Network Management Research Group                               S. Jiang
Internet-Draft                              Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
Intended status: Informational                              B. Carpenter
Expires: April 5, 2015                                 Univ. of Auckland
                                                            M. Behringer
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                         October 2, 2014

                 Gap Analysis for Autonomic Networking


   This document provides a problem statement and gap analysis for an
   IP-based autonomic network that is mainly based on distributed
   network devices.  The document provides a background by reviewing the
   current status of autonomic aspects of IP networks and the extent to
   which current network management depends on centralisation and human
   administrators.  Finally the document describes the general gaps
   between current network abilities and the ideal autonomic network

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 5, 2015.

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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Automatic and Autonomic Aspects of Current IP Networks  .   3
       3.1.1.  IP Address Management and DNS . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
       3.1.2.  Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.3.  Configuration of Default Router in a Host . . . . . .   5
       3.1.4.  Hostname Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.5.  User Authentication and Accounting  . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.6.  Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.7.  Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.8.  Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Current Non-Autonomic Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.1.  Network Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.2.  Network Maintenance and Management  . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.3.  Security Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.2.4.  Troubleshooting and Recovery  . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Features Needed by Autonomic Networks . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  More Coordination among Devices or Network Partitions . .  10
     4.2.  Reusable Common Components  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Secure Control Plane  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.4.  Less Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.5.  Forecasting and Dry Runs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.6.  Benefit from Knowledge  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Change log [RFC Editor: Please remove]  . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   The general goals and relevant definitions for autonomic networking
   are discussed in [I-D.irtf-nmrg-autonomic-network-definitions].  In
   summary, the fundamental goal of an autonomic network is self-
   management, including self-configuration, self-optimization, self-
   healing and self-protection.  Whereas interior gateway routing
   protocols such as OSPF and IS-IS largely exhibit these properties,

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   most other aspects of networking require top-down configuration,
   often involving human administrators and a considerable degree of
   centralisation.  In essence Autonomic Networking is putting all
   network configurations onto the same footing as routing, limiting
   manual or database-driven configuration to an essential minimum.  It
   should be noted that this is highly unlikely to eliminate the need
   for human administrators, because many of their essential tasks will
   remain.  The idea is to eliminate tedious and error-prone tasks, for
   example manual calculations, cross-checking between two different
   configuration files, or tedious data entry.  Higher level operational
   tasks, and complex trouble-shooting, will remain to be done by

   This document first provides background by identifying examples of
   partial autonomic behavior in the Internet, and by describing
   important areas of non-autonomic behavior.  Based on these
   observations, it then describes missing general mechanisms which
   would allow autonomic behaviours to be added throughout the Internet.

2.  Terminology

   The terminology defined in
   [I-D.irtf-nmrg-autonomic-network-definitions] is used in this

3.  Background

3.1.  Automatic and Autonomic Aspects of Current IP Networks

   This section discusses the history and current status of automatic or
   autonomic operations in various aspects of network configuration, in
   order to establish a baseline for the gap analysis.  In particular,
   routing protocols already contain elements of autonomic processes,
   such as information exchange and state synchronization.

3.1.1.  IP Address Management and DNS

   Originally there was no alternative to completely manual and static
   management of IP addresses.  Once a site had received an IPv4 address
   assignment (usually a Class C /24 or Class B /16, and rarely a Class
   A /8) it was a matter of paper-and-pencil design of the subnet plan
   (if relevant) and the addressing plan itself.  Subnet prefixes were
   manually configured into routers, and /32 addresses were assigned
   administratively to individual host computers, and configured
   manually by system administrators.  Records were typically kept in a
   plain text file or a simple spreadsheet.

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   Clearly this method was clumsy and error-prone as soon as a site had
   more than a few tens of hosts, but it had to be used until DHCP
   [RFC2131] became a viable solution during the second half of the
   1990s.  DHCP made it possible to avoid manual configuration of
   individual hosts (except, in many deployments, for a small number of
   servers configured with static addresses).

   In terms of management, it is difficult to separate IP address
   management from DNS management.  At roughly the same time as DHCP
   came into widespread use, it became very laborious to manually
   maintain DNS source files in step with IP address assignments.
   Because of reverse DNS lookup, it also became necessary to synthesise
   DNS names even for hosts that only played the role of clients.
   Therefore, it became necessary to synchronise DHCP server tables with
   forward and reverse DNS.  For this reason, Internet Protocol address
   management tools emerged.  These are, however, a centralised and far
   from autonomic type of solution.

