Design Considerations for Name Resolution Service in ICN

ICN Research Group                                               J. Hong
Internet-Draft                                                    T. You
Intended status: Informational                                 Y-G. Hong
Expires: September 12, 2019                                         ETRI
                                                                 L. Dong
                                                             C. Westphal
                                                                V. Kafle
                                                               B. Ohlman
                                                          March 11, 2019

            Requirements for Name Resolution Service in ICN


   This document discusses the motivation and requirements for Name
   Resolution Service (NRS) in ICN.  The NRS in ICN is to translate an
   object name into some other information such as a locator and another
   name which is used for forwarding the object request towards the
   object location.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Name Resolution Service in ICN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Objectives of NRS in ICN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  To support heterogeneous types of names . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  To support dynamic features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.3.  To support efficient routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.4.  Use cases of NRS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.4.1.  To support flat name based routing  . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.4.2.  To support producer mobility  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.4.3.  To support scalable routing system  . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.4.4.  To support off-path caching . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.4.5.  To support nameless object  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.4.6.  To support manifest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Requirements for NRS in ICN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.1.  Requirements as a service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.1.1.  Resolution response time  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.1.2.  Response accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.1.3.  Resolution guarantee  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.1.4.  Resolution fairness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  Requirements as a system  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.2.1.  Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       5.2.2.  Manageability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       5.2.3.  Deployed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       5.2.4.  Fault tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.3.  Requirements on Security aspect . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       5.3.1.  Accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       5.3.2.  Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       5.3.3.  Data confidentiality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       5.3.4.  Privacy protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       5.3.5.  Robustness/resiliency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       5.3.6.  Network privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

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     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

1.  Introduction

   The current Internet is a host-centric networking, where hosts are
   uniquely identified with IP addresses and communication is possible
   between any pair of hosts.  Thus, information in the current Internet
   is identified by the name of host where the information is stored.
   In contrast to the host-centric networking, the primary communication
   objects in Information-centric networking (ICN) are the named data
   objects (NDOs) and they are uniquely identified by the location-
   independent names.  Thus, ICN aiming to the efficient dissemination
   and retrieval of the NDOs in a global scale has been identified and
   acknowledged as a promising technology for the future Internet
   architecture to overcome the limitations of the current Internet such
   as scalability and mobility.[Ahlgren] [Xylomenos].  ICN also has been
   emerged as a candidate architecture for IoT environment since IoT
   focuses on data and information rather than end-to-end communications
   [Baccelli] [Amadeo] [Quevedo] [Amadeo2] [ID.Zhang2].

   Since naming data independently from the current location where it is
   stored is a primary concept of ICN, how to find the NDO using the
   location-independent name is one of the most important design
   challenges in ICN.  Such ICN routing may comprise three steps
   [RFC7927] :

   o  Name resolution : matches/translates a content name to locators of
      content producers or sources that can provide the content.

   o  Content discovery : routes the content request towards the
      content's location either based on its name or locator.

   o  Content delivery : transfers the content to the requester.

   Among these three steps of ICN routing, this document focuses only on
   the name resolution step which translates a content name to the
   content locators.  In addition, this document covers various possible
   types of name resolution in ICN such as one name to another name,
   name to manifest, and name to locator.

   This document first presents the components of the Name Resolution
   Service (NRS) in ICN and then discusses the objectives of NRS and the
   requirements in designing the NRS for ICN.

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2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Name Resolution Service in ICN

   The Name Resolution Service (NRS) in ICN is defined as the service
   that provides the name resolution function for translating an object
   name into some other information such as a locator and another name
   that is used for forwarding the object request.  In other words, the
   NRS is the service that shall be provided by ICN infrastructure to
   help a consumer to reach a specific piece of content, service, or
   host using a persistent name when the name resolution is needed.

   There are two main NRS components:

   o  NRS server: The NRS is a service maintained by a distributed
      mapping database system.  The NRS consists of the distributed NRS
      servers storing the mapping records in database.  NRS servers
      store and maintain the mapping records that keep the bindings of
      name to other information that is used for forwarding content

   o  NRS resolver: The client side of the NRS is called an NRS
      resolver.  The resolver is responsible for initiating and
      sequencing the name resolution request queries that ultimately
      lead to a name resolution of the data objects.  NRS resolvers can
      be located in the consumer (or client) nodes and ICN routers.  NRS
      resolver can also store the mapping records obtained through the
      name for later usage.

