed and the other
   dropped.

   When performing the DTLS handshake the endpoint MUST verify that the
   peer identifies using the same identity as in the previous DTLS
   connection.

   When the DTLS handshake has been completed, a new SCTP-AUTH key will
   be exported per Section 4.10 and the new DTLS connection MUST be used
   for the DTLS protection operation of any future protected SCTP
   message.  The endpoint is RECOMMENDED to use the security context of
   the new DTLS connection for any DTLS protection operation occurring
   after the completed handshake.  The new SCTP-AUTH key SHALL be used
   for any SCTP message being sent after the DTLS handshake has
   completed.  There is a possibility to use the new SCTP-AUTH key for
   any SCTP packets part of an SCTP message that was initiated but not
   yet fully transmitted prior to the completion of the new DTLS
   handshake, however the API defined in [RFC6458] is not supporting
   this.

   The SCTP endpoint will indicate to its peer when the previous DTLS
   connection and its context are no longer needed for receiving any
   more data from this endpoint.  This is done by having DTLS to send a
   DTLS close_notify alert.  The endpoint MUST NOT send the close_notify
   until the following two conditions are fulfilled:

   1.  All SCTP packets containing part of any DTLS record or message
       protected using the security context of this DTLS connection have
       been acknowledged in a non-renegable way.

   2.  All SCTP packets using the SCTP-AUTH key associated with the
       security context of this DTLS connection have been acknowledged
       in a non-renegable way.

   There is a very basic way of determining the above conditions for an
   implementation that enables using the new DTLS connection's security
   context for all future DTLS records protected and enabling the
   associated new SCTP-AUTH key at the same time and not use the old
   context for any future protection operations.  Mark the time when the
   first SCTP chunk has been sent that is part of the first (partial)
   SCTP message send call that uses the new security context.  That SCTP



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   chunk and thus all previous chunks using the older security context
   must have been delivered to the peer before the Endpoint Failure
   Detection (See Section 8.1 of [RFC4960] would trigger and terminate
   the SCTP association.  Calculate the upper limit for this timeout
   period, which is dependent on two configurable parameters.  The
   maximum endpoint failure timeout period is the product of the
   'Association.Max.Retrans' and RTO.Max parameters.  For the default
   values per [RFC4960] that would be 10 attempts time with an RTO.Max =
   60 s, i.e., 10 minutes.

   For SCTP implementations exposing APIs like [RFC6458] where it is not
   possible to change the SCTP-AUTH key for a partial SCTP message
   initiated before the change of security context will be forced to
   track the SCTP messages and determine when all using the old security
   context has been transmitted.  This maybe be impossible to do
   completely reliable without tighter integration between the DTLS/SCTP
   layer and the SCTP implementation.  This type of implementations also
   has an implicit limitation in how large SCTP messages it can support.
   Each SCTP message needs have completed delivery and enabling closing
   of the previous DTLS connection prior to the need to create yet
   another DTLS connection.  Thus, SCTP messages can't be larger than
   that the transmission completes in less than the duration between the
   rekeying or re-authentications needed for this SCTP association.

   When the DTLS/SCTP implementation are more tightly integrated with
   the SCTP stack or have a fuller API that enable the DTLS/SCTP
   implementation to know when the SCPT messages have been delivered it
   will be able to close down the old DTLS connection in a timelier
   fashion, thus supporting more frequent rekeying etc. if needed.

   The consequences of sending a DTLS close_notify alert in the old DTLS
   connection prior to the receiver having received the data can result
   in failure case 1 described in Section 4.1, which likely result in
   SCTP association termination.

4.8.  Renegotiation and KeyUpdate

   DTLS 1.2 renegotiation enables rekeying (with ephemeral Diffie-
   Hellman) of DTLS as well as mutual reauthentication inside an DTLS
   1.2 connection.  Renegotiation has been removed from DTLS 1.3 and
   partly replaced with post-handshake messages such as KeyUpdate.  The
   parallel DTLS connection solution was specified due to lack of
   necessary features with DTLS 1.3 considered needed for long lived
   SCTP associations, such as rekeying (with ephemeral Diffie-Hellman)
   as well as mutual reauthentication.






