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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12         Standards Track
          13 14 15                                                      
Network Working Group                                      R. R. Stewart
Internet-Draft                                             Netflix, Inc.
Obsoletes: 4960, 6096, 7053 (if approved)                       M. Tüxen
Intended status: Standards Track         Münster Univ. of Appl. Sciences
Expires: 19 March 2022                                  K. E. E. Nielsen
                                                            Kamstrup A/S
                                                       15 September 2021


                  Stream Control Transmission Protocol
                    draft-ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis-15

Abstract

   This document obsoletes RFC 4960, if approved.  It describes the
   Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and incorporates the
   specification of the chunk flags registry from RFC 6096 and the
   specification of the I bit of DATA chunks from RFC 7053.  Therefore,
   RFC 6096 and RFC 7053 are also obsoleted by this document, if
   approved.

   SCTP was originally designed to transport Public Switched Telephone
   Network (PSTN) signaling messages over IP networks.  It is also
   suited to be used for other applications, for example WebRTC.

   SCTP is a reliable transport protocol operating on top of a
   connectionless packet network such as IP.  It offers the following
   services to its users:

   *  acknowledged error-free non-duplicated transfer of user data,

   *  data fragmentation to conform to discovered path maximum
      transmission unit (PMTU) size,

   *  sequenced delivery of user messages within multiple streams, with
      an option for order-of-arrival delivery of individual user
      messages,

   *  optional bundling of multiple user messages into a single SCTP
      packet, and

   *  network-level fault tolerance through supporting of multi-homing
      at either or both ends of an association.

   The design of SCTP includes appropriate congestion avoidance behavior
   and resistance to flooding and masquerade attacks.





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Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 19 March 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6




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     2.1.  Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.2.  Architectural View of SCTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.3.  Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.4.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     2.5.  Functional View of SCTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       2.5.1.  Association Startup and Takedown  . . . . . . . . . .  13
       2.5.2.  Sequenced Delivery within Streams . . . . . . . . . .  14
       2.5.3.  User Data Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       2.5.4.  Acknowledgement and Congestion Avoidance  . . . . . .  15
       2.5.5.  Chunk Bundling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       2.5.6.  Packet Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       2.5.7.  Path Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     2.6.  Serial Number Arithmetic  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     2.7.  Changes from RFC 4960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   3.  SCTP Packet Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     3.1.  SCTP Common Header Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . .  19
     3.2.  Chunk Field Descriptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       3.2.1.  Optional/Variable-Length Parameter Format . . . . . .  23
       3.2.2.  Reporting of Unrecognized Parameters  . . . . . . . .  25
     3.3.  SCTP Chunk Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       3.3.1.  Payload Data (DATA) (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       3.3.2.  Initiation (INIT) (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
         3.3.2.1.  Optional/Variable-Length Parameters in INIT
                 chunks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       3.3.3.  Initiation Acknowledgement (INIT ACK) (2) . . . . . .  34
         3.3.3.1.  Optional or Variable-Length Parameters  . . . . .  37
       3.3.4.  Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) (3)  . . . . . . . .  38
       3.3.5.  Heartbeat Request (HEARTBEAT) (4) . . . . . . . . . .  42
       3.3.6.  Heartbeat Acknowledgement (HEARTBEAT ACK) (5) . . . .  43
       3.3.7.  Abort Association (ABORT) (6) . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       3.3.8.  Shutdown Association (SHUTDOWN) (7) . . . . . . . . .  45
       3.3.9.  Shutdown Acknowledgement (SHUTDOWN ACK) (8) . . . . .  45
       3.3.10. Operation Error (ERROR) (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
         3.3.10.1.  Invalid Stream Identifier (1)  . . . . . . . . .  48
         3.3.10.2.  Missing Mandatory Parameter (2)  . . . . . . . .  48
         3.3.10.3.  Stale Cookie Error (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
         3.3.10.4.  Out of Resource (4)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
         3.3.10.5.  Unresolvable Address (5) . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
         3.3.10.6.  Unrecognized Chunk Type (6)  . . . . . . . . . .  50
         3.3.10.7.  Invalid Mandatory Parameter (7)  . . . . . . . .  50
         3.3.10.8.  Unrecognized Parameters (8)  . . . . . . . . . .  50
         3.3.10.9.  No User Data (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
         3.3.10.10. Cookie Received While Shutting Down (10) . . . .  51
         3.3.10.11. Restart of an Association with New Addresses
                 (11)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
         3.3.10.12. User-Initiated Abort (12)  . . . . . . . . . . .  52
         3.3.10.13. Protocol Violation (13)  . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       3.3.11. Cookie Echo (COOKIE ECHO) (10)  . . . . . . . . . . .  52



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       3.3.12. Cookie Acknowledgement (COOKIE ACK) (11)  . . . . . .  53
       3.3.13. Shutdown Complete (SHUTDOWN COMPLETE) (14)  . . . . .  54
   4.  SCTP Association State Diagram  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
   5.  Association Initialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     5.1.  Normal Establishment of an Association  . . . . . . . . .  58
       5.1.1.  Handle Stream Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
       5.1.2.  Handle Address Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
       5.1.3.  Generating State Cookie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
       5.1.4.  State Cookie Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
       5.1.5.  State Cookie Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
       5.1.6.  An Example of Normal Association Establishment  . . .  64
     5.2.  Handle Duplicate or Unexpected INIT, INIT ACK, COOKIE ECHO,
           and COOKIE ACK Chunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  66
       5.2.1.  INIT Chunk Received in COOKIE-WAIT or COOKIE-ECHOED
               State (Item B)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  66
       5.2.2.  Unexpected INIT Chunk in States Other than CLOSED,
               COOKIE-ECHOED, COOKIE-WAIT, and SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT . .  67
       5.2.3.  Unexpected INIT ACK Chunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
       5.2.4.  Handle a COOKIE ECHO Chunk when a TCB Exists  . . . .  68
         5.2.4.1.  An Example of a Association Restart . . . . . . .  71
       5.2.5.  Handle Duplicate COOKIE ACK Chunk . . . . . . . . . .  73
       5.2.6.  Handle Stale Cookie Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     5.3.  Other Initialization Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
       5.3.1.  Selection of Tag Value  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
     5.4.  Path Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
   6.  User Data Transfer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
     6.1.  Transmission of DATA Chunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
     6.2.  Acknowledgement on Reception of DATA Chunks . . . . . . .  80
       6.2.1.  Processing a Received SACK Chunk  . . . . . . . . . .  83
     6.3.  Management of Retransmission Timer  . . . . . . . . . . .  85
       6.3.1.  RTO Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
       6.3.2.  Retransmission Timer Rules  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
       6.3.3.  Handle T3-rtx Expiration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
     6.4.  Multi-Homed SCTP Endpoints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
       6.4.1.  Failover from an Inactive Destination Address . . . .  90
     6.5.  Stream Identifier and Stream Sequence Number  . . . . . .  91
     6.6.  Ordered and Unordered Delivery  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     6.7.  Report Gaps in Received DATA TSNs . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
     6.8.  CRC32c Checksum Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
     6.9.  Fragmentation and Reassembly  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
     6.10. Bundling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
   7.  Congestion Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
     7.1.  SCTP Differences from TCP Congestion Control  . . . . . .  97
     7.2.  SCTP Slow-Start and Congestion Avoidance  . . . . . . . .  98
       7.2.1.  Slow-Start  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  99
       7.2.2.  Congestion Avoidance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
       7.2.3.  Congestion Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
       7.2.4.  Fast Retransmit on Gap Reports  . . . . . . . . . . . 102



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       7.2.5.  Reinitialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
         7.2.5.1.  Change of Differentiated Services Code Points . . 103
         7.2.5.2.  Change of Routes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
     7.3.  PMTU Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
   8.  Fault Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
     8.1.  Endpoint Failure Detection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
     8.2.  Path Failure Detection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
     8.3.  Path Heartbeat  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
     8.4.  Handle "Out of the Blue" Packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
     8.5.  Verification Tag  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
       8.5.1.  Exceptions in Verification Tag Rules  . . . . . . . . 110
   9.  Termination of Association  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
     9.1.  Abort of an Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
     9.2.  Shutdown of an Association  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
   10. ICMP Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
   11. Interface with Upper Layer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
     11.1.  ULP-to-SCTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
       11.1.1.  Initialize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
       11.1.2.  Associate  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
       11.1.3.  Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
       11.1.4.  Abort  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
       11.1.5.  Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
       11.1.6.  Set Primary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
       11.1.7.  Receive  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
       11.1.8.  Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
       11.1.9.  Change Heartbeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
       11.1.10. Request Heartbeat  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
       11.1.11. Get SRTT Report  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
       11.1.12. Set Failure Threshold  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
       11.1.13. Set Protocol Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
       11.1.14. Receive Unsent Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
       11.1.15. Receive Unacknowledged Message . . . . . . . . . . . 126
       11.1.16. Destroy SCTP Instance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
     11.2.  SCTP-to-ULP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
       11.2.1.  DATA ARRIVE Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
       11.2.2.  SEND FAILURE Notification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
       11.2.3.  NETWORK STATUS CHANGE Notification . . . . . . . . . 128
       11.2.4.  COMMUNICATION UP Notification  . . . . . . . . . . . 128
       11.2.5.  COMMUNICATION LOST Notification  . . . . . . . . . . 129
       11.2.6.  COMMUNICATION ERROR Notification . . . . . . . . . . 129
       11.2.7.  RESTART Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
       11.2.8.  SHUTDOWN COMPLETE Notification . . . . . . . . . . . 130
   12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
     12.1.  Security Objectives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
     12.2.  SCTP Responses to Potential Threats  . . . . . . . . . . 130
       12.2.1.  Countering Insider Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
       12.2.2.  Protecting against Data Corruption in the Network  . 131
       12.2.3.  Protecting Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131



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       12.2.4.  Protecting against Blind Denial-of-Service
               Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
         12.2.4.1.  Flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
         12.2.4.2.  Blind Masquerade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
         12.2.4.3.  Improper Monopolization of Services  . . . . . . 134
     12.3.  SCTP Interactions with Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
     12.4.  Protection of Non-SCTP-Capable Hosts . . . . . . . . . . 134
   13. Network Management Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
   14. Recommended Transmission Control Block (TCB) Parameters . . . 135
     14.1.  Parameters Necessary for the SCTP Instance . . . . . . . 135
     14.2.  Parameters Necessary per Association (i.e., the TCB) . . 136
     14.3.  Per Transport Address Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
     14.4.  General Parameters Needed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
   15. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
     15.1.  IETF-Defined Chunk Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
     15.2.  IETF Chunk Flags Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
     15.3.  IETF-Defined Chunk Parameter Extension . . . . . . . . . 143
     15.4.  IETF-Defined Additional Error Causes . . . . . . . . . . 144
     15.5.  Payload Protocol Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
     15.6.  Port Numbers Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
   16. Suggested SCTP Protocol Parameter Values  . . . . . . . . . . 145
   17. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
   18. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
   19. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
   Appendix A.  CRC32c Checksum Calculation  . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

1.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Introduction

   This section explains the reasoning behind the development of the
   Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), the services it offers,
   and the basic concepts needed to understand the detailed description
   of the protocol.

   This document obsoletes [RFC4960], if approved.  In addition to that,
   it incorporates the specification of the chunk flags registry from
   [RFC6096] and the specification of the I bit of DATA chunks from
   [RFC7053].  Therefore, [RFC6096] and [RFC7053] are also obsoleted by
   this document, if approved.




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2.1.  Motivation

   TCP [RFC0793] has performed immense service as the primary means of
   reliable data transfer in IP networks.  However, an increasing number
   of recent applications have found TCP too limiting, and have
   incorporated their own reliable data transfer protocol on top of UDP
   [RFC0768].  The limitations that users have wished to bypass include
   the following:

   *  TCP provides both reliable data transfer and strict order-of-
      transmission delivery of data.  Some applications need reliable
      transfer without sequence maintenance, while others would be
      satisfied with partial ordering of the data.  In both of these
      cases, the head-of-line blocking offered by TCP causes unnecessary
      delay.

   *  The stream-oriented nature of TCP is often an inconvenience.
      Applications add their own record marking to delineate their
      messages, and make explicit use of the push facility to ensure
      that a complete message is transferred in a reasonable time.

   *  The limited scope of TCP sockets complicates the task of providing
      highly-available data transfer capability using multi-homed hosts.

   *  TCP is relatively vulnerable to denial-of-service attacks, such as
      SYN attacks.

   Transport of PSTN signaling across the IP network is an application
   for which all of these limitations of TCP are relevant.  While this
   application directly motivated the development of SCTP, other
   applications might find SCTP a good match to their requirements.  One
   example for this are datachannels in the WebRTC infrastructure.

2.2.  Architectural View of SCTP

   SCTP is viewed as a layer between the SCTP user application ("SCTP
   user" for short) and a connectionless packet network service such as
   IP.  The remainder of this document assumes SCTP runs on top of IP.
   The basic service offered by SCTP is the reliable transfer of user
   messages between peer SCTP users.  It performs this service within
   the context of an association between two SCTP endpoints.  Section 11
   of this document sketches the API that exists at the boundary between
   the SCTP and the SCTP user layers.

   SCTP is connection-oriented in nature, but the SCTP association is a
   broader concept than the TCP connection.  SCTP provides the means for
   each SCTP endpoint (Section 2.3) to provide the other endpoint
   (during association startup) with a list of transport addresses



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   (i.e., multiple IP addresses in combination with an SCTP port)
   through which that endpoint can be reached and from which it will
   originate SCTP packets.  The association spans transfers over all of
   the possible source/destination combinations that can be generated
   from each endpoint's lists.

     _____________                                      _____________
    |  SCTP User  |                                    |  SCTP User  |
    | Application |                                    | Application |
    |-------------|                                    |-------------|
    |    SCTP     |                                    |    SCTP     |
    |  Transport  |                                    |  Transport  |
    |   Service   |                                    |   Service   |
    |-------------|                                    |-------------|
    |             |One or more    ----      One or more|             |
    | IP Network  |IP address      \/        IP address| IP Network  |
    |   Service   |appearances     /\       appearances|   Service   |
    |_____________|               ----                 |_____________|

      SCTP Node A |<-------- Network transport ------->| SCTP Node B

                       Figure 1: An SCTP Association

2.3.  Key Terms

   Some of the language used to describe SCTP has been introduced in the
   previous sections.  This section provides a consolidated list of the
   key terms and their definitions.

   Active destination transport address:  A transport address on a peer
      endpoint that a transmitting endpoint considers available for
      receiving user messages.

   Association Maximum DATA Chunk Size (AMDCS):  The smallest Path
      Maximum DATA Chunk Size (PMDCS) of all destination addresses.

   Bundling:  An optional multiplexing operation, whereby more than one
      user message might be carried in the same SCTP packet.  Each user
      message occupies its own DATA chunk.

   Chunk:  A unit of information within an SCTP packet, consisting of a
      chunk header and chunk-specific content.

   Congestion window (cwnd):  An SCTP variable that limits outstanding
      data, in number of bytes, that a sender can send to a particular
      destination transport address before receiving an acknowledgement.

   Control chunk:  A chunk not being used for transmitting user data,



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      i.e. every chunk which is not a DATA chunk.

   Cumulative TSN Ack Point:  The Transmission Sequence Number (TSN) of
      the last DATA chunk acknowledged via the Cumulative TSN Ack field
      of a SACK chunk.

   Flightsize:  The amount of bytes of outstanding data to a particular
      destination transport address at any given time.

   Idle destination address:  An address that has not had user messages
      sent to it within some length of time, normally the 'HB.interval'
      or greater.

   Inactive destination transport address:  An address that is
      considered inactive due to errors and unavailable to transport
      user messages.

   Message (or user message):  Data submitted to SCTP by the Upper Layer
      Protocol (ULP).

   Message Authentication Code (MAC):  An integrity check mechanism
      based on cryptographic hash functions using a secret key.
      Typically, message authentication codes are used between two
      parties that share a secret key in order to validate information
      transmitted between these parties.  In SCTP, it is used by an
      endpoint to validate the State Cookie information that is returned
      from the peer in the COOKIE ECHO chunk.  The term "MAC" has
      different meanings in different contexts.  SCTP uses this term
      with the same meaning as in [RFC2104].

   Network Byte Order:  Most significant byte first, a.k.a., big endian.

   Ordered Message:  A user message that is delivered in order with
      respect to all previous user messages sent within the stream on
      which the message was sent.

   Outstanding data (or "data outstanding" or "data in flight"):  The
      total amount of the DATA chunks associated with outstanding TSNs.
      A retransmitted DATA chunk is counted once in outstanding data.  A
      DATA chunk that is classified as lost but that has not yet been
      retransmitted is not in outstanding data.

   Outstanding TSN (at an SCTP endpoint):  A TSN (and the associated
      DATA chunk) that has been sent by the endpoint but for which it
      has not yet received an acknowledgement.

   Path:  The route taken by the SCTP packets sent by one SCTP endpoint




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      to a specific destination transport address of its peer SCTP
      endpoint.  Sending to different destination transport addresses
      does not necessarily guarantee getting separate paths.  Within
      this specification, a path is identified by the destination
      transport address, since the routing is assumed to be stable.
      This includes in particular the source address being selected when
      sending packets to the destination address.

   Path Maximum DATA Chunk Size (PMDCS):  The maximum size (including
      the DATA chunk header) of a DATA chunk which fits into an SCTP
      packet not exceeding the PMTU of a particular destination address.

   Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU):  The maximum size (including
      the SCTP common header and all chunks including their paddings) of
      an SCTP packet which can be sent to a particular destination
      address without using IP level fragmentation.

   Primary Path:  The primary path is the destination and source address
      that will be put into a packet outbound to the peer endpoint by
      default.  The definition includes the source address since an
      implementation MAY wish to specify both destination and source
      address to better control the return path taken by reply chunks
      and on which interface the packet is transmitted when the data
      sender is multi-homed.

   Receiver Window (rwnd):  An SCTP variable a data sender uses to store
      the most recently calculated receiver window of its peer, in
      number of bytes.  This gives the sender an indication of the space
      available in the receiver's inbound buffer.

   SCTP association:  A protocol relationship between SCTP endpoints,
      composed of the two SCTP endpoints and protocol state information
      including Verification Tags and the currently active set of
      Transmission Sequence Numbers (TSNs), etc.  An association can be
      uniquely identified by the transport addresses used by the
      endpoints in the association.  Two SCTP endpoints MUST NOT have
      more than one SCTP association between them at any given time.

   SCTP endpoint:  The logical sender/receiver of SCTP packets.  On a
      multi-homed host, an SCTP endpoint is represented to its peers as
      a combination of a set of eligible destination transport addresses
      to which SCTP packets can be sent and a set of eligible source
      transport addresses from which SCTP packets can be received.  All
      transport addresses used by an SCTP endpoint MUST use the same
      port number, but can use multiple IP addresses.  A transport
      address used by an SCTP endpoint MUST NOT be used by another SCTP
      endpoint.  In other words, a transport address is unique to an
      SCTP endpoint.



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   SCTP packet (or packet):  The unit of data delivery across the
      interface between SCTP and the connectionless packet network
      (e.g., IP).  An SCTP packet includes the common SCTP header,
      possible SCTP control chunks, and user data encapsulated within
      SCTP DATA chunks.

   SCTP user application (SCTP user):  The logical higher-layer
      application entity which uses the services of SCTP, also called
      the Upper-Layer Protocol (ULP).

   Slow-Start Threshold (ssthresh):  An SCTP variable.  This is the
      threshold that the endpoint will use to determine whether to
      perform slow start or congestion avoidance on a particular
      destination transport address.  Ssthresh is in number of bytes.

   State Cookie:  A container of all information needed to establish an
      association.

   Stream:  A unidirectional logical channel established from one to
      another associated SCTP endpoint, within which all user messages
      are delivered in sequence except for those submitted to the
      unordered delivery service.

      Note: The relationship between stream numbers in opposite
      directions is strictly a matter of how the applications use them.
      It is the responsibility of the SCTP user to create and manage
      these correlations if they are so desired.

   Stream Sequence Number:  A 16-bit sequence number used internally by
      SCTP to ensure sequenced delivery of the user messages within a
      given stream.  One Stream Sequence Number is attached to each user
      message.

   Tie-Tags:  Two 32-bit random numbers that together make a 64-bit
      nonce.  These tags are used within a State Cookie and TCB so that
      a newly restarting association can be linked to the original
      association within the endpoint that did not restart and yet not
      reveal the true Verification Tags of an existing association.

   Transmission Control Block (TCB):  An internal data structure created
      by an SCTP endpoint for each of its existing SCTP associations to
      other SCTP endpoints.  TCB contains all the status and operational
      information for the endpoint to maintain and manage the
      corresponding association.

   Transmission Sequence Number (TSN):  A 32-bit sequence number used





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      internally by SCTP.  One TSN is attached to each chunk containing
      user data to permit the receiving SCTP endpoint to acknowledge its
      receipt and detect duplicate deliveries.

   Transport address:  A transport address is traditionally defined by a
      network-layer address, a transport-layer protocol, and a
      transport-layer port number.  In the case of SCTP running over IP,
      a transport address is defined by the combination of an IP address
      and an SCTP port number (where SCTP is the transport protocol).

   Unacknowledged TSN (at an SCTP endpoint):  A TSN (and the associated
      DATA chunk) that has been received by the endpoint but for which
      an acknowledgement has not yet been sent.  Or in the opposite
      case, for a packet that has been sent but no acknowledgement has
      been received.

   Unordered Message:  Unordered messages are "unordered" with respect
      to any other message; this includes both other unordered messages
      as well as other ordered messages.  An unordered message might be
      delivered prior to or later than ordered messages sent on the same
      stream.

   User message:  The unit of data delivery across the interface between
      SCTP and its user.

   Verification Tag:  A 32-bit unsigned integer that is randomly
      generated.  The Verification Tag provides a key that allows a
      receiver to verify that the SCTP packet belongs to the current
      association and is not an old or stale packet from a previous
      association.

2.4.  Abbreviations

   MAC  Message Authentication Code [RFC2104]
   RTO  Retransmission Timeout
   RTT  Round-Trip Time
   RTTVAR  Round-Trip Time Variation
   SCTP  Stream Control Transmission Protocol
   SRTT  Smoothed RTT
   TCB  Transmission Control Block
   TLV  Type-Length-Value coding format
   TSN  Transmission Sequence Number
   ULP  Upper-Layer Protocol








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2.5.  Functional View of SCTP

   The SCTP transport service can be decomposed into a number of
   functions.  These are depicted in Figure 2 and explained in the
   remainder of this section.

                           SCTP User Application

           -----------------------------------------------------
            _____________                  ____________________
           |             |                | Sequenced Delivery |
           | Association |                |   within Streams   |
           |             |                |____________________|
           |   Startup   |
           |             |         ____________________________
           |     and     |        |    User Data Fragmentation |
           |             |        |____________________________|
           |   Takedown  |
           |             |         ____________________________
           |             |        |     Acknowledgement        |
           |             |        |          and               |
           |             |        |    Congestion Avoidance    |
           |             |        |____________________________|
           |             |
           |             |         ____________________________
           |             |        |       Chunk Bundling       |
           |             |        |____________________________|
           |             |
           |             |     ________________________________
           |             |    |      Packet Validation         |
           |             |    |________________________________|
           |             |
           |             |     ________________________________
           |             |    |     Path Management            |
           |_____________|    |________________________________|

          Figure 2: Functional View of the SCTP Transport Service

2.5.1.  Association Startup and Takedown

   An association is initiated by a request from the SCTP user (see the
   description of the ASSOCIATE (or SEND) primitive in Section 11).









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   A cookie mechanism, similar to one described by Karn and Simpson in
   [RFC2522], is employed during the initialization to provide
   protection against synchronization attacks.  The cookie mechanism
   uses a four-way handshake, the last two legs of which are allowed to
   carry user data for fast setup.  The startup sequence is described in
   Section 5 of this document.

   SCTP provides for graceful close (i.e., shutdown) of an active
   association on request from the SCTP user.  See the description of
   the SHUTDOWN primitive in Section 11.  SCTP also allows ungraceful
   close (i.e., abort), either on request from the user (ABORT
   primitive) or as a result of an error condition detected within the
   SCTP layer.  Section 9 describes both the graceful and the ungraceful
   close procedures.

   SCTP does not support a half-open state (like TCP) wherein one side
   continues sending data while the other end is closed.  When either
   endpoint performs a shutdown, the association on each peer will stop
   accepting new data from its user and only deliver data in queue at
   the time of the graceful close (see Section 9).

2.5.2.  Sequenced Delivery within Streams

   The term "stream" is used in SCTP to refer to a sequence of user
   messages that are to be delivered to the upper-layer protocol in
   order with respect to other messages within the same stream.  This is
   in contrast to its usage in TCP, where it refers to a sequence of
   bytes (in this document, a byte is assumed to be 8 bits).

   The SCTP user can specify at association startup time the number of
   streams to be supported by the association.  This number is
   negotiated with the remote end (see Section 5.1.1).  User messages
   are associated with stream numbers (SEND, RECEIVE primitives,
   Section 11).  Internally, SCTP assigns a Stream Sequence Number to
   each message passed to it by the SCTP user.  On the receiving side,
   SCTP ensures that messages are delivered to the SCTP user in sequence
   within a given stream.  However, while one stream might be blocked
   waiting for the next in-sequence user message, delivery from other
   streams might proceed.

   SCTP provides a mechanism for bypassing the sequenced delivery
   service.  User messages sent using this mechanism are delivered to
   the SCTP user as soon as they are received.








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2.5.3.  User Data Fragmentation

   When needed, SCTP fragments user messages to ensure that the size of
   the SCTP packet passed to the lower layer does not exceed the PMTU.
   Once a user message has been fragmented, this fragmentation cannot be
   changed anymore.  On receipt, fragments are reassembled into complete
   messages before being passed to the SCTP user.

2.5.4.  Acknowledgement and Congestion Avoidance

   SCTP assigns a Transmission Sequence Number (TSN) to each user data
   fragment or unfragmented message.  The TSN is independent of any
   Stream Sequence Number assigned at the stream level.  The receiving
   end acknowledges all TSNs received, even if there are gaps in the
   sequence.  If a user data fragment or unfragmented message needs to
   be retransmitted, the TSN assigned to it is used.  In this way,
   reliable delivery is kept functionally separate from sequenced stream
   delivery.

   The acknowledgement and congestion avoidance function is responsible
   for packet retransmission when timely acknowledgement has not been
   received.  Packet retransmission is conditioned by congestion
   avoidance procedures similar to those used for TCP.  See Section 6
   and Section 7 for a detailed description of the protocol procedures
   associated with this function.

2.5.5.  Chunk Bundling

   As described in Section 3, the SCTP packet as delivered to the lower
   layer consists of a common header followed by one or more chunks.
   Each chunk might contain either user data or SCTP control
   information.  The SCTP user has the option to request bundling of
   more than one user message into a single SCTP packet.  The chunk
   bundling function of SCTP is responsible for assembly of the complete
   SCTP packet and its disassembly at the receiving end.

   During times of congestion, an SCTP implementation MAY still perform
   bundling even if the user has requested that SCTP not bundle.  The
   user's disabling of bundling only affects SCTP implementations that
   might delay a small period of time before transmission (to attempt to
   encourage bundling).  When the user layer disables bundling, this
   small delay is prohibited but not bundling that is performed during
   congestion or retransmission.








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2.5.6.  Packet Validation

   A mandatory Verification Tag field and a 32-bit checksum field (see
   Appendix A for a description of the CRC32c checksum) are included in
   the SCTP common header.  The Verification Tag value is chosen by each
   end of the association during association startup.  Packets received
   without the expected Verification Tag value are discarded, as a
   protection against blind masquerade attacks and against stale SCTP
   packets from a previous association.  The CRC32c checksum can be set
   by the sender of each SCTP packet to provide additional protection
   against data corruption in the network.  The receiver of an SCTP
   packet with an invalid CRC32c checksum silently discards the packet.

2.5.7.  Path Management

   The sending SCTP user is able to manipulate the set of transport
   addresses used as destinations for SCTP packets through the
   primitives described in Section 11.  The SCTP path management
   function chooses the destination transport address for each outgoing
   SCTP packet based on the SCTP user's instructions and the currently
   perceived reachability status of the eligible destination set.  The
   path management function monitors reachability through heartbeats
   when other packet traffic is inadequate to provide this information
   and advises the SCTP user when reachability of any transport address
   of the peer endpoint changes.  The path management function is also
   responsible for reporting the eligible set of local transport
   addresses to the peer endpoint during association startup, and for
   reporting the transport addresses returned from the peer endpoint to
   the SCTP user.

   At association startup, a primary path is defined for each SCTP
   endpoint, and is used for normal sending of SCTP packets.

   On the receiving end, the path management is responsible for
   verifying the existence of a valid SCTP association to which the
   inbound SCTP packet belongs before passing it for further processing.

   Note: Path Management and Packet Validation are done at the same
   time, so although described separately above, in reality they cannot
   be performed as separate items.











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2.6.  Serial Number Arithmetic

   It is essential to remember that the actual Transmission Sequence
   Number space is finite, though very large.  This space ranges from 0
   to 2^32 - 1.  Since the space is finite, all arithmetic dealing with
   Transmission Sequence Numbers MUST be performed modulo 2^32.  This
   unsigned arithmetic preserves the relationship of sequence numbers as
   they cycle from 2^32 - 1 to 0 again.  There are some subtleties to
   computer modulo arithmetic, so great care has to be taken in
   programming the comparison of such values.  When referring to TSNs,
   the symbol "<=" means "less than or equal"(modulo 2^32).

   Comparisons and arithmetic on TSNs in this document SHOULD use Serial
   Number Arithmetic as defined in [RFC1982] where SERIAL_BITS = 32.

   An endpoint SHOULD NOT transmit a DATA chunk with a TSN that is more
   than 2^31 - 1 above the beginning TSN of its current send window.
   Doing so will cause problems in comparing TSNs.

   Transmission Sequence Numbers wrap around when they reach 2^32 - 1.
   That is, the next TSN a DATA chunk MUST use after transmitting TSN =
   2^32 - 1 is TSN = 0.

   Any arithmetic done on Stream Sequence Numbers SHOULD use Serial
   Number Arithmetic as defined in [RFC1982] where SERIAL_BITS = 16.
   All other arithmetic and comparisons in this document use normal
   arithmetic.

2.7.  Changes from RFC 4960

   SCTP was originally defined in [RFC4960], which this document
   obsoletes, if approved.  Readers interested in the details of the
   various changes that this document incorporates are asked to consult
   [RFC8540].

   In addition to these and further editorial changes, the following
   changes have been incorporated in this document:

   *  Update references.

   *  Improve the language related to requirements levels.

   *  Allow the ASSOCIATE primitive to take multiple remote addresses;
      also refer to the Socket API specification.

   *  Refer to the PLPMTUD specification for path MTU discovery.





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   *  Move the description of ICMP handling from an Appendix to the main
      text.

   *  Remove the Appendix describing ECN handling from the document.

   *  Describe the packet size handling more precise by introducing
      PMTU, PMDCS and AMDCS.

   *  Add the definition of control chunk.

   *  Improve the description of the handling of INIT chunks with
      invalid mandatory parameters.

   *  Allow using L > 1 for ABC during slow start.

   *  Explicitly describe the reinitialization of the congestion
      controller on route changes.

   *  Improve the terminology to make clear that this specification does
      not describe a full mesh architecture.

   *  Improve the description of sequence number generation (TSN and
      SSN).

   *  Improve the description of reneging.

3.  SCTP Packet Format

   An SCTP packet is composed of a common header and chunks.  A chunk
   contains either control information or user data.

   The SCTP packet format is shown below:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                        Common Header                          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Chunk #1                             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                           ...                                 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Chunk #n                             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+







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   Multiple chunks can be bundled into one SCTP packet as long as the
   size of the SCTP packet does not exceed the PMTU, except for the
   INIT, INIT ACK, and SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunks.  These chunks MUST NOT
   be bundled with any other chunk in a packet.  See Section 6.10 for
   more details on chunk bundling.

   If a user data message does not fit into one SCTP packet it can be
   fragmented into multiple chunks using the procedure defined in
   Section 6.9.

   All integer fields in an SCTP packet MUST be transmitted in network
   byte order, unless otherwise stated.

3.1.  SCTP Common Header Field Descriptions

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Source Port Number        |     Destination Port Number   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Verification Tag                         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                           Checksum                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Source Port Number: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      This is the SCTP sender's port number.  It can be used by the
      receiver in combination with the source IP address, the SCTP
      destination port, and possibly the destination IP address to
      identify the association to which this packet belongs.  The source
      port number 0 MUST NOT be used.

   Destination Port Number: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      This is the SCTP port number to which this packet is destined.
      The receiving host will use this port number to de-multiplex the
      SCTP packet to the correct receiving endpoint/application.  The
      destination port number 0 MUST NOT be used.

   Verification Tag: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      The receiver of an SCTP packet uses the Verification Tag to
      validate the sender of this packet.  On transmit, the value of the
      Verification Tag MUST be set to the value of the Initiate Tag
      received from the peer endpoint during the association
      initialization, with the following exceptions:

      *  A packet containing an INIT chunk MUST have a zero Verification
         Tag.




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      *  A packet containing a SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk with the T bit
         set MUST have the Verification Tag copied from the packet with
         the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk.

      *  A packet containing an ABORT chunk MAY have the verification
         tag copied from the packet that caused the ABORT chunk to be
         sent.  For details see Section 8.4 and Section 8.5.

   Checksum: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      This field contains the checksum of the SCTP packet.  Its
      calculation is discussed in Section 6.8.  SCTP uses the CRC32c
      algorithm as described in Appendix A for calculating the checksum.

3.2.  Chunk Field Descriptions

   The figure below illustrates the field format for the chunks to be
   transmitted in the SCTP packet.  Each chunk is formatted with a Chunk
   Type field, a chunk-specific Flag field, a Chunk Length field, and a
   Value field.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Chunk Type  | Chunk  Flags  |        Chunk Length           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /                          Chunk Value                          /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Type: 8 bits (unsigned integer)
      This field identifies the type of information contained in the
      Chunk Value field.  It takes a value from 0 to 254.  The value of
      255 is reserved for future use as an extension field.