   There are two main NRS processes:

   o  Name registration: In order to create the NRS, the content names
      and their mapping records must be registered in NRS system by a
      publisher who has at least one authoritative NRS server or by a
      producer who generates named data objects.  The mapping
      information is the binding of a name to some information such as
      another names and locators, which are used for forwarding the
      content request.  Thus, a publisher or producer creates an NRS
      registration request and send to an NRS server.  On registration,
      the NRS server stores the mapping record in the database and sends
      back an ACK as a response back to the producer or publisher.

   o  Name resolution: Name resolution is the main process of the NRS.
      It is performed by an NRS resolver which can be deployed on a

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      consumer node or an ICN router.  When the required name mapping
      record has not been stored in the cache of a NRS resolver, it
      sends a name resolution request toward the NRS server.  The NRS
      server searches the content name in its mapping record database,
      retrieves and sends the mapping record in the name resolution
      response message to the NRS resolver.

4.  Objectives of NRS in ICN

   This section presents the objectives and use cases of NRS in ICN.

4.1.  To support heterogeneous types of names

   In ICN, a name is used to identify data object and is bound to it
   [RFC7927].  ICN requires uniqueness and persistency of the name of
   data object to ensure the reachability of the object within a certain
   scope and with proper authentication and trust management.  There are
   heterogeneous approaches to designing ICN naming schemes [Bari].
   Ideally, a name can include any form of identifier, which can be
   flat, hierarchical, and human readable or non-readable.

   Although there are diverse types of naming schemes proposed in
   literature, they all need to provide basic functions for identifying
   data object, supporting trust provenance, named data lookup and
   routing.  The NRS may combine the good aspects of different schemes.
   Basically, the NRS should be able to support a generic naming schema
   so that it can resolve any type of content name, irrespective of
   whether it is flat or hierarchical.

4.2.  To support dynamic features

   ICN natively supports mobility management.  Especially, consumer or
   client mobility is handled by requesting the content again in case
   the mobility or handover occurred before receiving the corresponding
   content from the network.  Since ICN can ensure that content
   reception continues without any disruption in ICN application,
   seamless mobility in consumer point of view can be easily supported.

   However, producer or publisher mobility in ICN is complicated to
   support.  If a producer moves into a different authority domain or
   network location, it would be difficult for the mobility management
   update RIB and FIB entries in ICN routers with the new forwarding
   path in a very short time.  Therefore, various ICN architectures in
   literatures have proposed to adopt NRS to achieve the producer or
   publisher mobility, where NRS can be implemented in different ways
   such as at rendezvous points and overlay mapping systems.

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   Besides the consumer and producer mobility, ICN also has to face
   challenges to support the other dynamic features such as multi-
   homing, migration, and replication of named resources such as
   content, devices, and services.  Therefore, NRS can help to support
   these dynamic features.

4.3.  To support efficient routing

   In ICN, name of data objects is used for routing by either name
   resolution step or routing table lookup.  Thus, routing information
   for each data object should be maintained in routing base, such as
   Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base (FIB).
   Since the number of data objects would be very large, the size of
   information bases would be significantly large as well [RFC7927].

   The hierarchical namespace used in CCN [CCN] and NDN [NDN]
   architectures reduces the size of these tables through name
   aggregation and improves scalability of routing system.  In a flat
   naming scheme, on the other hand, it would aggravate the scalability
   problem in routing system.  The non-aggregated name prefixes injected
   to the Default Route Free Zone (DFZ) of ICN would create more serious
   scalability problem similar to the scalability issue of IP routing
   system.  Thus, NRS may play an important role in the reduction of the
   routing scalability problem regardless of the types of namespaces.

4.4.  Use cases of NRS

   This subsection describes more specific use cases of NRS reported in
   ICN literature.