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   This specification do not allow usage of DTLS 1.2 renegotiation to
   avoid race conditions and corner cases in the interaction between the
   parallel DTLS connection mechanism and the keying of SCTP-AUTH.  In
   addtion renegotiation is also disabled in implementation, as well as
   dealing with the epoch change reliable have similar or worse
   applicaiton impact.

   This specification also recommends against using DTLS 1.3 KeyUpdate
   and instead rely on parallel DTLS connections.  For DTLS 1.3 there
   isn't feature parity.  It also have the issue that a DTLS
   implementation following the RFC may assume a too limited window for
   SCTP where the previous epoch's security context is maintained and
   thus changes to epoch handling (Section 4.9) are necessary.  Thus,
   unless the below specified more application impacting draining is
   used there exist risk of losing data that the sender will have
   assumed has been reliably delivered.

4.8.1.  DTLS 1.2 Considerations

   The endpoint MUST NOT use DTLS 1.2 renegotiation.

4.8.2.  DTLS 1.3 Considerations

   Before sending a KeyUpdate message, the DTLS endpoint MUST ensure
   that all DTLS messages have been acknowledged by the SCTP peer in a
   non-revokable way.  After sending the KeyUpdate message, it stops
   sending DTLS messages until the corresponding Ack message has been
   processed.

   Prior to processing a received KeyUpdate message, all other received
   SCTP user messages that are buffered in the SCTP layer and can be
   delivered to the DTLS layer MUST be read and processed by DTLS.

4.9.  DTLS Epochs

   In general, DTLS implementations SHOULD discard records from earlier
   epochs.  However, in the context of a reliable communication this is
   not appropriate.

4.9.1.  DTLS 1.2 Considerations

   Epochs will not be used as renegotiation is disallowed.

4.9.2.  DTLS 1.3 Considerations

   The procedures of Section 4.2.1 of [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13] are
   irrelevant.  When receiving DTLS packets using epoch n, no DTLS
   packets from earlier epochs are received.



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4.10.  Handling of Endpoint-Pair Shared Secrets

   SCTP-AUTH [RFC4895] is keyed using Endpoint-Pair Shared Secrets.  In
   SCTP associations where DTLS is used, DTLS is used to establish these
   secrets.  The endpoints MUST NOT use another mechanism for
   establishing shared secrets for SCTP-AUTH.  The endpoint-pair shared
   secret for Shared Key Identifier 0 is empty and MUST be used when
   establishing the first DTLS connection.

   The initial DTLS connection will be used to establish a new shared
   secret as specified per DTLS version below, and which MUST use shared
   key identifier 1.  After sending the DTLS Finished message, the
   active SCTP-AUTH key MUST be switched to the new one.  Once the
   initial Finished message from the peer has been processed by DTLS,
   the SCTP-AUTH key with Shared Key Identifier 0 MUST be removed.

   When a subsequent DTLS connection is setup, a new a 64-byte shared
   secret is derived using the TLS-Exporter.  The shared secret
   identifiers form a sequence.  If the previous shared secret used
   Shared Key Identifier n, the new one MUST use Shared Key Identifier
   n+1, unless n= 65535, in which case the new Shared Key Identifier is
   1.

   After sending the DTLS Finished message, the active SCTP-AUTH key
   MUST be switched to the new one.  When the endpoint has both sent and
   received a closeNotify on the old DTLS connection then the endpoint
   SHALL remove shared secret(s) related to old DTLS connection.

4.10.1.  DTLS 1.2 Considerations

   Whenever a new DTLS connection is established, a 64-byte
   endpoint-pair shared secret is derived using the TLS-Exporter
   described in {{RFC5705}}.

   The 64-byte shared secret MUST be provided to the SCTP stack as soon
   as the computation is possible.  The exporter MUST use the label
   given in Section 7 and no context.

4.10.2.  DTLS 1.3 Considerations

   When the exporter_secret can be computed, a 64-byte shared secret is
   derived from it and provided as a new endpoint-pair shared secret by
   using the TLS-Exporter described in [RFC8446].

   The 64-byte shared secret MUST be provided to the SCTP stack as soon
   as the computation is possible.  The exporter MUST use the label
   given in Section Section 7 and no context.