      The values of Chunk Types are defined as follows:

           +==========+===========================================+
           | ID Value | Chunk Type                                |
           +==========+===========================================+
           | 0        | Payload Data (DATA)                       |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 1        | Initiation (INIT)                         |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 2        | Initiation Acknowledgement (INIT ACK)     |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 3        | Selective Acknowledgement (SACK)          |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+



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           | 4        | Heartbeat Request (HEARTBEAT)             |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 5        | Heartbeat Acknowledgement (HEARTBEAT ACK) |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 6        | Abort (ABORT)                             |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 7        | Shutdown (SHUTDOWN)                       |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 8        | Shutdown Acknowledgement (SHUTDOWN ACK)   |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 9        | Operation Error (ERROR)                   |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 10       | State Cookie (COOKIE ECHO)                |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 11       | Cookie Acknowledgement (COOKIE ACK)       |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 12       | Reserved for Explicit Congestion          |
           |          | Notification Echo (ECNE)                  |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 13       | Reserved for Congestion Window Reduced    |
           |          | (CWR)                                     |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 14       | Shutdown Complete (SHUTDOWN COMPLETE)     |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 15 to 62 | available                                 |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 63       | reserved for IETF-defined Chunk           |
           |          | Extensions                                |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 64 to    | available                                 |
           | 126      |                                           |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 127      | reserved for IETF-defined Chunk           |
           |          | Extensions                                |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 128 to   | available                                 |
           | 190      |                                           |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 191      | reserved for IETF-defined Chunk           |
           |          | Extensions                                |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 192 to   | available                                 |
           | 254      |                                           |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+
           | 255      | reserved for IETF-defined Chunk           |
           |          | Extensions                                |
           +----------+-------------------------------------------+




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                             Table 1: Chunk Types

      Note: The ECNE and CWR chunk types are reserved for future use of
      Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN).

      Chunk Types are encoded such that the highest-order 2 bits specify
      the action that is taken if the processing endpoint does not
      recognize the Chunk Type.

          +----+--------------------------------------------------+
          | 00 | Stop processing this SCTP packet; discard the    |
          |    | unrecognized chunk and all further chunks.       |
          +----+--------------------------------------------------+
          | 01 | Stop processing this SCTP packet, discard the    |
          |    | unrecognized chunk and all further chunks, and   |
          |    | report the unrecognized chunk in an ERROR chunk  |
          |    | using the 'Unrecognized Chunk Type' error cause. |
          +----+--------------------------------------------------+
          | 10 | Skip this chunk and continue processing.         |
          +----+--------------------------------------------------+
          | 11 | Skip this chunk and continue processing, but     |
          |    | report it in an ERROR chunk using the            |
          |    | 'Unrecognized Chunk Type' error cause.           |
          +----+--------------------------------------------------+

                    Table 2: Processing of Unknown Chunks

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      The usage of these bits depends on the Chunk type as given by the
      Chunk Type field.  Unless otherwise specified, they are set to 0
      on transmit and are ignored on receipt.

   Chunk Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      This value represents the size of the chunk in bytes, including
      the Chunk Type, Chunk Flags, Chunk Length, and Chunk Value fields.
      , if the Chunk Value field is zero-length, the Length field will
      be set to 4.  The Chunk Length field does not count any chunk
      padding.  However, it does include padding of any variable-length
      parameter except the last parameter in the chunk.

      Note: A robust implementation is expected to accept the chunk
      whether or not the final padding has been included in the Chunk
      Length.

   Chunk Value: variable length
      The Chunk Value field contains the actual information to be
      transferred in the chunk.  The usage and format of this field is
      dependent on the Chunk Type.



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   The total length of a chunk (including Type, Length, and Value
   fields) MUST be a multiple of 4 bytes.  If the length of the chunk is
   not a multiple of 4 bytes, the sender MUST pad the chunk with all
   zero bytes, and this padding is not included in the Chunk Length
   field.  The sender MUST NOT pad with more than 3 bytes.  The receiver
   MUST ignore the padding bytes.

   SCTP-defined chunks are described in detail in Section 3.3.  The
   guidelines for IETF-defined chunk extensions can be found in
   Section 15.1 of this document.

3.2.1.  Optional/Variable-Length Parameter Format

   Chunk values of SCTP control chunks consist of a chunk-type-specific
   header of required fields, followed by zero or more parameters.  The
   optional and variable-length parameters contained in a chunk are
   defined in a Type-Length-Value format as shown below.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Parameter Type       |       Parameter Length        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /                       Parameter Value                         /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Parameter Type: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      The Type field is a 16-bit identifier of the type of parameter.
      It takes a value of 0 to 65534.

      The value of 65535 is reserved for IETF-defined extensions.
      Values other than those defined in specific SCTP chunk
      descriptions are reserved for use by IETF.

   Chunk Parameter Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      The Parameter Length field contains the size of the parameter in
      bytes, including the Parameter Type, Parameter Length, and
      Parameter Value fields.  Thus, a parameter with a zero-length
      Parameter Value field would have a Parameter Length field of 4.
      The Parameter Length does not include any padding bytes.

   Chunk Parameter Value: variable length
      The Parameter Value field contains the actual information to be
      transferred in the parameter.





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   The total length of a parameter (including Parameter Type, Parameter
   Length, and Parameter Value fields) MUST be a multiple of 4 bytes.
   If the length of the parameter is not a multiple of 4 bytes, the
   sender pads the parameter at the end (i.e., after the Parameter Value
   field) with all zero bytes.  The length of the padding is not
   included in the Parameter Length field.  A sender MUST NOT pad with
   more than 3 bytes.  The receiver MUST ignore the padding bytes.

   The Parameter Types are encoded such that the highest-order 2 bits
   specify the action that is taken if the processing endpoint does not
   recognize the Parameter Type.

      +----+-------------------------------------------------------+
      | 00 | Stop processing this parameter; do not process any    |
      |    | further parameters within this chunk.                 |
      +----+-------------------------------------------------------+
      | 01 | Stop processing this parameter, do not process any    |
      |    | further parameters within this chunk, and report the  |
      |    | unrecognized parameter as described in Section 3.2.2. |
      +----+-------------------------------------------------------+
      | 10 | Skip this parameter and continue processing.          |
      +----+-------------------------------------------------------+
      | 11 | Skip this parameter and continue processing but       |
      |    | report the unrecognized parameter as described in     |
      |    | Section 3.2.2.                                        |
      +----+-------------------------------------------------------+

                Table 3: Processing of Unknown Parameters

   Please note that, when an INIT or INIT ACK chunk is received, in all
   four cases, an INIT ACK or COOKIE ECHO chunk is sent in response,
   respectively.  In the 00 or 01 case, the processing of the parameters
   after the unknown parameter is canceled, but no processing already
   done is rolled back.

   The actual SCTP parameters are defined in the specific SCTP chunk
   sections.  The rules for IETF-defined parameter extensions are
   defined in Section 15.3.  Parameter types MUST be unique across all
   chunks.  For example, the parameter type '5' is used to represent an
   IPv4 address (see Section 3.3.2.1).  The value '5' then is reserved
   across all chunks to represent an IPv4 address and MUST NOT be reused
   with a different meaning in any other chunk.









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3.2.2.  Reporting of Unrecognized Parameters

   If the receiver of an INIT chunk detects unrecognized parameters and
   has to report them according to Section 3.2.1, it MUST put the
   "Unrecognized Parameter" parameter(s) in the INIT ACK chunk sent in
   response to the INIT chunk.  Note that if the receiver of the INIT
   chunk is not going to establish an association (e.g., due to lack of
   resources), an "Unrecognized Parameter" error cause would not be
   included with any ABORT chunk being sent to the sender of the INIT
   chunk.

   If the receiver of any other chunk (e.g., INIT ACK) detects
   unrecognized parameters and has to report them according to
   Section 3.2.1, it SHOULD bundle the ERROR chunk containing the
   "Unrecognized Parameters" error cause with the chunk sent in response
   (e.g., COOKIE ECHO).  If the receiver of the INIT ACK chunk cannot
   bundle the COOKIE ECHO chunk with the ERROR chunk, the ERROR chunk
   MAY be sent separately but not before the COOKIE ACK chunk has been
   received.

   Any time a COOKIE ECHO chunk is sent in a packet, it MUST be the
   first chunk.

3.3.  SCTP Chunk Definitions

   This section defines the format of the different SCTP chunk types.

3.3.1.  Payload Data (DATA) (0)

   The following format MUST be used for the DATA chunk:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 0    |  Res  |I|U|B|E|    Length                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              TSN                              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      Stream Identifier S      |   Stream Sequence Number n    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                  Payload Protocol Identifier                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /                 User Data (seq n of Stream S)                 /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Res: 4 bits



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      Set to all '0's on transmit and ignored on receipt.

   I bit: 1 bit
      The (I)mmediate bit MAY be set by the sender whenever the sender
      of a DATA chunk can benefit from the corresponding SACK chunk
      being sent back without delay.  See Section 4 of [RFC7053] for a
      discussion of the benefits.

   U bit: 1 bit
      The (U)nordered bit, if set to '1', indicates that this is an
      unordered DATA chunk, and there is no Stream Sequence Number
      assigned to this DATA chunk. , the receiver MUST ignore the Stream
      Sequence Number field.

      After reassembly (if necessary), unordered DATA chunks MUST be
      dispatched to the upper layer by the receiver without any attempt
      to reorder.

      If an unordered user message is fragmented, each fragment of the
      message MUST have its U bit set to '1'.

   B bit: 1 bit
      The (B)eginning fragment bit, if set, indicates the first fragment
      of a user message.

   E bit: 1 bit
      The (E)nding fragment bit, if set, indicates the last fragment of
      a user message.

   Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      This field indicates the length of the DATA chunk in bytes from
      the beginning of the type field to the end of the User Data field
      excluding any padding.  A DATA chunk with one byte of user data
      will have Length set to 17 (indicating 17 bytes).

      A DATA chunk with a User Data field of length L will have the
      Length field set to (16 + L) (indicating 16 + L bytes) where L
      MUST be greater than 0.

   TSN: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      This value represents the TSN for this DATA chunk.  The valid
      range of TSN is from 0 to 4294967295 (2^32 - 1).  TSN wraps back
      to 0 after reaching 4294967295.

   Stream Identifier S: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Identifies the stream to which the following user data belongs.

   Stream Sequence Number n: 16 bits (unsigned integer)



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      This value represents the Stream Sequence Number of the following
      user data within the stream S.  Valid range is 0 to 65535.

      When a user message is fragmented by SCTP for transport, the same
      Stream Sequence Number MUST be carried in each of the fragments of
      the message.

   Payload Protocol Identifier: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      This value represents an application (or upper layer) specified
      protocol identifier.  This value is passed to SCTP by its upper
      layer and sent to its peer.  This identifier is not used by SCTP
      but can be used by certain network entities, as well as by the
      peer application, to identify the type of information being
      carried in this DATA chunk.  This field MUST be sent even in
      fragmented DATA chunks (to make sure it is available for agents in
      the middle of the network).  Note that this field is not touched
      by an SCTP implementation; , its byte order is not necessarily big
      endian.  The upper layer is responsible for any byte order
      conversions to this field.

      The value 0 indicates that no application identifier is specified
      by the upper layer for this payload data.

   User Data: variable length
      This is the payload user data.  The implementation MUST pad the
      end of the data to a 4-byte boundary with all-zero bytes.  Any
      padding MUST NOT be included in the Length field.  A sender MUST
      never add more than 3 bytes of padding.

   An unfragmented user message MUST have both the B and E bits set to
   '1'.  Setting both B and E bits to '0' indicates a middle fragment of
   a multi-fragment user message, as summarized in the following table:

           +---+---+-------------------------------------------+
           | B | E |                Description                |
           +---+---+-------------------------------------------+
           | 1 | 0 |  First piece of a fragmented user message |
           +---+---+-------------------------------------------+
           | 0 | 0 | Middle piece of a fragmented user message |
           +---+---+-------------------------------------------+
           | 0 | 1 |  Last piece of a fragmented user message  |
           +---+---+-------------------------------------------+
           | 1 | 1 |            Unfragmented message           |
           +---+---+-------------------------------------------+

                    Table 4: Fragment Description Flags





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   When a user message is fragmented into multiple chunks, the TSNs are
   used by the receiver to reassemble the message.  This means that the
   TSNs for each fragment of a fragmented user message MUST be strictly
   sequential.

   The TSNs of DATA chunks sent out SHOULD be strictly sequential.

   Note: The extension described in [RFC8260] can be used to mitigate
   the head of line blocking when transferring large user messages.

3.3.2.  Initiation (INIT) (1)

   This chunk is used to initiate an SCTP association between two
   endpoints.  The format of the INIT chunk is shown below:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 1    |  Chunk Flags  |      Chunk Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Initiate Tag                          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           Advertised Receiver Window Credit (a_rwnd)          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Number of Outbound Streams   |  Number of Inbound Streams    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Initial TSN                          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /              Optional/Variable-Length Parameters              /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The following parameters are specified for the INIT chunk.  Unless
   otherwise noted, each parameter MUST only be included once in the
   INIT chunk.















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             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Fixed Length Parameter            | Status    |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Initiate Tag                      | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Advertised Receiver Window Credit | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Number of Outbound Streams        | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Number of Inbound Streams         | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Initial TSN                       | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+

              Table 5: Fixed Length Parameters of INIT Chunks

    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Variable Length Parameter         | Status     | Type Value     |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | IPv4 Address (Note 1)             | Optional   | 5              |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | IPv6 Address (Note 1)             | Optional   | 6              |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Cookie Preservative               | Optional   | 9              |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Reserved for ECN Capable (Note 2) | Optional   | 32768 (0x8000) |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Host Name Address (Note 3)        | Deprecated | 11             |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Supported Address Types (Note 4)  | Optional   | 12             |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+

             Table 6: Variable Length Parameters of INIT Chunks

   Note 1: The INIT chunks can contain multiple addresses that can be
   IPv4 and/or IPv6 in any combination.

   Note 2: The ECN Capable field is reserved for future use of Explicit
   Congestion Notification.

   Note 3: An INIT chunk MUST NOT contain the Host Name Address
   parameter.  The receiver of an INIT chunk containing a Host Name
   Address parameter MUST send an ABORT chunk and MAY include an
   "Unresolvable Address" error cause.

   Note 4: This parameter, when present, specifies all the address types
   the sending endpoint can support.  The absence of this parameter
   indicates that the sending endpoint can support any address type.



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   If an INIT chunk is received with all mandatory parameters that are
   specified for the INIT chunk, then the receiver SHOULD process the
   INIT chunk and send back an INIT ACK.  The receiver of the INIT chunk
   MAY bundle an ERROR chunk with the COOKIE ACK chunk later.  However,
   restrictive implementations MAY send back an ABORT chunk in response
   to the INIT chunk.

   The Chunk Flags field in INIT chunks is reserved, and all bits in it
   SHOULD be set to 0 by the sender and ignored by the receiver.  The
   sequence of parameters within an INIT chunk can be processed in any
   order.

   Initiate Tag: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      The receiver of the INIT chunk (the responding end) records the
      value of the Initiate Tag parameter.  This value MUST be placed
      into the Verification Tag field of every SCTP packet that the
      receiver of the INIT chunk transmits within this association.

      The Initiate Tag is allowed to have any value except 0.  See
      Section 5.3.1 for more on the selection of the tag value.

      If the value of the Initiate Tag in a received INIT chunk is found
      to be 0, the receiver MUST silently discard the packet.

   Advertised Receiver Window Credit (a_rwnd): 32 bits (unsigned
   integer)
      This value represents the dedicated buffer space, in number of
      bytes, the sender of the INIT chunk has reserved in association
      with this window.  During the life of the association, this buffer
      space SHOULD NOT be reduced (i.e., dedicated buffers ought not to
      be taken away from this association); however, an endpoint MAY
      change the value of a_rwnd it sends in SACK chunks.

   Number of Outbound Streams (OS): 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Defines the number of outbound streams the sender of this INIT
      chunk wishes to create in this association.  The value of 0 MUST
      NOT be used.

      A receiver of an INIT chunk with the OS value set to 0 MUST
      discard the packet and SHOULD send a packet in response containing
      an ABORT chunk and using the Initiate Tag as the Verification Tag.
      Any existing association MUST NOT be affected.

   Number of Inbound Streams (MIS): 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Defines the maximum number of streams the sender of this INIT
      chunk allows the peer end to create in this association.  The
      value 0 MUST NOT be used.




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      Note: There is no negotiation of the actual number of streams but
      instead the two endpoints will use the min(requested, offered).
      See Section 5.1.1 for details.

      A receiver of an INIT chunk with the MIS value set to 0 MUST
      discard the packet and SHOULD send a packet in response containing
      an ABORT chunk and using the Initiate Tag as the Verification Tag.
      Any existing association MUST NOT be affected.

   Initial TSN (I-TSN): 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      Defines the initial TSN that the sender will use.  The valid range
      is from 0 to 4294967295.  This field MAY be set to the value of
      the Initiate Tag field.

3.3.2.1.  Optional/Variable-Length Parameters in INIT chunks

   The following parameters follow the Type-Length-Value format as
   defined in Section 3.2.1.  Any Type-Length-Value fields MUST come
   after the fixed-length fields defined in the previous section.

3.3.2.1.1.  IPv4 Address Parameter (5)

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Type = 5               |      Length = 8               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                        IPv4 Address                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IPv4 Address: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      Contains an IPv4 address of the sending endpoint.  It is binary
      encoded.

3.3.2.1.2.  IPv6 Address Parameter (6)

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            Type = 6           |          Length = 20          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                         IPv6 Address                          |
     |                                                               |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IPv6 Address: 128 bits (unsigned integer)



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      Contains an IPv6 [RFC8200] address of the sending endpoint.  It is
      binary encoded.

      A sender MUST NOT use an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address [RFC4291], but
      SHOULD instead use an IPv4 Address parameter for an IPv4 address.

   Combined with the Source Port Number in the SCTP common header, the
   value passed in an IPv4 or IPv6 Address parameter indicates a
   transport address the sender of the INIT chunk will support for the
   association being initiated.  That is, during the life time of this
   association, this IP address can appear in the source address field
   of an IP datagram sent from the sender of the INIT chunk, and can be
   used as a destination address of an IP datagram sent from the
   receiver of the INIT chunk.

   More than one IP Address parameter can be included in an INIT chunk
   when the sender of the INIT chunk is multi-homed.  Moreover, a multi-
   homed endpoint might have access to different types of network; thus,
   more than one address type can be present in one INIT chunk, i.e.,
   IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are allowed in the same INIT chunk.

   If the INIT chunk contains at least one IP Address parameter, then
   the source address of the IP datagram containing the INIT chunk and
   any additional address(es) provided within the INIT can be used as
   destinations by the endpoint receiving the INIT chunk.  If the INIT
   chunk does not contain any IP Address parameters, the endpoint
   receiving the INIT chunk MUST use the source address associated with
   the received IP datagram as its sole destination address for the
   association.

   Note that not using any IP Address parameters in the INIT and INIT
   ACK chunk is an alternative to make an association more likely to
   work across a NAT box.

3.3.2.1.3.  Cookie Preservative (9)

   The sender of the INIT chunk SHOULD use this parameter to suggest to
   the receiver of the INIT chunk for a longer life-span of the State
   Cookie.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 9             |          Length = 8           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Suggested Cookie Life-Span Increment (msec.)          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+




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   Suggested Cookie Life-Span Increment: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      This parameter indicates to the receiver how much increment in
      milliseconds the sender wishes the receiver to add to its default
      cookie life-span.

      This optional parameter MAY be added to the INIT chunk by the
      sender when it reattempts establishing an association with a peer
      to which its previous attempt of establishing the association
      failed due to a stale cookie operation error.  The receiver MAY
      choose to ignore the suggested cookie life-span increase for its
      own security reasons.

3.3.2.1.4.  Host Name Address (11)

   The sender of an INIT chunk MUST NOT include this parameter.  The
   usage of the Host Name Address parameter is deprecated.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 11            |          Length               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                          Host Name                            /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Host Name: variable length
      This field contains a host name in "host name syntax" per RFC 1123
      Section 2.1 [RFC1123].  The method for resolving the host name is
      out of scope of SCTP.

      At least one null terminator is included in the Host Name string
      and MUST be included in the length.

3.3.2.1.5.  Supported Address Types (12)

   The sender of INIT chunk uses this parameter to list all the address
   types it can support.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 12            |          Length               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Address Type #1        |        Address Type #2        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                            ......                             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+-+-+



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   Address Type: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      This is filled with the type value of the corresponding address
      TLV (e.g., IPv4 = 5, IPv6 = 6).  The value indicating the Host
      Name Address parameter (Host name = 11) MUST NOT be used.

3.3.3.  Initiation Acknowledgement (INIT ACK) (2)

   The INIT ACK chunk is used to acknowledge the initiation of an SCTP
   association.  The format of the INIT ACK chunk is shown below:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 2    |  Chunk Flags  |      Chunk Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Initiate Tag                          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Advertised Receiver Window Credit                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Number of Outbound Streams   |  Number of Inbound Streams    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Initial TSN                          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /              Optional/Variable-Length Parameters              /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The parameter part of INIT ACK is formatted similarly to the INIT
   chunk.  The following parameters are specified for the INIT ACK
   chunk:

             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Fixed Length Parameter            | Status    |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Initiate Tag                      | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Advertised Receiver Window Credit | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Number of Outbound Streams        | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Number of Inbound Streams         | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+
             | Initial TSN                       | Mandatory |
             +-----------------------------------+-----------+

                Table 7: Fixed Length Parameters of INIT ACK
                                   Chunks



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   It uses two extra variable parameters: The State Cookie and the
   Unrecognized Parameter:

    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Variable Length Parameter         | Status     | Type Value     |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | State Cookie                      | Mandatory  | 7              |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | IPv4 Address (Note 1)             | Optional   | 5              |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | IPv6 Address (Note 1)             | Optional   | 6              |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Unrecognized Parameter            | Optional   | 8              |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Reserved for ECN Capable (Note 2) | Optional   | 32768 (0x8000) |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+
    | Host Name Address (Note 3)        | Deprecated | 11             |
    +-----------------------------------+------------+----------------+

           Table 8: Variable Length Parameters of INIT ACK Chunks

   Note 1: The INIT ACK chunks can contain any number of IP address
   parameters that can be IPv4 and/or IPv6 in any combination.

   Note 2: The ECN Capable field is reserved for future use of Explicit
   Congestion Notification.

   Note 3: An INIT ACK chunk MUST NOT contain the Host Name Address
   parameter.  The receiver of INIT ACK chunks containing a Host Name
   Address parameter MUST send an ABORT chunk and MAY include an
   "Unresolvable Address" error cause.

   Initiate Tag: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      The receiver of the INIT ACK chunk records the value of the
      Initiate Tag parameter.  This value MUST be placed into the
      Verification Tag field of every SCTP packet that the receiver of
      the INIT ACK chunk transmits within this association.

      The Initiate Tag MUST NOT take the value 0.  See Section 5.3.1 for
      more on the selection of the Initiate Tag value.

      If an endpoint in the COOKIE-WAIT state receives an INIT ACK chunk
      with the Initiate Tag set to 0, it MUST destroy the TCB and SHOULD
      send an ABORT chunk with the T bit set.  If such an INIT-ACK chunk
      is received in any state other than CLOSED or COOKIE-WAIT, it
      SHOULD be discarded silently (see Section 5.2.3).





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   Advertised Receiver Window Credit (a_rwnd): 32 bits (unsigned
   integer)
      This value represents the dedicated buffer space, in number of
      bytes, the sender of the INIT ACK chunk has reserved in
      association with this window.  During the life of the association,
      this buffer space SHOULD NOT be reduced (i.e., dedicated buffers
      ought not to be taken away from this association); however, an
      endpoint MAY change the value of a_rwnd it sends in SACK chunks.

   Number of Outbound Streams (OS): 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Defines the number of outbound streams the sender of this INIT ACK
      chunk wishes to create in this association.  The value of 0 MUST
      NOT be used, and the value MUST NOT be greater than the MIS value
      sent in the INIT chunk.

      If an endpoint in the COOKIE-WAIT state receives an INIT ACK chunk
      with the OS value set to 0, it MUST destroy the TCB and SHOULD
      send an ABORT chunk.  If such an INIT-ACK chunk is received in any
      state other than CLOSED or COOKIE-WAIT, it SHOULD be discarded
      silently (see Section 5.2.3).

   Number of Inbound Streams (MIS): 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Defines the maximum number of streams the sender of this INIT ACK
      chunk allows the peer end to create in this association.  The
      value 0 MUST NOT be used.

      Note: There is no negotiation of the actual number of streams but
      instead the two endpoints will use the min(requested, offered).
      See Section 5.1.1 for details.

      If an endpoint in the COOKIE-WAIT state receives an INIT ACK chunk
      with the MIS value set to 0, it MUST destroy the TCB and SHOULD
      send an ABORT chunk.  If such an INIT-ACK chunk is received in any
      state other than CLOSED or COOKIE-WAIT, it SHOULD be discarded
      silently (see Section 5.2.3).

   Initial TSN (I-TSN): 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      Defines the initial TSN that the sender of the INIT ACK chunk will
      use.  The valid range is from 0 to 4294967295.  This field MAY be
      set to the value of the Initiate Tag field.

   Implementation Note: An implementation MUST be prepared to receive an
   INIT ACK chunk that is quite large (more than 1500 bytes) due to the
   variable size of the State Cookie and the variable address list.  For
   example if a responder to the INIT chunk has 1000 IPv4 addresses it
   wishes to send, it would need at least 8,000 bytes to encode this in
   the INIT ACK chunk.




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   If an INIT ACK chunk is received with all mandatory parameters that
   are specified for the INIT ACK chunk, then the receiver SHOULD
   process the INIT ACK chunk and send back a COOKIE ECHO chunk.  The
   receiver of the INIT ACK chunk MAY bundle an ERROR chunk with the
   COOKIE ECHO chunk.  However, restrictive implementations MAY send
   back an ABORT chunk in response to the INIT ACK chunk.

   In combination with the Source Port carried in the SCTP common
   header, each IP Address parameter in the INIT ACK chunk indicates to
   the receiver of the INIT ACK chunk a valid transport address
   supported by the sender of the INIT ACK chunk for the life time of
   the association being initiated.

   If the INIT ACK chunk contains at least one IP Address parameter,
   then the source address of the IP datagram containing the INIT ACK
   chunk and any additional address(es) provided within the INIT ACK
   chunk MAY be used as destinations by the receiver of the INIT ACK
   chunk.  If the INIT ACK chunk does not contain any IP Address
   parameters, the receiver of the INIT ACK chunk MUST use the source
   address associated with the received IP datagram as its sole
   destination address for the association.

   The State Cookie and Unrecognized Parameters use the Type-Length-
   Value format as defined in Section 3.2.1 and are described below.
   The other fields are defined the same as their counterparts in the
   INIT chunk.

3.3.3.1.  Optional or Variable-Length Parameters

3.3.3.1.1.  State Cookie (7)

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 7             |          Length               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                            Cookie                             /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Cookie: variable length
      This parameter value MUST contain all the necessary state and
      parameter information required for the sender of this INIT ACK
      chunk to create the association, along with a Message
      Authentication Code (MAC).  See Section 5.1.3 for details on State
      Cookie definition.





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3.3.3.1.2.  Unrecognized Parameter (8)

   This parameter is returned to the originator of the INIT chunk when
   the INIT chunk contains an unrecognized parameter that has a type
   that indicates it SHOULD be reported to the sender.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 8             |          Length               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                     Unrecognized Parameter                    /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Unrecognized Parameter: variable length
      The parameter value field will contain an unrecognized parameter
      copied from the INIT chunk complete with Parameter Type, Length,
      and Value fields.

3.3.4.  Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) (3)

   This chunk is sent to the peer endpoint to acknowledge received DATA
   chunks and to inform the peer endpoint of gaps in the received
   subsequences of DATA chunks as represented by their TSNs.

   The SACK chunk MUST contain the Cumulative TSN Ack, Advertised
   Receiver Window Credit (a_rwnd), Number of Gap Ack Blocks, and Number
   of Duplicate TSNs fields.

   By definition, the value of the Cumulative TSN Ack parameter is the
   last TSN received before a break in the sequence of received TSNs
   occurs; the next TSN value following this one has not yet been
   received at the endpoint sending the SACK chunk.  This parameter
   acknowledges receipt of all TSNs less than or equal to its value.

   The handling of a_rwnd by the receiver of the SACK chunk is discussed
   in detail in Section 6.2.1.

   The SACK chunk also contains zero or more Gap Ack Blocks.  Each Gap
   Ack Block acknowledges a subsequence of TSNs received following a
   break in the sequence of received TSNs.  The Gap Ack Blocks SHOULD be
   isolated.  This means that the TSN just before each Gap Ack Block and
   the TSN just after each Gap Ack Block have not been received.  By
   definition, all TSNs acknowledged by Gap Ack Blocks are greater than
   the value of the Cumulative TSN Ack.





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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 3    |Chunk  Flags   |      Chunk Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Cumulative TSN Ack                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Advertised Receiver Window Credit (a_rwnd)           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Number of Gap Ack Blocks = N  |  Number of Duplicate TSNs = X |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Gap Ack Block #1 Start       |   Gap Ack Block #1 End        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                                                               /
     \                              ...                              \
     /                                                               /
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Gap Ack Block #N Start      |  Gap Ack Block #N End         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                       Duplicate TSN 1                         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                                                               /
     \                              ...                              \
     /                                                               /
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                       Duplicate TSN X                         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to all '0's on transmit and ignored on receipt.

   Cumulative TSN Ack: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      The largest TSN, such that all TSNs smaller than or equal to it
      have been received and the next one has not been received.  In the
      case where no DATA chunk has been received, this value is set to
      the peer's Initial TSN minus one.

   Advertised Receiver Window Credit (a_rwnd): 32 bits (unsigned
   integer)
      This field indicates the updated receive buffer space in bytes of
      the sender of this SACK chunk; see Section 6.2.1 for details.

   Number of Gap Ack Blocks: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Indicates the number of Gap Ack Blocks included in this SACK
      chunk.

   Number of Duplicate TSNs: 16 bit




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      This field contains the number of duplicate TSNs the endpoint has
      received.  Each duplicate TSN is listed following the Gap Ack
      Block list.

   Gap Ack Blocks:
      These fields contain the Gap Ack Blocks.  They are repeated for
      each Gap Ack Block up to the number of Gap Ack Blocks defined in
      the Number of Gap Ack Blocks field.  All DATA chunks with TSNs
      greater than or equal to (Cumulative TSN Ack + Gap Ack Block
      Start) and less than or equal to (Cumulative TSN Ack + Gap Ack
      Block End) of each Gap Ack Block are assumed to have been received
      correctly.  Gap Ack Blocks SHOULD be isolated.  This means that
      the DATA chunks with TSNs equal to (Cumulative TSN Ack + Gap Ack
      Block Start - 1) and (Cumulative TSN Ack + Gap Ack Block End + 1)
      have not been received.

   Gap Ack Block Start: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Indicates the Start offset TSN for this Gap Ack Block.  To
      calculate the actual TSN number the Cumulative TSN Ack is added to
      this offset number.  This calculated TSN identifies the first TSN
      in this Gap Ack Block that has been received.

   Gap Ack Block End: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Indicates the End offset TSN for this Gap Ack Block.  To calculate
      the actual TSN number, the Cumulative TSN Ack is added to this
      offset number.  This calculated TSN identifies the TSN of the last
      DATA chunk received in this Gap Ack Block.

      For example, assume that the receiver has the following DATA
      chunks newly arrived at the time when it decides to send a
      Selective ACK,




















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                         ----------
                         | TSN=17 |
                         ----------
                         |        | <- still missing
                         ----------
                         | TSN=15 |
                         ----------
                         | TSN=14 |
                         ----------
                         |        | <- still missing
                         ----------
                         | TSN=12 |
                         ----------
                         | TSN=11 |
                         ----------
                         | TSN=10 |
                         ----------

      then the parameter part of the SACK chunk MUST be constructed as
      follows (assuming the new a_rwnd is set to 4660 by the sender):

                      +--------------------------------+
                      |   Cumulative TSN Ack = 12      |
                      +--------------------------------+
                      |        a_rwnd = 4660           |
                      +----------------+---------------+
                      | num of block=2 | num of dup=0  |
                      +----------------+---------------+
                      |block #1 strt=2 |block #1 end=3 |
                      +----------------+---------------+
                      |block #2 strt=5 |block #2 end=5 |
                      +----------------+---------------+

   Duplicate TSN: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      Indicates the number of times a TSN was received in duplicate
      since the last SACK chunk was sent.  Every time a receiver gets a
      duplicate TSN (before sending the SACK chunk), it adds it to the
      list of duplicates.  The duplicate count is reinitialized to zero
      after sending each SACK chunk.

      For example, if a receiver were to get the TSN 19 three times it
      would list 19 twice in the outbound SACK chunk.  After sending the
      SACK chunk, if it received yet one more TSN 19 it would list 19 as
      a duplicate once in the next outgoing SACK chunk.







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3.3.5.  Heartbeat Request (HEARTBEAT) (4)

   An endpoint SHOULD send a HEARTBEAT chunk to its peer endpoint to
   probe the reachability of a particular destination transport address
   defined in the present association.

   The parameter field contains the Heartbeat Information, which is a
   variable-length opaque data structure understood only by the sender.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 4    | Chunk  Flags  |      Heartbeat Length         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /            Heartbeat Information TLV (Variable-Length)        /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

   Heartbeat Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Set to the size of the chunk in bytes, including the chunk header
      and the Heartbeat Information field.