4.4.1.  To support flat name based routing

   In PURSUIT [PURSUIT], names are flat and the rendezvous functions are
   defined for NRS, which is implemented by a set of Rendezvous Nodes
   (RNs), the Rendezvous Network (RENE).  Thus a name consisted of a
   sequence of scope IDs and a single rendezvous ID is routed by RNs in
   RENE.  Thus, PURSUIT decouples name resolution and data routing,
   where NRS is performed by the RENE.

   In MobilityFirst [MF], a name called a global unique Identifier
   (GUID) derived from a human-readable name via a global naming service
   is flat typed 160-bits strings with self-certifying function.  Thus,
   MobilityFirst defines a global name resolution service (GNRS) which
   resolves GUIDs to network addresses and decouples name resolution and
   data routing as similar to PURSUIT.

   In NetInf [Dannewitz], named information (ni) naming consist of an
   authority part and digest part (content hash).  The ni names can be

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   flat as the authority part is optional.  Thus, the architecture also
   includes a Name Resolution System (NRS) which can be used to resolve
   ni names to addresses in an underlying routable network layer.

4.4.2.  To support producer mobility

   In NDN [Zhang2], for producer mobility support, rendezvous mechanisms
   have been proposed to build interests rendezvous (RV) with data
   generated by a mobile producer (MP).  There can be classified two
   approaches such as chase mobile producer and rendezvous data.
   Regarding MP chasing, rendezvous acts as a mapping service that
   provides the mapping from the name of the data produced by the MP to
   the MP's current point of attachment (PoA) name.  Alternatively, the
   RV serves as a home agent like as IP mobility support, so the RV
   enables consumer's interest message to tunnel towards the MP at the
   PoA.  Regarding rendezvous data, moving the data produced by the MP
   have been hosting at data depot instead of forwarding interest
   messages.  Thus a consumer's interest message can be forwarded to
   stationary place as called data rendezvous, so it would either return
   the data or fetch it using another mapping solution.  Therefore, RV
   or other mapping functions are in the role of NRS in NDN.

   In [Ravindran], forwarding-label (FL) object is referred to enable
   identifier (ID) and locator (LID) namespaces to be split in ICN.
   Generally, IDs are managed by applications, while locators are
   managed by a network administrator, so that IDs are mapping to
   heterogeneous name schemes and LIDs are mapping to network domains or
   specific network elements.  Thus the proposed FL object acts as a
   locator (LID) and provides the flexibility to forward Interest
   messages through mapping service between IDs and LIDs.  Therefore,
   the mapping service in control plane infrastructure can be considered
   as NRS in this draft.

   In MobilityFirst [MF], both consumer and publisher mobility can be
   primarily handled by the global name resolution service (GNRS) which
   resolves GUIDs to network addresses.  Thus, the GNRS must be updated
   for mobility support when a network attached object changes its point
   of attachment, which differs from NDN/CCN.

4.4.3.  To support scalable routing system

   In [Afanasyev], in order to address the routing scalability problem
   in NDN's DFZ, a well-known concept of Map-and-Encap is applied to
   provide a simple and secure namespace mapping solution.  In the
   proposed map-and-encap design, data whose name prefixes do not exist
   in the DFZ forwarding table can be retrieved by a distributed mapping
   system called NDNS, which maintains and lookups the mapping

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   information from a name to its globally routed prefixes, where NDNS
   is a kind of NRS.

4.4.4.  To support off-path caching

   Caching in-network is considered to be a basic architectural
   component of an ICN architecture.  It may be used to provide a
   Quality-of-Service (QoS) experience to users, reduce the overall
   network traffic, prevent network congestion and Denial-of-Service
   (DoS) attacks and increase availability.  Caching approaches can be
   categorized into off-path caching and on-path caching based on the
   location of caches in relation to the forwarding path from a original
   server to a consumer.  Off-path caching, also referred as content
   replication or content storing, aims to replicate content within a
   network in order to increase availability, regardless of the
   relationship of the location to the forwarding path.  Thus, finding
   off-path cached objects is not trivial in name based routing of ICN.
   In order to support off-path caches, replicas are usually advertised
   into a name- based routing system or into NRS.