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4.11.  Shutdown

   To prevent DTLS from discarding DTLS user messages while it is
   shutting down, a CloseNotify message MUST only be sent after all
   outstanding SCTP user messages have been acknowledged by the SCTP
   peer in a non-revokable way.

   Prior to processing a received CloseNotify, all other received SCTP
   user messages that are buffered in the SCTP layer MUST be read and
   processed by DTLS.

5.  DTLS over SCTP Service

   The adoption of DTLS over SCTP according to the current description
   is meant to add to SCTP the option for transferring encrypted data.
   When DTLS over SCTP is used, all data being transferred MUST be
   protected by chunk authentication and DTLS encrypted.  Chunks that
   need to be received in an authenticated way will be specified in the
   CHUNK list parameter according to [RFC4895].  Error handling for
   authenticated chunks is according to [RFC4895].

5.1.  Adaptation Layer Indication in INIT/INIT-ACK

   At the initialization of the association, a sender of the INIT or
   INIT ACK chunk that intends to use DTLS/SCTP as specified in this
   specification MUST include an Adaptation Layer Indication Parameter
   with the IANA assigned value TBD (Section 7.2) to inform its peer
   that it is able to support DTLS over SCTP per this specification.

5.2.  DTLS over SCTP Initialization

   Initialization of DTLS/SCTP requires all the following options to be
   part of the INIT/INIT-ACK handshake:

   RANDOM: defined in [RFC4895]

   CHUNKS: list of permitted chunks, defined in [RFC4895]

   HMAC-ALGO: defined in [RFC4895]

   ADAPTATION-LAYER-INDICATION: defined in [RFC5061]

   When all the above options are present, the Association will start
   with support of DTLS/SCTP.  The set of options indicated are the
   DTLS/SCTP Mandatory Options.  No data transfer is permitted before
   DTLS handshake is complete.  Chunk bundling is permitted according to
   [RFC4960].  The DTLS handshake will enable authentication of both the
   peers and also have the declare their support message size.



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   The extension described in this document is given by the following
   message exchange.

      --- INIT[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO; ADAPTATION-LAYER-IND] --->
      <- INIT-ACK[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO; ADAPTATION-LAYER-IND] -
      ------------------------ COOKIE-ECHO ------------------------>
      <------------------------ COOKIE-ACK -------------------------
      ---------------- AUTH; DATA[DTLS Handshake] ----------------->
                                  ...
                                  ...
      <--------------- AUTH; DATA[DTLS Handshake] ------------------

5.3.  Client Use Case

   When a client initiates an SCTP Association with DTLS protection,
   i.e., the SCTP INIT containing DTSL/SCTP Mandatory Options, it can
   receive an INIT-ACK also containing DTLS/SCTP Mandatory Options, in
   that case the Association will proceed as specified in the previous
   Section 5.2 section.  If the peer replies with an INIT-ACK not
   containing all DTLS/SCTP Mandatory Options, the client SHOULD reply
   with an SCTP ABORT.

5.4.  Server Use Case

   If a SCTP Server supports DTLS/SCTP, i.e., per this specification,
   when receiving an INIT chunk with all DTLS/SCTP Mandatory Options it
   will reply with an INIT-ACK also containing all the DTLS/SCTP
   Mandatory Options, following the sequence for DTLS initialization
   Section 5.2 and the related traffic case.  If a SCTP Server that
   supports DTLS and configured to use it, receives an INIT chunk
   without all DTLS/SCTP Mandatory Options, it SHOULD reply with an SCTP
   ABORT.

5.5.  RFC 6083 Fallback

   This section discusses how an endpoint supporting this specification
   can fallback to follow the DTLS/SCTP behavior in RFC6083.  It is
   recommended to define a setting that represents the policy to allow
   fallback or not.  However, the possibility to use fallback is based
   on the ULP can operate using user messages that are no longer than
   16384 bytes and where the security issues can be mitigated or
   considered acceptable.  Fallback is NOT RECOMMEND to be enabled as it
   enables downgrade attacks to weaker algorithms and versions of DTLS.