   Heartbeat Information: variable length
      Defined as a variable-length parameter using the format described
      in Section 3.2.1, i.e.:

               +---------------------+-----------+------------+
               | Variable Parameters | Status    | Type Value |
               +---------------------+-----------+------------+
               | Heartbeat Info      | Mandatory | 1          |
               +---------------------+-----------+------------+

                    Table 9: Variable Length Parameters of
                               HEARTBEAT Chunks

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |    Heartbeat Info Type=1      |         HB Info Length        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      /                  Sender-Specific Heartbeat Info               /
      \                                                               \
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+




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      The Sender-Specific Heartbeat Info field SHOULD include
      information about the sender's current time when this HEARTBEAT
      chunk is sent and the destination transport address to which this
      HEARTBEAT chunk is sent (see Section 8.3).  This information is
      simply reflected back by the receiver in the HEARTBEAT ACK chunk
      (see Section 3.3.6).  Note also that the HEARTBEAT chunk is both
      for reachability checking and for path verification (see
      Section 5.4).  When a HEARTBEAT chunk is being used for path
      verification purposes, it MUST hold a random nonce of length
      64-bit or longer ([RFC4086] provides some information on
      randomness guidelines).

3.3.6.  Heartbeat Acknowledgement (HEARTBEAT ACK) (5)

   An endpoint MUST send this chunk to its peer endpoint as a response
   to a HEARTBEAT chunk (see Section 8.3).  A packet containing the
   HEARTBEAT ACK chunk is always sent to the source IP address of the IP
   datagram containing the HEARTBEAT chunk to which this HEARTBEAT ACK
   chunk is responding.

   The parameter field contains a variable-length opaque data structure.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 5    | Chunk  Flags  |    Heartbeat Ack Length       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /            Heartbeat Information TLV (Variable-Length)        /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

   Heartbeat Ack Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Set to the size of the chunk in bytes, including the chunk header
      and the Heartbeat Information field.

   Heartbeat Information: variable length
      This field MUST contain the Heartbeat Information parameter of the
      Heartbeat Request to which this Heartbeat Acknowledgement is
      responding.








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               +---------------------+-----------+------------+
               | Variable Parameters | Status    | Type Value |
               +---------------------+-----------+------------+
               | Heartbeat Info      | Mandatory | 1          |
               +---------------------+-----------+------------+

                   Table 10: Variable Length Parameters of
                             HEARTBEAT ACK Chunks

3.3.7.  Abort Association (ABORT) (6)

   The ABORT chunk is sent to the peer of an association to close the
   association.  The ABORT chunk MAY contain Cause Parameters to inform
   the receiver about the reason of the abort.  DATA chunks MUST NOT be
   bundled with ABORT chunks.  Control chunks (except for INIT, INIT
   ACK, and SHUTDOWN COMPLETE) MAY be bundled with an ABORT chunk, but
   they MUST be placed before the ABORT chunk in the SCTP packet,
   otherwise they will be ignored by the receiver.

   If an endpoint receives an ABORT chunk with a format error or no TCB
   is found, it MUST silently discard it.  Moreover, under any
   circumstances, an endpoint that receives an ABORT chunk MUST NOT
   respond to that ABORT chunk by sending an ABORT chunk of its own.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 6    |Reserved     |T|           Length              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /                   zero or more Error Causes                   /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Reserved: 7 bits
         Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

      T bit: 1 bit
         The T bit is set to 0 if the sender filled in the Verification
         Tag expected by the peer.  If the Verification Tag is
         reflected, the T bit MUST be set to 1.  Reflecting means that
         the sent Verification Tag is the same as the received one.

   Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Set to the size of the chunk in bytes, including the chunk header
      and all the Error Cause fields present.




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   See Section 3.3.10 for Error Cause definitions.

   Note: Special rules apply to this chunk for verification; please see
   Section 8.5.1 for details.

3.3.8.  Shutdown Association (SHUTDOWN) (7)

   An endpoint in an association MUST use this chunk to initiate a
   graceful close of the association with its peer.  This chunk has the
   following format.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 7    | Chunk  Flags  |      Length = 8               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Cumulative TSN Ack                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

   Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Indicates the length of the parameter.  Set to 8.

   Cumulative TSN Ack: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      The largest TSN, such that all TSNs smaller than or equal to it
      have been received and the next one has not been received.

   Note: Since the SHUTDOWN chunk does not contain Gap Ack Blocks, it
   cannot be used to acknowledge TSNs received out of order.  In a SACK
   chunk, lack of Gap Ack Blocks that were previously included indicates
   that the data receiver reneged on the associated DATA chunks.

   Since the SHUTDOWN chunk does not contain Gap Ack Blocks, the
   receiver of the SHUTDOWN chunk MUST NOT interpret the lack of a Gap
   Ack Block as a renege.  (See Section 6.2 for information on
   reneging.)

   The sender of the SHUTDOWN chunk MAY bundle a SACK chunk to indicate
   any gaps in the received TSNs.

3.3.9.  Shutdown Acknowledgement (SHUTDOWN ACK) (8)

   This chunk MUST be used to acknowledge the receipt of the SHUTDOWN
   chunk at the completion of the shutdown process; see Section 9.2 for
   details.




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   The SHUTDOWN ACK chunk has no parameters.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 8    |Chunk  Flags   |      Length = 4               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

3.3.10.  Operation Error (ERROR) (9)

   An endpoint sends this chunk to its peer endpoint to notify it of
   certain error conditions.  It contains one or more error causes.  An
   Operation Error is not considered fatal in and of itself, but the
   corresponding error cause MAY be used with an ABORT chunk to report a
   fatal condition.  An ERROR chunk has the following format:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 9    | Chunk  Flags  |           Length              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \                                                               \
     /                    one or more Error Causes                   /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

   Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Set to the size of the chunk in bytes, including the chunk header
      and all the Error Cause fields present.

   Error causes are defined as variable-length parameters using the
   format described in Section 3.2.1, that is:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           Cause Code          |       Cause Length            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                    Cause-Specific Information                 /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+




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   Cause Code: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Defines the type of error conditions being reported.

           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | Value | Cause Code                                   |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 1     | Invalid Stream Identifier                    |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 2     | Missing Mandatory Parameter                  |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 3     | Stale Cookie Error                           |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 4     | Out of Resource                              |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 5     | Unresolvable Address                         |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 6     | Unrecognized Chunk Type                      |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 7     | Invalid Mandatory Parameter                  |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 8     | Unrecognized Parameters                      |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 9     | No User Data                                 |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 10    | Cookie Received While Shutting Down          |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 11    | Restart of an Association with New Addresses |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 12    | User Initiated Abort                         |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+
           | 13    | Protocol Violation                           |
           +-------+----------------------------------------------+

                             Table 11: Cause Code

   Cause Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Set to the size of the parameter in bytes, including the Cause
      Code, Cause Length, and Cause-Specific Information fields.

   Cause-Specific Information: variable length
      This field carries the details of the error condition.

   Section 3.3.10.1 - Section 3.3.10.13 define error causes for SCTP.
   Guidelines for the IETF to define new error cause values are
   discussed in Section 15.4.






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3.3.10.1.  Invalid Stream Identifier (1)

   Invalid Stream Identifier: Indicates endpoint received a DATA chunk
   sent to a nonexistent stream.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=1              |      Cause Length=8           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Stream Identifier      |         (Reserved)            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Stream Identifier: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Contains the Stream Identifier of the DATA chunk received in
      error.

   Reserved: 16 bits
      This field is reserved.  It is set to all 0's on transmit and
      ignored on receipt.

3.3.10.2.  Missing Mandatory Parameter (2)

   Missing Mandatory Parameter: Indicates that one or more mandatory TLV
   parameters are missing in a received INIT or INIT ACK chunk.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=2              |      Cause Length=8+N*2       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                   Number of missing params=N                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Missing Param Type #1       |   Missing Param Type #2       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Missing Param Type #N-1     |   Missing Param Type #N       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Number of Missing params: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      This field contains the number of parameters contained in the
      Cause-Specific Information field.

   Missing Param Type: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Each field will contain the missing mandatory parameter number.

3.3.10.3.  Stale Cookie Error (3)

   Stale Cookie Error: Indicates the receipt of a valid State Cookie
   that has expired.






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     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=3              |       Cause Length=8          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 Measure of Staleness (usec.)                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Measure of Staleness: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      This field contains the difference, in microseconds, between the
      current time and the time the State Cookie expired.

      The sender of this error cause MAY choose to report how long past
      expiration the State Cookie is by including a non-zero value in
      the Measure of Staleness field.  If the sender does not wish to
      provide the Measure of Staleness, it SHOULD set this field to the
      value of zero.

3.3.10.4.  Out of Resource (4)

   Out of Resource: Indicates that the sender is out of resource.  This
   is usually sent in combination with or within an ABORT chunk.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=4              |      Cause Length=4           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.3.10.5.  Unresolvable Address (5)

   Unresolvable Address: Indicates that the sender is not able to
   resolve the specified address parameter (e.g., type of address is not
   supported by the sender).  This is usually sent in combination with
   or within an ABORT chunk.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=5              |      Cause Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                  Unresolvable Address                         /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Unresolvable Address: variable length
      The Unresolvable Address field contains the complete Type, Length,
      and Value of the address parameter (or Host Name parameter) that
      contains the unresolvable address or host name.








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3.3.10.6.  Unrecognized Chunk Type (6)

   Unrecognized Chunk Type: This error cause is returned to the
   originator of the chunk if the receiver does not understand the chunk
   and the upper bits of the 'Chunk Type' are set to 01 or 11.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=6              |      Cause Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                  Unrecognized Chunk                           /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Unrecognized Chunk: variable length
      The Unrecognized Chunk field contains the unrecognized chunk from
      the SCTP packet complete with Chunk Type, Chunk Flags, and Chunk
      Length.

3.3.10.7.  Invalid Mandatory Parameter (7)

   Invalid Mandatory Parameter: This error cause is returned to the
   originator of an INIT or INIT ACK chunk when one of the mandatory
   parameters is set to an invalid value.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=7              |      Cause Length=4           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.3.10.8.  Unrecognized Parameters (8)

   Unrecognized Parameters: This error cause is returned to the
   originator of the INIT ACK chunk if the receiver does not recognize
   one or more Optional TLV parameters in the INIT ACK chunk.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=8              |      Cause Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                  Unrecognized Parameters                      /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Unrecognized Parameters: variable length
      The Unrecognized Parameters field contains the unrecognized
      parameters copied from the INIT ACK chunk complete with TLV.  This
      error cause is normally contained in an ERROR chunk bundled with
      the COOKIE ECHO chunk when responding to the INIT ACK chunk, when
      the sender of the COOKIE ECHO chunk wishes to report unrecognized
      parameters.



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3.3.10.9.  No User Data (9)

   No User Data: This error cause is returned to the originator of a
   DATA chunk if a received DATA chunk has no user data.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=9              |      Cause Length=8           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              TSN                              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   TSN: 32 bits (unsigned integer)
      This parameter contains the TSN of the DATA chunk received with no
      user data field.

   This cause code is normally returned in an ABORT chunk (see
   Section 6.2).

3.3.10.10.  Cookie Received While Shutting Down (10)

   Cookie Received While Shutting Down: A COOKIE ECHO chunk was received
   while the endpoint was in the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state.  This error is
   usually returned in an ERROR chunk bundled with the retransmitted
   SHUTDOWN ACK chunk.

     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Cause Code=10              |      Cause Length=4          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.3.10.11.  Restart of an Association with New Addresses (11)

   Restart of an association with new addresses: An INIT chunk was
   received on an existing association.  But the INIT chunk added
   addresses to the association that were previously not part of the
   association.  The new addresses are listed in the error cause.  This
   error cause is normally sent as part of an ABORT chunk refusing the
   INIT chunk (see Section 5.2).

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Cause Code=11         |      Cause Length=Variable    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                       New Address TLVs                        /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+





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   Note: Each New Address TLV is an exact copy of the TLV that was found
   in the INIT chunk that was new, including the Parameter Type and the
   Parameter Length.

3.3.10.12.  User-Initiated Abort (12)

   This error cause MAY be included in ABORT chunks that are sent
   because of an upper-layer request.  The upper layer can specify an
   Upper Layer Abort Reason that is transported by SCTP transparently
   and MAY be delivered to the upper-layer protocol at the peer.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Cause Code=12         |      Cause Length=Variable    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                    Upper Layer Abort Reason                   /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.3.10.13.  Protocol Violation (13)

   This error cause MAY be included in ABORT chunks that are sent
   because an SCTP endpoint detects a protocol violation of the peer
   that is not covered by the error causes described in Section 3.3.10.1
   to Section 3.3.10.12.  An implementation MAY provide additional
   information specifying what kind of protocol violation has been
   detected.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Cause Code=13         |      Cause Length=Variable    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                    Additional Information                     /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.3.11.  Cookie Echo (COOKIE ECHO) (10)

   This chunk is used only during the initialization of an association.
   It is sent by the initiator of an association to its peer to complete
   the initialization process.  This chunk MUST precede any DATA chunk
   sent within the association, but MAY be bundled with one or more DATA
   chunks in the same packet.






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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 10   |Chunk  Flags   |         Length                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     /                            Cookie                             /
     \                                                               \
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

   Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
      Set to the size of the chunk in bytes, including the 4 bytes of
      the chunk header and the size of the cookie.

   Cookie: variable size
      This field MUST contain the exact cookie received in the State
      Cookie parameter from the previous INIT ACK chunk.

      An implementation SHOULD make the cookie as small as possible to
      ensure interoperability.

      Note: A Cookie Echo does not contain a State Cookie parameter;
      instead, the data within the State Cookie's Parameter Value
      becomes the data within the Cookie Echo's Chunk Value.  This
      allows an implementation to change only the first 2 bytes of the
      State Cookie parameter to become a COOKIE ECHO chunk.

3.3.12.  Cookie Acknowledgement (COOKIE ACK) (11)

   This chunk is used only during the initialization of an association.
   It is used to acknowledge the receipt of a COOKIE ECHO chunk.  This
   chunk MUST precede any DATA or SACK chunk sent within the
   association, but MAY be bundled with one or more DATA chunks or SACK
   chunk's in the same SCTP packet.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 11   |Chunk  Flags   |     Length = 4                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.






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3.3.13.  Shutdown Complete (SHUTDOWN COMPLETE) (14)

   This chunk MUST be used to acknowledge the receipt of the SHUTDOWN
   ACK chunk at the completion of the shutdown process; see Section 9.2
   for details.

   The SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk has no parameters.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Type = 14   |Reserved     |T|      Length = 4               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Chunk Flags: 8 bits
      Reserved: 7 bits
         Set to 0 on transmit and ignored on receipt.

      T bit: 1 bit
         The T bit is set to 0 if the sender filled in the Verification
         Tag expected by the peer.  If the Verification Tag is
         reflected, the T bit MUST be set to 1.  Reflecting means that
         the sent Verification Tag is the same as the received one.

   Note: Special rules apply to this chunk for verification, please see
   Section 8.5.1 for details.

4.  SCTP Association State Diagram

   During the life time of an SCTP association, the SCTP endpoint's
   association progresses from one state to another in response to
   various events.  The events that might potentially advance an
   association's state include:

   *  SCTP user primitive calls, e.g., [ASSOCIATE], [SHUTDOWN], [ABORT],

   *  Reception of INIT, COOKIE ECHO, ABORT, SHUTDOWN, etc., control
      chunks, or

   *  Some timeout events.

   The state diagram in the figures below illustrates state changes,
   together with the causing events and resulting actions.  Note that
   some of the error conditions are not shown in the state diagram.
   Full descriptions of all special cases are found in the text.






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   Note: Chunk names are given in all capital letters, while parameter
   names have the first letter capitalized, e.g., COOKIE ECHO chunk type
   vs. State Cookie parameter.  If more than one event/message can occur
   that causes a state transition, it is labeled (A), (B).

                      -----          -------- (from any state)
                    /       \      /receive ABORT      [ABORT]
   receive INIT    |         |    |--------------  or ----------
   ----------------|         v    v    delete TCB     send ABORT
   generate Cookie  \    +---------+                  delete TCB
   send INIT ACK      ---|  CLOSED |
                         +---------+
                          /      \
                         /        \  [ASSOCIATE]
                        |          |-----------------
                        |          | create TCB
                        |          | send INIT
       receive valid    |          | start init timer
       COOKIE  ECHO     |          v
   (1) -----------------|      +------------+
       create TCB       |      | COOKIE-WAIT| (2)
       send COOKIE ACK  |      +------------+
                        |          |
                        |          | receive INIT ACK
                        |          |-------------------
                        |          | send COOKIE ECHO
                        |          | stop init timer
                        |          | start cookie timer
                        |          v
                        |      +--------------+
                        |      | COOKIE-ECHOED| (3)
                        |      +--------------+
                        |          |
                        |          | receive COOKIE ACK
                        |          |-------------------
                        |          | stop cookie timer
                        v          v
                      +---------------+
                      |  ESTABLISHED  |
                      +---------------+
                               |
                               |
                          /----+------------\
      [SHUTDOWN]         /                   \
      -------------------|                   |
      check outstanding  |                   |
      DATA chunks        |                   |
                         v                   |



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                    +---------+              |
                    |SHUTDOWN-|              | receive SHUTDOWN
                    |PENDING  |              |------------------
                    +---------+              | check outstanding
                         |                   | DATA chunks
    No more outstanding  |                   |
    ---------------------|                   |
    send SHUTDOWN        |                   |
    start shutdown timer |                   |
                         v                   v
                    +---------+        +-----------+
                (4) |SHUTDOWN-|        | SHUTDOWN- |  (5,6)
                    |SENT     |        | RECEIVED  |
                    +---------+        +-----------+
                         |  \                |
   receive SHUTDOWN ACK  |   \               |
   ----------------------|    \              |
   stop shutdown timer   |     \             |
   send SHUTDOWN COMPLETE|      \            |
   delete TCB            |       \           |
                         |        \          | No more outstanding
                         |         \         |---------------------
                         |          \        | send SHUTDOWN ACK
   receive SHUTDOWN     -|-          \       | start shutdown timer
   --------------------/ | \----------\      |
   send SHUTDOWN ACK     |             \     |
   start shutdown timer  |              \    |
                         |               \   |
                         |                |  |
                         |                v  v
                         |             +-----------+
                         |             | SHUTDOWN- | (7)
                         |             | ACK-SENT  |
                         |             +----------+-
                         |                   | (A)
                         |                   | receive SHUTDOWN COMPLETE
                         |                   |--------------------------
                         |                   | stop shutdown timer
                         |                   | delete TCB
                         |                   |
                         |                   | (B)
                         |                   | receive SHUTDOWN ACK
                         |                   |-----------------------
                         |                   | stop shutdown timer
                         |                   | send SHUTDOWN COMPLETE
                         |                   | delete TCB
                         |                   |
                         \    +---------+    /



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                          \-->| CLOSED  |<--/
                              +---------+

                 Figure 3: State Transition Diagram of SCTP

   The following applies:

   1)  If the State Cookie in the received COOKIE ECHO chunk is invalid
       (i.e., failed to pass the integrity check), the receiver MUST
       silently discard the packet.  Or, if the received State Cookie is
       expired (see Section 5.1.5), the receiver MUST send back an ERROR
       chunk.  In either case, the receiver stays in the CLOSED state.

   2)  If the T1-init timer expires, the endpoint MUST retransmit the
       INIT chunk and restart the T1-init timer without changing state.
       This MUST be repeated up to 'Max.Init.Retransmits' times.  After
       that, the endpoint MUST abort the initialization process and
       report the error to the SCTP user.

   3)  If the T1-cookie timer expires, the endpoint MUST retransmit
       COOKIE ECHO chunk and restart the T1-cookie timer without
       changing state.  This MUST be repeated up to
       'Max.Init.Retransmits' times.  After that, the endpoint MUST
       abort the initialization process and report the error to the SCTP
       user.

   4)  In the SHUTDOWN-SENT state, the endpoint MUST acknowledge any
       received DATA chunks without delay.

   5)  In the SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED state, the endpoint MUST NOT accept any
       new send requests from its SCTP user.

   6)  In the SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED state, the endpoint MUST transmit or
       retransmit data and leave this state when all data in queue is
       transmitted.

   7)  In the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state, the endpoint MUST NOT accept any
       new send requests from its SCTP user.

   The CLOSED state is used to indicate that an association is not
   created (i.e., does not exist).

5.  Association Initialization

   Before the first data transmission can take place from one SCTP
   endpoint ("A") to another SCTP endpoint ("Z"), the two endpoints MUST
   complete an initialization process in order to set up an SCTP
   association between them.



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   The SCTP user at an endpoint can use the ASSOCIATE primitive to
   initialize an SCTP association to another SCTP endpoint.

   Implementation Note: From an SCTP user's point of view, an
   association might be implicitly opened, without an ASSOCIATE
   primitive (see Section 11.1.2) being invoked, by the initiating
   endpoint's sending of the first user data to the destination
   endpoint.  The initiating SCTP will assume default values for all
   mandatory and optional parameters for the INIT/INIT ACK chunk.

   Once the association is established, unidirectional streams are open
   for data transfer on both ends (see Section 5.1.1).

5.1.  Normal Establishment of an Association

   The initialization process consists of the following steps (assuming
   that SCTP endpoint "A" tries to set up an association with SCTP
   endpoint "Z" and "Z" accepts the new association):

   A)  "A" first sends an INIT chunk to "Z".  In the INIT chunk, "A"
       MUST provide its Verification Tag (Tag_A) in the Initiate Tag
       field.  Tag_A SHOULD be a random number in the range of 1 to
       4294967295 (see Section 5.3.1 for Tag value selection).  After
       sending the INIT chunk, "A" starts the T1-init timer and enters
       the COOKIE-WAIT state.

   B)  "Z" responds immediately with an INIT ACK chunk.  The destination
       IP address of the INIT ACK chunk MUST be set to the source IP
       address of the INIT chunk to which this INIT ACK chunk is
       responding.  In the response, besides filling in other
       parameters, "Z" MUST set the Verification Tag field to Tag_A, and
       also provide its own Verification Tag (Tag_Z) in the Initiate Tag
       field.

       Moreover, "Z" MUST generate and send along with the INIT ACK
       chunk a State Cookie.  See Section 5.1.3 for State Cookie
       generation.

       After sending out INIT ACK chunk with the State Cookie parameter,
       "Z" MUST NOT allocate any resources or keep any states for the
       new association.  Otherwise, "Z" will be vulnerable to resource
       attacks.

   C)  Upon reception of the INIT ACK chunk from "Z", "A" stops the
       T1-init timer and leaves the COOKIE-WAIT state.  "A" then sends
       the State Cookie received in the INIT ACK chunk in a COOKIE ECHO
       chunk, starts the T1-cookie timer, and enters the COOKIE-ECHOED
       state.



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       The COOKIE ECHO chunk MAY be bundled with any pending outbound
       DATA chunks, but it MUST be the first chunk in the packet and
       until the COOKIE ACK chunk is returned the sender MUST NOT send
       any other packets to the peer.

   D)  Upon reception of the COOKIE ECHO chunk, endpoint "Z" replies
       with a COOKIE ACK chunk after building a TCB and moving to the
       ESTABLISHED state.  A COOKIE ACK chunk MAY be bundled with any
       pending DATA chunks (and/or SACK chunks), but the COOKIE ACK
       chunk MUST be the first chunk in the packet.

       Implementation Note: An implementation can choose to send the
       Communication Up notification to the SCTP user upon reception of
       a valid COOKIE ECHO chunk.

   E)  Upon reception of the COOKIE ACK chunk, endpoint "A" moves from
       the COOKIE-ECHOED state to the ESTABLISHED state, stopping the
       T1-cookie timer.  It can also notify its ULP about the successful
       establishment of the association with a Communication Up
       notification (see Section 11).

   An INIT or INIT ACK chunk MUST NOT be bundled with any other chunk.
   They MUST be the only chunks present in the SCTP packets that carry
   them.

   An endpoint MUST send the INIT ACK chunk to the IP address from which
   it received the INIT chunk.

   T1-init timer and T1-cookie timer SHOULD follow the same rules given
   in Section 6.3.  If the application provided multiple IP addresses of
   the peer, there SHOULD be a T1-init and T1-cookie timer for each
   address of the peer.  Retransmissions of INIT chunks and COOKIE ECHO
   chunks SHOULD use all addresses of the peer similar to
   retransmissions of DATA chunks.

   If an endpoint receives an INIT, INIT ACK, or COOKIE ECHO chunk but
   decides not to establish the new association due to missing mandatory
   parameters in the received INIT or INIT ACK chunk, invalid parameter
   values, or lack of local resources, it SHOULD respond with an ABORT
   chunk.  It SHOULD also specify the cause of abort, such as the type
   of the missing mandatory parameters, etc., by including the error
   cause parameters with the ABORT chunk.  The Verification Tag field in
   the common header of the outbound SCTP packet containing the ABORT
   chunk MUST be set to the Initiate Tag value of the received INIT or
   INIT ACK chunk this ABORT chunk is responding to.






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   Note that a COOKIE ECHO chunk that does not pass the integrity check
   is not considered an 'invalid mandatory parameter' and requires
   special handling; see Section 5.1.5.

   After the reception of the first DATA chunk in an association the
   endpoint MUST immediately respond with a SACK chunk to acknowledge
   the DATA chunk.  Subsequent acknowledgements SHOULD be done as
   described in Section 6.2.

   When the TCB is created, each endpoint MUST set its internal
   Cumulative TSN Ack Point to the value of its transmitted Initial TSN
   minus one.

   Implementation Note: The IP addresses and SCTP port are generally
   used as the key to find the TCB within an SCTP instance.

5.1.1.  Handle Stream Parameters

   In the INIT and INIT ACK chunks, the sender of the chunk MUST
   indicate the number of outbound streams (OSs) it wishes to have in
   the association, as well as the maximum inbound streams (MISs) it
   will accept from the other endpoint.

   After receiving the stream configuration information from the other
   side, each endpoint MUST perform the following check: If the peer's
   MIS is less than the endpoint's OS, meaning that the peer is
   incapable of supporting all the outbound streams the endpoint wants
   to configure, the endpoint MUST use MIS outbound streams and MAY
   report any shortage to the upper layer.  The upper layer can then
   choose to abort the association if the resource shortage is
   unacceptable.

   After the association is initialized, the valid outbound stream
   identifier range for either endpoint MUST be 0 to min(local OS,
   remote MIS) - 1.

5.1.2.  Handle Address Parameters

   During the association initialization, an endpoint uses the following
   rules to discover and collect the destination transport address(es)
   of its peer.

   A)  If there are no address parameters present in the received INIT
       or INIT ACK chunk, the endpoint MUST take the source IP address
       from which the chunk arrives and record it, in combination with
       the SCTP source port number, as the only destination transport
       address for this peer.




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   B)  If there is a Host Name Address parameter present in the received
       INIT or INIT ACK chunk, the endpoint MUST immediately send an
       ABORT chunk and MAY include an "Unresolvable Address" error cause
       to its peer.  The ABORT chunk SHOULD be sent to the source IP
       address from which the last peer packet was received.

   C)  If there are only IPv4/IPv6 addresses present in the received
       INIT or INIT ACK chunk, the receiver MUST derive and record all
       the transport addresses from the received chunk AND the source IP
       address that sent the INIT or INIT ACK chunk.  The transport
       addresses are derived by the combination of SCTP source port
       (from the common header) and the IP Address parameter(s) carried
       in the INIT or INIT ACK chunk and the source IP address of the IP
       datagram.  The receiver SHOULD use only these transport addresses
       as destination transport addresses when sending subsequent
       packets to its peer.

   D)  An INIT or INIT ACK chunk MUST be treated as belonging to an
       already established association (or one in the process of being
       established) if the use of any of the valid address parameters
       contained within the chunk would identify an existing TCB.

   Implementation Note: In some cases (e.g., when the implementation
   does not control the source IP address that is used for
   transmitting), an endpoint might need to include in its INIT or INIT
   ACK chunk all possible IP addresses from which packets to the peer
   could be transmitted.

   After all transport addresses are derived from the INIT or INIT ACK
   chunk using the above rules, the endpoint selects one of the
   transport addresses as the initial primary path.

   The packet containing the INIT ACK chunk MUST be sent to the source
   address of the packet containing the INIT chunk.

   The sender of INIT chunks MAY include a 'Supported Address Types'
   parameter in the INIT chunk to indicate what types of addresses are
   acceptable.

   Implementation Note: In the case that the receiver of an INIT ACK
   chunk fails to resolve the address parameter due to an unsupported
   type, it can abort the initiation process and then attempt a
   reinitiation by using a 'Supported Address Types' parameter in the
   new INIT chunk to indicate what types of address it prefers.







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   If an SCTP endpoint that only supports either IPv4 or IPv6 receives
   IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in an INIT or INIT ACK chunk from its peer,
   it MUST use all the addresses belonging to the supported address
   family.  The other addresses MAY be ignored.  The endpoint SHOULD NOT
   respond with any kind of error indication.

   If an SCTP endpoint lists in the 'Supported Address Types' parameter
   either IPv4 or IPv6, but uses the other family for sending the packet
   containing the INIT chunk, or if it also lists addresses of the other
   family in the INIT chunk, then the address family that is not listed
   in the 'Supported Address Types' parameter SHOULD also be considered
   as supported by the receiver of the INIT chunk.  The receiver of the
   INIT chunk SHOULD NOT respond with any kind of error indication.

5.1.3.  Generating State Cookie

   When sending an INIT ACK chunk as a response to an INIT chunk, the
   sender of INIT ACK chunk creates a State Cookie and sends it in the
   State Cookie parameter of the INIT ACK chunk.  Inside this State
   Cookie, the sender can include a MAC (see [RFC2104] for an example),
   a timestamp on when the State Cookie is created, and the lifespan of
   the State Cookie, along with all the information necessary for it to
   establish the association.

   The following steps SHOULD be taken to generate the State Cookie:

   1)  Create an association TCB using information from both the
       received INIT chunk and the outgoing INIT ACK chunk,

   2)  In the TCB, set the creation time to the current time of day, and
       the lifespan to the protocol parameter 'Valid.Cookie.Life' (see
       Section 16),

   3)  From the TCB, identify and collect the minimal subset of
       information needed to re-create the TCB, and generate a MAC using
       this subset of information and a secret key (see [RFC2104] for an
       example of generating a MAC), and

   4)  Generate the State Cookie by combining this subset of information
       and the resultant MAC.

   After sending the INIT ACK chunk with the State Cookie parameter, the
   sender SHOULD delete the TCB and any other local resource related to
   the new association, so as to prevent resource attacks.

   The hashing method used to generate the MAC is strictly a private
   matter for the receiver of the INIT chunk.  The use of a MAC is
   mandatory to prevent denial-of-service attacks.  The secret key



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   SHOULD be random ([RFC4086] provides some information on randomness
   guidelines); it SHOULD be changed reasonably frequently, and the
   timestamp in the State Cookie MAY be used to determine which key is
   used to verify the MAC.

   An implementation SHOULD make the cookie as small as possible to
   ensure interoperability.

5.1.4.  State Cookie Processing

   When an endpoint (in the COOKIE-WAIT state) receives an INIT ACK
   chunk with a State Cookie parameter, it MUST immediately send a
   COOKIE ECHO chunk to its peer with the received State Cookie.  The
   sender MAY also add any pending DATA chunks to the packet after the
   COOKIE ECHO chunk.

   The endpoint MUST also start the T1-cookie timer after sending out
   the COOKIE ECHO chunk.  If the timer expires, the endpoint MUST
   retransmit the COOKIE ECHO chunk and restart the T1-cookie timer.
   This is repeated until either a COOKIE ACK chunk is received or
   'Max.Init.Retransmits' (see Section 16) is reached causing the peer
   endpoint to be marked unreachable (and thus the association enters
   the CLOSED state).

5.1.5.  State Cookie Authentication

   When an endpoint receives a COOKIE ECHO chunk from another endpoint
   with which it has no association, it takes the following actions:

   1)  Compute a MAC using the TCB data carried in the State Cookie and
       the secret key (note the timestamp in the State Cookie MAY be
       used to determine which secret key to use).  [RFC2104] can be
       used as a guideline for generating the MAC,

   2)  Authenticate the State Cookie as one that it previously generated
       by comparing the computed MAC against the one carried in the
       State Cookie.  If this comparison fails, the SCTP packet,
       including the COOKIE ECHO chunk and any DATA chunks, SHOULD be
       silently discarded,

   3)  Compare the port numbers and the Verification Tag contained
       within the COOKIE ECHO chunk to the actual port numbers and the
       Verification Tag within the SCTP common header of the received
       packet.  If these values do not match, the packet MUST be
       silently discarded.






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   4)  Compare the creation timestamp in the State Cookie to the current
       local time.  If the elapsed time is longer than the lifespan
       carried in the State Cookie, then the packet, including the
       COOKIE ECHO chunk and any attached DATA chunks, SHOULD be
       discarded, and the endpoint MUST transmit an ERROR chunk with a
       "Stale Cookie" error cause to the peer endpoint.

   5)  If the State Cookie is valid, create an association to the sender
       of the COOKIE ECHO chunk with the information in the TCB data
       carried in the COOKIE ECHO chunk and enter the ESTABLISHED state.

   6)  Send a COOKIE ACK chunk to the peer acknowledging receipt of the
       COOKIE ECHO chunk.  The COOKIE ACK chunk MAY be bundled with an
       outbound DATA chunk or SACK chunk; however, the COOKIE ACK chunk
       MUST be the first chunk in the SCTP packet.

   7)  Immediately acknowledge any DATA chunk bundled with the COOKIE
       ECHO chunk with a SACK chunk (subsequent DATA chunk
       acknowledgement SHOULD follow the rules defined in Section 6.2).
       As mentioned in step 6, if the SACK chunk is bundled with the
       COOKIE ACK chunk, the COOKIE ACK chunk MUST appear first in the
       SCTP packet.

   If a COOKIE ECHO chunk is received from an endpoint with which the
   receiver of the COOKIE ECHO chunk has an existing association, the
   procedures in Section 5.2 SHOULD be followed.