   A related issue is prefix delegation, especially in IPv6 when more
   than one prefix may be delegated to the same physical subnet.  DHCPv6
   Prefix Delegation [RFC3633] is a useful solution, but how this topic
   is to be handled in home networks is still an open question.  Still
   further away is automated assignment and delegation of IPv4 subnet

   Another complication is the possibility of Dynamic DNS Update
   [RFC2136].  With appropriate security, this is an autonomic approach,
   where no human intervention is required to create the DNS records for
   a host.  Also, there are coexistence issues with a traditional DNS

3.1.2.  Routing

   Since a very early stage, it has been a goal that Internet routing
   should be self-healing when there is a failure of some kind in the
   routing system (i.e. a link or a router goes wrong).  Also, the
   problem of finding optimal routes through a network was identified
   many years ago as a problem in mathematical graph theory, for which
   well known algorithms were discovered (the Dijkstra and Bellman-Ford
   algorithms).  Thus routing protocols became largely autonomic in the
   1980s, as soon as the network was large enough for manual
   configuration of routing tables to become difficult.

   IGP routers do need some initial configuration data to start up the
   autonomic routing protocol.  Also, BGP-4 routers need detailed static
   configuration of routing policy data.

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3.1.3.  Configuration of Default Router in a Host

   Originally this was a manual operation.  Since the deployment of
   DHCP, this has been automatic as far as most IPv4 hosts are
   concerned, but the DHCP server must be appropriately configured.  In
   simple environments such as a home network, the DHCP server resides
   in the same box as the default router, so this configuration is also
   automatic.  In more complex environments, where an independent DHCP
   server or a local DHCP relay is used, DHCP configuration is more
   complex and not automatic.

   In IPv6 networks, the default router is provided by Router
   Advertisement messages [RFC4861] from the router itself, and all IPv6
   hosts make use of it.  The router may also provide more complex Route
   Information Options.  The process is essentially autonomic as far as
   all IPv6 hosts are concerned, and DHCPv6 is not involved.  However,
   there are still open issues when more than one prefix is in use on a
   subnet and more than one first-hop router may be available as a

3.1.4.  Hostname Lookup

   Originally host names were looked up in a static table, often
   referred to as /etc/hosts from its traditional file path in Unix
   systems.  When the DNS was deployed during the 1980s, all hosts
   needed DNS resolver code, and needed to be configured with the IP
   addresses (not the names) of suitable DNS servers.  Like the default
   router, these were originally manually configured.  Today, they are
   provided automatically via DHCP or DHCPv6 [RFC3315].  For IPv6 end
   systems, there is also a way for them to be provided automatically
   via a Router Advertisement option.  However, the DHCP or DHCPv6
   server, or the IPv6 router, need to be configured with the
   appropriate DNS server addresses.

3.1.5.  User Authentication and Accounting

   Originally, user authentication and accounting was mainly based on
   physical connectivity and the degree of trust that follows from
   direct connectivity.  Network operators charged based on the set up
   of dedicated physical links with users.  Automated user
   authentication was introduced by Point-to-Point Protocol [RFC1661],
   [RFC1994] and RADIUS protocol [RFC2865], [RFC2866] in early 1990s.
   As long as a user completes online authentication through the RADIUS
   protocol, the accounting for that user starts on the corresponding
   AAA server automatically.  This mechanism enables business models
   with charging based on traffic based or time based usage.  However,
   the management of user authentication information remains manual by
   network administrators.  It also becomes complex in the case of

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   mobile users who roam between operators, since prior relationships
   between the operators are needed.

3.1.6.  Security

   Security has many aspects that need configuration and are therefore
   candidates to become autonomic.  On the other hand, it is essential
   that a network's central policy should be applied strictly for all
   security configurations.  As a result security has largely been based
   on centrally imposed configurations.

   Many aspects of security depend on policy, for example firewall
   policies.  Policies are by definition human made and will therefore
   also persist in an autonomic environment.  However, policies are
   becoming more high-level, abstracting for example addressing, and
   focusing on the user or application.  The methods to manage,
   distribute and apply policy, and to monitor compliance and violations
   could be autonomic.

   Today, many security mechanisms show some autonomic properties.  For
   example user authentication via 802.1x allows automatic mapping of
   users after authentication into logical contexts (typically VLANs).
   While today configuration is still very important, the overall
   mechanism displays signs of self-adaption to changing situations.