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   An SCTP endpoint that receives an INIT chunk or an INIT-ACK chunk
   that does not contain the SCTP-Adaptation-Indication parameter with
   the DTLS/SCTP adaptation layer codepoint, see Section 7.2, may in
   certain cases potentially perform a fallback to RFC 6083 behavior.
   However, the fallback attempt should only be performed if policy says
   that is acceptable.

   If fallback is allowed, it is possible that the client will send
   plain text user messages prior to DTLS handshake as it is allowed per
   RFC 6083.  So that needs to be part of the consideration for a policy
   allowing fallback.

6.  Socket API Considerations

   This section describes how the socket API defined in [RFC6458] is
   extended to provide a way for the application to observe the HMAC
   algorithms used for sending and receiving of AUTH chunks.

   Please note that this section is informational only.

   A socket API implementation based on [RFC6458] is, by means of the
   existing SCTP_AUTHENTICATION_EVENT event, extended to provide the
   event notification whenever a new HMAC algorithm is used in a
   received AUTH chunk.

   Furthermore, two new socket options for the level IPPROTO_SCTP and
   the name SCTP_SEND_HMAC_IDENT and SCTP_EXPOSE_HMAC_IDENT_CHANGES are
   defined as described below.  The first socket option is used to query
   the HMAC algorithm used for sending AUTH chunks.  The second enables
   the monitoring of HMAC algorithms used in received AUTH chunks via
   the SCTP_AUTHENTICATION_EVENT event.

   Support for the SCTP_SEND_HMAC_IDENT and
   SCTP_EXPOSE_HMAC_IDENT_CHANGES socket options also need to be added
   to the function sctp_opt_info().

6.1.  Socket Option to Get the HMAC Identifier being Sent
      (SCTP_SEND_HMAC_IDENT)

   During the SCTP association establishment a HMAC Identifier is
   selected which is used by an SCTP endpoint when sending AUTH chunks.
   An application can access the result of this selection by using this
   read-only socket option, which uses the level IPPROTO_SCTP and the
   name SCTP_SEND_HMAC_IDENT.

   The following structure is used to access HMAC Identifier used for
   sending AUTH chunks:




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   struct sctp_assoc_value {
       sctp_assoc_t assoc_id;
       uint32_t assoc_value;
   };

   assoc_id:  This parameter is ignored for one-to-one style sockets.
      For one-to-many style sockets, the application fills in an
      association identifier.  It is an error to use
      SCTP_{FUTURE|CURRENT|ALL}_ASSOC in assoc_id.

   assoc_value:  This parameter contains the HMAC Identifier used for
      sending AUTH chunks.

6.2.  Exposing the HMAC Identifiers being Received

   Section 6.1.8 of [RFC6458] defines the SCTP_AUTHENTICATION_EVENT
   event, which uses the following structure:

   struct sctp_authkey_event {
       uint16_t auth_type;
       uint16_t auth_flags;
       uint32_t auth_length;
       uint16_t auth_keynumber;
       uint32_t auth_indication;
       sctp_assoc_t auth_assoc_id;
   };

   This document updates this structure to

   struct sctp_authkey_event {
       uint16_t auth_type;
       uint16_t auth_flags;
       uint32_t auth_length;
       uint16_t auth_identifier; /* formerly auth_keynumber */
       uint32_t auth_indication;
       sctp_assoc_t auth_assoc_id;
   };

   by renaming auth_keynumber to auth_identifier.  auth_identifier just
   replaces auth_keynumber in the context of [RFC6458].  In addition to
   that, the SCTP_AUTHENTICATION_EVENT event is extended to also
   indicate when a new HMAC Identifier is received and such reporting is
   explicitly enabled as described in Section 6.3.  In this case
   auth_indication is SCTP_AUTH_NEW_HMAC and the new HMAC identifier is
   reported in auth_identifier.






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6.3.  Socket Option to Expose HMAC Identifier Usage
      (SCTP_EXPOSE_HMAC_IDENT_CHANGES)

   This options allows the application to enable and disable the
   reception of SCTP_AUTHENTICATION_EVENT events when a new HMAC
   Identifiers has been received in an AUTH chunk (see Section 6.2).
   This read/write socket option uses the level IPPROTO_SCTP and the
   name SCTP_EXPOSE_HMAC_IDENT_CHANGES.  It is needed to provide
   backwards compatibility and the default is that these events are not
   reported.