5.1.6.  An Example of Normal Association Establishment

   In the following example, "A" initiates the association and then
   sends a user message to "Z", then "Z" sends two user messages to "A"
   later (assuming no bundling or fragmentation occurs):



















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   Endpoint A                                          Endpoint Z
   {app sets association with Z}
   (build TCB)
   INIT [I-Tag=Tag_A
         & other info]  ------\
   (Start T1-init timer)       \
   (Enter COOKIE-WAIT state)    \---> (compose temp TCB and Cookie_Z)
                                   /-- INIT ACK [Veri Tag=Tag_A,
                                  /             I-Tag=Tag_Z,
   (Cancel T1-init timer) <------/              Cookie_Z, & other info]
                                        (destroy temp TCB)
   COOKIE ECHO [Cookie_Z] ------\
   (Start T1-cookie timer)       \
   (Enter COOKIE-ECHOED state)    \---> (build TCB, enter ESTABLISHED
                                         state)
                                  /---- COOKIE ACK
                                 /
   (Cancel T1-cookie timer, <---/
    enter ESTABLISHED state)
   {app sends 1st user data; strm 0}
   DATA [TSN=init TSN_A
       Strm=0,Seq=0 & user data]--\
   (Start T3-rtx timer)            \
                                    \->
                                  /----- SACK [TSN Ack=init TSN_A,
                                               Block=0]
   (Cancel T3-rtx timer) <------/
                                         ...
                                        {app sends 2 messages;strm 0}
                                  /---- DATA
                                 /        [TSN=init TSN_Z,
                             <--/          Strm=0,Seq=0 & user data 1]
   SACK [TSN Ack=init TSN_Z,      /---- DATA
         Block=0]     --------\  /        [TSN=init TSN_Z +1,
                               \/          Strm=0,Seq=1 & user data 2]
                        <------/\
                                 \
                                  \------>

                        Figure 4: INITIATION Example

   If the T1-init timer expires at "A" after the INIT or COOKIE ECHO
   chunks are sent, the same INIT or COOKIE ECHO chunk with the same
   Initiate Tag (i.e., Tag_A) or State Cookie is retransmitted and the
   timer restarted.  This is repeated 'Max.Init.Retransmits' times
   before "A" considers "Z" unreachable and reports the failure to its
   upper layer (and thus the association enters the CLOSED state).




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   When retransmitting the INIT chunk, the endpoint MUST follow the
   rules defined in Section 6.3 to determine the proper timer value.

5.2.  Handle Duplicate or Unexpected INIT, INIT ACK, COOKIE ECHO, and
      COOKIE ACK Chunks

   During the life time of an association (in one of the possible
   states), an endpoint can receive from its peer endpoint one of the
   setup chunks (INIT, INIT ACK, COOKIE ECHO, and COOKIE ACK).  The
   receiver treats such a setup chunk as a duplicate and process it as
   described in this section.

   Note: An endpoint will not receive the chunk unless the chunk was
   sent to an SCTP transport address and is from an SCTP transport
   address associated with this endpoint. , the endpoint processes such
   a chunk as part of its current association.

   The following scenarios can cause duplicated or unexpected chunks:

   A)  The peer has crashed without being detected, restarted itself,
       and sent out a new INIT chunk trying to restore the association,

   B)  Both sides are trying to initialize the association at about the
       same time,

   C)  The chunk is from a stale packet that was used to establish the
       present association or a past association that is no longer in
       existence,

   D)  The chunk is a false packet generated by an attacker, or

   E)  The peer never received the COOKIE ACK chunk and is
       retransmitting its COOKIE ECHO chunk.

   The rules in the following sections are applied in order to identify
   and correctly handle these cases.

5.2.1.  INIT Chunk Received in COOKIE-WAIT or COOKIE-ECHOED State (Item
        B)

   This usually indicates an initialization collision, i.e., each
   endpoint is attempting, at about the same time, to establish an
   association with the other endpoint.

   Upon receipt of an INIT chunk in the COOKIE-WAIT state, an endpoint
   MUST respond with an INIT ACK chunk using the same parameters it sent
   in its original INIT chunk (including its Initiate Tag, unchanged).
   When responding, the following rules MUST be applied:



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   1)  The packet containing the INIT ACK chunk MUST only be sent to an
       address passed by the upper layer in the request to initialize
       the association.

   2)  The packet containing the INIT ACK chunk MUST only be sent to an
       address reported in the incoming INIT chunk.

   3)  The packet containing the INIT ACK chunk SHOULD be sent to the
       source address of the received packet containing the INIT chunk.

   Upon receipt of an INIT chunk in the COOKIE-ECHOED state, an endpoint
   MUST respond with an INIT ACK chunk using the same parameters it sent
   in its original INIT chunk (including its Initiate Tag, unchanged),
   provided that no NEW address has been added to the forming
   association.  If the INIT chunk indicates that a new address has been
   added to the association, then the entire INIT chunk MUST be
   discarded, and SHOULD NOT do any changes to the existing association.
   An ABORT chunk SHOULD be sent in response that MAY include the error
   'Restart of an association with new addresses'.  The error SHOULD
   list the addresses that were added to the restarting association.

   When responding in either state (COOKIE-WAIT or COOKIE-ECHOED) with
   an INIT ACK chunk, the original parameters are combined with those
   from the newly received INIT chunk.  The endpoint MUST also generate
   a State Cookie with the INIT ACK chunk.  The endpoint uses the
   parameters sent in its INIT chunk to calculate the State Cookie.

   After that, the endpoint MUST NOT change its state, the T1-init timer
   MUST be left running, and the corresponding TCB MUST NOT be
   destroyed.  The normal procedures for handling State Cookies when a
   TCB exists will resolve the duplicate INIT chunks to a single
   association.

   For an endpoint that is in the COOKIE-ECHOED state, it MUST populate
   its Tie-Tags within both the association TCB and inside the State
   Cookie (see Section 5.2.2 for a description of the Tie-Tags).

5.2.2.  Unexpected INIT Chunk in States Other than CLOSED, COOKIE-
        ECHOED, COOKIE-WAIT, and SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT

   Unless otherwise stated, upon receipt of an unexpected INIT chunk for
   this association, the endpoint MUST generate an INIT ACK chunk with a
   State Cookie.  Before responding, the endpoint MUST check to see if
   the unexpected INIT chunk adds new addresses to the association.  If
   new addresses are added to the association, the endpoint MUST respond
   with an ABORT chunk, copying the 'Initiate Tag' of the unexpected
   INIT chunk into the 'Verification Tag' of the outbound packet
   carrying the ABORT chunk.  In the ABORT chunk, the error cause MAY be



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   set to 'restart of an association with new addresses'.  The error
   SHOULD list the addresses that were added to the restarting
   association.  If no new addresses are added, when responding to the
   INIT chunk in the outbound INIT ACK chunk, the endpoint MUST copy its
   current Tie-Tags to a reserved place within the State Cookie and the
   association's TCB.  We refer to these locations inside the cookie as
   the Peer's-Tie-Tag and the Local-Tie-Tag. We will refer to the copy
   within an association's TCB as the Local Tag and Peer's Tag. The
   outbound SCTP packet containing this INIT ACK chunk MUST carry a
   Verification Tag value equal to the Initiate Tag found in the
   unexpected INIT chunk.  And the INIT ACK chunk MUST contain a new
   Initiate Tag (randomly generated; see Section 5.3.1).  Other
   parameters for the endpoint SHOULD be copied from the existing
   parameters of the association (e.g., number of outbound streams) into
   the INIT ACK chunk and cookie.

   After sending out the INIT ACK or ABORT chunk, the endpoint MUST take
   no further actions; i.e., the existing association, including its
   current state, and the corresponding TCB MUST NOT be changed.

   Only when a TCB exists and the association is not in a COOKIE-WAIT or
   SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state are the Tie-Tags populated with a value other
   than 0.  For a normal association INIT chunk (i.e., the endpoint is
   in the CLOSED state), the Tie-Tags MUST be set to 0 (indicating that
   no previous TCB existed).

5.2.3.  Unexpected INIT ACK Chunk

   If an INIT ACK chunk is received by an endpoint in any state other
   than the COOKIE-WAIT or CLOSED state, the endpoint SHOULD discard the
   INIT ACK chunk.  An unexpected INIT ACK chunk usually indicates the
   processing of an old or duplicated INIT chunk.

5.2.4.  Handle a COOKIE ECHO Chunk when a TCB Exists

   When a COOKIE ECHO chunk is received by an endpoint in any state for
   an existing association (i.e., not in the CLOSED state) the following
   rules are applied:

   1)  Compute a MAC as described in step 1 of Section 5.1.5,

   2)  Authenticate the State Cookie as described in step 2 of
       Section 5.1.5 (this is case C or D above).

   3)  Compare the timestamp in the State Cookie to the current time.
       If the State Cookie is older than the lifespan carried in the
       State Cookie and the Verification Tags contained in the State
       Cookie do not match the current association's Verification Tags,



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       the packet, including the COOKIE ECHO chunk and any DATA chunks,
       SHOULD be discarded.  The endpoint also MUST transmit an ERROR
       chunk with a "Stale Cookie" error cause to the peer endpoint
       (this is case C or D in Section 5.2).

       If both Verification Tags in the State Cookie match the
       Verification Tags of the current association, consider the State
       Cookie valid (this is case E in Section 5.2) even if the lifespan
       is exceeded.

   4)  If the State Cookie proves to be valid, unpack the TCB into a
       temporary TCB.

   5)  Refer to Table 12 to determine the correct action to be taken.

   +-----------+------------+---------------+----------------+--------+
   | Local Tag | Peer's Tag | Local-Tie-Tag | Peer's-Tie-Tag | Action |
   +-----------+------------+---------------+----------------+--------+
   |     X     |     X      |       M       |       M        |  (A)   |
   +-----------+------------+---------------+----------------+--------+
   |     M     |     X      |       A       |       A        |  (B)   |
   +-----------+------------+---------------+----------------+--------+
   |     M     |     0      |       A       |       A        |  (B)   |
   +-----------+------------+---------------+----------------+--------+
   |     X     |     M      |       0       |       0        |  (C)   |
   +-----------+------------+---------------+----------------+--------+
   |     M     |     M      |       A       |       A        |  (D)   |
   +-----------+------------+---------------+----------------+--------+

       Table 12: Handling of a COOKIE ECHO Chunk when a TCB Exists

   Legend:

   X -  Tag does not match the existing TCB.
   M -  Tag matches the existing TCB.
   0 -  No Tie-Tag in cookie (unknown).
   A -  All cases, i.e., M, X, or 0.

   For any case not shown in Table 12, the cookie SHOULD be silently
   discarded.

   Action

   A)  In this case, the peer might have restarted.  When the endpoint
       recognizes this potential 'restart', the existing session is
       treated the same as if it received an ABORT chunk followed by a
       new COOKIE ECHO chunk with the following exceptions:




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       *  Any SCTP DATA chunks MAY be retained (this is an
          implementation-specific option).

       *  A notification of RESTART SHOULD be sent to the ULP instead of
          a "COMMUNICATION LOST" notification.

       All the congestion control parameters (e.g., cwnd, ssthresh)
       related to this peer MUST be reset to their initial values (see
       Section 6.2.1).

       After this, the endpoint enters the ESTABLISHED state.

       If the endpoint is in the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state and recognizes
       that the peer has restarted (Action A), it MUST NOT set up a new
       association but instead resend the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk and send an
       ERROR chunk with a "Cookie Received While Shutting Down" error
       cause to its peer.

   B)  In this case, both sides might be attempting to start an
       association at about the same time, but the peer endpoint sent
       its INIT chunk after responding to the local endpoint's INIT
       chunk.  Thus, it might have picked a new Verification Tag, not
       being aware of the previous tag it had sent this endpoint.  The
       endpoint SHOULD stay in or enter the ESTABLISHED state, but it
       MUST update its peer's Verification Tag from the State Cookie,
       stop any init or cookie timers that might be running, and send a
       COOKIE ACK chunk.

   C)  In this case, the local endpoint's cookie has arrived late.
       Before it arrived, the local endpoint sent an INIT chunk and
       received an INIT ACK chunk and finally sent a COOKIE ECHO chunk
       with the peer's same tag but a new tag of its own.  The cookie
       SHOULD be silently discarded.  The endpoint SHOULD NOT change
       states and SHOULD leave any timers running.

   D)  When both local and remote tags match, the endpoint SHOULD enter
       the ESTABLISHED state, if it is in the COOKIE-ECHOED state.  It
       SHOULD stop any cookie timer that is running and send a COOKIE
       ACK chunk.

   Note: The "peer's Verification Tag" is the tag received in the
   Initiate Tag field of the INIT or INIT ACK chunk.









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5.2.4.1.  An Example of a Association Restart

   In the following example, "A" initiates the association after a
   restart has occurred.  Endpoint "Z" had no knowledge of the restart
   until the exchange (i.e., Heartbeats had not yet detected the failure
   of "A") (assuming no bundling or fragmentation occurs):













































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   Endpoint A                                          Endpoint Z
   <-------------- Association is established---------------------->
   Tag=Tag_A                                             Tag=Tag_Z
   <--------------------------------------------------------------->
   {A crashes and restarts}
   {app sets up a association with Z}
   (build TCB)
   INIT [I-Tag=Tag_A'
         & other info]  --------\
   (Start T1-init timer)         \
   (Enter COOKIE-WAIT state)      \---> (find an existing TCB
                                         compose temp TCB and Cookie_Z
                                         with Tie-Tags to previous
                                         association)
                                   /--- INIT ACK [Veri Tag=Tag_A',
                                  /               I-Tag=Tag_Z',
   (Cancel T1-init timer) <------/                Cookie_Z[TieTags=
                                                  Tag_A,Tag_Z
                                                   & other info]
                                        (destroy temp TCB,leave original
                                         in place)
   COOKIE ECHO [Veri=Tag_Z',
                Cookie_Z
                Tie=Tag_A,
                Tag_Z]----------\
   (Start T1-init timer)         \
   (Enter COOKIE-ECHOED state)    \---> (Find existing association,
                                         Tie-Tags match old tags,
                                         Tags do not match, i.e.,
                                         case X X M M above,
                                         Announce Restart to ULP
                                         and reset association).
                                  /---- COOKIE ACK
   (Cancel T1-init timer, <------/
    Enter ESTABLISHED state)
   {app sends 1st user data; strm 0}
   DATA [TSN=initial TSN_A
       Strm=0,Seq=0 & user data]--\
   (Start T3-rtx timer)            \
                                    \->
                                 /--- SACK [TSN Ack=init TSN_A,Block=0]
   (Cancel T3-rtx timer) <------/

                        Figure 5: A Restart Example







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5.2.5.  Handle Duplicate COOKIE ACK Chunk

   At any state other than COOKIE-ECHOED, an endpoint SHOULD silently
   discard a received COOKIE ACK chunk.

5.2.6.  Handle Stale Cookie Error

   Receipt of an ERROR chunk with a "Stale Cookie" error cause indicates
   one of a number of possible events:

   A)  The association failed to completely setup before the State
       Cookie issued by the sender was processed.

   B)  An old State Cookie was processed after setup completed.

   C)  An old State Cookie is received from someone that the receiver is
       not interested in having an association with and the ABORT chunk
       was lost.

   When processing an ERROR chunk with a "Stale Cookie" error cause an
   endpoint SHOULD first examine if an association is in the process of
   being set up, i.e., the association is in the COOKIE-ECHOED state.
   In all cases, if the association is not in the COOKIE-ECHOED state,
   the ERROR chunk SHOULD be silently discarded.

   If the association is in the COOKIE-ECHOED state, the endpoint MAY
   elect one of the following three alternatives.

   1)  Send a new INIT chunk to the endpoint to generate a new State
       Cookie and reattempt the setup procedure.

   2)  Discard the TCB and report to the upper layer the inability to
       set up the association.

   3)  Send a new INIT chunk to the endpoint, adding a Cookie
       Preservative parameter requesting an extension to the life time
       of the State Cookie.  When calculating the time extension, an
       implementation SHOULD use the RTT information measured based on
       the previous COOKIE ECHO / ERROR chunk exchange, and SHOULD add
       no more than 1 second beyond the measured RTT, due to long State
       Cookie life times making the endpoint more subject to a replay
       attack.

5.3.  Other Initialization Issues







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5.3.1.  Selection of Tag Value

   Initiate Tag values SHOULD be selected from the range of 1 to 2^32 -
   1.  It is very important that the Initiate Tag value be randomized to
   help protect against "man in the middle" and "sequence number"
   attacks.  The methods described in [RFC4086] can be used for the
   Initiate Tag randomization.  Careful selection of Initiate Tags is
   also necessary to prevent old duplicate packets from previous
   associations being mistakenly processed as belonging to the current
   association.

   Moreover, the Verification Tag value used by either endpoint in a
   given association MUST NOT change during the life time of an
   association.  A new Verification Tag value MUST be used each time the
   endpoint tears down and then reestablishes an association to the same
   peer.

5.4.  Path Verification

   During association establishment, the two peers exchange a list of
   addresses.  In the predominant case, these lists accurately represent
   the addresses owned by each peer.  However, it is possible that a
   misbehaving peer might supply addresses that it does not own.  To
   prevent this, the following rules are applied to all addresses of the
   new association:

   1)  Any addresses passed to the sender of the INIT chunk by its upper
       layer in the request to initialize an association are
       automatically considered to be CONFIRMED.

   2)  For the receiver of the COOKIE ECHO chunk, the only CONFIRMED
       address is the address to which the packet containing the INIT
       ACK chunk was sent.

   3)  All other addresses not covered by rules 1 and 2 are considered
       UNCONFIRMED and are subject to probing for verification.

   To probe an address for verification, an endpoint will send HEARTBEAT
   chunks including a 64-bit random nonce and a path indicator (to
   identify the address that the HEARTBEAT chunk is sent to) within the
   HEARTBEAT parameter.

   Upon receipt of the HEARTBEAT ACK chunk, a verification is made that
   the nonce included in the HEARTBEAT parameter is the one sent to the
   address indicated inside the HEARTBEAT parameter.  When this match
   occurs, the address that the original HEARTBEAT was sent to is now
   considered CONFIRMED and available for normal data transfer.




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   These probing procedures are started when an association moves to the
   ESTABLISHED state and are ended when all paths are confirmed.

   In each RTO, a probe MAY be sent on an active UNCONFIRMED path in an
   attempt to move it to the CONFIRMED state.  If during this probing
   the path becomes inactive, this rate is lowered to the normal
   HEARTBEAT rate.  At the expiration of the RTO timer, the error
   counter of any path that was probed but not CONFIRMED is incremented
   by one and subjected to path failure detection, as defined in
   Section 8.2.  When probing UNCONFIRMED addresses, however, the
   association overall error count is not incremented.

   The number of packets containing HEARTBEAT chunks sent at each RTO
   SHOULD be limited by the 'HB.Max.Burst' parameter.  It is an
   implementation decision as to how to distribute packets containing
   HEARTBEAT chunks to the peer's addresses for path verification.

   Whenever a path is confirmed, an indication MAY be given to the upper
   layer.

   An endpoint MUST NOT send any chunks to an UNCONFIRMED address, with
   the following exceptions:

   *  A HEARTBEAT chunk including a nonce MAY be sent to an UNCONFIRMED
      address.

   *  A HEARTBEAT ACK chunk MAY be sent to an UNCONFIRMED address.

   *  A COOKIE ACK chunk MAY be sent to an UNCONFIRMED address, but it
      MUST be bundled with a HEARTBEAT chunk including a nonce.  An
      implementation that does not support bundling MUST NOT send a
      COOKIE ACK chunk to an UNCONFIRMED address.

   *  A COOKIE ECHO chunk MAY be sent to an UNCONFIRMED address, but it
      MUST be bundled with a HEARTBEAT chunk including a nonce, and the
      size of the SCTP packet MUST NOT exceed the PMTU.  If the
      implementation does not support bundling or if the bundled COOKIE
      ECHO chunk plus HEARTBEAT chunk (including nonce) would result in
      an SCTP packet larger than the PMTU, then the implementation MUST
      NOT send a COOKIE ECHO chunk to an UNCONFIRMED address.

6.  User Data Transfer

   Data transmission MUST only happen in the ESTABLISHED, SHUTDOWN-
   PENDING, and SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED states.  The only exception to this is
   that DATA chunks are allowed to be bundled with an outbound COOKIE
   ECHO chunk when in the COOKIE-WAIT state.




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   DATA chunks MUST only be received according to the rules below in
   ESTABLISHED, SHUTDOWN-PENDING, and SHUTDOWN-SENT.  A DATA chunk
   received in CLOSED is out of the blue and SHOULD be handled per
   Section 8.4.  A DATA chunk received in any other state SHOULD be
   discarded.

   A SACK chunk MUST be processed in ESTABLISHED, SHUTDOWN-PENDING, and
   SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED.  An incoming SACK chunk MAY be processed in
   COOKIE-ECHOED.  A SACK chunk in the CLOSED state is out of the blue
   and SHOULD be processed according to the rules in Section 8.4.  A
   SACK chunk received in any other state SHOULD be discarded.

   An SCTP receiver MUST be able to receive a minimum of 1500 bytes in
   one SCTP packet.  This means that an SCTP endpoint MUST NOT indicate
   less than 1500 bytes in its initial a_rwnd sent in the INIT or INIT
   ACK chunk.

   For transmission efficiency, SCTP defines mechanisms for bundling of
   small user messages and fragmentation of large user messages.  The
   following diagram depicts the flow of user messages through SCTP.

   In this section, the term "data sender" refers to the endpoint that
   transmits a DATA chunk and the term "data receiver" refers to the
   endpoint that receives a DATA chunk.  A data receiver will transmit
   SACK chunks.

                  +--------------------------+
                  |      User Messages       |
                  +--------------------------+
        SCTP user        ^  |
       ==================|==|=======================================
                         |  v (1)
              +------------------+    +--------------------+
              | SCTP DATA Chunks |    |SCTP Control Chunks |
              +------------------+    +--------------------+
                         ^  |             ^  |
                         |  v (2)         |  v (2)
                      +--------------------------+
                      |      SCTP packets        |
                      +--------------------------+
        SCTP                      ^  |
       ===========================|==|===========================
                                  |  v
              Connectionless Packet Transfer Service (e.g., IP)

                Figure 6: Illustration of User Data Transfer

   The following applies:



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   1)  When converting user messages into DATA chunks, an endpoint MUST
       fragment large user messages into multiple DATA chunks.  The size
       of each DATA chunk SHOULD be smaller than or equal to the
       Association Maximum DATA Chunk Size (AMDCS).  The data receiver
       will normally reassemble the fragmented message from DATA chunks
       before delivery to the user (see Section 6.9 for details).

   2)  Multiple DATA and control chunks MAY be bundled by the sender
       into a single SCTP packet for transmission, as long as the final
       size of the packet does not exceed the current PMTU.  The
       receiver will unbundle the packet back into the original chunks.
       Control chunks MUST come before DATA chunks in the packet.

   The fragmentation and bundling mechanisms, as detailed in Section 6.9
   and Section 6.10, are OPTIONAL to implement by the data sender, but
   they MUST be implemented by the data receiver, i.e., an endpoint MUST
   properly receive and process bundled or fragmented data.

6.1.  Transmission of DATA Chunks

   This section specifies the rules for sending DATA chunks.  In
   particular, it defines zero window probing, which is required to
   avoid the indefinte stalling of an association in case of a loss of
   packets containing SACK chunks performing window updates.

   This document is specified as if there is a single retransmission
   timer per destination transport address, but implementations MAY have
   a retransmission timer for each DATA chunk.

   The following general rules MUST be applied by the data sender for
   transmission and/or retransmission of outbound DATA chunks:

   A)  At any given time, the data sender MUST NOT transmit new data to
       any destination transport address if its peer's rwnd indicates
       that the peer has no buffer space (i.e., rwnd is smaller than the
       size of the next DATA chunk; see Section 6.2.1), except stated
       otherwise.

       When the receiver has no buffer space, a probe being sent is
       called a zero window probe.  A zero window probe SHOULD only be
       sent when all outstanding DATA chunks have been cumulatively
       acknowledged and no DATA chunks are in flight.  Zero window
       probing MUST be supported.

       If the sender continues to receive SACK chunks from the peer
       while doing zero window probing, the unacknowledged window probes
       SHOULD NOT increment the error counter for the association or any
       destination transport address.  This is because the receiver



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       could keep its window closed for an indefinite time.  Section 6.2
       describes the receiver behavior when it advertises a zero window.
       The sender SHOULD send the first zero window probe after 1 RTO
       when it detects that the receiver has closed its window and
       SHOULD increase the probe interval exponentially afterwards.
       Also note that the cwnd SHOULD be adjusted according to
       Section 7.2.1.  Zero window probing does not affect the
       calculation of cwnd.

       The sender MUST also have an algorithm for sending new DATA
       chunks to avoid silly window syndrome (SWS) as described in
       [RFC1122].  The algorithm can be similar to the one described in
       Section 4.2.3.4 of [RFC1122].

       However, regardless of the value of rwnd (including if it is 0),
       the data sender can always have one DATA chunk in flight to the
       receiver if allowed by cwnd (see rule B below).  This rule allows
       the sender to probe for a change in rwnd that the sender missed
       due to the SACK chunks having been lost in transit from the data
       receiver to the data sender.

   B)  At any given time, the sender MUST NOT transmit new data to a
       given transport address if it has cwnd + (PMDCS - 1) or more
       bytes of data outstanding to that transport address.  If data is
       available, the sender SHOULD exceed cwnd by up to (PMDCS - 1)
       bytes on a new data transmission if the flightsize does not
       currently reach cwnd.  The breach of cwnd MUST constitute one
       packet only.

   C)  When the time comes for the sender to transmit, before sending
       new DATA chunks, the sender MUST first transmit any DATA chunks
       that are marked for retransmission (limited by the current cwnd).

   D)  When the time comes for the sender to transmit new DATA chunks,
       the protocol parameter 'Max.Burst' SHOULD be used to limit the
       number of packets sent.  The limit MAY be applied by adjusting
       cwnd temporarily, as follows:

      if ((flightsize + Max.Burst * PMDCS) < cwnd)
          cwnd = flightsize + Max.Burst * PMDCS;

       Or, it MAY be applied by strictly limiting the number of packets
       emitted by the output routine.  When calculating the number of
       packets to transmit, and particularly when using the formula
       above, cwnd SHOULD NOT be changed permanently.

   E)  Then, the sender can send out as many new DATA chunks as rule A
       and rule B allow.



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   Multiple DATA chunks committed for transmission MAY be bundled in a
   single packet.  Furthermore, DATA chunks being retransmitted MAY be
   bundled with new DATA chunks, as long as the resulting packet size
   does not exceed the PMTU.  A ULP can request that no bundling is
   performed, but this only turns off any delays that an SCTP
   implementation might be using to increase bundling efficiency.  It
   does not in itself stop all bundling from occurring (i.e., in case of
   congestion or retransmission).

   Before an endpoint transmits a DATA chunk, if any received DATA
   chunks have not been acknowledged (e.g., due to delayed ack), the
   sender SHOULD create a SACK chunk and bundle it with the outbound
   DATA chunk, as long as the size of the final SCTP packet does not
   exceed the current PMTU.  See Section 6.2.

   When the window is full (i.e., transmission is disallowed by rule A
   and/or rule B), the sender MAY still accept send requests from its
   upper layer, but MUST transmit no more DATA chunks until some or all
   of the outstanding DATA chunks are acknowledged and transmission is
   allowed by rule A and rule B again.

   Whenever a transmission or retransmission is made to any address, if
   the T3-rtx timer of that address is not currently running, the sender
   MUST start that timer.  If the timer for that address is already
   running, the sender MUST restart the timer if the earliest (i.e.,
   lowest TSN) outstanding DATA chunk sent to that address is being
   retransmitted.  Otherwise, the data sender MUST NOT restart the
   timer.

   When starting or restarting the T3-rtx timer, the timer value SHOULD
   be adjusted according to the timer rules defined in Section 6.3.2 and
   Section 6.3.3.

   The data sender SHOULD NOT use a TSN that is more than 2^31 - 1 above
   the beginning TSN of the current send window.

   For each stream, the data sender SHOULD NOT have more than 2^16 - 1
   ordered user messages in the current send window.

   Whenever the sender of a DATA chunk can benefit from the
   corresponding SACK chunk being sent back without delay, the sender
   MAY set the I bit in the DATA chunk header.  Please note that why the
   sender has set the I bit is irrelevant to the receiver.

   Reasons for setting the I bit include, but are not limited to, the
   following (see Section 4 of [RFC7053] for a discussion of the
   benefits):




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   *  The application requests that the I bit of the last DATA chunk of
      a user message be set when providing the user message to the SCTP
      implementation (see Section 11.1).

   *  The sender is in the SHUTDOWN-PENDING state.

   *  The sending of a DATA chunk fills the congestion or receiver
      window.

6.2.  Acknowledgement on Reception of DATA Chunks

   The SCTP endpoint MUST always acknowledge the reception of each valid
   DATA chunk when the DATA chunk received is inside its receive window.

   When the receiver's advertised window is 0, the receiver MUST drop
   any new incoming DATA chunk with a TSN larger than the largest TSN
   received so far.  Also, if the new incoming DATA chunk holds a TSN
   value less than the largest TSN received so far, then the receiver
   SHOULD drop the largest TSN held for reordering and accept the new
   incoming DATA chunk.  In either case, if such a DATA chunk is
   dropped, the receiver MUST immediately send back a SACK chunk with
   the current receive window showing only DATA chunks received and
   accepted so far.  The dropped DATA chunk(s) MUST NOT be included in
   the SACK chunk, as they were not accepted.  The receiver MUST also
   have an algorithm for advertising its receive window to avoid
   receiver silly window syndrome (SWS), as described in [RFC1122].  The
   algorithm can be similar to the one described in Section 4.2.3.3 of
   [RFC1122].

   The guidelines on delayed acknowledgement algorithm specified in
   Section 4.2 of [RFC5681] SHOULD be followed.  Specifically, an
   acknowledgement SHOULD be generated for at least every second packet
   (not every second DATA chunk) received, and SHOULD be generated
   within 200 ms of the arrival of any unacknowledged DATA chunk.  In
   some situations, it might be beneficial for an SCTP transmitter to be
   more conservative than the algorithms detailed in this document
   allow.  However, an SCTP transmitter MUST NOT be more aggressive than
   the following algorithms allow.

   An SCTP receiver MUST NOT generate more than one SACK chunk for every
   incoming packet, other than to update the offered window as the
   receiving application consumes new data.  When the window opens up,
   an SCTP receiver SHOULD send additional SACK chunks to update the
   window even if no new data is received.  The receiver MUST avoid
   sending a large number of window updates -- in particular, large
   bursts of them.  One way to achieve this is to send a window update
   only if the window can be increased by at least a quarter of the
   receive buffer size of the association.



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   Implementation Note: The maximum delay for generating an
   acknowledgement MAY be configured by the SCTP administrator, either
   statically or dynamically, in order to meet the specific timing
   requirement of the protocol being carried.

   An implementation MUST NOT allow the maximum delay (protocol
   parameter 'SACK.Delay') to be configured to be more than 500 ms.  In
   other words, an implementation MAY lower the value of 'SACK.Delay'
   below 500 ms but MUST NOT raise it above 500 ms.

   Acknowledgements MUST be sent in SACK chunks unless shutdown was
   requested by the ULP, in which case an endpoint MAY send an
   acknowledgement in the SHUTDOWN chunk.  A SACK chunk can acknowledge
   the reception of multiple DATA chunks.  See Section 3.3.4 for SACK
   chunk format.  In particular, the SCTP endpoint MUST fill in the
   Cumulative TSN Ack field to indicate the latest sequential TSN (of a
   valid DATA chunk) it has received.  Any received DATA chunks with TSN
   greater than the value in the Cumulative TSN Ack field are reported
   in the Gap Ack Block fields.  The SCTP endpoint MUST report as many
   Gap Ack Blocks as can fit in a single SACK chunk such that the size
   of the SCTP packet does not exceed the current PMTU.

   The SHUTDOWN chunk does not contain Gap Ack Block fields. , the
   endpoint SHOULD use a SACK chunk instead of the SHUTDOWN chunk to
   acknowledge DATA chunks received out of order.

   Upon receipt of an SCTP packet containing a DATA chunk with the I bit
   set, the receiver SHOULD NOT delay the sending of the corresponding
   SACK chunk, i.e., the receiver SHOULD immediately respond with the
   corresponding SACK chunk.

   When a packet arrives with duplicate DATA chunk(s) and with no new
   DATA chunk(s), the endpoint MUST immediately send a SACK chunk with
   no delay.  If a packet arrives with duplicate DATA chunk(s) bundled
   with new DATA chunks, the endpoint MAY immediately send a SACK chunk.
   Normally, receipt of duplicate DATA chunks will occur when the
   original SACK chunk was lost and the peer's RTO has expired.  The
   duplicate TSN number(s) SHOULD be reported in the SACK chunk as
   duplicate.

   When an endpoint receives a SACK chunk, it MAY use the duplicate TSN
   information to determine if SACK chunk loss is occurring.  Further
   use of this data is for future study.

   The data receiver is responsible for maintaining its receive buffers.
   The data receiver SHOULD notify the data sender in a timely manner of
   changes in its ability to receive data.  How an implementation
   manages its receive buffers is dependent on many factors (e.g.,



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   operating system, memory management system, amount of memory, etc.).
   However, the data sender strategy defined in Section 6.2.1 is based
   on the assumption of receiver operation similar to the following:

   A)  At initialization of the association, the endpoint tells the peer
       how much receive buffer space it has allocated to the association
       in the INIT or INIT ACK chunk.  The endpoint sets a_rwnd to this
       value.

   B)  As DATA chunks are received and buffered, decrement a_rwnd by the
       number of bytes received and buffered.  This is, in effect,
       closing rwnd at the data sender and restricting the amount of
       data it can transmit.

   C)  As DATA chunks are delivered to the ULP and released from the
       receive buffers, increment a_rwnd by the number of bytes
       delivered to the upper layer.  This is, in effect, opening up
       rwnd on the data sender and allowing it to send more data.  The
       data receiver SHOULD NOT increment a_rwnd unless it has released
       bytes from its receive buffer.  For example, if the receiver is
       holding fragmented DATA chunks in a reassembly queue, it SHOULD
       NOT increment a_rwnd.