   In [Bayhan], a NRS used to find off-path copies in the network, which
   may not be accessible via content discovery mechanisms.  Such
   capability is essential for an Autonomous System (AS) to avoid the
   costly inter-AS traffic for external content, to yield higher
   bandwidth efficiency for intra-AS traffic, and to decrease the data
   access latency for a pleasant user experience.

4.4.5.  To support nameless object

   In CCNx 1.0 [Mosko2], the concept of "Nameless Objects" that are a
   Content Object without a Name is introduced to provide a means to
   move Content between storage replicas without having to rename or re-
   sign the content objects for the new name.  Nameless Objects can be
   addressed by the ContentObjectHash that is to restrict Content Object
   matching by using SHA-256 hash.

   An Interest message would still carry a Name and a ContentObjectHash,
   where a Name is used for routing, while a ContentObjectHash is used
   for matching.  However, on the reverse path, if the Content Object's
   name is missing, it is a "Nameless Object" and only matches against
   the ContentObjectHash.  Therefore, a consumer needs to resolve proper
   name and hashes through an outside system, which can be considered as

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4.4.6.  To support manifest

   In collection of data objects which were organized as large and file
   like contents [FLIC], the manifests are used as data structures to
   transport this information.  Thus, the manifests may contain hash
   digests of signed content objects or other manifests, so that large
   content objects which represent large piece of application data can
   be collected by using the manifest.

   In order to request content objects, a consumer needs to know a
   manifest root name to acquire the manifest.  In case of FLIC, a
   manifest name can be represented by a nameless root manifest, so that
   outside system may be involved to give this information to the
   consumer.  Therefore, NRS can be considered as a kind of mapping
   database system.

5.  Requirements for NRS in ICN

   This section presents the requirements for designing NRS in ICN in
   terms of service, system and security aspects.

5.1.  Requirements as a service

   Resolution response time, resolution accuracy, resolution guarantee,
   and resolution fairness are the requirements for NRS as a service,
   which are described below.

5.1.1.  Resolution response time

   The name resolution process should provide a response within a
   reasonable amount of time.  The response should be either a proper
   mapping of the name to a copy of the content, or an error message
   stating that no such file exists.  If the name resolution does not
   map to a location, the system may not issue any response, and the
   client should set a timer when sending a request, so as to consider
   the resolution incomplete when the timer expires.

   The acceptable response delay should be of the order of a round trip
   time between the client issuing the request and the NRS servers that
   provides the response.  While this RTT may be very greatly depending
   on the proximity between the two end points, some upper bound should
   be used.

   The response time should be within the same order of magnitude for
   most pairs of a client issuing a request, and the NRS server
   responding to this request.

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   The response time should include all the steps of the resolution,
   including potentially a hop-by-hop resolution or a hierarchical
   forwarding of the resolution request.

5.1.2.  Response accuracy

   The NRS must provide an accurate response, namely a proper binding of
   the requested name (or prefix) with a location.  The response can be
   either a (prefix, location) pair, or the actual forwarding of a
   request to a node holding the content, which is then transmitted in

   The NRS must provide an up-to-date response, namely the NRS should be
   updated within a reasonable time when new copies of the content are
   being stored in the network.  While every transient cache addition/
   eviction should not trigger an NRS update, some origin servers may
   move and require the NRS to be updated.

   The NRS must provide mechanisms to update the mapping of the content
   with its location.  Namely, the NRS must provide a mechanism for a
   content owner to add new content, revoke old/dated/obsolete content,
   and modify existing content.  Any content update should then be
   propagated through the NRS system within reasonable delay.

   Content that is highly mobile may require to specify some type of
   anchor that is kept at the NRS, instead of the content location.

5.1.3.  Resolution guarantee

   The NRS must ensure that the name resolution would be successful if
   the name matching content exists in the network, regardless of its
   popularity and number of cached copies existing in the network.

5.1.4.  Resolution fairness

   The NRS should provide this service for all content in a fair manner,
   independently of the specific content properties (content producer,
   content popularity, availability of copies, content format, etc.)

