ICN Research Group                                               J. Hong
Internet-Draft                                                    T. You
Intended status: Informational                                 Y-G. Hong
Expires: May 7, 2020                                                ETRI
                                                                 L. Dong
                                                             C. Westphal
                                             Futurewei Technologies Inc.
                                                               B. Ohlman
                                                       November 04, 2019

          Design Guidelines for Name Resolution Service in ICN


   This document discusses the functionalities and design guidelines for
   Name Resolution Service (NRS) in ICN.  The NRS in ICN is to translate
   an object name into some other information such as a locator, another
   name, etc. for forwarding the object request.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 7, 2020.

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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents

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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Name Resolution Service in ICN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Explicit name resolution approach . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Name-based routing approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.3.  Hybrid approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.4.  Comparisons of name resolution approaches . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Functionalities of NRS in ICN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Support heterogeneous name types  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Support producer mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Support scalable routing system . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.4.  Support off-path caching  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  Support nameless object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.6.  Support manifest  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.7.  Support metadata  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Design guidelines for NRS in ICN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  Resolution response time  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Response accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Resolution guarantee  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.4.  Resolution fairness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.5.  Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.6.  Manageability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.7.  Deployed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.8.  Fault tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.1.  Accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.2.  Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.3.  Data confidentiality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.4.  Privacy protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     6.5.  Robustness/resiliency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     6.6.  Network privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

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1.  Introduction

   The current Internet is a host-centric networking, where hosts are
   uniquely identified with IP addresses and communication is possible
   between any pair of hosts.  Thus, information in the current Internet
   is identified by the name of host where the information is stored.
   In contrast to the host-centric networking, the primary communication
   objects in Information-centric networking (ICN) are the named data
   objects (NDOs) and they are uniquely identified by the location-
   independent names.  Thus, ICN aiming to the efficient dissemination
   and retrieval of the NDOs in a global scale has been identified and
   acknowledged as a promising technology for the future Internet
   architecture to overcome the limitations of the current Internet such
   as scalability and mobility.[Ahlgren] [Xylomenos].  ICN also has been
   emerged as a candidate architecture for IoT environment since IoT
   focuses on data and information rather than end-to-end communications
   [Baccelli] [Amadeo] [Quevedo] [Amadeo2] [ID.Zhang2].

   Since naming data independently from the current location where it is
   stored is a primary concept of ICN, how to find the NDO using the
   location-independent name is one of the most important design
   challenges in ICN.  Such ICN routing may comprise three steps
   [RFC7927] :

   o  Name resolution : matches/translates a content name to locators of
      content producers or sources that can provide the content.

   o  Content request routing : routes the content request towards the
      content's location either based on its name or locator.

   o  Content delivery : transfers the content to the requester.

   Among these three steps of ICN routing, this document focuses only on
   the name resolution step which translates a content name to the
   content locators.  In addition, this document covers various possible
   types of name resolution in ICN such as one name to another name,
   name to manifest, name to locator, name to metadata, etc.

   This document presents the overview of the Name Resolution Service
   (NRS) approaches in ICN and also discusses the functionalities and
   the guidelines in designing the NRS for ICN.  This document focuses
   on NRS itself as a service or a system in ICN, while [NRSarch]
   document focuses on the ICN architectural considerations for NRS.

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2.  Name Resolution Service in ICN

   The Name Resolution Service (NRS) in ICN is defined as the service
   that provides the name resolution function for translating an object
   name into some other information such as a locator, another name,
   metadata, etc. that is used for forwarding the object request.  In
   other words, the NRS is a service that can be provided by ICN
   infrastructure to help a consumer to reach a specific piece of
   information objects.  The consumer provides the NRS with a persistent
   name and the NRS returns a name or locator that can reach a current
   instance of the requested object.

   The name resolution is a necessary process in ICN routing although
   the name resolution either can be separated from the content request
   routing as an explicit process or can be integrated with the content
   request routing as an implicit process.  The former is referred as
   explicit name resolution approach, the latter is referred as name-
   based routing approach in this document.