   D)  When sending a SACK chunk, the data receiver SHOULD place the
       current value of a_rwnd into the a_rwnd field.  The data receiver
       SHOULD take into account that the data sender will not retransmit
       DATA chunks that are acked via the Cumulative TSN Ack (i.e., will
       drop from its retransmit queue).

   Under certain circumstances, the data receiver MAY drop DATA chunks
   that it has received but has not released from its receive buffers
   (i.e., delivered to the ULP).  These DATA chunks might have been
   acked in Gap Ack Blocks.  For example, the data receiver might be
   holding data in its receive buffers while reassembling a fragmented
   user message from its peer when it runs out of receive buffer space.
   It MAY drop these DATA chunks even though it has acknowledged them in
   Gap Ack Blocks.  If a data receiver drops DATA chunks, it MUST NOT
   include them in Gap Ack Blocks in subsequent SACK chunks until they
   are received again via retransmission.  In addition, the endpoint
   SHOULD take into account the dropped data when calculating its
   a_rwnd.

   An endpoint SHOULD NOT revoke a SACK chunk and discard data.  Only in
   extreme circumstances might an endpoint use this procedure (such as
   out of buffer space).  The data receiver SHOULD take into account
   that dropping data that has been acked in Gap Ack Blocks can result
   in suboptimal retransmission strategies in the data sender and thus
   in suboptimal performance.



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   The following example illustrates the use of delayed
   acknowledgements:

   Endpoint A                                      Endpoint Z

   {App sends 3 messages; strm 0}
   DATA [TSN=7,Strm=0,Seq=3] ------------> (ack delayed)
   (Start T3-rtx timer)

   DATA [TSN=8,Strm=0,Seq=4] ------------> (send ack)
                                 /------- SACK [TSN Ack=8,block=0]
   (cancel T3-rtx timer)  <-----/

   DATA [TSN=9,Strm=0,Seq=5] ------------> (ack delayed)
   (Start T3-rtx timer)
                                          ...
                                          {App sends 1 message; strm 1}
                                          (bundle SACK with DATA)
                                   /----- SACK [TSN Ack=9,block=0] \
                                  /         DATA [TSN=6,Strm=1,Seq=2]
   (cancel T3-rtx timer)  <------/        (Start T3-rtx timer)

   (ack delayed)
   (send ack)
   SACK [TSN Ack=6,block=0] -------------> (cancel T3-rtx timer)

                 Figure 7: Delayed Acknowledgement Example

   If an endpoint receives a DATA chunk with no user data (i.e., the
   Length field is set to 16), it MUST send an ABORT chunk with a "No
   User Data" error cause.

   An endpoint SHOULD NOT send a DATA chunk with no user data part.
   This avoids the need to be able to return a zero-length user message
   in the API, especially in the socket API as specified in [RFC6458]
   for details.

6.2.1.  Processing a Received SACK Chunk

   Each SACK chunk an endpoint receives contains an a_rwnd value.  This
   value represents the amount of buffer space the data receiver, at the
   time of transmitting the SACK chunk, has left of its total receive
   buffer space (as specified in the INIT/INIT ACK chunk).  Using
   a_rwnd, Cumulative TSN Ack, and Gap Ack Blocks, the data sender can
   develop a representation of the peer's receive buffer space.






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   One of the problems the data sender takes into account when
   processing a SACK chunk is that a SACK chunk can be received out of
   order.  That is, a SACK chunk sent by the data receiver can pass an
   earlier SACK chunk and be received first by the data sender.  If a
   SACK chunk is received out of order, the data sender can develop an
   incorrect view of the peer's receive buffer space.

   Since there is no explicit identifier that can be used to detect out-
   of-order SACK chunks, the data sender uses heuristics to determine if
   a SACK chunk is new.

   An endpoint SHOULD use the following rules to calculate the rwnd,
   using the a_rwnd value, the Cumulative TSN Ack, and Gap Ack Blocks in
   a received SACK chunk.

   A)  At the establishment of the association, the endpoint initializes
       the rwnd to the Advertised Receiver Window Credit (a_rwnd) the
       peer specified in the INIT or INIT ACK chunk.

   B)  Any time a DATA chunk is transmitted (or retransmitted) to a
       peer, the endpoint subtracts the data size of the chunk from the
       rwnd of that peer.

   C)  Any time a DATA chunk is marked for retransmission, either via
       T3-rtx timer expiration (Section 6.3.3) or via Fast Retransmit
       (Section 7.2.4), add the data size of those chunks to the rwnd.

   D)  Any time a SACK chunk arrives, the endpoint performs the
       following:

       i)    If Cumulative TSN Ack is less than the Cumulative TSN Ack
             Point, then drop the SACK chunk.  Since Cumulative TSN Ack
             is monotonically increasing, a SACK chunk whose Cumulative
             TSN Ack is less than the Cumulative TSN Ack Point indicates
             an out-of-order SACK chunk.

       ii)   Set rwnd equal to the newly received a_rwnd minus the
             number of bytes still outstanding after processing the
             Cumulative TSN Ack and the Gap Ack Blocks.

       iii)  If the SACK chunk is missing a TSN that was previously
             acknowledged via a Gap Ack Block (e.g., the data receiver
             reneged on the data), then consider the corresponding DATA
             that might be possibly missing: Count one miss indication
             towards Fast Retransmit as described in Section 7.2.4, and
             if no retransmit timer is running for the destination
             address to which the DATA chunk was originally transmitted,
             then T3-rtx is started for that destination address.



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       iv)   If the Cumulative TSN Ack matches or exceeds the Fast
             Recovery exitpoint (Section 7.2.4), Fast Recovery is
             exited.

6.3.  Management of Retransmission Timer

   An SCTP endpoint uses a retransmission timer T3-rtx to ensure data
   delivery in the absence of any feedback from its peer.  The duration
   of this timer is referred to as RTO (retransmission timeout).

   When an endpoint's peer is multi-homed, the endpoint will calculate a
   separate RTO for each different destination transport address of its
   peer endpoint.

   The computation and management of RTO in SCTP follow closely how TCP
   manages its retransmission timer.  To compute the current RTO, an
   endpoint maintains two state variables per destination transport
   address: SRTT (smoothed round-trip time) and RTTVAR (round-trip time
   variation).

6.3.1.  RTO Calculation

   The rules governing the computation of SRTT, RTTVAR, and RTO are as
   follows:

   C1)  Until an RTT measurement has been made for a packet sent to the
        given destination transport address, set RTO to the protocol
        parameter 'RTO.Initial'.

   C2)  When the first RTT measurement R is made, perform

      SRTT = R;
      RTTVAR = R/2;
      RTO = SRTT + 4 * RTTVAR;

   C3)  When a new RTT measurement R' is made, perform:

      RTTVAR = (1 - RTO.Beta) * RTTVAR + RTO.Beta * |SRTT - R'|;
      SRTT = (1 - RTO.Alpha) * SRTT + RTO.Alpha * R';

        Note: The value of SRTT used in the update to RTTVAR is its
        value before updating SRTT itself using the second assignment.

        After the computation, update

      RTO = SRTT + 4 * RTTVAR;





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   C4)  When data is in flight and when allowed by rule C5 below, a new
        RTT measurement MUST be made each round trip.  Furthermore, new
        RTT measurements SHOULD be made no more than once per round trip
        for a given destination transport address.  There are two
        reasons for this recommendation: First, it appears that
        measuring more frequently often does not in practice yield any
        significant benefit [ALLMAN99]; second, if measurements are made
        more often, then the values of 'RTO.Alpha' and 'RTO.Beta' in
        rule C3 above SHOULD be adjusted so that SRTT and RTTVAR still
        adjust to changes at roughly the same rate (in terms of how many
        round trips it takes them to reflect new values) as they would
        if making only one measurement per round-trip and using
        'RTO.Alpha' and 'RTO.Beta' as given in rule C3.  However, the
        exact nature of these adjustments remains a research issue.

   C5)  Karn's algorithm: RTT measurements MUST NOT be made using
        packets that were retransmitted (and thus for which it is
        ambiguous whether the reply was for the first instance of the
        chunk or for a later instance).

        RTT measurements SHOULD only be made using a chunk with TSN r if
        no chunk with TSN less than or equal to r is retransmitted since
        r is first sent.

   C6)  Whenever RTO is computed, if it is less than 'RTO.Min' seconds
        then it is rounded up to 'RTO.Min' seconds.  The reason for this
        rule is that RTOs that do not have a high minimum value are
        susceptible to unnecessary timeouts [ALLMAN99].

   C7)  A maximum value MAY be placed on RTO provided it is at least
        'RTO.max' seconds.

   There is no requirement for the clock granularity G used for
   computing RTT measurements and the different state variables, other
   than:

   G1)  Whenever RTTVAR is computed, if RTTVAR == 0, then adjust RTTVAR
        = G.

   Experience [ALLMAN99] has shown that finer clock granularities (less
   than 100 msec) perform somewhat better than more coarse
   granularities.

   See Section 16 for suggested parameter values.







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6.3.2.  Retransmission Timer Rules

   The rules for managing the retransmission timer are as follows:

   R1)  Every time a DATA chunk is sent to any address (including a
        retransmission), if the T3-rtx timer of that address is not
        running, start it running so that it will expire after the RTO
        of that address.  The RTO used here is that obtained after any
        doubling due to previous T3-rtx timer expirations on the
        corresponding destination address as discussed in rule E2 below.

   R2)  Whenever all outstanding data sent to an address have been
        acknowledged, turn off the T3-rtx timer of that address.

   R3)  Whenever a SACK chunk is received that acknowledges the DATA
        chunk with the earliest outstanding TSN for that address,
        restart the T3-rtx timer for that address with its current RTO
        (if there is still outstanding data on that address).

   R4)  Whenever a SACK chunk is received missing a TSN that was
        previously acknowledged via a Gap Ack Block, start the T3-rtx
        for the destination address to which the DATA chunk was
        originally transmitted if it is not already running.

   The following example shows the use of various timer rules (assuming
   that the receiver uses delayed acks).

   Endpoint A                                         Endpoint Z
   {App begins to send}
   Data [TSN=7,Strm=0,Seq=3] ------------> (ack delayed)
   (Start T3-rtx timer)
                                           {App sends 1 message; strm 1}
                                           (bundle ack with data)
   DATA [TSN=8,Strm=0,Seq=4] ----\     /-- SACK [TSN Ack=7,Block=0]
                                  \   /      DATA [TSN=6,Strm=1,Seq=2]
                                   \ /     (Start T3-rtx timer)
                                    \
                                   / \
   (Restart T3-rtx timer)  <------/   \--> (ack delayed)
   (ack delayed)
   {send ack}
   SACK [TSN Ack=6,Block=0] --------------> (Cancel T3-rtx timer)
                                           ..
                                           (send ack)
   (Cancel T3-rtx timer)  <-------------- SACK [TSN Ack=8,Block=0]

                       Figure 8: Timer Rule Examples




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6.3.3.  Handle T3-rtx Expiration

   Whenever the retransmission timer T3-rtx expires for a destination
   address, do the following:

   E1)  For the destination address for which the timer expires, adjust
        its ssthresh with rules defined in Section 7.2.3 and set the
        cwnd = PMDCS.

   E2)  For the destination address for which the timer expires, set RTO
        = RTO * 2 ("back off the timer").  The maximum value discussed
        in rule C7 above ('RTO.max') MAY be used to provide an upper
        bound to this doubling operation.

   E3)  Determine how many of the earliest (i.e., lowest TSN)
        outstanding DATA chunks for the address for which the T3-rtx has
        expired will fit into a single packet, subject to the PMTU
        corresponding to the destination transport address to which the
        retransmission is being sent (this might be different from the
        address for which the timer expires; see Section 6.4).  Call
        this value K.  Bundle and retransmit those K DATA chunks in a
        single packet to the destination endpoint.

   E4)  Start the retransmission timer T3-rtx on the destination address
        to which the retransmission is sent, if rule R1 above indicates
        to do so.  The RTO to be used for starting T3-rtx SHOULD be the
        one for the destination address to which the retransmission is
        sent, which, when the receiver is multi-homed, might be
        different from the destination address for which the timer
        expired (see Section 6.4 below).

   After retransmitting, once a new RTT measurement is obtained (which
   can happen only when new data has been sent and acknowledged, per
   rule C5, or for a measurement made from a HEARTBEAT chunk; see
   Section 8.3), the computation in rule C3 is performed, including the
   computation of RTO, which might result in "collapsing" RTO back down
   after it has been subject to doubling (rule E2).

   Any DATA chunks that were sent to the address for which the T3-rtx
   timer expired but did not fit in an SCTP packet of size smaller than
   or equal to the PMTU (rule E3 above) SHOULD be marked for
   retransmission and sent as soon as cwnd allows (normally, when a SACK
   chunk arrives).

   The final rule for managing the retransmission timer concerns
   failover (see Section 6.4.1):





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   F1)  Whenever an endpoint switches from the current destination
        transport address to a different one, the current retransmission
        timers are left running.  As soon as the endpoint transmits a
        packet containing DATA chunk(s) to the new transport address,
        start the timer on that transport address, using the RTO value
        of the destination address to which the data is being sent, if
        rule R1 indicates to do so.

6.4.  Multi-Homed SCTP Endpoints

   An SCTP endpoint is considered multi-homed if there are more than one
   transport address that can be used as a destination address to reach
   that endpoint.

   Moreover, the ULP of an endpoint selects one of the multiple
   destination addresses of a multi-homed peer endpoint as the primary
   path (see Section 5.1.2 and Section 11.1 for details).

   By default, an endpoint SHOULD always transmit to the primary path,
   unless the SCTP user explicitly specifies the destination transport
   address (and possibly source transport address) to use.

   An endpoint SHOULD transmit reply chunks (e.g., INIT ACK, COOKIE ACK,
   HEARTBEAT ACK) in response to control chunks to the same destination
   transport address from which it received the control chunk to which
   it is replying.

   The selection of the destination transport address for packets
   containing SACK chunks is implementation dependent.  However, an
   endpoint SHOULD NOT vary the destination transport address of a SACK
   chunk when it receives DATA chunks coming from the same source
   address.

   When acknowledging multiple DATA chunks received in packets from
   different source addresses in a single SACK chunk, the SACK chunk MAY
   be transmitted to one of the destination transport addresses from
   which the DATA or control chunks being acknowledged were received.

   When a receiver of a duplicate DATA chunk sends a SACK chunk to a
   multi-homed endpoint, it MAY be beneficial to vary the destination
   address and not use the source address of the DATA chunk.  The reason
   is that receiving a duplicate from a multi-homed endpoint might
   indicate that the return path (as specified in the source address of
   the DATA chunk) for the SACK chunk is broken.







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   Furthermore, when its peer is multi-homed, an endpoint SHOULD try to
   retransmit a chunk that timed out to an active destination transport
   address that is different from the last destination address to which
   the chunk was sent.

   When its peer is multi-homed, an endpoint SHOULD send fast
   retransmissions to the same destination transport address to which
   the original data was sent.  If the primary path has been changed and
   the original data was sent to the old primary path before the Fast
   Retransmit, the implementation MAY send it to the new primary path.

   Retransmissions do not affect the total outstanding data count.
   However, if the DATA chunk is retransmitted onto a different
   destination address, both the outstanding data counts on the new
   destination address and the old destination address to which the data
   chunk was last sent is adjusted accordingly.

6.4.1.  Failover from an Inactive Destination Address

   Some of the transport addresses of a multi-homed SCTP endpoint might
   become inactive due to either the occurrence of certain error
   conditions (see Section 8.2) or adjustments from the SCTP user.

   When there is outbound data to send and the primary path becomes
   inactive (e.g., due to failures), or where the SCTP user explicitly
   requests to send data to an inactive destination transport address,
   before reporting an error to its ULP, the SCTP endpoint SHOULD try to
   send the data to an alternate active destination transport address if
   one exists.

   When retransmitting data that timed out, if the endpoint is multi-
   homed, it needs to consider each source-destination address pair in
   its retransmission selection policy.  When retransmitting timed-out
   data, the endpoint SHOULD attempt to pick the most divergent source-
   destination pair from the original source-destination pair to which
   the packet was transmitted.

   Note: Rules for picking the most divergent source-destination pair
   are an implementation decision and are not specified within this
   document.











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6.5.  Stream Identifier and Stream Sequence Number

   Every DATA chunk MUST carry a valid stream identifier.  If an
   endpoint receives a DATA chunk with an invalid stream identifier, it
   SHOULD acknowledge the reception of the DATA chunk following the
   normal procedure, immediately send an ERROR chunk with cause set to
   "Invalid Stream Identifier" (see Section 3.3.10), and discard the
   DATA chunk.  The endpoint MAY bundle the ERROR chunk and the SACK
   chunk in the same packet.

   The Stream Sequence Number in all the outgoing streams MUST start
   from 0 when the association is established.  The Stream Sequence
   Number of an outgoing stream MUST be incremented by 1 for each
   ordered user message sent on that outgoing stream.  In particular,
   when the Stream Sequence Number reaches the value 65535 the next
   Stream Sequence Number MUST be set to 0.  For unordered user messages
   the Stream Sequence Number MUST NOT be changed.

6.6.  Ordered and Unordered Delivery

   Within a stream, an endpoint MUST deliver DATA chunks received with
   the U flag set to 0 to the upper layer according to the order of
   their Stream Sequence Number.  If DATA chunks arrive out of order of
   their Stream Sequence Number, the endpoint MUST hold the received
   DATA chunks from delivery to the ULP until they are reordered.

   However, an SCTP endpoint can indicate that no ordered delivery is
   required for a particular DATA chunk transmitted within the stream by
   setting the U flag of the DATA chunk to 1.

   When an endpoint receives a DATA chunk with the U flag set to 1, it
   bypasses the ordering mechanism and immediately deliver the data to
   the upper layer (after reassembly if the user data is fragmented by
   the data sender).

   This provides an effective way of transmitting "out-of-band" data in
   a given stream.  Also, a stream can be used as an "unordered" stream
   by simply setting the U flag to 1 in all DATA chunks sent through
   that stream.

   Implementation Note: When sending an unordered DATA chunk, an
   implementation MAY choose to place the DATA chunk in an outbound
   packet that is at the head of the outbound transmission queue if
   possible.

   The 'Stream Sequence Number' field in a DATA chunk with U flag set to
   1 has no significance.  The sender can fill the 'Stream Sequence
   Number' with arbitrary value, but the receiver MUST ignore the field.



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   Note: When transmitting ordered and unordered data, an endpoint does
   not increment its Stream Sequence Number when transmitting a DATA
   chunk with U flag set to 1.

6.7.  Report Gaps in Received DATA TSNs

   Upon the reception of a new DATA chunk, an endpoint examines the
   continuity of the TSNs received.  If the endpoint detects a gap in
   the received DATA chunk sequence, it SHOULD send a SACK chunk with
   Gap Ack Blocks immediately.  The data receiver continues sending a
   SACK chunk after receipt of each SCTP packet that does not fill the
   gap.

   Based on the Gap Ack Block from the received SACK chunk, the endpoint
   can calculate the missing DATA chunks and make decisions on whether
   to retransmit them (see Section 6.2.1 for details).

   Multiple gaps can be reported in one single SACK chunk (see
   Section 3.3.4).

   When its peer is multi-homed, the SCTP endpoint SHOULD always try to
   send the SACK chunk to the same destination address from which the
   last DATA chunk was received.

   Upon the reception of a SACK chunk, the endpoint MUST remove all DATA
   chunks that have been acknowledged by the SACK chunk's Cumulative TSN
   Ack from its transmit queue.  All DATA chunks with TSNs not included
   in the Gap Ack Blocks that are smaller than the highest acknowledged
   TSN reported in the SACK chunk MUST be treated as "missing" by the
   sending endpoint.  The number of "missing" reports for each
   outstanding DATA chunk MUST be recorded by the data sender to make
   retransmission decisions.  See Section 7.2.4 for details.

   The following example shows the use of SACK chunk to report a gap.

















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     Endpoint A                                    Endpoint Z
     {App sends 3 messages; strm 0}
     DATA [TSN=6,Strm=0,Seq=2] ---------------> (ack delayed)
     (Start T3-rtx timer)

     DATA [TSN=7,Strm=0,Seq=3] --------> X (lost)

     DATA [TSN=8,Strm=0,Seq=4] ---------------> (gap detected,
                                                 immediately send ack)
                                     /----- SACK [TSN Ack=6,Block=1,
                                    /             Start=2,End=2]
                             <-----/
     (remove 6 from out-queue,
      and mark 7 as "1" missing report)

                 Figure 9: Reporting a Gap using SACK Chunk

   The maximum number of Gap Ack Blocks that can be reported within a
   single SACK chunk is limited by the current PMTU.  When a single SACK
   chunk cannot cover all the Gap Ack Blocks needed to be reported due
   to the PMTU limitation, the endpoint MUST send only one SACK chunk.
   This single SACK chunk MUST report the Gap Ack Blocks from the lowest
   to highest TSNs, within the size limit set by the PMTU, and leave the
   remaining highest TSN numbers unacknowledged.

6.8.  CRC32c Checksum Calculation

   When sending an SCTP packet, the endpoint MUST strengthen the data
   integrity of the transmission by including the CRC32c checksum value
   calculated on the packet, as described below.

   After the packet is constructed (containing the SCTP common header
   and one or more control or DATA chunks), the transmitter MUST

   1)  fill in the proper Verification Tag in the SCTP common header and
       initialize the checksum field to '0's,

   2)  calculate the CRC32c checksum of the whole packet, including the
       SCTP common header and all the chunks (refer to Appendix A for
       details of the CRC32c algorithm); and

   3)  put the resultant value into the checksum field in the common
       header, and leave the rest of the bits unchanged.

   When an SCTP packet is received, the receiver MUST first check the
   CRC32c checksum as follows:

   1)  Store the received CRC32c checksum value aside.



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   2)  Replace the 32 bits of the checksum field in the received SCTP
       packet with all '0's and calculate a CRC32c checksum value of the
       whole received packet.

   3)  Verify that the calculated CRC32c checksum is the same as the
       received CRC32c checksum.  If it is not, the receiver MUST treat
       the packet as an invalid SCTP packet.

   The default procedure for handling invalid SCTP packets is to
   silently discard them.

   Any hardware implementation SHOULD permit alternative verification of
   the CRC in software.

6.9.  Fragmentation and Reassembly

   An endpoint MAY support fragmentation when sending DATA chunks, but
   it MUST support reassembly when receiving DATA chunks.  If an
   endpoint supports fragmentation, it MUST fragment a user message if
   the size of the user message to be sent causes the outbound SCTP
   packet size to exceed the current PMTU.  An endpoint that does not
   support fragmentation and is requested to send a user message such
   that the outbound SCTP packet size would exceed the current PMTU MUST
   return an error to its upper layer and MUST NOT attempt to send the
   user message.

   If an implementation that supports fragmentation makes available to
   its upper layer a mechanism to turn off fragmentation, it might do
   so.  An implementation that disables fragmentation MUST react just
   like an implementation that does NOT support fragmentation, i.e., it
   MUST reject send calls that would result in sending SCTP packets that
   exceed the current PMTU.

   Implementation Note: In this error case, the SEND primitive discussed
   in Section 11.1 would need to return an error to the upper layer.

   If its peer is multi-homed, the endpoint SHOULD choose a DATA chunk
   size smaller than or equal to the AMDCS.

   Once a user message is fragmented, it cannot be re-fragmented.
   Instead, if the PMTU has been reduced, then IP fragmentation MUST be
   used. , an SCTP association can fail if IP fragmentation is not
   working on any path.  Please see Section 7.3 for details of PMTU
   discovery.







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   When determining when to fragment, the SCTP implementation MUST take
   into account the SCTP packet header as well as the DATA chunk
   header(s).  The implementation MUST also take into account the space
   required for a SACK chunk if bundling a SACK chunk with the DATA
   chunk.

   Fragmentation takes the following steps:

   1)  The data sender MUST break the user message into a series of DATA
       chunks.  The sender SHOULD choose the size of the DATA chunks is
       smaller than or equal to the AMDCS.

   2)  The transmitter MUST then assign, in sequence, a separate TSN to
       each of the DATA chunks in the series.  The transmitter assigns
       the same Stream Sequence Number to each of the DATA chunks.  If
       the user indicates that the user message is to be delivered using
       unordered delivery, then the U flag of each DATA chunk of the
       user message MUST be set to 1.

   3)  The transmitter MUST also set the B/E bits of the first DATA
       chunk in the series to '10', the B/E bits of the last DATA chunk
       in the series to '01', and the B/E bits of all other DATA chunks
       in the series to '00'.

   An endpoint MUST recognize fragmented DATA chunks by examining the B/
   E bits in each of the received DATA chunks, and queue the fragmented
   DATA chunks for reassembly.  Once the user message is reassembled,
   SCTP passes the reassembled user message to the specific stream for
   possible reordering and final dispatching.

   If the data receiver runs out of buffer space while still waiting for
   more fragments to complete the reassembly of the message, it SHOULD
   dispatch part of its inbound message through a partial delivery API
   (see Section 11), freeing some of its receive buffer space so that
   the rest of the message can be received.

6.10.  Bundling

   An endpoint bundles chunks by simply including multiple chunks in one
   outbound SCTP packet.  The total size of the resultant SCTP packet
   MUST be less that or equal to the current PMTU.

   If its peer endpoint is multi-homed, the sending endpoint SHOULD
   choose a size no larger than the PMTU of the current primary path.







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   When bundling control chunks with DATA chunks, an endpoint MUST place
   control chunks first in the outbound SCTP packet.  The transmitter
   MUST transmit DATA chunks within an SCTP packet in increasing order
   of TSN.

   Note: Since control chunks are placed first in a packet and since
   DATA chunks are transmitted before SHUTDOWN or SHUTDOWN ACK chunks,
   DATA chunks cannot be bundled with SHUTDOWN or SHUTDOWN ACK chunks.

   Partial chunks MUST NOT be placed in an SCTP packet.  A partial chunk
   is a chunk that is not completely contained in the SCTP packet; i.e.,
   the SCTP packet is too short to contain all the bytes of the chunk as
   indicated by the chunk length.

   An endpoint MUST process received chunks in their order in the
   packet.  The receiver uses the Chunk Length field to determine the
   end of a chunk and beginning of the next chunk taking account of the
   fact that all chunks end on a 4-byte boundary.  If the receiver
   detects a partial chunk, it MUST drop the chunk.

   An endpoint MUST NOT bundle INIT, INIT ACK, or SHUTDOWN COMPLETE
   chunks with any other chunks.

7.  Congestion Control

   Congestion control is one of the basic functions in SCTP.  For some
   applications, it might be likely that adequate resources will be
   allocated to SCTP traffic to ensure prompt delivery of time-critical
   data -- thus, it would appear to be unlikely, during normal
   operations, that transmissions encounter severe congestion
   conditions.  However, SCTP operates under adverse operational
   conditions, which can develop upon partial network failures or
   unexpected traffic surges.  In such situations, SCTP follows correct
   congestion control steps to recover from congestion quickly in order
   to get data delivered as soon as possible.  In the absence of network
   congestion, these preventive congestion control algorithms are
   expected to show no impact on the protocol performance.

   Implementation Note: As far as its specific performance requirements
   are met, an implementation is always allowed to adopt a more
   conservative congestion control algorithm than the one defined below.

   The congestion control algorithms used by SCTP are based on
   [RFC5681].  This section describes how the algorithms defined in
   [RFC5681] are adapted for use in SCTP.  We first list differences in
   protocol designs between TCP and SCTP, and then describe SCTP's
   congestion control scheme.  The description will use the same
   terminology as in TCP congestion control whenever appropriate.



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   SCTP congestion control is always applied to the entire association,
   and not to individual streams.

7.1.  SCTP Differences from TCP Congestion Control

   Gap Ack Blocks in the SCTP SACK chunk carry the same semantic meaning
   as the TCP SACK.  TCP considers the information carried in the SACK
   as advisory information only.  SCTP considers the information carried
   in the Gap Ack Blocks in the SACK chunk as advisory.  In SCTP, any
   DATA chunk that has been acknowledged by a SACK chunk, including DATA
   that arrived at the receiving end out of order, is not considered
   fully delivered until the Cumulative TSN Ack Point passes the TSN of
   the DATA chunk (i.e., the DATA chunk has been acknowledged by the
   Cumulative TSN Ack field in the SACK chunk).  Consequently, the value
   of cwnd controls the amount of outstanding data, rather than (as in
   the case of non-SACK TCP) the upper bound between the highest
   acknowledged sequence number and the latest DATA chunk that can be
   sent within the congestion window.  SCTP SACK leads to different
   implementations of Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery than non-SACK
   TCP.  As an example, see [FALL96].

   The biggest difference between SCTP and TCP, however, is multi-
   homing.  SCTP is designed to establish robust communication
   associations between two endpoints each of which might be reachable
   by more than one transport address.  Potentially different addresses
   might lead to different data paths between the two endpoints; thus,
   ideally one needs a separate set of congestion control parameters for
   each of the paths.  The treatment here of congestion control for
   multi-homed receivers is new with SCTP and might require refinement
   in the future.  The current algorithms make the following
   assumptions:

   *  The sender usually uses the same destination address until being
      instructed by the upper layer to do otherwise; however, SCTP MAY
      change to an alternate destination in the event an address is
      marked inactive (see Section 8.2).  Also, SCTP MAY retransmit to a
      different transport address than the original transmission.

   *  The sender keeps a separate congestion control parameter set for
      each of the destination addresses it can send to (not each source-
      destination pair but for each destination).  The parameters SHOULD
      decay if the address is not used for a long enough time period.
      [RFC5681] specifies this long enough time as a retransmission
      timeout.

   *  For each of the destination addresses, an endpoint does slow start
      upon the first transmission to that address.




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   Note: TCP guarantees in-sequence delivery of data to its upper-layer
   protocol within a single TCP session.  This means that when TCP
   notices a gap in the received sequence number, it waits until the gap
   is filled before delivering the data that was received with sequence
   numbers higher than that of the missing data.  On the other hand,
   SCTP can deliver data to its upper-layer protocol even if there is a
   gap in TSN if the Stream Sequence Numbers are in sequence for a
   particular stream (i.e., the missing DATA chunks are for a different
   stream) or if unordered delivery is indicated.  Although this does
   not affect cwnd, it might affect rwnd calculation.

7.2.  SCTP Slow-Start and Congestion Avoidance

   The slow-start and congestion avoidance algorithms MUST be used by an
   endpoint to control the amount of data being injected into the
   network.  The congestion control in SCTP is employed in regard to the
   association, not to an individual stream.  In some situations, it
   might be beneficial for an SCTP sender to be more conservative than
   the algorithms allow; however, an SCTP sender MUST NOT be more
   aggressive than the following algorithms allow.

   Like TCP, an SCTP endpoint uses the following three control variables
   to regulate its transmission rate.

   *  Receiver advertised window size (rwnd, in bytes), which is set by
      the receiver based on its available buffer space for incoming
      packets.

      Note: This variable is kept on the entire association.

   *  Congestion control window (cwnd, in bytes), which is adjusted by
      the sender based on observed network conditions.

      Note: This variable is maintained on a per-destination-address
      basis.

   *  Slow-start threshold (ssthresh, in bytes), which is used by the
      sender to distinguish slow-start and congestion avoidance phases.

      Note: This variable is maintained on a per-destination-address
      basis.

   SCTP also requires one additional control variable,
   partial_bytes_acked, which is used during congestion avoidance phase
   to facilitate cwnd adjustment.






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   Unlike TCP, an SCTP sender MUST keep a set of these control variables
   cwnd, ssthresh, and partial_bytes_acked for EACH destination address
   of its peer (when its peer is multi-homed).  When doing accounting
   for a DATA chunk related to one of these variables, the length of the
   DATA chunk including the padding SHOULD be used.

   Only one rwnd is kept for the whole association (no matter if the
   peer is multi-homed or has a single address).

7.2.1.  Slow-Start

   Beginning data transmission into a network with unknown conditions or
   after a sufficiently long idle period requires SCTP to probe the
   network to determine the available capacity.  The slow-start
   algorithm is used for this purpose at the beginning of a transfer, or
   after repairing loss detected by the retransmission timer.

   *  The initial cwnd before data transmission MUST be set to min(4 *
      PMDCS, max(2 * PMDCS, 4404)) bytes if the peer address is an IPv4
      address and to min(4 * PMDCS, max(2 * PMDCS, 4344)) bytes if the
      peer address is an IPv6 address.

   *  The initial cwnd after a retransmission timeout MUST be no more
      than PMDCS, and only one packet is allowed to be in flight until
      successful acknowledgement.

   *  The initial value of ssthresh SHOULD be arbitrarily high (e.g.,
      the size of the largest possible advertised window).

   *  Whenever cwnd is greater than zero, the endpoint is allowed to
      have cwnd bytes of data outstanding on that transport address.  A
      limited overbooking as described in Section 6.1 B) SHOULD be
      supported.

   *  When cwnd is less than or equal to ssthresh, an SCTP endpoint MUST
      use the slow-start algorithm to increase cwnd only if the current
      congestion window is being fully utilized, an incoming SACK chunk
      advances the Cumulative TSN Ack Point, and the data sender is not
      in Fast Recovery.  Only when these three conditions are met can
      the cwnd be increased; otherwise, the cwnd MUST NOT be increased.
      If these conditions are met, then cwnd MUST be increased by, at
      most, the lesser of

      1.  the total size of the previously outstanding DATA chunk(s)
          acknowledged, and

      2.  L times the destination's PMDCS.




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      The first upper bound protects against the ACK-Splitting attack
      outlined in [SAVAGE99].  The positive integer L SHOULD be 1, and
      MAY be larger than 1.  See [RFC3465] for details of choosing L.

   In instances where its peer endpoint is multi-homed, if an endpoint
   receives a SACK chunk that advances its Cumulative TSN Ack Point,
   then it SHOULD update its cwnd (or cwnds) apportioned to the
   destination addresses to which it transmitted the acknowledged data.
   However, if the received SACK chunk does not advance the Cumulative
   TSN Ack Point, the endpoint MUST NOT adjust the cwnd of any of the
   destination addresses.