   The following structure is used to enable or disable the reporting of
   newly received HMAC Identifiers in AUTH chunks:

   struct sctp_assoc_value {
       sctp_assoc_t assoc_id;
       uint32_t assoc_value;
   };

   assoc_id:  This parameter is ignored for one-to-one style sockets.
      For one-to-many style sockets, the application may fill in an
      association identifier or SCTP_{FUTURE|CURRENT|ALL}_ASSOC.

   assoc_value:  Newly received HMAC Identifiers are reported if, and
      only if, this parameter is non-zero.

7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  TLS Exporter Label

   RFC 6083 defined a TLS Exporter Label registry as described in
   [RFC5705].  IANA is requested to update the reference for the label
   "EXPORTER_DTLS_OVER_SCTP" to this specification.

7.2.  SCTP Adaptation Layer Indication Code Point

   [RFC5061] defined a IANA registry for Adaptation Code Points to be
   used in the Adaptation Layer Indication parameter.  The registry was
   at time of writing located: https://www.iana.org/assignments/sctp-
   parameters/sctp-parameters.xhtml#sctp-parameters-27 IANA is requested
   to assign one Adaptation Code Point for DTLS/SCTP per the below
   proposed entry in Table 1.









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         +============================+=============+===========+
         | Code Point (32-bit number) | Description | Reference |
         +============================+=============+===========+
         | 0x00000002                 | DTLS/SCTP   | [RFC-TBD] |
         +----------------------------+-------------+-----------+

                      Table 1: Adaptation Code Point

   RFC-Editor Note: Please replace [RFC-TBD] with the RFC number given
   to this specification.

8.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations given in [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13],
   [RFC4895], and [RFC4960] also apply to this document.

8.1.  Cryptographic Considerations

   Over the years, there have been several serious attacks on earlier
   versions of Transport Layer Security (TLS), including attacks on its
   most commonly used ciphers and modes of operation.  [RFC7457]
   summarizes the attacks that were known at the time of publishing and
   BCP 195 [RFC7525] [RFC8996] provide recommendations for improving the
   security of deployed services that use TLS.

   When DTLS/SCTP is used with DTLS 1.2 [RFC6347], DTLS 1.2 MUST be
   configured to disable options known to provide insufficient security.
   HTTP/2 [RFC7540] gives good minimum requirements based on the attacks
   that where publicly known in 2015.  DTLS 1.3 [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13]
   only define strong algorithms without major weaknesses at the time of
   publication.  Many of the TLS registries have a "Recommended" column.
   Parameters not marked as "Y" are NOT RECOMMENDED to support.  DTLS
   1.3 is preferred over DTLS 1.2 being a newer protocol that addresses
   known vulnerabilities and only defines strong algorithms without
   known major weaknesses at the time of publication.

   DTLS 1.3 requires rekeying before algorithm specific AEAD limits have
   been reached.  The AEAD limits equations are equally valid for DTLS
   1.2 and SHOULD be followed for DTLS/SCTP, but are not mandated by the
   DTLS 1.2 specification.

   HMAC-SHA-256 as used in SCTP-AUTH has a very large tag length and
   very good integrity properties.  The SCTP-AUTH key can be used longer
   than the current algorithms in the TLS record layer.  The SCTP-AUTH
   key is rekeyed when a new DTLS connection is set up at which point a
   new SCTP-AUTH key is derived using the TLS-Exporter.





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   DTLS/SCTP is in many deployments replacing IPsec.  For IPsec, NIST
   (US), BSI (Germany), and ANSSI (France) recommends very frequent re-
   run of Diffie-Hellman to provide Perfect Forward Secrecy and force
   attackers to dynamic key extraction [RFC7624].  ANSSI writes "It is
   recommended to force the periodic renewal of the keys, e.g., every
   hour and every 100 GB of data, in order to limit the impact of a key
   compromise."  [ANSSI-DAT-NT-003].

   For many DTLS/SCTP deployments the SCTP association is expected to
   have a very long lifetime of months or even years.  For associations
   with such long lifetimes there is a need to frequently re-
   authenticate both client and server.  TLS Certificate lifetimes
   significantly shorter than a year are common which is shorter than
   many expected DTLS/SCTP associations.