5.2.  Requirements as a system

   Scalability, manageability, deployability, and fault tolerant are the
   requirements for NRS as a system, which are described below.

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5.2.1.  Scalability

   The NRS system must scale up to support a very large user population
   (including human users as well as machine-to-machine communications).
   The system must be able to respond to a very large number of requests
   per unit of time.  Message forwarding and processing, routing table
   building-up and name records propagation must be efficient and

   The NRS system must scale up with the number of pieces of content
   (content names) and should be able to support a content catalog that
   is extremely large.

   The NRS system must be able to scale up, namely to add NRS servers to
   the NRS system, in a way that is transparent to the users.  Addition
   of a new server should have limited impact on the other NRS servers
   (or should have impact on only a small subset of the NRS servers).

   The NRS system should support access from a heterogeneity of
   connection methods and devices.  In particular, the NRS system should
   support access from constrained devices and interactions with the NRS
   system should not be too costly.  An IoT node for instance should be
   able to access the NRS system as well as a more powerful node.

   The NRS system should scale up in its responsiveness to the increased
   request rate that is expected from applications such as IoT or M2M,
   where data is being frequently generated and/or frequently requested.

5.2.2.  Manageability

   The NRS system must be manageable since some parts of the system may
   grow or shrink dynamically and an NRS system node may be added or
   deleted frequently.

   The NRS may support an NRS management layer that allows for adding or
   subtracting NRS nodes.  The management layer should be able to infer
   if the use of the NRS in some parts of the network is growing (or

5.2.3.  Deployed system

   The NRS system must be deployable since deployability is important
   for a real world system.  The NRS system must be deployable in
   network edges and cores so that the consumers as well as ICN routers
   can perform name resolution in a very low latency.

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5.2.4.  Fault tolerance

   The NRS system must ensure resiliency in the event of NRS server
   failures.  The failure of a small subset of nodes should not impact
   the NRS performance significantly.

   After a NRS server fails, the NRS system must be able to recover and/
   or restore the name records stored in the NRS server.

5.3.  Requirements on Security aspect

   Accessibility, authentication, confidentiality and privacy protection
   are the requirements on security aspect of both the NRS server nodes
   and mapping records stored in the NRS system.  These requirements are
   described below.

5.3.1.  Accessibility

   The name records must have assigned with proper access rights such
   that the information contained in the name mapping record would not
   be revealed to unauthorized users.  In other words, the NRS system
   must be prevented from malicious users attempting to hijack or
   corrupt the name mapping records.

   The NRS may support access control for certain name records, so that
   only users with the proper credential can access these record, and
   these records would not be shared to unauthorized users.

   The NRS may support authentication of the content producers to
   determine that any location update/addition/removal that a content
   producer is requesting is indeed valid and that the content producer
   is authorized to modify this record.

   The NRS should verify new mapping location that are being registered
   so that it cannot be polluted with falsified information or invalid

5.3.2.  Authentication

   The NRS must require authentication of new NRS nodes that register
   themselves in the NRS system to ensure they are who they claim to be.
   For example, it should detect an attacker attempting to act as a fake
   NRS server to disrupt the NRS service, or to intercept some users'

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5.3.3.  Data confidentiality

   NRS must keep the data confidentiality to prevent a lot of sensitive
   data from reaching unauthorized data requestor such as in IoT

   NRS must keep meta-data confidential as well as usage to protect the
   privacy of the users.  For instance, a specific user's NRS requests
   should not be shared outside the NRS system (with the exception of
   legal intercept).

5.3.4.  Privacy protection

   When a private name mapping record is registered in the system, the
   NRS system must support the privacy to avoid the information leaking.
   Otherwise, unauthorized entity may disclose the privacy.

5.3.5.  Robustness/resiliency

   The NRS system should be resilient to denial of service attacks and/
   or other common attacks on the integrity of its system.  The NRS
   system should be resilient if a few attacked nodes are unable to
   participate in the system.

5.3.6.  Network privacy

   The NRS node in a given subdomain should not leak information about
   this domain (say, topology, number of nodes, number of clients,
   number of requests) to nodes outside of this domain, except for
   sharing the content that it is allowed to advertise, or for the
   management protocols that it is supporting.