2.1.  Explicit name resolution approach

   The NRS could take the explicit name resolution approach to return
   the client with the locators of the content, which will be used by
   the underlying network as the identifier to route the client's
   request to one of the producers.  There are several ICN projects that
   use the explicit name resolution approach such as DONA [Koponen],
   PURSUIT [PURSUIT], NetInf [SAIL], MobilityFirst [MF], IDNet [Jung],
   etc.  In addition, the explicit name resolution approach has been
   allowed for 5G control planes [SA2-5GLAN].

2.2.  Name-based routing approach

   The NRS could take the name-based routing approach, which integrates
   the name resolution with the content request message routing as in
   NDN [NDN]/CCNx [CCNx].

   In the case that the content request also specifies the reverse path,
   as in NDN/CCNx, the name resolution mechanism also derives the
   routing path for the data.  This adds a requirement on the name
   resolution service to propagate request in a way that is consistent
   with the subsequent data forwarding.  Namely, the request must select
   a path for the data based upon the finding the copy of the content,
   but also properly delivering the data.

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2.3.  Hybrid approach

   The NRS could also take hybrid approach which can perform the name-
   based routing approach from the beginning.  When it fails at certain
   router, the router can go back to the explicit name resolution
   approach.  The alternative hybrid NRS approach also works, which can
   perform explicit name resolution approach from the beginning to find
   locators of routers.  And then it can carry out the name-based
   routing approach of the client's request.

   A hybrid approach would combine name resolution as a subset of
   routers on the path with some tunneling in between (say, across an
   administrative domain) so that only a few of the nodes in the ICN
   network perform name resolution in the name-based routing approach.

2.4.  Comparisons of name resolution approaches

   The following compares the explicit name resolution and the name-
   based routing approaches from different aspects:

   o  Update message overhead : The update message overhead is due to
      the change of content reachability, which may include content
      caching or expiration, content producer mobility etc.  The name-
      based routing approach may require flooding parts of the network
      for update propagation.  In the worst case, the name-based routing
      approach may flood the whole network (but mitigating techniques
      may be used to scope the flooding).  However, the explicit name
      resolution approach only requires updating propagation in part of
      the name resolution overlay.

   o  Resolution capability : The explicit name resolution approach, if
      designed and deployed with sufficient robustness, can offer at
      least weak guarantees that resolution will succeed for any content
      name in the network if it is registered to the name resolution
      overlay.  In the name-based routing approach, content resolution
      depends on the flooding scope of the content names (i.e. content
      publishing message and the resulting name based routing tables).
      For example, when a content is cached, the router may only notify
      this information to its direct neighbors.  Thus only those
      neighboring routers can build a named based entry for this cached
      content.  But if the neighboring routers continue to propagate
      this information, the other nodes are able to direct to this
      cached copy as well.

   o  Node failure impact : Nodes involved in the explicit name
      resolution approach are the name resolution overlay servers (e.g.
      Resolution Handlers in DONA), while the nodes involved in the
      name-based routing approach are routers which route messages based

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      on the name-based routing tables (e.g.  NDN routers).  Node
      failures in the explicit name resolution approach may cause some
      content discovery to fail even though the content is available.
      This problem does not exist in the name-based routing approach
      because other alternative paths can be discovered to bypass the
      failed ICN routers, given the assumption that the network is still

   o  Maintained databases : The storage usage for the explicit name
      resolution approach is different from that of the name-based
      routing approach.  The explicit name resolution approach typically
      needs to maintain two databases: name to locator mapping in the
      name resolution overlay and routing tables in the routers on the
      data forwarding plane.  The name-based routing approach needs to
      maintain only the name-based routing tables.