   Because an endpoint's cwnd is not tied to its Cumulative TSN Ack
   Point, as duplicate SACK chunks come in, even though they might not
   advance the Cumulative TSN Ack Point an endpoint can still use them
   to clock out new data.  That is, the data newly acknowledged by the
   SACK chunk diminishes the amount of data now in flight to less than
   cwnd, and so the current, unchanged value of cwnd now allows new data
   to be sent.  On the other hand, the increase of cwnd MUST be tied to
   the Cumulative TSN Ack Point advancement as specified above.
   Otherwise, the duplicate SACK chunks will not only clock out new
   data, but also will adversely clock out more new data than what has
   just left the network, during a time of possible congestion.

   *  While the endpoint does not transmit data on a given transport
      address, the cwnd of the transport address SHOULD be adjusted to
      max(cwnd / 2, 4 * PMDCS) once per RTO.  Before the first cwnd
      adjustment, the ssthresh of the transport address SHOULD be set to
      the cwnd.

7.2.2.  Congestion Avoidance

   When cwnd is greater than ssthresh, cwnd SHOULD be incremented by
   PMDCS per RTT if the sender has cwnd or more bytes of data
   outstanding for the corresponding transport address.  The basic
   recommendations for incrementing cwnd during congestion avoidance are
   as follows:

   *  SCTP MAY increment cwnd by PMDCS.

   *  SCTP SHOULD increment cwnd by PMDCS once per RTT when the sender
      has cwnd or more bytes of data outstanding for the corresponding
      transport address.

   *  SCTP MUST NOT increment cwnd by more than PMDCS per RTT.

   In practice, an implementation can achieve this goal in the following
   way:



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   *  partial_bytes_acked is initialized to 0.

   *  Whenever cwnd is greater than ssthresh, upon each SACK chunk
      arrival, increase partial_bytes_acked by the total number of bytes
      (including the chunk header and the padding) of all new DATA
      chunks acknowledged in that SACK chunk, including chunks
      acknowledged by the new Cumulative TSN Ack, by Gap Ack Blocks, and
      by the number of bytes of duplicated chunks reported in Duplicate
      TSNs.

   *  (1) when partial_bytes_acked is greater than cwnd and (2) before
      the arrival of the SACK chunk the sender had less than cwnd bytes
      of data outstanding (i.e., before the arrival of the SACK chunk,
      flightsize was less than cwnd), reset partial_bytes_acked to cwnd.

   *  (1) when partial_bytes_acked is equal to or greater than cwnd and
      (2) before the arrival of the SACK chunk the sender had cwnd or
      more bytes of data outstanding (i.e., before the arrival of the
      SACK chunk, flightsize was greater than or equal to cwnd),
      partial_bytes_acked is reset to (partial_bytes_acked - cwnd).
      Next, cwnd is increased by PMDCS.

   *  Same as in the slow start, when the sender does not transmit DATA
      chunks on a given transport address, the cwnd of the transport
      address SHOULD be adjusted to max(cwnd / 2, 4 * PMDCS) per RTO.

   *  When all of the data transmitted by the sender has been
      acknowledged by the receiver, partial_bytes_acked is initialized
      to 0.

7.2.3.  Congestion Control

   Upon detection of packet losses from SACK chunks (see Section 7.2.4),
   an endpoint SHOULD do the following:

   ssthresh = max(cwnd / 2, 4 * PMDCS)
   cwnd = ssthresh
   partial_bytes_acked = 0

   Basically, a packet loss causes cwnd to be cut in half.

   When the T3-rtx timer expires on an address, SCTP SHOULD perform slow
   start by:

   ssthresh = max(cwnd / 2, 4 * PMDCS)
   cwnd = PMDCS
   partial_bytes_acked = 0




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   and ensure that no more than one SCTP packet will be in flight for
   that address until the endpoint receives acknowledgement for
   successful delivery of data to that address.

7.2.4.  Fast Retransmit on Gap Reports

   In the absence of data loss, an endpoint performs delayed
   acknowledgement.  However, whenever an endpoint notices a hole in the
   arriving TSN sequence, it SHOULD start sending a SACK chunk back
   every time a packet arrives carrying data until the hole is filled.

   Whenever an endpoint receives a SACK chunk that indicates that some
   TSNs are missing, it SHOULD wait for two further miss indications
   (via subsequent SACK chunks for a total of three missing reports) on
   the same TSNs before taking action with regard to Fast Retransmit.

   Miss indications SHOULD follow the HTNA (Highest TSN Newly
   Acknowledged) algorithm.  For each incoming SACK chunk, miss
   indications are incremented only for missing TSNs prior to the
   highest TSN newly acknowledged in the SACK chunk.  A newly
   acknowledged DATA chunk is one not previously acknowledged in a SACK
   chunk.  If an endpoint is in Fast Recovery and a SACK chunks arrives
   that advances the Cumulative TSN Ack Point, the miss indications are
   incremented for all TSNs reported missing in the SACK chunk.

   When the third consecutive miss indication is received for a TSN(s),
   the data sender does the following:

   1)  Mark the DATA chunk(s) with three miss indications for
       retransmission.

   2)  If not in Fast Recovery, adjust the ssthresh and cwnd of the
       destination address(es) to which the missing DATA chunks were
       last sent, according to the formula described in Section 7.2.3.

   3)  If not in Fast Recovery, determine how many of the earliest
       (i.e., lowest TSN) DATA chunks marked for retransmission will fit
       into a single packet, subject to constraint of the PMTU of the
       destination transport address to which the packet is being sent.
       Call this value K.  Retransmit those K DATA chunks in a single
       packet.  When a Fast Retransmit is being performed, the sender
       SHOULD ignore the value of cwnd and SHOULD NOT delay
       retransmission for this single packet.

   4)  Restart the T3-rtx timer only if the last SACK chunk acknowledged
       the lowest outstanding TSN number sent to that address, or the
       endpoint is retransmitting the first outstanding DATA chunk sent
       to that address.



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   5)  Mark the DATA chunk(s) as being fast retransmitted and thus
       ineligible for a subsequent Fast Retransmit.  Those TSNs marked
       for retransmission due to the Fast-Retransmit algorithm that did
       not fit in the sent datagram carrying K other TSNs are also
       marked as ineligible for a subsequent Fast Retransmit.  However,
       as they are marked for retransmission they will be retransmitted
       later on as soon as cwnd allows.

   6)  If not in Fast Recovery, enter Fast Recovery and mark the highest
       outstanding TSN as the Fast Recovery exit point.  When a SACK
       chunk acknowledges all TSNs up to and including this exit point,
       Fast Recovery is exited.  While in Fast Recovery, the ssthresh
       and cwnd SHOULD NOT change for any destinations due to a
       subsequent Fast Recovery event (i.e., one SHOULD NOT reduce the
       cwnd further due to a subsequent Fast Retransmit).

   Note: Before the above adjustments, if the received SACK chunk also
   acknowledges new DATA chunks and advances the Cumulative TSN Ack
   Point, the cwnd adjustment rules defined in Section 7.2.1 and
   Section 7.2.2 MUST be applied first.

7.2.5.  Reinitialization

   During the lifetime of an SCTP association events can happen, which
   result in using the network under unknown new conditions.  When
   detected by an SCTP implementation, the congestion control MUST be
   reinitialized.

7.2.5.1.  Change of Differentiated Services Code Points

   SCTP implementations MAY allow an application to configure the
   Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) used for sending packets.
   If a DSCP change might result in outgoing packets being queued in
   different queues, the congestion control parameters for all affected
   destination addresses MUST be reset to their initial values.

7.2.5.2.  Change of Routes

   SCTP implementations MAY be aware of routing changes affecting
   packets sent to a destination address.  In particular, this includes
   the selection of a different source address used for sending packets
   to a destination address.  If such a routing change happens, the
   congestion control parameters for the affected destination addresses
   MUST be reset to their initial values.







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7.3.  PMTU Discovery

   [RFC8899], [RFC8201], and [RFC1191] specify "Packetization Layer Path
   MTU Discovery", whereby an endpoint maintains an estimate of PMTU
   along a given Internet path and refrains from sending packets along
   that path that exceed the PMTU, other than occasional attempts to
   probe for a change in the PMTU.  [RFC8899] is thorough in its
   discussion of the PMTU discovery mechanism and strategies for
   determining the current end-to-end PMTU setting as well as detecting
   changes in this value.

   An endpoint SHOULD apply these techniques, and SHOULD do so on a per-
   destination-address basis.

   There are two important SCTP-specific points regarding PMTU
   discovery:

   1)  SCTP associations can span multiple addresses.  An endpoint MUST
       maintain separate PMTU estimates for each destination address of
       its peer.

   2)  The sender SHOULD track an AMDCS that will be the smallest PMDCS
       discovered for all of the peer's destination addresses.  When
       fragmenting messages into multiple parts this AMDCS SHOULD be
       used to calculate the size of each DATA chunk.  This will allow
       retransmissions to be seamlessly sent to an alternate address
       without encountering IP fragmentation.

8.  Fault Management






















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8.1.  Endpoint Failure Detection

   An endpoint SHOULD keep a counter on the total number of consecutive
   retransmissions to its peer (this includes data retransmissions to
   all the destination transport addresses of the peer if it is multi-
   homed), including the number of unacknowledged HEARTBEAT chunks
   observed on the path that is currently used for data transfer.
   Unacknowledged HEARTBEAT chunks observed on paths different from the
   path currently used for data transfer SHOULD NOT increment the
   association error counter, as this could lead to association closure
   even if the path that is currently used for data transfer is
   available (but idle).  If the value of this counter exceeds the limit
   indicated in the protocol parameter 'Association.Max.Retrans', the
   endpoint SHOULD consider the peer endpoint unreachable and SHALL stop
   transmitting any more data to it (and thus the association enters the
   CLOSED state).  In addition, the endpoint SHOULD report the failure
   to the upper layer and optionally report back all outstanding user
   data remaining in its outbound queue.  The association is
   automatically closed when the peer endpoint becomes unreachable.

   The counter used for endpoint failure detection MUST be reset each
   time a DATA chunk sent to that peer endpoint is acknowledged (by the
   reception of a SACK chunk).  When a HEARTBEAT ACK chunk is received
   from the peer endpoint, the counter SHOULD also be reset.  The
   receiver of the HEARTBEAT ACK chunk MAY choose not to clear the
   counter if there is outstanding data on the association.  This allows
   for handling the possible difference in reachability based on DATA
   chunks and HEARTBEAT chunks.

8.2.  Path Failure Detection

   When its peer endpoint is multi-homed, an endpoint SHOULD keep an
   error counter for each of the destination transport addresses of the
   peer endpoint.

   Each time the T3-rtx timer expires on any address, or when a
   HEARTBEAT chunk sent to an idle address is not acknowledged within an
   RTO, the error counter of that destination address will be
   incremented.  When the value in the error counter exceeds the
   protocol parameter 'Path.Max.Retrans' of that destination address,
   the endpoint SHOULD mark the destination transport address as
   inactive, and a notification SHOULD be sent to the upper layer.

   When an outstanding TSN is acknowledged or a HEARTBEAT chunk sent to
   that address is acknowledged with a HEARTBEAT ACK chunk, the endpoint
   SHOULD clear the error counter of the destination transport address
   to which the DATA chunk was last sent (or HEARTBEAT chunk was sent)
   and SHOULD also report to the upper layer when an inactive



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   destination address is marked as active.  When the peer endpoint is
   multi-homed and the last chunk sent to it was a retransmission to an
   alternate address, there exists an ambiguity as to whether or not the
   acknowledgement could be credited to the address of the last chunk
   sent.  However, this ambiguity does not seem to have significant
   consequences for SCTP behavior.  If this ambiguity is undesirable,
   the transmitter MAY choose not to clear the error counter if the last
   chunk sent was a retransmission.

   Note: When configuring the SCTP endpoint, the user ought avoid having
   the value of 'Association.Max.Retrans' larger than the summation of
   the 'Path.Max.Retrans' of all the destination addresses for the
   remote endpoint.  Otherwise, all the destination addresses might
   become inactive while the endpoint still considers the peer endpoint
   reachable.  When this condition occurs, how SCTP chooses to function
   is implementation specific.

   When the primary path is marked inactive (due to excessive
   retransmissions, for instance), the sender MAY automatically transmit
   new packets to an alternate destination address if one exists and is
   active.  If more than one alternate address is active when the
   primary path is marked inactive, only ONE transport address SHOULD be
   chosen and used as the new destination transport address.

8.3.  Path Heartbeat

   By default, an SCTP endpoint SHOULD monitor the reachability of the
   idle destination transport address(es) of its peer by sending a
   HEARTBEAT chunk periodically to the destination transport
   address(es).  The sending of HEARTBEAT chunks MAY begin upon reaching
   the ESTABLISHED state and is discontinued after sending either a
   SHUTDOWN chunk or SHUTDOWN ACK chunk.  A receiver of a HEARTBEAT
   chunks MUST respond to a HEARTBEAT chunk with a HEARTBEAT ACK chunk
   after entering the COOKIE-ECHOED state (sender of the INIT chunk) or
   the ESTABLISHED state (receiver of the INIT chunk), up until reaching
   the SHUTDOWN-SENT state (sender of the SHUTDOWN chunk) or the
   SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state (receiver of the SHUTDOWN chunk).

   A destination transport address is considered "idle" if no new chunk
   that can be used for updating path RTT (usually including first
   transmission DATA, INIT, COOKIE ECHO, or HEARTBEAT chunks, etc.) and
   no HEARTBEAT chunk has been sent to it within the current heartbeat
   period of that address.  This applies to both active and inactive
   destination addresses.

   The upper layer can optionally initiate the following functions:





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   A)  Disable heartbeat on a specific destination transport address of
       a given association,

   B)  Change the 'HB.interval',

   C)  Re-enable heartbeat on a specific destination transport address
       of a given association, and

   D)  Request the sending of an on-demand HEARTBEAT chunk on a specific
       destination transport address of a given association.

   The endpoint SHOULD increment the respective error counter of the
   destination transport address each time a HEARTBEAT chunk is sent to
   that address and not acknowledged within one RTO.

   When the value of this counter exceeds the protocol parameter
   'Path.Max.Retrans', the endpoint SHOULD mark the corresponding
   destination address as inactive if it is not so marked and SHOULD
   also report to the upper layer the change in reachability of this
   destination address.  After this, the endpoint SHOULD continue
   sending HEARTBEAT chunks on this destination address but SHOULD stop
   increasing the counter.

   The sender of the HEARTBEAT chunk SHOULD include in the Heartbeat
   Information field of the chunk the current time when the packet is
   sent out and the destination address to which the packet is sent.

   Implementation Note: An alternative implementation of the heartbeat
   mechanism that can be used is to increment the error counter variable
   every time a HEARTBEAT chunk is sent to a destination.  Whenever a
   HEARTBEAT ACK chunk arrives, the sender SHOULD clear the error
   counter of the destination that the HEARTBEAT chunk was sent to.
   This in effect would clear the previously stroked error (and any
   other error counts as well).

   The receiver of the HEARTBEAT chunk SHOULD immediately respond with a
   HEARTBEAT ACK chunk that contains the Heartbeat Information TLV,
   together with any other received TLVs, copied unchanged from the
   received HEARTBEAT chunk.












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   Upon the receipt of the HEARTBEAT ACK chunk, the sender of the
   HEARTBEAT chunk SHOULD clear the error counter of the destination
   transport address to which the HEARTBEAT chunk was sent and mark the
   destination transport address as active if it is not so marked.  The
   endpoint SHOULD report to the upper layer when an inactive
   destination address is marked as active due to the reception of the
   latest HEARTBEAT ACK chunk.  The receiver of the HEARTBEAT ACK chunk
   SHOULD also clear the association overall error count (as defined in
   Section 8.1).

   The receiver of the HEARTBEAT ACK chunk SHOULD also perform an RTT
   measurement for that destination transport address using the time
   value carried in the HEARTBEAT ACK chunk.

   On an idle destination address that is allowed to heartbeat, it is
   RECOMMENDED that a HEARTBEAT chunk is sent once per RTO of that
   destination address plus the protocol parameter 'HB.interval', with
   jittering of +/- 50% of the RTO value, and exponential backoff of the
   RTO if the previous HEARTBEAT chunk is unanswered.

   A primitive is provided for the SCTP user to change the 'HB.interval'
   and turn on or off the heartbeat on a given destination address.  The
   'HB.interval' set by the SCTP user is added to the RTO of that
   destination (including any exponential backoff).  Only one heartbeat
   SHOULD be sent each time the heartbeat timer expires (if multiple
   destinations are idle).  It is an implementation decision on how to
   choose which of the candidate idle destinations to heartbeat to (if
   more than one destination is idle).

   When tuning the 'HB.interval', there is a side effect that SHOULD be
   taken into account.  When this value is increased, i.e., the time
   between the sending of HEARTBEAT chunks is longer, the detection of
   lost ABORT chunks takes longer as well.  If a peer endpoint sends an
   ABORT chunk for any reason and the ABORT chunk is lost, the local
   endpoint will only discover the lost ABORT chunk by sending a DATA
   chunk or HEARTBEAT chunk (thus causing the peer to send another ABORT
   chunk).  This is to be considered when tuning the HEARTBEAT timer.
   If the sending of HEARTBEAT chunks is disabled, only sending DATA
   chunks to the association will discover a lost ABORT chunk from the
   peer.

8.4.  Handle "Out of the Blue" Packets

   An SCTP packet is called an "out of the blue" (OOTB) packet if it is
   correctly formed (i.e., passed the receiver's CRC32c check; see
   Section 6.8), but the receiver is not able to identify the
   association to which this packet belongs.




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   The receiver of an OOTB packet does the following:

   1)  If the OOTB packet is to or from a non-unicast address, a
       receiver SHOULD silently discard the packet.  Otherwise,

   2)  If the OOTB packet contains an ABORT chunk, the receiver MUST
       silently discard the OOTB packet and take no further action.
       Otherwise,

   3)  If the packet contains an INIT chunk with a Verification Tag set
       to '0', it SHOULD be processed as described in Section 5.1.  If,
       for whatever reason, the INIT chunk cannot be processed normally
       and an ABORT chunk has to be sent in response, the Verification
       Tag of the packet containing the ABORT chunk MUST be the Initiate
       Tag of the received INIT chunk, and the T bit of the ABORT chunk
       has to be set to 0, indicating that the Verification Tag is not
       reflected.  Otherwise,

   4)  If the packet contains a COOKIE ECHO chunk as the first chunk, it
       MUST be processed as described in Section 5.1.  Otherwise,

   5)  If the packet contains a SHUTDOWN ACK chunk, the receiver SHOULD
       respond to the sender of the OOTB packet with a SHUTDOWN COMPLETE
       chunk.  When sending the SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk, the receiver of
       the OOTB packet MUST fill in the Verification Tag field of the
       outbound packet with the Verification Tag received in the
       SHUTDOWN ACK chunk and set the T bit in the Chunk Flags to
       indicate that the Verification Tag is reflected.  Otherwise,

   6)  If the packet contains a SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk, the receiver
       SHOULD silently discard the packet and take no further action.
       Otherwise,

   7)  If the packet contains a ERROR chunk with the "Stale Cookie"
       error cause or a COOKIE ACK chunk, the SCTP packet SHOULD be
       silently discarded.  Otherwise,

   8)  The receiver SHOULD respond to the sender of the OOTB packet with
       an ABORT chunk.  When sending the ABORT chunk, the receiver of
       the OOTB packet MUST fill in the Verification Tag field of the
       outbound packet with the value found in the Verification Tag
       field of the OOTB packet and set the T bit in the Chunk Flags to
       indicate that the Verification Tag is reflected.  After sending
       this ABORT chunk, the receiver of the OOTB packet MUST discard
       the OOTB packet and MUST NOT take any further action.






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8.5.  Verification Tag

   The Verification Tag rules defined in this section apply when sending
   or receiving SCTP packets that do not contain an INIT, SHUTDOWN
   COMPLETE, COOKIE ECHO (see Section 5.1), ABORT, or SHUTDOWN ACK
   chunk.  The rules for sending and receiving SCTP packets containing
   one of these chunk types are discussed separately in Section 8.5.1.

   When sending an SCTP packet, the endpoint MUST fill in the
   Verification Tag field of the outbound packet with the tag value in
   the Initiate Tag parameter of the INIT or INIT ACK chunk received
   from its peer.

   When receiving an SCTP packet, the endpoint MUST ensure that the
   value in the Verification Tag field of the received SCTP packet
   matches its own tag.  If the received Verification Tag value does not
   match the receiver's own tag value, the receiver MUST silently
   discard the packet and MUST NOT process it any further except for
   those cases listed in Section 8.5.1 below.

8.5.1.  Exceptions in Verification Tag Rules

   A) Rules for packets carrying an INIT chunk:
      *  The sender MUST set the Verification Tag of the packet to 0.

      *  When an endpoint receives an SCTP packet with the Verification
         Tag set to 0, it SHOULD verify that the packet contains only an
         INIT chunk.  Otherwise, the receiver MUST silently discard the
         packet.

   B) Rules for packets carrying an ABORT chunk:
      *  The endpoint MUST always fill in the Verification Tag field of
         the outbound packet with the destination endpoint's tag value,
         if it is known.

      *  If the ABORT chunk is sent in response to an OOTB packet, the
         endpoint MUST follow the procedure described in Section 8.4.

      *  The receiver of an ABORT chunk MUST accept the packet if the
         Verification Tag field of the packet matches its own tag and
         the T bit is not set OR if it is set to its peer's tag and the
         T bit is set in the Chunk Flags.  Otherwise, the receiver MUST
         silently discard the packet and take no further action.

   C) Rules for packets carrying a SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk:






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      *  When sending a SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk, if the receiver of the
         SHUTDOWN ACK chunk has a TCB, then the destination endpoint's
         tag MUST be used, and the T bit MUST NOT be set.  Only where no
         TCB exists SHOULD the sender use the Verification Tag from the
         SHUTDOWN ACK chunk, and MUST set the T bit.

      *  The receiver of a SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk accepts the packet if
         the Verification Tag field of the packet matches its own tag
         and the T bit is not set OR if it is set to its peer's tag and
         the T bit is set in the Chunk Flags.  Otherwise, the receiver
         MUST silently discard the packet and take no further action.
         An endpoint MUST ignore the SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk if it is
         not in the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state.

   D) Rules for packets carrying a COOKIE ECHO chunk:
      *  When sending a COOKIE ECHO chunk, the endpoint MUST use the
         value of the Initiate Tag received in the INIT ACK chunk.

      *  The receiver of a COOKIE ECHO chunk follows the procedures in
         Section 5.

   E) Rules for packets carrying a SHUTDOWN ACK chunk:
      *  If the receiver is in COOKIE-ECHOED or COOKIE-WAIT state the
         procedures in Section 8.4 SHOULD be followed; in other words,
         it is treated as an Out Of The Blue packet.

9.  Termination of Association

   An endpoint SHOULD terminate its association when it exits from
   service.  An association can be terminated by either abort or
   shutdown.  An abort of an association is abortive by definition in
   that any data pending on either end of the association is discarded
   and not delivered to the peer.  A shutdown of an association is
   considered a graceful close where all data in queue by either
   endpoint is delivered to the respective peers.  However, in the case
   of a shutdown, SCTP does not support a half-open state (like TCP)
   wherein one side might continue sending data while the other end is
   closed.  When either endpoint performs a shutdown, the association on
   each peer will stop accepting new data from its user and only deliver
   data in queue at the time of sending or receiving the SHUTDOWN chunk.











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9.1.  Abort of an Association

   When an endpoint decides to abort an existing association, it MUST
   send an ABORT chunk to its peer endpoint.  The sender MUST fill in
   the peer's Verification Tag in the outbound packet and MUST NOT
   bundle any DATA chunk with the ABORT chunk.  If the association is
   aborted on request of the upper layer, a "User-Initiated Abort" error
   cause (see Section 3.3.10.12) SHOULD be present in the ABORT chunk.

   An endpoint MUST NOT respond to any received packet that contains an
   ABORT chunk (also see Section 8.4).

   An endpoint receiving an ABORT chunk MUST apply the special
   Verification Tag check rules described in Section 8.5.1.

   After checking the Verification Tag, the receiving endpoint MUST
   remove the association from its record and SHOULD report the
   termination to its upper layer.  If a "User-Initiated Abort" error
   cause is present in the ABORT chunk, the Upper Layer Abort Reason
   SHOULD be made available to the upper layer.

9.2.  Shutdown of an Association

   Using the SHUTDOWN primitive (see Section 11.1), the upper layer of
   an endpoint in an association can gracefully close the association.
   This will allow all outstanding DATA chunks from the peer of the
   shutdown initiator to be delivered before the association terminates.

   Upon receipt of the SHUTDOWN primitive from its upper layer, the
   endpoint enters the SHUTDOWN-PENDING state and remains there until
   all outstanding data has been acknowledged by its peer.  The endpoint
   accepts no new data from its upper layer, but retransmits data to the
   peer endpoint if necessary to fill gaps.

   Once all its outstanding data has been acknowledged, the endpoint
   sends a SHUTDOWN chunk to its peer including in the Cumulative TSN
   Ack field the last sequential TSN it has received from the peer.  It
   SHOULD then start the T2-shutdown timer and enter the SHUTDOWN-SENT
   state.  If the timer expires, the endpoint MUST resend the SHUTDOWN
   chunk with the updated last sequential TSN received from its peer.

   The rules in Section 6.3 MUST be followed to determine the proper
   timer value for T2-shutdown.  To indicate any gaps in TSN, the
   endpoint MAY also bundle a SACK chunk with the SHUTDOWN chunk in the
   same SCTP packet.






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   An endpoint SHOULD limit the number of retransmissions of the
   SHUTDOWN chunk to the protocol parameter 'Association.Max.Retrans'.
   If this threshold is exceeded, the endpoint SHOULD destroy the TCB
   and SHOULD report the peer endpoint unreachable to the upper layer
   (and thus the association enters the CLOSED state).  The reception of
   any packet from its peer (i.e., as the peer sends all of its queued
   DATA chunks) SHOULD clear the endpoint's retransmission count and
   restart the T2-shutdown timer, giving its peer ample opportunity to
   transmit all of its queued DATA chunks that have not yet been sent.

   Upon reception of the SHUTDOWN chunk, the peer endpoint does the
   following:

   *  enter the SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED state,

   *  stop accepting new data from its SCTP user, and

   *  verify, by checking the Cumulative TSN Ack field of the chunk,
      that all its outstanding DATA chunks have been received by the
      SHUTDOWN chunk sender.

   Once an endpoint has reached the SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED state, it MUST
   ignore ULP shutdown requests but MUST continue responding to SHUTDOWN
   chunks from its peer.

   If there are still outstanding DATA chunks left, the SHUTDOWN chunk
   receiver MUST continue to follow normal data transmission procedures
   defined in Section 6, until all outstanding DATA chunks are
   acknowledged; however, the SHUTDOWN chunk receiver MUST NOT accept
   new data from its SCTP user.

   While in the SHUTDOWN-SENT state, the SHUTDOWN chunk sender MUST
   immediately respond to each received packet containing one or more
   DATA chunks with a SHUTDOWN chunk and restart the T2-shutdown timer.
   If a SHUTDOWN chunk by itself cannot acknowledge all of the received
   DATA chunks (i.e., there are TSNs that can be acknowledged that are
   larger than the cumulative TSN, and thus gaps exist in the TSN
   sequence), or if duplicate TSNs have been received, then a SACK chunk
   MUST also be sent.

   The sender of the SHUTDOWN chunk MAY also start an overall guard
   timer 'T5-shutdown-guard' to bound the overall time for the shutdown
   sequence.  At the expiration of this timer, the sender SHOULD abort
   the association by sending an ABORT chunk.  If the 'T5-shutdown-
   guard' timer is used, it SHOULD be set to the RECOMMENDED value of 5
   times 'RTO.Max'.





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   If the receiver of the SHUTDOWN chunk has no more outstanding DATA
   chunks, the SHUTDOWN chunk receiver MUST send a SHUTDOWN ACK chunk
   and start a T2-shutdown timer of its own, entering the SHUTDOWN-ACK-
   SENT state.  If the timer expires, the endpoint MUST resend the
   SHUTDOWN ACK chunk.

   The sender of the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk SHOULD limit the number of
   retransmissions of the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk to the protocol parameter
   'Association.Max.Retrans'.  If this threshold is exceeded, the
   endpoint SHOULD destroy the TCB and SHOULD report the peer endpoint
   unreachable to the upper layer (and thus the association enters the
   CLOSED state).

   Upon the receipt of the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk, the sender of the
   SHUTDOWN chunk MUST stop the T2-shutdown timer, send a SHUTDOWN
   COMPLETE chunk to its peer, and remove all record of the association.

   Upon reception of the SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk, the endpoint verifies
   that it is in the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state; if it is not, the chunk
   SHOULD be discarded.  If the endpoint is in the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT
   state, the endpoint SHOULD stop the T2-shutdown timer and remove all
   knowledge of the association (and thus the association enters the
   CLOSED state).

   An endpoint SHOULD ensure that all its outstanding DATA chunks have
   been acknowledged before initiating the shutdown procedure.

   An endpoint SHOULD reject any new data request from its upper layer
   if it is in the SHUTDOWN-PENDING, SHUTDOWN-SENT, SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED,
   or SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state.

   If an endpoint is in the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state and receives an INIT
   chunk (e.g., if the SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk was lost) with source and
   destination transport addresses (either in the IP addresses or in the
   INIT chunk) that belong to this association, it SHOULD discard the
   INIT chunk and retransmit the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk.

   Note: Receipt of a packet containing an INIT chunk with the same
   source and destination IP addresses as used in transport addresses
   assigned to an endpoint but with a different port number indicates
   the initialization of a separate association.

   The sender of the INIT or COOKIE ECHO chunk SHOULD respond to the
   receipt of a SHUTDOWN ACK chunk with a stand-alone SHUTDOWN COMPLETE
   chunk in an SCTP packet with the Verification Tag field of its common
   header set to the same tag that was received in the packet containing
   the SHUTDOWN ACK chunk.  This is considered an Out of the Blue packet
   as defined in Section 8.4.  The sender of the INIT chunk lets T1-init



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   continue running and remains in the COOKIE-WAIT or COOKIE-ECHOED
   state.  Normal T1-init timer expiration will cause the INIT or COOKIE
   chunk to be retransmitted and thus start a new association.

   If a SHUTDOWN chunk is received in the COOKIE-WAIT or COOKIE ECHOED
   state, the SHUTDOWN chunk SHOULD be silently discarded.

   If an endpoint is in the SHUTDOWN-SENT state and receives a SHUTDOWN
   chunk from its peer, the endpoint SHOULD respond immediately with a
   SHUTDOWN ACK chunk to its peer, and move into the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT
   state restarting its T2-shutdown timer.

   If an endpoint is in the SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT state and receives a
   SHUTDOWN ACK, it MUST stop the T2-shutdown timer, send a SHUTDOWN
   COMPLETE chunk to its peer, and remove all record of the association.

10.  ICMP Handling

   Whenever an ICMP message is received by an SCTP endpoint, the
   following procedures MUST be followed to ensure proper utilization of
   the information being provided by layer 3.

   ICMP1)  An implementation MAY ignore all ICMPv4 messages where the
           type field is not set to "Destination Unreachable".

   ICMP2)  An implementation MAY ignore all ICMPv6 messages where the
           type field is not "Destination Unreachable", "Parameter
           Problem", or "Packet Too Big".

   ICMP3)  An implementation SHOULD ignore any ICMP messages where the
           code indicates "Port Unreachable".

   ICMP4)  An implementation MAY ignore all ICMPv6 messages of type
           "Parameter Problem" if the code is not "Unrecognized Next
           Header Type Encountered".

   ICMP5)  An implementation MUST use the payload of the ICMP message
           (v4 or v6) to locate the association that sent the message to
           which ICMP is responding.  If the association cannot be
           found, an implementation SHOULD ignore the ICMP message.











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   ICMP6)  An implementation MUST validate that the Verification Tag
           contained in the ICMP message matches the Verification Tag of
           the peer.  If the Verification Tag is not 0 and does not
           match, discard the ICMP message.  If it is 0 and the ICMP
           message contains enough bytes to verify that the chunk type
           is an INIT chunk and that the Initiate Tag matches the tag of
           the peer, continue with ICMP7.  If the ICMP message is too
           short or the chunk type or the Initiate Tag does not match,
           silently discard the packet.

   ICMP7)  If the ICMP message is either a v6 "Packet Too Big" or a v4
           "Fragmentation Needed", an implementation MAY process this
           information as defined for PMTU discovery.

   ICMP8)  If the ICMP code is an "Unrecognized Next Header Type
           Encountered" or a "Protocol Unreachable", an implementation
           MUST treat this message as an abort with the T bit set if it
           does not contain an INIT chunk.  If it does contain an INIT
           chunk and the association is in the COOKIE-WAIT state, handle
           the ICMP message like an ABORT chunk.

   ICMP9)  If the ICMP type is "Destination Unreachable", the
           implementation MAY move the destination to the unreachable
           state or, alternatively, increment the path error counter.
           SCTP MAY provide information to the upper layer indicating
           the reception of ICMP messages when reporting a network
           status change.

   These procedures differ from [RFC1122] and from its requirements for
   processing of port-unreachable messages and the requirements that an
   implementation MUST abort associations in response to a "protocol
   unreachable" message.  Port-unreachable messages are not processed,
   since an implementation will send an ABORT chunk, not a port
   unreachable.  The stricter handling of the "protocol unreachable"
   message is due to security concerns for hosts that do not support
   SCTP.

11.  Interface with Upper Layer

   The Upper Layer Protocols (ULPs) request services by passing
   primitives to SCTP and receive notifications from SCTP for various
   events.









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   The primitives and notifications described in this section can be
   used as a guideline for implementing SCTP.  The following functional
   description of ULP interface primitives is shown for illustrative
   purposes.  Different SCTP implementations can have different ULP
   interfaces.  However, all SCTP implementations are expected to
   provide a certain minimum set of services to guarantee that all SCTP
   implementations can support the same protocol hierarchy.