6.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations related to this document.

7.  Security Considerations


8.  Acknowledgements


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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC7927]  Kutscher, D., Ed., Eum, S., Pentikousis, K., Psaras, I.,
              Corujo, D., Saucez, D., Schmidt, T., and M. Waehlisch,
              "Information-Centric Networking (ICN) Research
              Challenges", RFC 7927, DOI 10.17487/RFC7927, July 2016,

9.2.  Informative References

   [Ahlgren]  Ahlgren, B., Dannewitz, C., Imbrenda, C., Kutscher, D.,
              and B. Ohlman, "A Survey of Information-Centric
              Networking", IEEE Communications Magarzine Vol.50, Issue
              7, 2012.

              Xylomenos, G., Ververidis, C., Siris, V., Fotiou, N.,
              Tsilopoulos, C., Vasilako, X., Katsaros, K., and G.
              Polyzos, "A Survey of Information-Centric Networking
              Research,Communications Surveys and Tutorials", IEEE
              Communications Surveys and Tutorials vol. 16, no. 2, 2014.

              Baccelli, E., Mehlis, C., Hahm, O., Schmidt, T., and M.
              Wahlisch, "Information Centric Networking in the IoT:
              Experiments with NDN in the Wild", ACM ICN 2014, 2014.

   [Amadeo]   Amadeo, M., Campolo, C., Iera, A., and A. Molinaro, "Named
              data networking for IoT: An architectural perspective",
              European Conference on Networks and Communications
              (EuCNC) , 2014.

   [Quevedo]  Quevedo, J., Corujo, D., and R. Aguiar, "A case for ICN
              usage in IoT environments", IEEE GLOBECOM , 2014.

   [Amadeo2]  Amadeo, M. et al., "Information-centric networking for the
              internet of things: challenges and opportunitiesve", IEEE
              Network vol. 30, no. 2, July 2016.

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              Zhang, Y., "Design Considerations for Applying ICN to
              IoT", draft-zhang-icnrg-icniot-01 , June 2017.

   [Koponen]  Koponen, T., Chawla, M., Chun, B., Ermolinskiy, A., Kim,
              K., Shenker, S., and I. Stoica, "A Data-Oriented (and
              Beyond) Network Architecture", ACM SIGCOMM 2007 pp.
              181-192, 2007.

   [PURSUIT]  "FP7 PURSUIT project.",

   [SAIL]     "FP7 SAIL project.", .

   [NDN]      "NSF Named Data Networking project.",

   [CCN]      "Content Centric Networking project.",

   [MF]       "NSF Mobility First project.",

   [Jung]     Jung, H. et al., "IDNet: Beyond All-IP Network", ETRI
              Jouranl vol. 37, no. 5, October 2015.

              Jacobson, V., Smetters, D., Thornton, J., Plass, M.,
              Briggs, N., and R. Braynard, "Networking Named Content",
              ACM CoNEXT , 2009.

   [Baid]     Baid, A., Vu, T., and D. Raychaudhuri, "Comparing
              Alternative Approaches for Networking of Named Objects in
              the Future Internet", IEEE Workshop on Emerging Design
              Choices in Name-Oriented Networking (NOMEN) , 2012.

   [Bari]     Bari, M., Chowdhury, S., Ahmed, R., Boutaba, R., and B.
              Mathieu, "A Survey of Naming and Routing in Information-
              Centric Networks", IEEE Communications Magazine Vol. 50,
              No. 12, P.44-53, 2012.

              Rajahalme, J., Sarela, M., Visala, K., and J. Riihijarvi,
              "On Name-based Inter-domain Routing", Computer
              Networks Vol. 55, No. 4, P. 975-986, March 2011.

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              Katsaros, K., Fotiou, N., Vasilakos, X., Ververidis, C.,
              Tsilopoulos, C., Xylomenos, G., and G. Polyzos, "On Inter-
              Domain Name Resolution for Information-Centric Networks",
              Proc.IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference , 2012.

   [ID.Wang]  Wang, J., Li, S., and C. Wetphal, "Namespace Resolution in
              Future Internet Architectures", draft-wang-fia-
              namespace-01 , October 2015.