   Additionally, some other intermediary step may be included in the
   name resolution, namely the mapping of one name to other names, in
   order to facilitate the retrieval of named content, by way of a
   manifest [Westphal] [Mosko].  The manifest is resolved using one of
   the two above approaches, and it may include further mapping of names
   to content and location.  The steps for name resolution then become:
   first translate the manifest name into a location of a copy of the
   manifest; the manifest includes further names of the content
   components, and potentially locations for the content.  The content
   is then retrieved by using these names and/or location, potentially
   resulting in additional name resolutions.

   Thus, no matter which approach is taken by the NRS in ICN, the name
   resolution is the essential function that shall be provided by the
   ICN infrastructure.

3.  Functionalities of NRS in ICN

   This section presents the functionalities of NRS in ICN.

3.1.  Support heterogeneous name types

   In ICN, a name is used to identify data object and is bound to it
   [RFC7927].  ICN requires uniqueness and persistency of the name of
   data object to ensure the reachability of the object within a certain
   scope.  There are heterogeneous approaches to designing ICN naming
   schemes [Bari].  Ideally, a name can include any form of identifier,
   which can be flat, hierarchical, and human readable or non-readable.

   Although there are diverse types of naming schemes proposed in
   literature, they all need to provide basic functions for identifying
   data object, supporting named data lookup and routing.  The NRS may

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   combine the good aspects of different schemes.  Basically, the NRS
   should be able to support a generic naming schema so that it can
   resolve any type of content name, irrespective of whether it is flat,
   hierarchical, attributed based or anything else.

   In PURSUIT [PURSUIT], names are flat and the rendezvous functions are
   defined for NRS, which is implemented by a set of Rendezvous Nodes
   (RNs), the Rendezvous Network (RENE).  Thus a name consisted of a
   sequence of scope IDs and a single rendezvous ID is routed by RNs in
   RENE.  Thus, PURSUIT decouples name resolution and data routing,
   where NRS is performed by the RENE.

   In MobilityFirst [MF], a name called a global unique Identifier
   (GUID) derived from a human-readable name via a global naming service
   is flat typed 160-bits strings with self-certifying properties.
   Thus, MobilityFirst defines a global name resolution service (GNRS)
   which resolves GUIDs to network addresses and decouples name
   resolution and data routing as similar to PURSUIT.

   In NetInf [Dannewitz], information objects are named using ni-naming
   [RFC6920], which consist of an authority part and digest part
   (content hash).  The ni names can be flat as the authority part is
   optional.  Thus, the NetInf architecture also includes a Name
   Resolution System (NRS) which can be used to resolve ni-names to
   addresses in an underlying routable network layer.

   In NDN [NDN] and CCNx [CCNx], names are hierarchical and may be
   similar to URLs.  Each name component can be anything, including a
   dotted human-readable string or a hash value.  NDN/CCNx adopts the
   name based routing approach.  The NDN router forwards the request by
   doing the longest-match lookup in the Forwarding Information Base
   (FIB) based on the content name and the request is stored in the
   Pending Interest Table (PIT).

3.2.  Support producer mobility

   ICN natively supports mobility management.  Especially, consumer or
   client mobility is handled by requesting the content again in case
   the mobility or handover occurred before receiving the corresponding
   content from the network.  Since ICN can ensure that content
   reception continues without any disruption in ICN application,
   seamless mobility in consumer point of view can be easily supported.

   However, producer mobility does not emerge naturally from the ICN
   forwarding model as does consumer mobility.  If a producer moves into
   a different network location or a different name domain, which is
   assigned by another authoritative publisher, it would be difficult
   for the mobility management update RIB and FIB entries in ICN routers

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   with the new forwarding path in a very short time.  Therefore,
   various ICN architectures in literatures have proposed to adopt NRS
   to achieve the producer or publisher mobility, where NRS can be
   implemented in different ways such as at rendezvous points and
   overlay mapping systems.