   Please note that this section is informational only.

   [RFC6458] and the Socket API Considerations section of [RFC7053]
   define an extension of the socket API for SCTP as described in this
   document.

11.1.  ULP-to-SCTP

   The following sections functionally characterize a ULP/SCTP
   interface.  The notation used is similar to most procedure or
   function calls in high-level languages.

   The ULP primitives described below specify the basic functions that
   SCTP performs to support inter-process communication.  Individual
   implementations define their own exact format, and provide
   combinations or subsets of the basic functions in single calls.

11.1.1.  Initialize

   INITIALIZE ([local port],[local eligible address list])
   -> local SCTP instance name

   This primitive allows SCTP to initialize its internal data structures
   and allocate necessary resources for setting up its operation
   environment.  Once SCTP is initialized, ULP can communicate directly
   with other endpoints without re-invoking this primitive.

   SCTP will return a local SCTP instance name to the ULP.

   Mandatory attributes:
      None.

   Optional attributes:
      local port:  SCTP port number, if ULP wants it to be specified.

      local eligible address list:  an address list that the local SCTP
         endpoint binds.  By default, if an address list is not
         included, all IP addresses assigned to the host are used by the
         local endpoint.




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   Implementation Note: If this optional attribute is supported by an
   implementation, it will be the responsibility of the implementation
   to enforce that the IP source address field of any SCTP packets sent
   out by this endpoint contains one of the IP addresses indicated in
   the local eligible address list.

11.1.2.  Associate

   ASSOCIATE(local SCTP instance name,
   initial destination transport addr list, outbound stream count)
   -> association id [,destination transport addr list]
   [,outbound stream count]

   This primitive allows the upper layer to initiate an association to a
   specific peer endpoint.

   The peer endpoint is specified by one or more of the transport
   addresses that defines the endpoint (see Section 2.3).  If the local
   SCTP instance has not been initialized, the ASSOCIATE is considered
   an error.

   An association id, which is a local handle to the SCTP association,
   will be returned on successful establishment of the association.  If
   SCTP is not able to open an SCTP association with the peer endpoint,
   an error is returned.

   Other association parameters can be returned, including the complete
   destination transport addresses of the peer as well as the outbound
   stream count of the local endpoint.  One of the transport addresses
   from the returned destination addresses will be selected by the local
   endpoint as default primary path for sending SCTP packets to this
   peer.  The returned "destination transport addr list" can be used by
   the ULP to change the default primary path or to force sending a
   packet to a specific transport address.

   Implementation Note: If ASSOCIATE primitive is implemented as a
   blocking function call, the ASSOCIATE primitive can return
   association parameters in addition to the association id upon
   successful establishment.  If ASSOCIATE primitive is implemented as a
   non-blocking call, only the association id is returned and
   association parameters are passed using the COMMUNICATION UP
   notification.

   Mandatory attributes:
      local SCTP instance name:  obtained from the INITIALIZE operation.

      initial destination transport addr list:  a non-empty list of




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         transport addresses of the peer endpoint with which the
         association is to be established.

      outbound stream count:  the number of outbound streams the ULP
         would like to open towards this peer endpoint.

   Optional attributes:
      None.

11.1.3.  Shutdown

   SHUTDOWN(association id) -> result

   Gracefully closes an association.  Any locally queued user data will
   be delivered to the peer.  The association will be terminated only
   after the peer acknowledges all the SCTP packets sent.  A success
   code will be returned on successful termination of the association.
   If attempting to terminate the association results in a failure, an
   error code is returned.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

   Optional attributes:
      None.

11.1.4.  Abort

   ABORT(association id [, Upper Layer Abort Reason]) -> result

   Ungracefully closes an association.  Any locally queued user data
   will be discarded, and an ABORT chunk is sent to the peer.  A success
   code will be returned on successful abort of the association.  If
   attempting to abort the association results in a failure, an error
   code is returned.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

   Optional attributes:
      Upper Layer Abort Reason:  reason of the abort to be passed to the
         peer.

11.1.5.  Send







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   SEND(association id, buffer address, byte count [,context]
   [,stream id] [,life time] [,destination transport address]
   [,unordered flag] [,no-bundle flag] [,payload protocol-id]
   [,sack-immediately flag]) -> result

   This is the main method to send user data via SCTP.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

      buffer address:  the location where the user message to be
         transmitted is stored.

      byte count:  the size of the user data in number of bytes.

   Optional attributes:
      context:  an optional 32-bit integer that will be carried in the
         sending failure notification to the ULP if the transportation
         of this user message fails.

      stream id:  to indicate which stream to send the data on.  If not
         specified, stream 0 will be used.

      life time:  specifies the life time of the user data.  The user
         data will not be sent by SCTP after the life time expires.
         This parameter can be used to avoid efforts to transmit stale
         user messages.  SCTP notifies the ULP if the data cannot be
         initiated to transport (i.e., sent to the destination via
         SCTP's SEND primitive) within the life time variable.  However,
         the user data will be transmitted if SCTP has attempted to
         transmit a chunk before the life time expired.

         Implementation Note: In order to better support the data life
         time option, the transmitter can hold back the assigning of the
         TSN number to an outbound DATA chunk to the last moment.  And,
         for implementation simplicity, once a TSN number has been
         assigned the sender considers the send of this DATA chunk as
         committed, overriding any life time option attached to the DATA
         chunk.

      destination transport address:  specified as one of the
         destination transport addresses of the peer endpoint to which
         this packet is sent.  Whenever possible, SCTP uses this
         destination transport address for sending the packets, instead
         of the current primary path.

      unordered flag:  this flag, if present, indicates that the user




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         would like the data delivered in an unordered fashion to the
         peer (i.e., the U flag is set to 1 on all DATA chunks carrying
         this message).

      no-bundle flag:  instructs SCTP not to delay the sending of DATA
         chunks for this user data just to allow it to be bundled with
         other outbound DATA chunks.  When faced with network
         congestion, SCTP might still bundle the data, even when this
         flag is present.

      payload protocol-id:  a 32-bit unsigned integer that is to be
         passed to the peer indicating the type of payload protocol data
         being transmitted.  This value is passed as opaque data by
         SCTP.

      sack-immediately flag:  set the I bit on the last DATA chunk used
         for the user message to be transmitted.

11.1.6.  Set Primary

   SETPRIMARY(association id, destination transport address,
   [source transport address]) -> result

   Instructs the local SCTP to use the specified destination transport
   address as the primary path for sending packets.

   The result of attempting this operation is returned.  If the
   specified destination transport address is not present in the
   "destination transport address list" returned earlier in an associate
   command or communication up notification, an error is returned.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

      destination transport address:  specified as one of the transport
         addresses of the peer endpoint, which is used as the primary
         address for sending packets.  This overrides the current
         primary address information maintained by the local SCTP
         endpoint.

   Optional attributes:
      source transport address:  optionally, some implementations can
         allow you to set the default source address placed in all
         outgoing IP datagrams.

11.1.7.  Receive





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   RECEIVE(association id, buffer address, buffer size [,stream id])
   -> byte count [,transport address] [,stream id]
   [,stream sequence number] [,partial flag] [,payload protocol-id]

   This primitive reads the first user message in the SCTP in-queue into
   the buffer specified by ULP, if there is one available.  The size of
   the message read, in bytes, will be returned.  It might, depending on
   the specific implementation, also return other information such as
   the sender's address, the stream id on which it is received, whether
   there are more messages available for retrieval, etc.  For ordered
   messages, their Stream Sequence Number might also be returned.

   Depending upon the implementation, if this primitive is invoked when
   no message is available the implementation returns an indication of
   this condition or blocks the invoking process until data does become
   available.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association

      buffer address:  the memory location indicated by the ULP to store
         the received message.

      buffer size:  the maximum size of data to be received, in bytes.

   Optional attributes:
      stream id:  to indicate which stream to receive the data on.

      stream sequence number:  the Stream Sequence Number assigned by
         the sending SCTP peer.

      partial flag:  if this returned flag is set to 1, then this
         primitive contains a partial delivery of the whole message.
         When this flag is set, the stream id and stream sequence number
         accompanies this primitive.  When this flag is set to 0, it
         indicates that no more deliveries will be received for this
         stream sequence number.

      payload protocol-id:  a 32-bit unsigned integer that is received
         from the peer indicating the type of payload protocol of the
         received data.  This value is passed as opaque data by SCTP.

11.1.8.  Status

   STATUS(association id) -> status data

   This primitive returns a data block containing the following
   information:



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   *  association connection state,

   *  destination transport address list,

   *  destination transport address reachability states,

   *  current receiver window size,

   *  current congestion window sizes,

   *  number of unacknowledged DATA chunks,

   *  number of DATA chunks pending receipt,

   *  primary path,

   *  most recent SRTT on primary path,

   *  RTO on primary path,

   *  SRTT and RTO on other destination addresses, etc.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

   Optional attributes:
      None.

11.1.9.  Change Heartbeat

   CHANGE HEARTBEAT(association id, destination transport address,
   new state [,interval]) -> result

   Instructs the local endpoint to enable or disable heartbeat on the
   specified destination transport address.

   The result of attempting this operation is returned.

   Note: Even when enabled, heartbeat will not take place if the
   destination transport address is not idle.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

      destination transport address:  specified as one of the transport
         addresses of the peer endpoint.

      new state:  the new state of heartbeat for this destination



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         transport address (either enabled or disabled).

   Optional attributes:
      interval:  if present, indicates the frequency of the heartbeat if
         this is to enable heartbeat on a destination transport address.
         This value is added to the RTO of the destination transport
         address.  This value, if present, affects all destinations.

11.1.10.  Request Heartbeat

   REQUESTHEARTBEAT(association id, destination transport address)
   -> result

   Instructs the local endpoint to perform a heartbeat on the specified
   destination transport address of the given association.  The returned
   result indicates whether the transmission of the HEARTBEAT chunk
   chunk to the destination address is successful.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

      destination transport address:  the transport address of the
         association on which a heartbeat is issued.

   Optional attributes:
      None.

11.1.11.  Get SRTT Report

   GETSRTTREPORT(association id, destination transport address)
   -> srtt result

   Instructs the local SCTP to report the current SRTT measurement on
   the specified destination transport address of the given association.
   The returned result can be an integer containing the most recent SRTT
   in milliseconds.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

      destination transport address:  the transport address of the
         association on which the SRTT measurement is to be reported.

   Optional attributes:
      None.

11.1.12.  Set Failure Threshold




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   SETFAILURETHRESHOLD(association id, destination transport address,
   failure threshold) -> result

   This primitive allows the local SCTP to customize the reachability
   failure detection threshold 'Path.Max.Retrans' for the specified
   destination address.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

      destination transport address:  the transport address of the
         association on which the failure detection threshold is to be
         set.

      failure threshold:  the new value of 'Path.Max.Retrans' for the
         destination address.

   Optional attributes:
      None.

11.1.13.  Set Protocol Parameters

   SETPROTOCOLPARAMETERS(association id,
   [destination transport address,] protocol parameter list)
   -> result

   This primitive allows the local SCTP to customize the protocol
   parameters.

   Mandatory attributes:
      association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

      protocol parameter list:  the specific names and values of the
         protocol parameters (e.g., 'Association.Max.Retrans' (see
         Section 16), or other parameters like the DSCP) that the SCTP
         user wishes to customize.

   Optional attributes:
      destination transport address:  some of the protocol parameters
         might be set on a per destination transport address basis.

11.1.14.  Receive Unsent Message

   RECEIVE_UNSENT(data retrieval id, buffer address, buffer size
   [,stream id] [, stream sequence number] [,partial flag]
   [,payload protocol-id])





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   This primitive reads a user message, which has never been sent, into
   the buffer specified by ULP.

   Mandatory attributes:
      data retrieval id:  the identification passed to the ULP in the
         failure notification.

      buffer address:  the memory location indicated by the ULP to store
         the received message.

      buffer size:  the maximum size of data to be received, in bytes.

   Optional attributes:
      stream id:  this is a return value that is set to indicate which
         stream the data was sent to.

      stream sequence number:  this value is returned indicating the
         Stream Sequence Number that was associated with the message.

      partial flag:  if this returned flag is set to 1, then this
         message is a partial delivery of the whole message.  When this
         flag is set, the stream id and stream sequence number
         accompanies this primitive.  When this flag is set to 0, it
         indicates that no more deliveries will be received for this
         stream sequence number.

      payload protocol-id:  The 32 bit unsigned integer that was set to
         be sent to the peer indicating the type of payload protocol of
         the received data.

11.1.15.  Receive Unacknowledged Message

   RECEIVE_UNACKED(data retrieval id, buffer address, buffer size,
   [,stream id] [,stream sequence number] [,partial flag]
   [,payload protocol-id])

   This primitive reads a user message, which has been sent and has not
   been acknowledged by the peer, into the buffer specified by ULP.

   Mandatory attributes:
      data retrieval id:  the identification passed to the ULP in the
         failure notification.

      buffer address:  the memory location indicated by the ULP to store
         the received message.

      buffer size:  the maximum size of data to be received, in bytes.




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   Optional attributes:
      stream id:  this is a return value that is set to indicate which
         stream the data was sent to.

      stream sequence number:  this value is returned indicating the
         Stream Sequence Number that was associated with the message.

      partial flag:  if this returned flag is set to 1, then this
         message is a partial delivery of the whole message.  When this
         flag is set, the stream id and stream sequence number
         accompanies this primitive.  When this flag is set to 0, it
         indicates that no more deliveries will be received for this
         stream sequence number.

      payload protocol-id:  the 32-bit unsigned integer that was sent to
         the peer indicating the type of payload protocol of the
         received data.

11.1.16.  Destroy SCTP Instance

   DESTROY(local SCTP instance name)

   Mandatory attributes:
      local SCTP instance name:  this is the value that was passed to
         the application in the initialize primitive and it indicates
         which SCTP instance is to be destroyed.

   Optional attributes:
      None.

11.2.  SCTP-to-ULP

   It is assumed that the operating system or application environment
   provides a means for the SCTP to asynchronously signal the ULP
   process.  When SCTP does signal a ULP process, certain information is
   passed to the ULP.

   Implementation Note: In some cases, this might be done through a
   separate socket or error channel.

11.2.1.  DATA ARRIVE Notification

   SCTP invokes this notification on the ULP when a user message is
   successfully received and ready for retrieval.

   The following might optionally be passed with the notification:

   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.



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   stream id:  to indicate which stream the data is received on.

11.2.2.  SEND FAILURE Notification

   If a message cannot be delivered, SCTP invokes this notification on
   the ULP.

   The following might optionally be passed with the notification:

   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

   data retrieval id:  an identification used to retrieve unsent and
      unacknowledged data.

   cause code:  indicating the reason of the failure, e.g., size too
      large, message life time expiration, etc.

   context:  optional information associated with this message (see
      Section 11.1.5).

11.2.3.  NETWORK STATUS CHANGE Notification

   When a destination transport address is marked inactive (e.g., when
   SCTP detects a failure) or marked active (e.g., when SCTP detects a
   recovery), SCTP invokes this notification on the ULP.

   The following is passed with the notification:

   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

   destination transport address:  this indicates the destination
      transport address of the peer endpoint affected by the change.

   new-status:  this indicates the new status.

11.2.4.  COMMUNICATION UP Notification

   This notification is used when SCTP becomes ready to send or receive
   user messages, or when a lost communication to an endpoint is
   restored.

   Implementation Note: If the ASSOCIATE primitive is implemented as a
   blocking function call, the association parameters are returned as a
   result of the ASSOCIATE primitive itself.  In that case,
   COMMUNICATION UP notification is optional at the association
   initiator's side.

   The following is passed with the notification:



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   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

   status:  This indicates what type of event has occurred.

   destination transport address list:  the complete set of transport
      addresses of the peer.

   outbound stream count:  the maximum number of streams allowed to be
      used in this association by the ULP.

   inbound stream count:  the number of streams the peer endpoint has
      requested with this association (this might not be the same number
      as 'outbound stream count').

11.2.5.  COMMUNICATION LOST Notification

   When SCTP loses communication to an endpoint completely (e.g., via
   Heartbeats) or detects that the endpoint has performed an abort
   operation, it invokes this notification on the ULP.

   The following is passed with the notification:

   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

   status:  this indicates what type of event has occurred; the status
      might indicate that a failure OR a normal termination event
      occurred in response to a shutdown or abort request.

   The following might be passed with the notification:

   data retrieval id:  an identification used to retrieve unsent and
      unacknowledged data.

   last-acked:  the TSN last acked by that peer endpoint.

   last-sent:  the TSN last sent to that peer endpoint.

   Upper Layer Abort Reason:  the abort reason specified in case of a
      user-initiated abort.

11.2.6.  COMMUNICATION ERROR Notification

   When SCTP receives an ERROR chunk from its peer and decides to notify
   its ULP, it can invoke this notification on the ULP.

   The following can be passed with the notification:

   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.



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   error info:  this indicates the type of error and optionally some
      additional information received through the ERROR chunk.

11.2.7.  RESTART Notification

   When SCTP detects that the peer has restarted, it might send this
   notification to its ULP.

   The following can be passed with the notification:

   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

11.2.8.  SHUTDOWN COMPLETE Notification

   When SCTP completes the shutdown procedures (Section 9.2), this
   notification is passed to the upper layer.

   The following can be passed with the notification:

   association id:  local handle to the SCTP association.

12.  Security Considerations

12.1.  Security Objectives

   As a common transport protocol designed to reliably carry time-
   sensitive user messages, such as billing or signaling messages for
   telephony services, between two networked endpoints, SCTP has the
   following security objectives.

   *  availability of reliable and timely data transport services

   *  integrity of the user-to-user information carried by SCTP

12.2.  SCTP Responses to Potential Threats

   SCTP could potentially be used in a wide variety of risk situations.
   It is important for operators of systems running SCTP to analyze
   their particular situations and decide on the appropriate counter-
   measures.

   Operators of systems running SCTP might consult [RFC2196] for
   guidance in securing their site.








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12.2.1.  Countering Insider Attacks

   The principles of [RFC2196] might be applied to minimize the risk of
   theft of information or sabotage by insiders.  Such procedures
   include publication of security policies, control of access at the
   physical, software, and network levels, and separation of services.

12.2.2.  Protecting against Data Corruption in the Network

   Where the risk of undetected errors in datagrams delivered by the
   lower-layer transport services is considered to be too great,
   additional integrity protection is required.  If this additional
   protection were provided in the application layer, the SCTP header
   would remain vulnerable to deliberate integrity attacks.  While the
   existing SCTP mechanisms for detection of packet replays are
   considered sufficient for normal operation, stronger protections are
   needed to protect SCTP when the operating environment contains
   significant risk of deliberate attacks from a sophisticated
   adversary.

   The SCTP Authentication extension SCTP-AUTH [RFC4895] MAY be used
   when the threat environment requires stronger integrity protections,
   but does not require confidentiality.

12.2.3.  Protecting Confidentiality

   In most cases, the risk of breach of confidentiality applies to the
   signaling data payload, not to the SCTP or lower-layer protocol
   overheads.  If that is true, encryption of the SCTP user data only
   might be considered.  As with the supplementary checksum service,
   user data encryption MAY be performed by the SCTP user application.
   [RFC6083] MAY be used for this.  Alternately, the user application
   MAY use an implementation-specific API to request that the IP
   Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) [RFC4303] be used to provide
   confidentiality and integrity.

   Particularly for mobile users, the requirement for confidentiality
   might include the masking of IP addresses and ports.  In this case,
   ESP SHOULD be used instead of application-level confidentiality.  If
   ESP is used to protect confidentiality of SCTP traffic, an ESP
   cryptographic transform that includes cryptographic integrity
   protection MUST be used, because if there is a confidentiality threat
   there will also be a strong integrity threat.

   Whenever ESP is in use, application-level encryption is not generally
   required.





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   Regardless of where confidentiality is provided, the Internet Key
   Exchange Protocol version 2 (IKEv2) [RFC7296] SHOULD be used for key
   management.

   Operators might consult [RFC4301] for more information on the
   security services available at and immediately above the Internet
   Protocol layer.

12.2.4.  Protecting against Blind Denial-of-Service Attacks

   A blind attack is one where the attacker is unable to intercept or
   otherwise see the content of data flows passing to and from the
   target SCTP node.  Blind denial-of-service attacks can take the form
   of flooding, masquerade, or improper monopolization of services.

12.2.4.1.  Flooding

   The objective of flooding is to cause loss of service and incorrect
   behavior at target systems through resource exhaustion, interference
   with legitimate transactions, and exploitation of buffer-related
   software bugs.  Flooding can be directed either at the SCTP node or
   at resources in the intervening IP Access Links or the Internet.
   Where the latter entities are the target, flooding will manifest
   itself as loss of network services, including potentially the breach
   of any firewalls in place.

   In general, protection against flooding begins at the equipment
   design level, where it includes measures such as:

   *  avoiding commitment of limited resources before determining that
      the request for service is legitimate.

   *  giving priority to completion of processing in progress over the
      acceptance of new work.

   *  identification and removal of duplicate or stale queued requests
      for service.

   *  not responding to unexpected packets sent to non-unicast
      addresses.

   Network equipment is expected to be capable of generating an alarm
   and log if a suspicious increase in traffic occurs.  The log provides
   information such as the identity of the incoming link and source
   address(es) used, which will help the network or SCTP system operator
   to take protective measures.  Procedures are expected to be in place
   for the operator to act on such alarms if a clear pattern of abuse
   emerges.



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   The design of SCTP is resistant to flooding attacks, particularly in
   its use of a four-way startup handshake, its use of a cookie to defer
   commitment of resources at the responding SCTP node until the
   handshake is completed, and its use of a Verification Tag to prevent
   insertion of extraneous packets into the flow of an established
   association.

   The IP Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload might
   be useful in reducing the risk of certain kinds of denial-of-service
   attacks.

   Support for the Host Name Address parameter has been removed from the
   protocol.  Endpoints receiving INIT or INIT ACK chunks containing the
   Host Name Address parameter MUST send an ABORT chunk in response and
   MAY include an "Unresolvable Address" error cause.

12.2.4.2.  Blind Masquerade

   Masquerade can be used to deny service in several ways:

   *  by tying up resources at the target SCTP node to which the
      impersonated node has limited access.  For example, the target
      node can by policy permit a maximum of one SCTP association with
      the impersonated SCTP node.  The masquerading attacker can attempt
      to establish an association purporting to come from the
      impersonated node so that the latter cannot do so when it requires
      it.

   *  by deliberately allowing the impersonation to be detected, thereby
      provoking counter-measures that cause the impersonated node to be
      locked out of the target SCTP node.

   *  by interfering with an established association by inserting
      extraneous content such as a SHUTDOWN chunk.

   SCTP reduces the risk of blind masquerade attacks through IP spoofing
   by use of the four-way startup handshake.  Because the initial
   exchange is memory-less, no lockout mechanism is triggered by blind
   masquerade attacks.  In addition, the packet containing the INIT ACK
   chunk with the State Cookie is transmitted back to the IP address
   from which it received the packet containing the INIT chunk.  Thus,
   the attacker would not receive the INIT ACK chunk containing the
   State Cookie.  SCTP protects against insertion of extraneous packets
   into the flow of an established association by use of the
   Verification Tag.






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   Logging of received INIT chunks and abnormalities such as unexpected
   INIT ACK chunks might be considered as a way to detect patterns of
   hostile activity.  However, the potential usefulness of such logging
   has to be weighed against the increased SCTP startup processing it
   implies, rendering the SCTP node more vulnerable to flooding attacks.
   Logging is pointless without the establishment of operating
   procedures to review and analyze the logs on a routine basis.

12.2.4.3.  Improper Monopolization of Services

   Attacks under this heading are performed openly and legitimately by
   the attacker.  They are directed against fellow users of the target
   SCTP node or of the shared resources between the attacker and the
   target node.  Possible attacks include the opening of a large number
   of associations between the attacker's node and the target, or
   transfer of large volumes of information within a legitimately
   established association.

   Policy limits are expected to be placed on the number of associations
   per adjoining SCTP node.  SCTP user applications are expected to be
   capable of detecting large volumes of illegitimate or "no-op"
   messages within a given association and either logging or terminating
   the association as a result, based on local policy.

12.3.  SCTP Interactions with Firewalls

   It is helpful for some firewalls if they can inspect just the first
   fragment of a fragmented SCTP packet and unambiguously determine
   whether it corresponds to an INIT chunk (for further information,
   please refer to [RFC1858]).  Accordingly, we stress the requirements,
   as stated in Section 3.1, that (1) an INIT chunk MUST NOT be bundled
   with any other chunk in a packet and (2) a packet containing an INIT
   chunk MUST have a zero Verification Tag. The receiver of an INIT
   chunk MUST silently discard the INIT chunk and all further chunks if
   the INIT chunk is bundled with other chunks or the packet has a non-
   zero Verification Tag.

12.4.  Protection of Non-SCTP-Capable Hosts

   To provide a non-SCTP-capable host with the same level of protection
   against attacks as for SCTP-capable ones, all SCTP stacks MUST
   implement the ICMP handling described in Section 10.

   When an SCTP stack receives a packet containing multiple control or
   DATA chunks and the processing of the packet requires the sending of
   multiple chunks in response, the sender of the response chunk(s) MUST
   NOT send more than one packet.  If bundling is supported, multiple
   response chunks that fit into a single packet MAY be bundled together



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   into one single response packet.  If bundling is not supported, then
   the sender MUST NOT send more than one response chunk and MUST
   discard all other responses.  Note that this rule does not apply to a
   SACK chunk, since a SACK chunk is, in itself, a response to DATA
   chunks and a SACK chunk does not require a response of more DATA
   chunks.

   An SCTP implementation SHOULD abort the association if it receives a
   SACK chunk acknowledging a TSN that has not been sent.

   An SCTP implementation that receives an INIT chunk that would require
   a large packet in response, due to the inclusion of multiple
   "Unrecognized Parameter" parameters, MAY (at its discretion) elect to
   omit some or all of the "Unrecognized Parameter" parameters to reduce
   the size of the INIT ACK chunk.  Due to a combination of the size of
   the State Cookie parameter and the number of addresses a receiver of
   an INIT chunk indicates to a peer, it is always possible that the
   INIT ACK chunk will be larger than the original INIT chunk.  An SCTP
   implementation SHOULD attempt to make the INIT ACK chunk as small as
   possible to reduce the possibility of byte amplification attacks.

13.  Network Management Considerations

   The MIB module for SCTP defined in [RFC3873] applies for the version
   of the protocol specified in this document.

14.  Recommended Transmission Control Block (TCB) Parameters

   This section details a set of parameters that are expected to be
   contained within the TCB for an implementation.  This section is for
   illustrative purposes and is not considered to be requirements on an
   implementation or as an exhaustive list of all parameters inside an
   SCTP TCB.  Each implementation might need its own additional
   parameters for optimization.

14.1.  Parameters Necessary for the SCTP Instance

   Associations:  A list of current associations and mappings to the
      data consumers for each association.  This might be in the form of
      a hash table or other implementation-dependent structure.  The
      data consumers might be process identification information such as
      file descriptors, named pipe pointer, or table pointers dependent
      on how SCTP is implemented.

   Secret Key:  A secret key used by this endpoint to compute the MAC.
      This SHOULD be a cryptographic quality random number with a
      sufficient length.  Discussion in [RFC4086] can be helpful in
      selection of the key.



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   Address List:  The list of IP addresses that this instance has bound.
      This information is passed to one's peer(s) in INIT and INIT ACK
      chunks.

   SCTP Port:  The local SCTP port number to which the endpoint is
      bound.

14.2.  Parameters Necessary per Association (i.e., the TCB)

   Peer Verification Tag:  Tag value to be sent in every packet and is
      received in the INIT or INIT ACK chunk.

   My Verification Tag:  Tag expected in every inbound packet and sent
      in the INIT or INIT ACK chunk.

   State:  COOKIE-WAIT, COOKIE-ECHOED, ESTABLISHED, SHUTDOWN-PENDING,
      SHUTDOWN-SENT, SHUTDOWN-RECEIVED, SHUTDOWN-ACK-SENT.

      Note: No "CLOSED" state is illustrated since if a association is
      "CLOSED" its TCB SHOULD be removed.

   Peer Transport Address List:  A list of SCTP transport addresses to
      which the peer is bound.  This information is derived from the
      INIT or INIT ACK chunk and is used to associate an inbound packet
      with a given association.  Normally, this information is hashed or
      keyed for quick lookup and access of the TCB.

   Primary Path:  This is the current primary destination transport
      address of the peer endpoint.  It might also specify a source
      transport address on this endpoint.

   Overall Error Count:  The overall association error count.

   Overall Error Threshold:  The threshold for this association that if
      the Overall Error Count reaches will cause this association to be
      torn down.

   Peer Rwnd:  Current calculated value of the peer's rwnd.

   Next TSN:  The next TSN number to be assigned to a new DATA chunk.
      This is sent in the INIT or INIT ACK chunk to the peer and
      incremented each time a DATA chunk is assigned a TSN (normally
      just prior to transmit or during fragmentation).

   Last Rcvd TSN:  This is the last TSN received in sequence.  This
      value is set initially by taking the peer's initial TSN, received
      in the INIT or INIT ACK chunk, and subtracting one from it.




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   Mapping Array:  An array of bits or bytes indicating which out-of-
      order TSNs have been received (relative to the Last Rcvd TSN).  If
      no gaps exist, i.e., no out-of-order packets have been received,
      this array will be set to all zero.  This structure might be in
      the form of a circular buffer or bit array.

   Ack State:  This flag indicates if the next received packet is to be
      responded to with a SACK chunk.  This is initialized to 0.  When a
      packet is received it is incremented.  If this value reaches 2 or
      more, a SACK chunk is sent and the value is reset to 0.  Note:
      This is used only when no DATA chunks are received out of order.
      When DATA chunks are out of order, SACK chunks are not delayed
      (see Section 6).

   Inbound Streams:  An array of structures to track the inbound
      streams, normally including the next sequence number expected and
      possibly the stream number.

   Outbound Streams:  An array of structures to track the outbound
      streams, normally including the next sequence number to be sent on
      the stream.

   Reasm Queue:  A reassembly queue.

   Receive Buffer:  A buffer to store received user data which has not
      been delivered to the upper layer.

   Local Transport Address List:  The list of local IP addresses bound
      in to this association.

   Association Maximum DATA Chunk Size:  The smallest Path Maximum DATA
      Chunk Size of all destination addresses.

14.3.  Per Transport Address Data

   For each destination transport address in the peer's address list
   derived from the INIT or INIT ACK chunk, a number of data elements
   need to be maintained including:

   Error Count:  The current error count for this destination.

   Error Threshold:  Current error threshold for this destination, i.e.,
      what value marks the destination down if error count reaches this
      value.

   cwnd:  The current congestion window.

   ssthresh:  The current ssthresh value.



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   RTO:  The current retransmission timeout value.

   SRTT:  The current smoothed round-trip time.

   RTTVAR:  The current RTT variation.

   partial bytes acked:  The tracking method for increase of cwnd when
      in congestion avoidance mode (see Section 7.2.2).

   state:  The current state of this destination, i.e., DOWN, UP, ALLOW-
      HB, NO-HEARTBEAT, etc.

   PMTU:  The current known PMTU.

   PMDCS:  The current known PMDCS.

   Per Destination Timer:  A timer used by each destination.

   RTO-Pending:  A flag used to track if one of the DATA chunks sent to
      this address is currently being used to compute an RTT.  If this
      flag is 0, the next DATA chunk sent to this destination is
      expected to be used to compute an RTT and this flag is expected to
      be set.  Every time the RTT calculation completes (i.e., the DATA
      chunk is acknowledged), clear this flag.

   last-time:  The time to which this destination was last sent.  This
      can be to determine if the sending of a HEARTBEAT chunk is needed.

14.4.  General Parameters Needed

   Out Queue:  A queue of outbound DATA chunks.

   In Queue:  A queue of inbound DATA chunks.

15.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines five registries that IANA maintains:

   *  through definition of additional chunk types,

   *  through definition of additional chunk flags,

   *  through definition of additional parameter types,

   *  through definition of additional cause codes within ERROR chunks,
      or

   *  through definition of additional payload protocol identifiers.



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   IANA is requested to perform the following updates for the above five
   registries:

   *  In the Chunk Types Registry replace in the Reference section the
      reference to [RFC4960] and [RFC6096] by a reference to this
      document.

      Replace in the Notes section the reference to Section 3.2 of
      [RFC6096] by a reference to Section 15.2 of this document.

      Finally replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document for the following chunk types:

      -  Payload Data (DATA)

      -  Initiation (INIT)

      -  Initiation Acknowledgement (INIT ACK)

      -  Selective Acknowledgement (SACK)

      -  Heartbeat Request (HEARTBEAT)

      -  Heartbeat Acknowledgement (HEARTBEAT ACK)

      -  Abort (ABORT)

      -  Shutdown (SHUTDOWN)

      -  Shutdown Acknowledgement (SHUTDOWN ACK)

      -  Operation Error (ERROR)

      -  State Cookie (COOKIE ECHO)

      -  Cookie Acknowledgement (COOKIE ACK)

      -  Reserved for Explicit Congestion Notification Echo (ECNE)

      -  Reserved for Congestion Window Reduced (CWR)

      -  Shutdown Complete (SHUTDOWN COMPLETE)

      -  Reserved for IETF-defined Chunk Extensions

   *  In the Chunk Parameter Types Registry replace in the Reference
      section the reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document.



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      Replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document for the following chunk parameter types:

      -  Heartbeat Info

      -  IPv4 Address

      -  IPv6 Address

      -  State Cookie

      -  Unrecognized Parameters

      -  Cookie Preservative

      -  Host Name Address

      -  Supported Address Types

      Add a reference to this document for the following chunk parameter
      type:

      -  Reserved for ECN Capable (0x8000)

   *  In the Chunk Flags Registry replace in the Reference section the
      reference to [RFC6096] by a reference to this document.

      Replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document for the following DATA chunk flags:

      -  E bit

      -  B bit

      -  U bit

      Replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document for the following ABORT chunk flags:

      -  T bit

      Replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document for the following SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk flags:

      -  T bit

   *  In the Error Cause Codes Registry replace in the Reference section
      the reference to [RFC6096] by a reference to this document.