   SCTP-AUTH re-rekeying, periodic authentication of both endpoints, and
   frequent re-run of Diffie-Hellman to force attackers to dynamic key
   extraction is in DTLS/SCTP per this specification achieved by setting
   up new DTLS connections over the same SCTP association.
   Implementations SHOULD set up new connections frequently to force
   attackers to dynamic key extraction.  Implementations MUST set up new
   connections before any of the certificates expire.  It is RECOMMENDED
   that all negotiated and exchanged parameters are the same except for
   the timestamps in the certificates.  Clients and servers MUST NOT
   accept a change of identity during the setup of a new connections,
   but MAY accept negotiation of stronger algorithms and security
   parameters, which might be motivated by new attacks.

   When using DTLS 1.3 [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13], AEAD limits and forward
   secrecy can be achieved by sending post-handshake KeyUpdate messages,
   which triggers rekeying of DTLS.  Such symmetric rekeying gives
   significantly less protection against key leakage than re-running
   Diffie-Hellman.  After leakage of application_traffic_secret_N, a
   passive attacker can passively eavesdrop on all future application
   data sent on the connection including application data encrypted with
   application_traffic_secret_N+1, application_traffic_secret_N+2, etc.
   Note that KeyUpdate does not update the exporter_secret.

   Allowing new connections can enable denial-of-service attacks.  The
   endpoints SHOULD limit the frequency of new connections.











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   When DTLS/SCTP is used with DTLS 1.2 [RFC6347], the TLS Session Hash
   and Extended Master Secret Extension [RFC7627] MUST be used to
   prevent unknown key-share attacks where an attacker establishes the
   same key on several connections.  DTLS 1.3 always prevents these
   kinds of attacks.  The use of SCTP-AUTH then cryptographically binds
   new connections to the old connection.  This together with mandatory
   mutual authentication (on the DTLS layer) and a requirement to not
   accept new identities mitigates MITM attacks that have plagued
   renegotiation [TRISHAKE].

8.2.  Downgrade Attacks

   A peer supporting DTLS/SCTP according to this specification, DTLS/
   SCTP according to [RFC6083] and/or SCTP without DTLS may be
   vulnerable to downgrade attacks where on on-path attacker interferes
   with the protocol setup to lower or disable security.  If possible,
   it is RECOMMENDED that the peers have a policy only allowing DTLS/
   SCTP according to this specification.

8.3.  Authentication and Policy Decisions

   DTLS/SCTP MUST be mutually authenticated.  Authentication is the
   process of establishing the identity of a user or system and
   verifying that the identity is valid.  DTLS only provides proof of
   possession of a key.  DTLS/SCTP MUST perform identity authentication.
   It is RECOMMENDED that DTLS/SCTP is used with certificate-based
   authentication.  When certificates are used the applicatication using
   DTLS/SCTP is reposible for certificate policies, certificate chain
   validation, and identity authentication (HTTPS does for example match
   the hostname with a subjectAltName of type dNSName).  The application
   using DTLS/SCTP MUST define what the identity is and how it is
   encoded and the client and server MUST use the same identity format.
   Guidance on server certificate validation can be found in [RFC6125].
   All security decisions MUST be based on the peer's authenticated
   identity, not on its transport layer identity.

   It is possible to authenticate DTLS endpoints based on IP addresses
   in certificates.  SCTP associations can use multiple IP addresses per
   SCTP endpoint.  Therefore, it is possible that DTLS records will be
   sent from a different source IP address or to a different destination
   IP address than that originally authenticated.  This is not a problem
   provided that no security decisions are made based on the source or
   destination IP addresses.

8.4.  Privacy Considerations

   [RFC6973] suggests that the privacy considerations of IETF protocols
   be documented.



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   For each SCTP user message, the user also provides a stream
   identifier, a flag to indicate whether the message is sent ordered or
   unordered, and a payload protocol identifier.  Although DTLS/SCTP
   provides privacy for the actual user message, the other three
   information fields are not confidentiality protected.  They are sent
   as cleartext because they are part of the SCTP DATA chunk header.