   In NDN [Zhang2], for producer mobility support, rendezvous mechanisms
   have been proposed to build interests rendezvous (RV) with data
   generated by a mobile producer (MP).  There can be classified two
   approaches such as chase mobile producer and rendezvous data.
   Regarding MP chasing, rendezvous acts as a mapping service that
   provides the mapping from the name of the data produced by the MP to
   the MP's current point of attachment (PoA) name.  Alternatively, the
   RV serves as a home agent like as IP mobility support, so the RV
   enables consumer's interest message to tunnel towards the MP at the
   PoA.  Regarding rendezvous data, moving the data produced by the MP
   have been hosting at data depot instead of forwarding interest
   messages.  Thus a consumer's interest message can be forwarded to
   stationary place as called data rendezvous, so it would either return
   the data or fetch it using another mapping solution.  Therefore, RV
   or other mapping functions are in the role of NRS in NDN.

   In [Ravindran], forwarding-label (FL) object is referred to enable
   identifier (ID) and locator (LID) namespaces to be split in ICN.
   Generally, IDs are managed by applications, while locators are
   managed by a network administrator, so that IDs are mapping to
   heterogeneous name schemes and LIDs are mapping to network domains or
   specific network elements.  Thus the proposed FL object acts as a
   locator (LID) and provides the flexibility to forward Interest
   messages through mapping service between IDs and LIDs.  Therefore,
   the mapping service in control plane infrastructure can be considered
   as NRS in this draft.

   In MobilityFirst [MF], both consumer and publisher mobility can be
   primarily handled by the global name resolution service (GNRS) which
   resolves GUIDs to network addresses.  Thus, the GNRS must be updated
   for mobility support when a network attached object changes its point
   of attachment, which differs from NDN/CCNx.

   In NetInf [Dannewitz], mobility is handled by the NRS in a very
   similar way as done in MobilityFirst.

   Besides the consumer and producer mobility, ICN also has to face
   challenges to support the other dynamic features such as multi-
   homing, migration, and replication of named resources such as
   content, devices, and services.  Therefore, NRS can help to support
   these dynamic features.

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3.3.  Support scalable routing system

   In ICN, name of data objects is used for routing by either name
   resolution step or routing table lookup.  Thus, routing information
   for each data object should be maintained in routing base, such as
   Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base (FIB).
   Since the number of data objects would be very large, the size of
   information bases would be significantly large as well [RFC7927].

   The hierarchical namespace used in CCNx [CCNx] and NDN [NDN]
   architectures reduces the size of these tables through name
   aggregation and improves scalability of routing system.  In a flat
   naming scheme, on the other hand, it would aggravate the scalability
   problem in routing system.  The non-aggregated name prefixes injected
   to the Default Route Free Zone (DFZ) of ICN would create more serious
   scalability problem similar to the scalability issue of IP routing
   system.  Thus, NRS may play an important role in the reduction of the
   routing scalability problem regardless of the types of namespaces.

   In [Afanasyev], in order to address the routing scalability problem
   in NDN's DFZ, a well-known concept of Map-and-Encap is applied to
   provide a simple and secure namespace mapping solution.  In the
   proposed map-and-encap design, data whose name prefixes do not exist
   in the DFZ forwarding table can be retrieved by a distributed mapping
   system called NDNS, which maintains and lookups the mapping
   information from a name to its globally routed prefixes, where NDNS
   is a kind of NRS.

3.4.  Support off-path caching

   Caching in-network is considered to be a basic architectural
   component of an ICN architecture.  It may be used to provide a
   Quality-of-Service (QoS) experience to users, reduce the overall
   network traffic, prevent network congestion and Denial-of-Service
   (DoS) attacks and increase availability.  Caching approaches can be
   categorized into off-path caching and on-path caching based on the
   location of caches in relation to the forwarding path from a original
   server to a consumer.  Off-path caching, also referred as content
   replication or content storing, aims to replicate content within a
   network in order to increase availability, regardless of the
   relationship of the location to the forwarding path.  Thus, finding
   off-path cached objects is not trivial in name based routing of ICN.
   In order to support off-path caches, replicas are usually advertised
   into a name-based routing system or into NRS.