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      Replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document for the following cause codes:

      -  Invalid Stream Identifier

      -  Missing Mandatory Parameter

      -  Stale Cookie Error

      -  Out of Resource

      -  Unresolvable Address

      -  Unrecognized Chunk Type

      -  Invalid Mandatory Parameter

      -  Unrecognized Parameters

      -  No User Data

      -  Cookie Received While Shutting Down

      -  Restart of an Association with New Addressess

      Replace each reference to [RFC4460] by a reference to this
      document for the following cause codes:

      -  User Initiated Abort

      -  Protocol Violation

   *  In the SCTP Payload Protocol Identifiers Registry replace in the
      Reference section the reference to [RFC6096] by a reference to
      this document.

      Replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
      document for the following SCTP payload protocol identifiers:

      -  Reserved by SCTP

   SCTP requires that the IANA Port Numbers registry be opened for SCTP
   port registrations, Section 15.6 describes how.  An IESG-appointed
   Expert Reviewer supports IANA in evaluating SCTP port allocation
   requests.






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   IANA is requested to perform the following update for the Port Number
   registry.  Replace each reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this
   document for the following SCTP port numbers:

   *  9 (discard)

   *  20 (ftp-data)

   *  21 (ftp)

   *  22 (ssh)

   *  80 (http)

   *  179 (bgp)

   *  443 (https)

   Furthermore, IANA is requested to replace in the HTTP Digest
   Algorithm Values registry the reference to Appendix B of [RFC4960] to
   Appendix A of this document.

   IANA is also requested to replace in the ONC RPC Netids registry,
   each of the reference to [RFC4960] by a reference to this document
   for the following netids:

   *  sctp

   *  sctp6

   IANA is finally requested to replace in the IPFIX Information
   Elements registry, each of the reference to [RFC4960] by a reference
   to this document for the following elements with the name:

   *  sourceTransportPort

   *  destinationTransportPort

   *  collectorTransportPort

   *  exporterTransportPort

   *  postNAPTSourceTransportPort

   *  postNAPTDestinationTransportPort






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15.1.  IETF-Defined Chunk Extension

   The assignment of new chunk type codes is done through an IETF Review
   action, as defined in [RFC8126].  Documentation for a new chunk MUST
   contain the following information:

   a)  A long and short name for the new chunk type.

   b)  A detailed description of the structure of the chunk, which MUST
       conform to the basic structure defined in Section 3.2.

   c)  A detailed definition and description of intended use of each
       field within the chunk, including the chunk flags if any.
       Defined chunk flags will be used as initial entries in the chunk
       flags table for the new chunk type.

   d)  A detailed procedural description of the use of the new chunk
       type within the operation of the protocol.

   The last chunk type (255) is reserved for future extension if
   necessary.

   For each new chunk type, IANA creates a registration table for the
   chunk flags of that type.  The procedure for registering particular
   chunk flags is described in Section 15.2.

15.2.  IETF Chunk Flags Registration

   The assignment of new chunk flags is done through an RFC Required
   action, as defined in [RFC8126].  Documentation for the chunk flags
   MUST contain the following information:

   a)  A name for the new chunk flag.

   b)  A detailed procedural description of the use of the new chunk
       flag within the operation of the protocol.  It MUST be considered
       that implementations not supporting the flag will send '0' on
       transmit and just ignore it on receipt.

   IANA selects a chunk flags value.  This MUST be one of 0x01, 0x02,
   0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, or 0x80, which MUST be unique within
   the chunk flag values for the specific chunk type.

15.3.  IETF-Defined Chunk Parameter Extension

   The assignment of new chunk parameter type codes is done through an
   IETF Review action as defined in [RFC8126].  Documentation of the
   chunk parameter MUST contain the following information:



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   a)  Name of the parameter type.

   b)  Detailed description of the structure of the parameter field.
       This structure MUST conform to the general Type-Length-Value
       format described in Section 3.2.1.

   c)  Detailed definition of each component of the parameter value.

   d)  Detailed description of the intended use of this parameter type,
       and an indication of whether and under what circumstances
       multiple instances of this parameter type can be found within the
       same chunk.

   e)  Each parameter type MUST be unique across all chunks.

15.4.  IETF-Defined Additional Error Causes

   Additional cause codes can be allocated in the range 11 to 65535
   through a Specification Required action as defined in [RFC8126].
   Provided documentation MUST include the following information:

   a)  Name of the error condition.

   b)  Detailed description of the conditions under which an SCTP
       endpoint issues an ERROR (or ABORT) chunk with this cause code.

   c)  Expected action by the SCTP endpoint that receives an ERROR (or
       ABORT) chunk containing this cause code.

   d)  Detailed description of the structure and content of data fields
       that accompany this cause code.

   The initial word (32 bits) of a cause code parameter MUST conform to
   the format shown in Section 3.3.10, i.e.:

   *  first 2 bytes contain the cause code value

   *  last 2 bytes contain the length of the cause parameter.

15.5.  Payload Protocol Identifiers

   Except for value 0, which is reserved by SCTP to indicate an
   unspecified payload protocol identifier in a DATA chunk, SCTP will
   not be responsible for standardizing or verifying any payload
   protocol identifiers; SCTP simply receives the identifier from the
   upper layer and carries it with the corresponding payload data.





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   The upper layer, i.e., the SCTP user, SHOULD standardize any specific
   protocol identifier with IANA if it is so desired.  The use of any
   specific payload protocol identifier is out of the scope of SCTP.

15.6.  Port Numbers Registry

   SCTP services can use contact port numbers to provide service to
   unknown callers, as in TCP and UDP.  IANA is requested to open the
   existing "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry"
   for SCTP using the following rules, which we intend to mesh well with
   existing port-number registration procedures.  An IESG-appointed
   expert reviewer supports IANA in evaluating SCTP port allocation
   requests, according to the procedure defined in [RFC8126].  The
   details of this process are defined in [RFC6335].

16.  Suggested SCTP Protocol Parameter Values

   The following protocol parameters are RECOMMENDED:

   RTO.Initial:  1 second

   RTO.Min:  1 second

   RTO.Max:  60 seconds

   Max.Burst:  4

   RTO.Alpha:  1/8

   RTO.Beta:  1/4

   Valid.Cookie.Life:  60 seconds

   Association.Max.Retrans:  10 attempts

   Path.Max.Retrans:  5 attempts (per destination address)

   Max.Init.Retransmits:  8 attempts

   HB.interval:  30 seconds

   HB.Max.Burst:  1

   SACK.Delay:  200 milliseconds

   Implementation Note: The SCTP implementation can allow ULP to
   customize some of these protocol parameters (see Section 11).




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   'RTO.Min' SHOULD be set as described above in this section.

17.  Acknowledgements

   An undertaking represented by this updated document is not a small
   feat and represents the summation of the initial co-authors of
   [RFC2960]: Q. Xie, K. Morneault, C. Sharp, H. Schwarzbauer,
   T. Taylor, I. Rytina, M. Kalla, L. Zhang, and V. Paxson.

   Add to that, the comments from everyone who contributed to [RFC2960]:
   Mark Allman, R. J. Atkinson, Richard Band, Scott Bradner, Steve
   Bellovin, Peter Butler, Ram Dantu, R. Ezhirpavai, Mike Fisk, Sally
   Floyd, Atsushi Fukumoto, Matt Holdrege, Henry Houh, Christian
   Huitema, Gary Lehecka, Jonathan Lee, David Lehmann, John Loughney,
   Daniel Luan, Barry Nagelberg, Thomas Narten, Erik Nordmark, Lyndon
   Ong, Shyamal Prasad, Kelvin Porter, Heinz Prantner, Jarno Rajahalme,
   Raymond E. Reeves, Renee Revis, Ivan Arias Rodriguez, A. Sankar, Greg
   Sidebottom, Brian Wyld, La Monte Yarroll, and many others for their
   invaluable comments.

   Then, add the co-authors of [RFC4460]: I. Arias-Rodriguez, K. Poon,
   and A. Caro.

   Then add to these the efforts of all the subsequent seven SCTP
   interoperability tests and those who commented on [RFC4460] as shown
   in its acknowledgements: Barry Zuckerman, La Monte Yarroll, Qiaobing
   Xie, Wang Xiaopeng, Jonathan Wood, Jeff Waskow, Mike Turner, John
   Townsend, Sabina Torrente, Cliff Thomas, Yuji Suzuki, Manoj Solanki,
   Sverre Slotte, Keyur Shah, Jan Rovins, Ben Robinson, Renee Revis, Ian
   Periam, RC Monee, Sanjay Rao, Sujith Radhakrishnan, Heinz Prantner,
   Biren Patel, Nathalie Mouellic, Mitch Miers, Bernward Meyknecht, Stan
   McClellan, Oliver Mayor, Tomas Orti Martin, Sandeep Mahajan, David
   Lehmann, Jonathan Lee, Philippe Langlois, Karl Knutson, Joe Keller,
   Gareth Keily, Andreas Jungmaier, Janardhan Iyengar, Mutsuya Irie,
   John Hebert, Kausar Hassan, Fred Hasle, Dan Harrison, Jon Grim,
   Laurent Glaude, Steven Furniss, Atsushi Fukumoto, Ken Fujita, Steve
   Dimig, Thomas Curran, Serkan Cil, Melissa Campbell, Peter Butler, Rob
   Brennan, Harsh Bhondwe, Brian Bidulock, Caitlin Bestler, Jon Berger,
   Robby Benedyk, Stephen Baucke, Sandeep Balani, and Ronnie Sellar.

   A special thanks to Mark Allman, who should actually be a co-author
   for his work on the max-burst, but managed to wiggle out due to a
   technicality.

   Also, we would like to acknowledge Lyndon Ong and Phil Conrad for
   their valuable input and many contributions.





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   Furthermore, you have [RFC4960], and those who have commented upon
   that including Alfred Hönes and Ronnie Sellars.

   Then, add the co-author of [RFC8540]: Maksim Proshin.

   And people who have commented on [RFC8540]: Pontus Andersson, Eric
   W. Biederman, Cedric Bonnet, Spencer Dawkins, Gorry Fairhurst,
   Benjamin Kaduk, Mirja Kühlewind, Peter Lei, Gyula Marosi, Lionel
   Morand, Jeff Morriss, Tom Petch, Kacheong Poon, Julien Pourtet, Irene
   Rüngeler, Michael Welzl, and Qiaobing Xie.

   And finally the people who have provided comments for this document
   including Gorry Fairhurst, Marcelo Ricardo Leitner, Claudio Porfiri,
   Maksim Proshin, Timo Völker, Magnus Westerlund, and Zhouming.

   Our thanks cannot be adequately expressed to all of you who have
   participated in the coding, testing, and updating process of this
   document.  All we can say is, Thank You!

18.  Normative References

   [ITU.V42.1994]
              International Telecommunications Union, "Error-correcting
              Procedures for DCEs Using Asynchronous-to-Synchronous
              Conversion", ITU-T Recommendation V.42, 1994.

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.

   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
              RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.

   [RFC1122]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
              Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1122, October 1989,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1122>.

   [RFC1123]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
              Application and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1123, October 1989,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1123>.

   [RFC1191]  Mogul, J. and S. Deering, "Path MTU discovery", RFC 1191,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1191, November 1990,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1191>.




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   [RFC1982]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Serial Number Arithmetic", RFC 1982,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1982, August 1996,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1982>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3873]  Pastor, J. and M. Belinchon, "Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol (SCTP) Management Information Base (MIB)",
              RFC 3873, DOI 10.17487/RFC3873, September 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3873>.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301,
              December 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4303>.

   [RFC5681]  Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion
              Control", RFC 5681, DOI 10.17487/RFC5681, September 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5681>.

   [RFC6335]  Cotton, M., Eggert, L., Touch, J., Westerlund, M., and S.
              Cheshire, "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
              Procedures for the Management of the Service Name and
              Transport Protocol Port Number Registry", BCP 165,
              RFC 6335, DOI 10.17487/RFC6335, August 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6335>.

   [RFC7296]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
              Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.





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   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8200]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.

   [RFC8201]  McCann, J., Deering, S., Mogul, J., and R. Hinden, Ed.,
              "Path MTU Discovery for IP version 6", STD 87, RFC 8201,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8201, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8201>.

   [RFC8899]  Fairhurst, G., Jones, T., Tüxen, M., Rüngeler, I., and T.
              Völker, "Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery for
              Datagram Transports", RFC 8899, DOI 10.17487/RFC8899,
              September 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8899>.

19.  Informative References

   [FALL96]   Fall, K. and S. Floyd, "Simulation-based Comparisons of
              Tahoe, Reno, and SACK TCP", SIGCOM 99, V. 26, N. 3,
              pp 5-21, July 1996.

   [SAVAGE99] Savage, S., Cardwell, N., Wetherall, D., and T. Anderson,
              "TCP Congestion Control with a Misbehaving Receiver", ACM
              Computer Communications Review 29(5), October 1999.

   [ALLMAN99] Allman, M. and V. Paxson, "On Estimating End-to-End
              Network Path Properties", SIGCOM 99, 1999.

   [WILLIAMS93]
              Williams, R., "A PAINLESS GUIDE TO CRC ERROR DETECTION
              ALGORITHMS", SIGCOM 99, August 1993,
              <http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/8659/
              crc.htm>.

   [RFC1858]  Ziemba, G., Reed, D., and P. Traina, "Security
              Considerations for IP Fragment Filtering", RFC 1858,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1858, October 1995,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1858>.

   [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
              Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2104, February 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2104>.




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   [RFC2196]  Fraser, B., "Site Security Handbook", FYI 8, RFC 2196,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2196, September 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2196>.

   [RFC2522]  Karn, P. and W. Simpson, "Photuris: Session-Key Management
              Protocol", RFC 2522, DOI 10.17487/RFC2522, March 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2522>.

   [RFC2960]  Stewart, R., Xie, Q., Morneault, K., Sharp, C.,
              Schwarzbauer, H., Taylor, T., Rytina, I., Kalla, M.,
              Zhang, L., and V. Paxson, "Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol", RFC 2960, DOI 10.17487/RFC2960, October 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2960>.

   [RFC3465]  Allman, M., "TCP Congestion Control with Appropriate Byte
              Counting (ABC)", RFC 3465, DOI 10.17487/RFC3465, February
              2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3465>.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
              "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4086>.

   [RFC4460]  Stewart, R., Arias-Rodriguez, I., Poon, K., Caro, A., and
              M. Tuexen, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
              Specification Errata and Issues", RFC 4460,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4460, April 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4460>.

   [RFC4895]  Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., Lei, P., and E. Rescorla,
              "Authenticated Chunks for the Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol (SCTP)", RFC 4895, DOI 10.17487/RFC4895, August
              2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4895>.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 4960, DOI 10.17487/RFC4960, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>.

   [RFC6083]  Tuexen, M., Seggelmann, R., and E. Rescorla, "Datagram
              Transport Layer Security (DTLS) for Stream Control
              Transmission Protocol (SCTP)", RFC 6083,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6083, January 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6083>.

   [RFC6096]  Tuexen, M. and R. Stewart, "Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol (SCTP) Chunk Flags Registration", RFC 6096,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6096, January 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6096>.



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   [RFC6458]  Stewart, R., Tuexen, M., Poon, K., Lei, P., and V.
              Yasevich, "Sockets API Extensions for the Stream Control
              Transmission Protocol (SCTP)", RFC 6458,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6458, December 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6458>.

   [RFC7053]  Tuexen, M., Ruengeler, I., and R. Stewart, "SACK-
              IMMEDIATELY Extension for the Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol", RFC 7053, DOI 10.17487/RFC7053, November 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7053>.

   [RFC8260]  Stewart, R., Tuexen, M., Loreto, S., and R. Seggelmann,
              "Stream Schedulers and User Message Interleaving for the
              Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC 8260,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8260, November 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8260>.

   [RFC8540]  Stewart, R., Tuexen, M., and M. Proshin, "Stream Control
              Transmission Protocol: Errata and Issues in RFC 4960",
              RFC 8540, DOI 10.17487/RFC8540, February 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8540>.

Appendix A.  CRC32c Checksum Calculation

   We define a 'reflected value' as one that is the opposite of the
   normal bit order of the machine.  The 32-bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy
   Check) is calculated as described for CRC32c and uses the polynomial
   code 0x11EDC6F41 (Castagnoli93) or
   x^32+x^28+x^27+x^26+x^25+x^23+x^22+x^20+x^19+x^18+
   x^14+x^13+x^11+x^10+x^9+x^8+x^6+x^0.  The CRC is computed using a
   procedure similar to ETHERNET CRC [ITU.V42.1994], modified to reflect
   transport-level usage.

   CRC computation uses polynomial division.  A message bit-string M is
   transformed to a polynomial, M(X), and the CRC is calculated from
   M(X) using polynomial arithmetic.

   When CRCs are used at the link layer, the polynomial is derived from
   on-the-wire bit ordering: the first bit 'on the wire' is the high-
   order coefficient.  Since SCTP is a transport-level protocol, it
   cannot know the actual serial-media bit ordering.  Moreover,
   different links in the path between SCTP endpoints can use different
   link-level bit orders.

   A convention is established for mapping SCTP transport messages to
   polynomials for purposes of CRC computation.  The bit-ordering for
   mapping SCTP messages to polynomials is that bytes are taken most-
   significant first, but within each byte, bits are taken least-



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   significant first.  The first byte of the message provides the eight
   highest coefficients.  Within each byte, the least-significant SCTP
   bit gives the most-significant polynomial coefficient within that
   byte, and the most-significant SCTP bit is the least-significant
   polynomial coefficient in that byte.  (This bit ordering is sometimes
   called 'mirrored' or 'reflected' [WILLIAMS93].)  CRC polynomials are
   to be transformed back into SCTP transport-level byte values, using a
   consistent mapping.

   The SCTP transport-level CRC value can be calculated as follows:

   *  CRC input data are assigned to a byte stream, numbered from 0 to
      N-1.

   *  The transport-level byte stream is mapped to a polynomial value.
      An N-byte PDU with j bytes numbered 0 to N-1 is considered as
      coefficients of a polynomial M(x) of order 8N-1, with bit 0 of
      byte j being coefficient x^(8(N-j)-8), and bit 7 of byte j being
      coefficient x^(8(N-j)-1).

   *  The CRC remainder register is initialized with all 1s and the CRC
      is computed with an algorithm that simultaneously multiplies by
      x^32 and divides by the CRC polynomial.

   *  The polynomial is multiplied by x^32 and divided by G(x), the
      generator polynomial, producing a remainder R(x) of degree less
      than or equal to 31.

   *  The coefficients of R(x) are considered a 32-bit sequence.

   *  The bit sequence is complemented.  The result is the CRC
      polynomial.

   *  The CRC polynomial is mapped back into SCTP transport-level bytes.
      The coefficient of x^31 gives the value of bit 7 of SCTP byte 0,
      and the coefficient of x^24 gives the value of bit 0 of byte 0.
      The coefficient of x^7 gives bit 7 of byte 3, and the coefficient
      of x^0 gives bit 0 of byte 3.  The resulting 4-byte transport-
      level sequence is the 32-bit SCTP checksum value.












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   Implementation Note: Standards documents, textbooks, and vendor
   literature on CRCs often follow an alternative formulation, in which
   the register used to hold the remainder of the long-division
   algorithm is initialized to zero rather than all-1s, and instead the
   first 32 bits of the message are complemented.  The long-division
   algorithm used in our formulation is specified such that the initial
   multiplication by 2^32 and the long-division are combined into one
   simultaneous operation.  For such algorithms, and for messages longer
   than 64 bits, the two specifications are precisely equivalent.  That
   equivalence is the intent of this document.

   Implementors of SCTP are warned that both specifications are to be
   found in the literature, sometimes with no restriction on the long-
   division algorithm.  The choice of formulation in this document is to
   permit non-SCTP usage, where the same CRC algorithm can be used to
   protect messages shorter than 64 bits.

   There can be a computational advantage in validating the association
   against the Verification Tag, prior to performing a checksum, as
   invalid tags will result in the same action as a bad checksum in most
   cases.  The exceptions for this technique would be packets containing
   INIT chunks and some SHUTDOWN-COMPLETE chunks, as well as a stale
   COOKIE ECHO chunks.  These special-case exchanges represent small
   packets and will minimize the effect of the checksum calculation.

   The following non-normative sample code is taken from an open-source
   CRC generator [WILLIAMS93], using the "mirroring" technique and
   yielding a lookup table for SCTP CRC32c with 256 entries, each 32
   bits wide.  While neither especially slow nor especially fast, as
   software table-lookup CRCs go, it has the advantage of working on
   both big-endian and little-endian CPUs, using the same (host-order)
   lookup tables, and using only the predefined ntohl() and htonl()
   operations.  The code is somewhat modified from [WILLIAMS93], to
   ensure portability between big-endian and little-endian
   architectures.  (Note that if the byte endian-ness of the target
   architecture is known to be little-endian, the final bit-reversal and
   byte-reversal steps can be folded into a single operation.)

   <CODE BEGINS>
   /****************************************************************/
   /* Note: The definitions for Ross Williams's table generator    */
   /* would be TB_WIDTH=4, TB_POLY=0x1EDC6F41, TB_REVER=TRUE.      */
   /* For Mr. Williams's direct calculation code, use the settings */
   /* cm_width=32, cm_poly=0x1EDC6F41, cm_init=0xFFFFFFFF,         */
   /* cm_refin=TRUE, cm_refot=TRUE, cm_xorot=0x00000000.           */
   /****************************************************************/

   /* Example of the crc table file */



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   #ifndef __crc32cr_h__
   #define __crc32cr_h__

   #define CRC32C_POLY 0x1EDC6F41UL
   #define CRC32C(c,d) (c=(c>>8)^crc_c[(c^(d))&0xFF])

   uint32_t crc_c[256] = {
     0x00000000UL, 0xF26B8303UL, 0xE13B70F7UL, 0x1350F3F4UL,
     0xC79A971FUL, 0x35F1141CUL, 0x26A1E7E8UL, 0xD4CA64EBUL,
     0x8AD958CFUL, 0x78B2DBCCUL, 0x6BE22838UL, 0x9989AB3BUL,
     0x4D43CFD0UL, 0xBF284CD3UL, 0xAC78BF27UL, 0x5E133C24UL,
     0x105EC76FUL, 0xE235446CUL, 0xF165B798UL, 0x030E349BUL,
     0xD7C45070UL, 0x25AFD373UL, 0x36FF2087UL, 0xC494A384UL,
     0x9A879FA0UL, 0x68EC1CA3UL, 0x7BBCEF57UL, 0x89D76C54UL,
     0x5D1D08BFUL, 0xAF768BBCUL, 0xBC267848UL, 0x4E4DFB4BUL,
     0x20BD8EDEUL, 0xD2D60DDDUL, 0xC186FE29UL, 0x33ED7D2AUL,
     0xE72719C1UL, 0x154C9AC2UL, 0x061C6936UL, 0xF477EA35UL,
     0xAA64D611UL, 0x580F5512UL, 0x4B5FA6E6UL, 0xB93425E5UL,
     0x6DFE410EUL, 0x9F95C20DUL, 0x8CC531F9UL, 0x7EAEB2FAUL,
     0x30E349B1UL, 0xC288CAB2UL, 0xD1D83946UL, 0x23B3BA45UL,
     0xF779DEAEUL, 0x05125DADUL, 0x1642AE59UL, 0xE4292D5AUL,
     0xBA3A117EUL, 0x4851927DUL, 0x5B016189UL, 0xA96AE28AUL,
     0x7DA08661UL, 0x8FCB0562UL, 0x9C9BF696UL, 0x6EF07595UL,
     0x417B1DBCUL, 0xB3109EBFUL, 0xA0406D4BUL, 0x522BEE48UL,
     0x86E18AA3UL, 0x748A09A0UL, 0x67DAFA54UL, 0x95B17957UL,
     0xCBA24573UL, 0x39C9C670UL, 0x2A993584UL, 0xD8F2B687UL,
     0x0C38D26CUL, 0xFE53516FUL, 0xED03A29BUL, 0x1F682198UL,
     0x5125DAD3UL, 0xA34E59D0UL, 0xB01EAA24UL, 0x42752927UL,
     0x96BF4DCCUL, 0x64D4CECFUL, 0x77843D3BUL, 0x85EFBE38UL,
     0xDBFC821CUL, 0x2997011FUL, 0x3AC7F2EBUL, 0xC8AC71E8UL,
     0x1C661503UL, 0xEE0D9600UL, 0xFD5D65F4UL, 0x0F36E6F7UL,
     0x61C69362UL, 0x93AD1061UL, 0x80FDE395UL, 0x72966096UL,
     0xA65C047DUL, 0x5437877EUL, 0x4767748AUL, 0xB50CF789UL,
     0xEB1FCBADUL, 0x197448AEUL, 0x0A24BB5AUL, 0xF84F3859UL,
     0x2C855CB2UL, 0xDEEEDFB1UL, 0xCDBE2C45UL, 0x3FD5AF46UL,
     0x7198540DUL, 0x83F3D70EUL, 0x90A324FAUL, 0x62C8A7F9UL,
     0xB602C312UL, 0x44694011UL, 0x5739B3E5UL, 0xA55230E6UL,
     0xFB410CC2UL, 0x092A8FC1UL, 0x1A7A7C35UL, 0xE811FF36UL,
     0x3CDB9BDDUL, 0xCEB018DEUL, 0xDDE0EB2AUL, 0x2F8B6829UL,
     0x82F63B78UL, 0x709DB87BUL, 0x63CD4B8FUL, 0x91A6C88CUL,
     0x456CAC67UL, 0xB7072F64UL, 0xA457DC90UL, 0x563C5F93UL,
     0x082F63B7UL, 0xFA44E0B4UL, 0xE9141340UL, 0x1B7F9043UL,
     0xCFB5F4A8UL, 0x3DDE77ABUL, 0x2E8E845FUL, 0xDCE5075CUL,
     0x92A8FC17UL, 0x60C37F14UL, 0x73938CE0UL, 0x81F80FE3UL,
     0x55326B08UL, 0xA759E80BUL, 0xB4091BFFUL, 0x466298FCUL,
     0x1871A4D8UL, 0xEA1A27DBUL, 0xF94AD42FUL, 0x0B21572CUL,
     0xDFEB33C7UL, 0x2D80B0C4UL, 0x3ED04330UL, 0xCCBBC033UL,
     0xA24BB5A6UL, 0x502036A5UL, 0x4370C551UL, 0xB11B4652UL,



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     0x65D122B9UL, 0x97BAA1BAUL, 0x84EA524EUL, 0x7681D14DUL,
     0x2892ED69UL, 0xDAF96E6AUL, 0xC9A99D9EUL, 0x3BC21E9DUL,
     0xEF087A76UL, 0x1D63F975UL, 0x0E330A81UL, 0xFC588982UL,
     0xB21572C9UL, 0x407EF1CAUL, 0x532E023EUL, 0xA145813DUL,
     0x758FE5D6UL, 0x87E466D5UL, 0x94B49521UL, 0x66DF1622UL,
     0x38CC2A06UL, 0xCAA7A905UL, 0xD9F75AF1UL, 0x2B9CD9F2UL,
     0xFF56BD19UL, 0x0D3D3E1AUL, 0x1E6DCDEEUL, 0xEC064EEDUL,
     0xC38D26C4UL, 0x31E6A5C7UL, 0x22B65633UL, 0xD0DDD530UL,
     0x0417B1DBUL, 0xF67C32D8UL, 0xE52CC12CUL, 0x1747422FUL,
     0x49547E0BUL, 0xBB3FFD08UL, 0xA86F0EFCUL, 0x5A048DFFUL,
     0x8ECEE914UL, 0x7CA56A17UL, 0x6FF599E3UL, 0x9D9E1AE0UL,
     0xD3D3E1ABUL, 0x21B862A8UL, 0x32E8915CUL, 0xC083125FUL,
     0x144976B4UL, 0xE622F5B7UL, 0xF5720643UL, 0x07198540UL,
     0x590AB964UL, 0xAB613A67UL, 0xB831C993UL, 0x4A5A4A90UL,
     0x9E902E7BUL, 0x6CFBAD78UL, 0x7FAB5E8CUL, 0x8DC0DD8FUL,
     0xE330A81AUL, 0x115B2B19UL, 0x020BD8EDUL, 0xF0605BEEUL,
     0x24AA3F05UL, 0xD6C1BC06UL, 0xC5914FF2UL, 0x37FACCF1UL,
     0x69E9F0D5UL, 0x9B8273D6UL, 0x88D28022UL, 0x7AB90321UL,
     0xAE7367CAUL, 0x5C18E4C9UL, 0x4F48173DUL, 0xBD23943EUL,
     0xF36E6F75UL, 0x0105EC76UL, 0x12551F82UL, 0xE03E9C81UL,
     0x34F4F86AUL, 0xC69F7B69UL, 0xD5CF889DUL, 0x27A40B9EUL,
     0x79B737BAUL, 0x8BDCB4B9UL, 0x988C474DUL, 0x6AE7C44EUL,
     0xBE2DA0A5UL, 0x4C4623A6UL, 0x5F16D052UL, 0xAD7D5351UL,
   };

   #endif


   /* Example of table build routine */

   #include <stdio.h>
   #include <stdlib.h>

   #define OUTPUT_FILE   "crc32cr.h"
   #define CRC32C_POLY    0x1EDC6F41UL

   static FILE *tf;

   static uint32_t
   reflect_32(uint32_t b)
   {
     int i;
     uint32_t rw = 0UL;

     for (i = 0; i < 32; i++) {
       if (b & 1)
         rw |= 1 << (31 - i);
       b >>= 1;



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     }
     return (rw);
   }

   static uint32_t
   build_crc_table (int index)
   {
     int i;
     uint32_t rb;

     rb = reflect_32(index);

     for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
       if (rb & 0x80000000UL)
         rb = (rb << 1) ^ (uint32_t)CRC32C_POLY;
       else
         rb <<= 1;
     }
     return (reflect_32(rb));
   }

   int
   main (void)
   {
     int i;

     printf("\nGenerating CRC32c table file <%s>.\n",
     OUTPUT_FILE);
     if ((tf = fopen(OUTPUT_FILE, "w")) == NULL) {
       printf("Unable to open %s.\n", OUTPUT_FILE);
       exit (1);
     }
     fprintf(tf, "#ifndef __crc32cr_h__\n");
     fprintf(tf, "#define __crc32cr_h__\n\n");
     fprintf(tf, "#define CRC32C_POLY 0x%08XUL\n",
       (uint32_t)CRC32C_POLY);
     fprintf(tf,
       "#define CRC32C(c,d) (c=(c>>8)^crc_c[(c^(d))&0xFF])\n");
     fprintf(tf, "\nuint32_t crc_c[256] =\n{\n");
     for (i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
       fprintf(tf, "0x%08XUL,", build_crc_table (i));
       if ((i & 3) == 3)
         fprintf(tf, "\n");
       else
         fprintf(tf, " ");
     }
     fprintf(tf, "};\n\n#endif\n");




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     if (fclose(tf) != 0)
       printf("Unable to close <%s>.\n", OUTPUT_FILE);
     else
       printf("\nThe CRC32c table has been written to <%s>.\n",
         OUTPUT_FILE);
     return (0);
   }

   /* Example of crc insertion */

   #include "crc32cr.h"

   uint32_t
   generate_crc32c(unsigned char *buffer, unsigned int length)
   {
     unsigned int i;
     uint32_t crc32 = 0xffffffffUL;
     uint32_t result;
     uint8_t byte0, byte1, byte2, byte3;

     for (i = 0; i < length; i++) {
       CRC32C(crc32, buffer[i]);
     }

     result = ~crc32;

     /*  result now holds the negated polynomial remainder,
      *  since the table and algorithm are "reflected" [williams95].
      *  That is, result has the same value as if we mapped the message
      *  to a polynomial, computed the host-bit-order polynomial
      *  remainder, performed final negation, and then did an
      *  end-for-end bit-reversal.
      *  Note that a 32-bit bit-reversal is identical to four in-place
      *  8-bit bit-reversals followed by an end-for-end byteswap.
      *  In other words, the bits of each byte are in the right order,
      *  but the bytes have been byteswapped.  So, we now do an explicit
      *  byteswap.  On a little-endian machine, this byteswap and
      *  the final ntohl cancel out and could be elided.
      */

     byte0 = result & 0xff;
     byte1 = (result>>8) & 0xff;
     byte2 = (result>>16) & 0xff;
     byte3 = (result>>24) & 0xff;
     crc32 = ((byte0 << 24) |
              (byte1 << 16) |
              (byte2 << 8)  |
              byte3);



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     return (crc32);
   }

   int
   insert_crc32(unsigned char *buffer, unsigned int length)
   {
     SCTP_message *message;
     uint32_t crc32;
     message = (SCTP_message *) buffer;
     message->common_header.checksum = 0UL;
     crc32 = generate_crc32c(buffer,length);
     /* and insert it into the message */
     message->common_header.checksum = htonl(crc32);
     return (1);
   }

   int
   validate_crc32(unsigned char *buffer, unsigned int length)
   {
     SCTP_message *message;
     unsigned int i;
     uint32_t original_crc32;
     uint32_t crc32;

     /* save and zero checksum */
     message = (SCTP_message *)buffer;
     original_crc32 = ntohl(message->common_header.checksum);
     message->common_header.checksum = 0L;
     crc32 = generate_crc32c(buffer, length);
     return ((original_crc32 == crc32) ? 1 : -1);
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

Authors' Addresses

   Randall R. Stewart
   Netflix, Inc.
   2455 Heritage Green Ave
   Davenport, FL 33837
   United States

   Email: randall@lakerest.net









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   Michael Tüxen
   Münster University of Applied Sciences
   Stegerwaldstrasse 39
   48565 Steinfurt
   Germany

   Email: tuexen@fh-muenster.de


   Karen E. E. Nielsen
   Kamstrup A/S
   Industrivej 28
   DK-8660 Skanderborg
   Denmark

   Email: kee@kamstrup.com



































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