   It is RECOMMENDED that DTLS/SCTP is used with certificate based
   authentication in DTLS 1.3 [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13] to provide identity
   protection.  DTLS/SCTP MUST be used with a key exchange method
   providing Perfect Forward Secrecy.  Perfect Forward Secrecy
   significantly limits the amount of data that can be compromised due
   to key compromise.

8.5.  Pervasive Monitoring

   As required by [RFC7258], work on IETF protocols needs to consider
   the effects of pervasive monitoring and mitigate them when possible.

   Pervasive Monitoring is widespread surveillance of users.  By
   encrypting more information including user identities, DTLS 1.3
   offers much better protection against pervasive monitoring.

   Massive pervasive monitoring attacks relying on key exchange without
   forward secrecy has been reported.  By mandating perfect forward
   secrecy, DTLS/SCTP effectively mitigate many forms of passive
   pervasive monitoring and limits the amount of compromised data due to
   key compromise.

   An important mitigation of pervasive monitoring is to force attackers
   to do dynamic key exfiltration instead of static key exfiltration.
   Dynamic key exfiltration increases the risk of discovery for the
   attacker [RFC7624].  DTLS/SCTP per this specification encourages
   implementations to frequently set up new DTLS connections over the
   same SCTP association to force attackers to do dynamic key
   exfiltration.

   In addition to the privacy attacks discussed above, surveillance on a
   large scale may enable tracking of a user over a wider geographical
   area and across different access networks.  Using information from
   DTLS/SCTP together with information gathered from other protocols
   increase the risk of identifying individual users.

9.  Contributors

   Michael Tuexen contributed as co-author to the intitial versions this
   draft.  Michael's contributions include:




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   *  The use of the Adaptation Layer Indication.

   *  Socket API extension

   *  Many editorial improvements.

10.  Acknowledgments

   The authors of RFC 6083 which this document is based on are Michael
   Tuexen, Eric Rescorla, and Robin Seggelmann.

   The RFC 6083 authors thanked Anna Brunstrom, Lars Eggert, Gorry
   Fairhurst, Ian Goldberg, Alfred Hoenes, Carsten Hohendorf, Stefan
   Lindskog, Daniel Mentz, and Sean Turner for their invaluable
   comments.

   The authors of this document want to thank GitHub user vanrein for
   their contribution.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3758]  Stewart, R., Ramalho, M., Xie, Q., Tuexen, M., and P.
              Conrad, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
              Partial Reliability Extension", RFC 3758,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3758, May 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3758>.

   [RFC4895]  Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., Lei, P., and E. Rescorla,
              "Authenticated Chunks for the Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol (SCTP)", RFC 4895, DOI 10.17487/RFC4895, August
              2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4895>.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 4960, DOI 10.17487/RFC4960, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>.

   [RFC5705]  Rescorla, E., "Keying Material Exporters for Transport
              Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 5705, DOI 10.17487/RFC5705,
              March 2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5705>.





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   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, DOI 10.17487/RFC6347,
              January 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6347>.

   [RFC7627]  Bhargavan, K., Ed., Delignat-Lavaud, A., Pironti, A.,
              Langley, A., and M. Ray, "Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Session Hash and Extended Master Secret Extension",
              RFC 7627, DOI 10.17487/RFC7627, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7627>.

   [RFC7540]  Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8260]  Stewart, R., Tuexen, M., Loreto, S., and R. Seggelmann,
              "Stream Schedulers and User Message Interleaving for the
              Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC 8260,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8260, November 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8260>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [RFC8996]  Moriarty, K. and S. Farrell, "Deprecating TLS 1.0 and TLS
              1.1", BCP 195, RFC 8996, DOI 10.17487/RFC8996, March 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8996>.

   [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13]
              Rescorla, E., Tschofenig, H., and N. Modadugu, "The
              Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) Protocol Version
              1.3", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-tls-
              dtls13-43, 30 April 2021, <https://www.ietf.org/internet-
              drafts/draft-ietf-tls-dtls13-43.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls-connection-id]
              Rescorla, E., Tschofenig, H., Fossati, T., and A. Kraus,
              "Connection Identifiers for DTLS 1.2", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-tls-dtls-connection-id-13, 22
              June 2021, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-
              tls-dtls-connection-id-13.txt>.