   In [Bayhan], a NRS is used to find off-path copies in the network,
   which may not be accessible via content discovery mechanisms.  Such
   capability can be helpful for an Autonomous System (AS) to avoid the

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   costly inter-AS traffic for external content more, to yield higher
   bandwidth efficiency for intra-AS traffic, and to decrease the data
   access latency for a pleasant user experience.

3.5.  Support nameless object

   In CCNx 1.0 [Mosko2], the concept of "Nameless Objects" that are a
   Content Object without a Name is introduced to provide a means to
   move Content between storage replicas without having to rename or re-
   sign the content objects for the new name.  Nameless Objects can be
   addressed by the ContentObjectHash that is to restrict Content Object
   matching by using SHA-256 hash.

   An Interest message would still carry a Name and a ContentObjectHash,
   where a Name is used for routing, while a ContentObjectHash is used
   for matching.  However, on the reverse path, if the Content Object's
   name is missing, it is a "Nameless Object" and only matches against
   the ContentObjectHash.  Therefore, a consumer needs to resolve proper
   name and hashes through an outside system, which can be considered as

3.6.  Support manifest

   In collection of data objects which were organized as large and file
   like contents [FLIC], the manifests are used as data structures to
   transport this information.  Thus, the manifests may contain hash
   digests of signed content objects or other manifests, so that large
   content objects which represent large piece of application data can
   be collected by using the manifest.

   In order to request content objects, a consumer needs to know a
   manifest root name to acquire the manifest.  In case of FLIC, a
   manifest name can be represented by a nameless root manifest, so that
   outside system such as NRS may be involved to give this information
   to the consumer.

3.7.  Support metadata

   When resolving the name of a content object the NRS in addition to
   returning a locator could return a rich set of metadata.  The
   metadata could include alternative object locations, supported object
   transfer protocol(s), caching policy, security parameters, data
   format, hash of object data, etc.  The consumer could use this
   metadata for selection of object transfer protocol, security
   mechanism, egress interface, etc.  An example of how metadata can be
   used in this way is provided by the NEO ICN architecture [NEO].

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4.  Design guidelines for NRS in ICN

   This section presents the guidelines for designing NRS in ICN.

4.1.  Resolution response time

   The name resolution process should provide a response within a
   reasonable amount of time.  The response should be either a proper
   mapping of the name to a copy of the content, or an error message
   stating that no such object exists.  If the name resolution does not
   map to a location, the system may not issue any response, and the
   client should set a timer when sending a request, so as to consider
   the resolution incomplete when the timer expires.

   The acceptable response delay should be of the order of a round trip
   time between the client issuing the request and the NRS servers that
   provides the response.  While this RTT may be vary greatly depending
   on the proximity between the two end points, some upper bound should
   be used.  Especially, in some delay-sensitive scenarios such as
   industrial Internet and telemedicine, the upper bound of the response
   delay must be guaranteed.

   The response time should be within the same order of magnitude for
   most pairs of a client issuing a request, and the NRS server
   responding to this request.

   The response time should include all the steps of the resolution,
   including potentially a hop-by-hop resolution or a hierarchical
   forwarding of the resolution request.

4.2.  Response accuracy

   The NRS must provide an accurate response, namely a proper binding of
   the requested name (or prefix) with a location.  The response can be
   either a (prefix, location) pair, or the actual forwarding of a
   request to a node holding the content, which is then transmitted in

   The NRS must provide an up-to-date response, namely the NRS should be
   updated within a reasonable time when new copies of the content are
   being stored in the network.  While every transient cache addition/
   eviction should not trigger an NRS update, some origin servers may
   move and require the NRS to be updated.

   The NRS must provide mechanisms to update the mapping of the content
   with its location.  Namely, the NRS must provide a mechanism for a
   content owner to add new content, revoke old/dated/obsolete content,

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   and modify existing content.  Any content update should then be
   propagated through the NRS system within reasonable delay.

   Content that is highly mobile may require to specify some type of
   anchor that is kept at the NRS, instead of the content location.