              Zhang, X., Ravindran, R., Xie, H., and G. Wang, "PID: A
              Generic Naming Schema for Information-centric Network",
              draft-zhang-icnrg-pid-naming-scheme-03 , August 2013.

   [D.Zhang]  Zhang, D. and H. Liu, "Routing and Name Resolution in
              Information-Centric Networks", 22nd International
              Conference on Computer Communications and Networks
              (ICCCN) , 2013.

   [Sevilla]  Sevilla, S., Mahadevan, P., and J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves,
              "iDNS: Enabling Information Centric Networking Through The
              DNS", Name Oriented Mobility (workshop co-located with
              Infocom 2014) , 2014.

   [RFC1498]  Saltzer, J., "On the Naming and Binding of Network
              Destinations", RFC 1498, DOI 10.17487/RFC1498, August
              1993, <>.

   [oneM2M]   "oneM2M Functional Architecture TS 0001.",

   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,

              Shelby, Z., "CoRE Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core-
              resource-directory-10 , March 2017.

   [CoRE]     "Constrained RESTful Environments, CoRE",
     , March

              Westphal, C. and E. Demirors, "An IP-based Manifest
              Architecture for ICN", ACM ICN , 2015.

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   [Mosko]    Mosko, M., Scott, G., Solis, I., and C. Wood, "CCNx
              Manifest Specification", draft-wood-icnrg-
              ccnxmanifests-00 , July 2015.

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6830, January 2013,

   [RFC6833]  Fuller, V. and D. Farinacci, "Locator/ID Separation
              Protocol (LISP) Map-Server Interface", RFC 6833,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6833, January 2013,

   [Zhang]    Zhang, L. et al., "Named data networking", ACM SIGCOMM
              Computer Communication Review vol. 44, no. 3, July 2014.

   [Zhang2]   Zhang, Y., "A Survey of Mobility Support in Named Data

              Dannewitz, C. et al., "Network of Information (NetInf)-An
              information centric networking architecture", Computer
              Communications vol. 36, no. 7, April 2013.

   [Seskar]   Seskar, I., Nagaraja, K., Nelson, S., and D. Raychaudhuri,
              "MobilityFirst Future Internet Architecture Project", 7th
              Asian Internet Engineering Conference , November 2011.

              Dannewitz, C., DAmbrosio, M., and V. Vercellone,
              "Hierarchical DHT-based name resolution for Information-
              Centric Networks", Computer Communications vol. 36, no. 7,
              April 2013.

   [Vu]       Vu, T. et al., "DMap: A Shared Hosting Scheme for Dynamic
              Identifier to Locator Mapping in the Global Internet",
              IEEE 32nd International Conference on Distributed
              Computing Systems , 2012.

   [Hong]     Hong, J., Chun, W., and H. Jung, "Demonstrating a Scalable
              Name Resolution System for Information-Centric
              Networking", ACM ICN , September 2015.

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              Ravindran, R. et al., "Forwarding-Label support in CCN
              Protocol", draft-ravi-icnrg-ccn-forwarding-label-01 , July

              Afanasyev, A. et al., "SNAMP: Secure Namespace Mapping to
              Scale NDN Forwarding", IEEE Global Internet Symposium ,
              April 2015.

   [Mosko2]   Mosko, M., "Nameless Objects",  , July 2015.

   [Bayhan]   Bayhan, S. et al., "On Content Indexing for Off-Path
              Caching in Information-Centric Networks", ACM ICN ,
              September 2016.

   [FLIC]     Tschudin, C. and C. Wood, "File-Like ICN Collection
              (FLIC)", draft-irtf-icnrg-flic-01, , June 2018.

Authors' Addresses

   Jungha Hong
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  34129


   Tae-Wan You
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  34129


   Yong-Geun Hong
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  34129


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   Lijun Dong
   10180 Telesis Court
   San Diego, CA  92121


   Cedric Westphal
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara, CA  95050


   Ved Kafle
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Koganei, Tokyo  184-8795


   Borje Ohlman
   Ericsson Research
   S-16480 Stockholm


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