11.2.  Informative References



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   [RFC3436]  Jungmaier, A., Rescorla, E., and M. Tuexen, "Transport
              Layer Security over Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 3436, DOI 10.17487/RFC3436, December 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3436>.

   [RFC3788]  Loughney, J., Tuexen, M., Ed., and J. Pastor-Balbas,
              "Security Considerations for Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN)
              Protocols", RFC 3788, DOI 10.17487/RFC3788, June 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3788>.

   [RFC5061]  Stewart, R., Xie, Q., Tuexen, M., Maruyama, S., and M.
              Kozuka, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
              Dynamic Address Reconfiguration", RFC 5061,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5061, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5061>.

   [RFC6083]  Tuexen, M., Seggelmann, R., and E. Rescorla, "Datagram
              Transport Layer Security (DTLS) for Stream Control
              Transmission Protocol (SCTP)", RFC 6083,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6083, January 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6083>.

   [RFC6125]  Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and
              Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity
              within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509
              (PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, DOI 10.17487/RFC6125, March
              2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6125>.

   [RFC6458]  Stewart, R., Tuexen, M., Poon, K., Lei, P., and V.
              Yasevich, "Sockets API Extensions for the Stream Control
              Transmission Protocol (SCTP)", RFC 6458,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6458, December 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6458>.

   [RFC6973]  Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
              Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
              Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6973, July 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6973>.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, DOI 10.17487/RFC7258, May
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7258>.







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   [RFC7457]  Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre, "Summarizing
              Known Attacks on Transport Layer Security (TLS) and
              Datagram TLS (DTLS)", RFC 7457, DOI 10.17487/RFC7457,
              February 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7457>.

   [RFC7525]  Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
              (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, DOI 10.17487/RFC7525, May
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7525>.

   [RFC7624]  Barnes, R., Schneier, B., Jennings, C., Hardie, T.,
              Trammell, B., Huitema, C., and D. Borkmann,
              "Confidentiality in the Face of Pervasive Surveillance: A
              Threat Model and Problem Statement", RFC 7624,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7624, August 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7624>.

   [ANSSI-DAT-NT-003]
              Agence nationale de la sécurité des systèmes
              d'information, ., "Recommendations for securing networks
              with IPsec", ANSSI Technical Report DAT-NT-003 , August
              2015, <<https://www.ssi.gouv.fr/uploads/2015/09/
              NT_IPsec_EN.pdf>>.

   [TRISHAKE] Bhargavan, K., Delignat-Lavaud, A., Fournet, C., Pironti,
              A., and P. Strub, "["Triple Handshakes and Cookie
              Cutters", "Breaking and Fixing Authentication over TLS"]",
              IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy , April 2016,
              <<https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01102259/file/triple-
              handshakes-and-cookie-cutters-oakland14.pdf>>.

Appendix A.  Motivation for Changes

   This document proposes a number of changes to RFC 6083 that have
   various different motivations:

   Supporting Large User Messages: RFC 6083 allowed only user messages
   that could fit within a single DTLS record. 3GPP has run into this
   limitation where they have at least four SCTP using protocols (F1,
   E1, Xn, NG-C) that can potentially generate messages over the size of
   16384 bytes.









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   New Versions: Almost 10 years has passed since RFC 6083 was written,
   and significant evolution has happened in the area of DTLS and
   security algorithms.  Thus DTLS 1.3 is the newest version of DTLS and
   also the SHA-1 HMAC algorithm of RFC 4895 is getting towards the end
   of usefulness.  Use of DTLS 1.3 with long lived associations require
   parallel DTLS connections.  Thus, this document mandates usage of
   relevant versions and algorithms.

   Clarifications: Some implementation experiences have been gained that
   motivates additional clarifications on the specification.

   *  Avoid unsecured messages prior to DTLS handshake have completed.

   *  Make clear that all messages are encrypted after DTLS handshake.

Authors' Addresses

   Magnus Westerlund
   Ericsson

   Email: magnus.westerlund@ericsson.com


   John Preuß Mattsson
   Ericsson

   Email: john.mattsson@ericsson.com


   Claudio Porfiri
   Ericsson

   Email: claudio.porfiri@ericsson.com


















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