4.3.  Resolution guarantee

   The NRS must ensure that the name resolution would be successful if
   the name matching content exists in the network, regardless of its
   popularity and number of cached copies existing in the network.

4.4.  Resolution fairness

   The NRS should provide this service for all content in a fair manner,
   independently of the specific content properties (content producer,
   content popularity, availability of copies, content format, etc.).
   Fairness may be defined as a per request delay to complete the NRS
   steps that is not agnostic to the properties of the content itself.
   Fairness may be defined as well as the number of requests answered
   per unit of time.

   However, it should be noted that content (or their associated
   producer) may request a different level of QoS from the network (see
   [QoSarch] for instance), and this may include the NRS as well, in
   which case considerations of fairness may be restricted to content
   within the same class of service.

4.5.  Scalability

   The NRS system must scale up to support a very large user population
   (including human users as well as machine-to-machine communications).
   As an idea of the scale, it is expected that 50 billion devices will
   be connected in 2025 (per ITU projections).  The system must be able
   to respond to a very large number of requests per unit of time.
   Message forwarding and processing, routing table building-up and name
   records propagation must be efficient and scalable.

   The NRS system must scale up with the number of pieces of content
   (content names) and should be able to support a content catalog that
   is extremely large.  Internet traffic is of the order of the
   zettabytes per year (10^21 bytes).  Since NRS is associated with
   actual traffic, the number of pieces of content should scale with the
   amount of traffic.  Content size may vary from a few bytes to several
   GB, so the NRS should be expected scale up to catalog of the size of
   10^21 in the near future, and larger beyond.

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   The NRS system must be able to scale up, namely to add NRS servers to
   the NRS system, in a way that is transparent to the users.  Addition
   of a new server should have limited negative impact on the other NRS
   servers (or should have a negative impact on only a small subset of
   the NRS servers).  The impact of adding new servers may induce some
   overhead at the other servers to rebuild a hierarchy or to exchange
   messages to include the new server within the service.  Further, data
   may be shared among the new servers, for load balancing or tolerance
   to failure.  These steps should not disrupt the service provided by
   the NRS and should in the long run improve the quality of the

   The NRS system should support access from a heterogeneity of
   connection methods and devices.  In particular, the NRS system should
   support access from constrained devices and interactions with the NRS
   system should not be too costly.  An IoT node for instance should be
   able to access the NRS system as well as a more powerful node.

   The NRS system should scale up in its responsiveness to the increased
   request rate that is expected from applications such as IoT or M2M,
   where data is being frequently generated and/or frequently requested.

4.6.  Manageability

   The NRS system must be manageable since some parts of the system may
   grow or shrink dynamically and an NRS system node may be added or
   deleted frequently.

   The NRS may support an NRS management layer that allows for adding or
   subtracting NRS nodes.  In order to infer the circumstance, the
   management layer can measure network status.

4.7.  Deployed system

   The NRS system must be deployable since deployability is important
   for a real world system.  The NRS system must be deployable in
   network edges and cores so that the consumers as well as ICN routers
   can perform name resolution in a very low latency.

4.8.  Fault tolerance

   The NRS system must ensure resiliency in the event of NRS server
   failures.  The failure of a small subset of nodes should not impact
   the NRS performance significantly.

   After a NRS server fails, the NRS system must be able to recover and/
   or restore the name records stored in the NRS server.

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5.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations related to this document.

6.  Security Considerations

   Accessibility, authentication, confidentiality and privacy protection
   are the concerns on security aspect of both the NRS server nodes and
   mapping records stored in the NRS system.

6.1.  Accessibility

   The name records must have assigned and updated with proper access
   rights such that the information contained in the name mapping record
   would not be revealed to unauthorized users or producers.
   Additionally, the NRS system must be prevented from malicious users
   attempting to corrupt the name mapping records.

   The NRS may support access control for certain name records, so that
   only users and producers within the proper lists can access these
   records, and these records would not be shared to unauthorized users
   and producers.

   The NRS should support authentication of the content producers to
   determine that any location update/addition/removal that a content
   producer is requesting is indeed valid and that the content producer
   is authorized to modify this record.

6.2.  Authentication

   The NRS must require authentication of new NRS nodes that register
   themselves in the NRS system to ensure they are who they claim to be.
   For example, it should detect an attacker attempting to act as a fake
   NRS server to disrupt the NRS service, or to intercept some users'

6.3.  Data confidentiality

   NRS must keep the data confidentiality to prevent a lot of sensitive
   data from reaching unauthorized data requestor such as in IoT

   NRS must keep meta-data confidential as well as usage to protect the
   privacy of the users.  For instance, a specific user's NRS requests
   should not be shared outside the NRS system (with the exception of
   legal intercept).

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6.4.  Privacy protection

   When a private name mapping record is registered in the system, the
   NRS system must support the privacy to avoid the information leaking.
   Otherwise, unauthorized entity may disclose the privacy.

6.5.  Robustness/resiliency

   The NRS system should be resilient to denial of service attacks and/
   or other common attacks on the integrity of its system.  The NRS
   system should be resilient if a few attacked nodes are unable to
   participate in the system.

6.6.  Network privacy

   The NRS node in a given subdomain should not leak information about
   this domain (say, topology, number of nodes, number of clients,
   number of requests) to nodes outside of this domain, except for
   sharing the content that it is allowed to advertise, or for the
   management protocols that it is supporting.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Ved Kafle for his valuable comments
   and suggestions on this document.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC7927]  Kutscher, D., Ed., Eum, S., Pentikousis, K., Psaras, I.,
              Corujo, D., Saucez, D., Schmidt, T., and M. Waehlisch,
              "Information-Centric Networking (ICN) Research
              Challenges", RFC 7927, DOI 10.17487/RFC7927, July 2016,

8.2.  Informative References

   [Ahlgren]  Ahlgren, B., Dannewitz, C., Imbrenda, C., Kutscher, D.,
              and B. Ohlman, "A Survey of Information-Centric
              Networking", IEEE Communications Magarzine Vol.50, Issue
              7, 2012.

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              Xylomenos, G., Ververidis, C., Siris, V., Fotiou, N.,
              Tsilopoulos, C., Vasilako, X., Katsaros, K., and G.
              Polyzos, "A Survey of Information-Centric Networking
              Research,Communications Surveys and Tutorials", IEEE
              Communications Surveys and Tutorials vol. 16, no. 2, 2014.

              Baccelli, E., Mehlis, C., Hahm, O., Schmidt, T., and M.
              Wahlisch, "Information Centric Networking in the IoT:
              Experiments with NDN in the Wild", ACM ICN 2014, 2014.

   [Amadeo]   Amadeo, M., Campolo, C., Iera, A., and A. Molinaro, "Named
              data networking for IoT: An architectural perspective",
              European Conference on Networks and Communications
              (EuCNC) , 2014.

   [Quevedo]  Quevedo, J., Corujo, D., and R. Aguiar, "A case for ICN
              usage in IoT environments", IEEE GLOBECOM , 2014.

   [Amadeo2]  Amadeo, M. et al., "Information-centric networking for the
              internet of things: challenges and opportunitiesve", IEEE
              Network vol. 30, no. 2, July 2016.

              Zhang, Y., "Design Considerations for Applying ICN to
              IoT", draft-zhang-icnrg-icniot-01 , June 2017.

   [Koponen]  Koponen, T., Chawla, M., Chun, B., Ermolinskiy, A., Kim,
              K., Shenker, S., and I. Stoica, "A Data-Oriented (and
              Beyond) Network Architecture", ACM SIGCOMM 2007 pp.
              181-192, 2007.

   [PURSUIT]  "FP7 PURSUIT project.",
              http://www.fp7-pursuit.eu/PursuitWeb/ .

   [SAIL]     "FP7 SAIL project.", http://www.sail-project.eu/ .

   [NDN]      "NSF Named Data Networking project.",
              http://www.named-data.net .

   [CCNx]     "Content Centric Networking project.",
              https://wiki.fd.io/view/Cicn .

   [MF]       "NSF Mobility First project.",
              http://mobilityfirst.winlab.rutgers.edu/ .

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   [Jung]     Jung, H. et al., "IDNet: Beyond All-IP Network", ETRI
              Jouranl vol. 37, no. 5, October 2015.

              3gpp-5glan, "SP-181129, Work Item Description,
              Vertical_LAN(SA2), 5GS Enhanced Support of Vertical and
              LAN Services", 3GPP ,

   [Bari]     Bari, M., Chowdhury, S., Ahmed, R., Boutaba, R., and B.
              Mathieu, "A Survey of Naming and Routing in Information-
              Centric Networks", IEEE Communications Magazine Vol. 50,
              No. 12, P.44-53, 2012.

              Westphal, C. and E. Demirors, "An IP-based Manifest
              Architecture for ICN", ACM ICN , 2015.

   [Mosko]    Mosko, M., Scott, G., Solis, I., and C. Wood, "CCNx
              Manifest Specification", draft-wood-icnrg-
              ccnxmanifests-00 , July 2015.

   [RFC6920]  Farrell , S., Kutscher, D., Dannewitz, C., Ohlman, B.,
              Keranen, A., and P. Hallam-Baker, "Naming Things with
              Hashes", RFC6920, DOI 10.17487/RFC6920,
              https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6920.txt , Apr. 2013.

   [Zhang2]   Zhang, Y., "A Survey of Mobility Support in Named Data

              Dannewitz, C. et al., "Network of Information (NetInf)-An
              information centric networking architecture", Computer
              Communications vol. 36, no. 7, April 2013.

              Ravindran, R. et al., "Forwarding-Label support in CCN
              Protocol", draft-ravi-icnrg-ccn-forwarding-label-01 , July

              Afanasyev, A. et al., "SNAMP: Secure Namespace Mapping to
              Scale NDN Forwarding", IEEE Global Internet Symposium ,
              April 2015.

   [Mosko2]   Mosko, M., "Nameless Objects",  , July 2015.

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   [Bayhan]   Bayhan, S. et al., "On Content Indexing for Off-Path
              Caching in Information-Centric Networks", ACM ICN ,
              September 2016.

   [FLIC]     Tschudin, C. and C. Wood, "File-Like ICN Collection
              (FLIC)", draft-irtf-icnrg-flic-01, , June 2018.

   [NEO]      Eriksson, A. and A. M. Malik, "A DNS-based information-
              centric network architecture open to multiple protocols
              for transfer of data objects", 21st Conference on
              Innovation in Clouds, Internet and Networks and Workshops
              (ICIN), pp. 1-8, 2018.

   [NRSarch]  Hong, J. et al., "Architectural Considerations of ICN
              using Name Resolution Service", draft-irtf-icnrg-nrsarch-
              considerations-03 , November 2019.

   [QoSarch]  Oran, D., "Considerations in the development of a QoS
              Architecture for CCNx-like ICN protocols", draft-oran-
              icnrg-qosarch-02 , October 2019.

Authors' Addresses

   Jungha Hong
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  34129

   Email: jhong@etri.re.kr

   Tae-Wan You
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  34129

   Email: twyou@etri.re.kr

   Yong-Geun Hong
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon  34129

   Email: yghong@etri.re.kr

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   Lijun Dong
   Futurewei Technologies Inc.
   10180 Telesis Court
   San Diego, CA  92121

   Email: lijun.dong@futurewei.com

   Cedric Westphal
   Futurewei Technologies Inc.
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara, CA  95050

   Email: cedric.westphal@futurewei.com

   Borje Ohlman
   Ericsson Research
   S-16480 Stockholm

   Email: Borje.Ohlman@ericsson.com

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