   BGP Flowspec [RFC5575] allows a partially autonomic threat defense
   mechanism, where threats are identified, the flow information is
   automatically distributed, and counter-actions can be applied.  Today
   typically a human operator is still in the loop to check correctness,
   but over time such mechanisms can become more autonomic.

   Negotiation capabilities, present in many security protocols, also
   display simple autonomic behaviours.  In this case a security policy
   about algorithm strength can be configured into servers but will
   propagate automatically to clients.

3.1.7.  Synchronization

   Another area where autonomic processes between peers are involved is
   state synchronization.  In this case, several devices start out with
   inconsistent state and go through a peer-to-peer procedure after
   which their states are consistent.  Network time synchronisation
   [RFC5905] is a well-established example, guaranteeing that a
   participating node's clock state is synchronized with reliable time
   servers within a defined margin of error, without any overall
   controller being involved.

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3.1.8.  Miscellaneous

   There are innumerable other properties of network devices and end
   systems that today need to be configured either manually or using a
   management protocol such as SNMP [RFC1157] or NETCONF [RFC6241].  In
   a truly autonomic network, all of these, without exception, would
   need to either have satisfactory default values or be configured
   automatically.  Some examples are parameters for tunnels of various
   kinds, flows (in an SDN context), quality of service, service
   function chaining, energy management, system identification and NTP

3.2.  Current Non-Autonomic Behaviors

   In current networks, many operations are still heavily dependent on
   human intelligence and decision, or on centralised top-down network
   management systems.  These operations are the targets of Autonomic
   Network technologies.  The ultimate goal of an Autonomic Network is
   to replace human and automated operations by autonomic functions, so
   that the networks can run independently without depending on a human
   or NMS system for routine details, while maintaining central control
   where required.  Of course, there would still be the absolute minimum
   of human input required, particularly during the network
   establishment stage, and during emergencies and difficult trouble-

   This section analyzes the existing human and central dependencies in
   typical current networks and suggests cases where they could in
   principle be replaced by autonomic behaviors.

3.2.1.  Network Establishment

   Network establishment requires network operators to analyze the
   requirements of the new network, design a network architecture and
   topology, decide device locations and capacities, set up hardware,
   design network services, choose and enable required protocols,
   configure each device and each protocol, set up central user
   authentication and accounting policies and databases, design and
   deploy security mechanisms, etc.

   Overall, these jobs are quite complex work that cannot become fully
   autonomic in the foreseeable future.  However, part of these jobs may
   be able to become autonomic, such as detailed device and protocol
   configurations and database population.  The initial network
   management policies/behaviors may also be transplanted from other
   networks and automatically localized.

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3.2.2.  Network Maintenance and Management

   Network maintenance and management are very different for ISP
   networks and enterprise networks.  ISP networks have to change much
   more frequently than enterprise networks, given the fact that ISP
   networks have to serve a large number of customers who have very
   diversified requirements.  The current rigid model is that network
   administrators design a limited number of services for customers to
   order.  New requirements of network services may not be able to be
   met quickly by human management.  Given a real-time request, the
   response must be autonomic, in order to be flexible and quickly
   deployed.  However, behind the interface, describing abstracted
   network information and user authorization management may have to
   depend on human intelligence from network administrators in the
   foreseeable future.  User identification integration/consolidation
   among networks or network services is another challenge for autonomic
   network access.  Currently, many end users have to manually manage
   their user accounts and authentication information when they switch
   among networks or network services.

   Classical network maintenance and management mainly manages the
   configuration of network devices.  Tools have been developed to
   enable remote management and make such management easier.  However,
   the decision about each configuration detail depends either on human
   intelligence or rigid templates.  This is the source of most network
   configuration errors.  It is also a barrier to increasing the utility
   of network resources, because the human managers cannot respond
   quickly enough to network events, such as traffic bursts, etc.  For
   example, currently, a light load is normally assumed in network
   design because there is no mechanism to properly handle a sudden
   traffic flood.  It is actually normal to avoid network crashes caused
   by traffic overload by wasting a huge amount of resources.

   It is worth noting that the introduction of new, more flexible,
   methods of network configuratiom, typified by software-defined
   networking (SDN), will only make this problem worse unless the
   details are managed autonomically.

   Autonomic decision processes for configuration would enable dynamic
   management of network resources (by managing resource-relevant
   configuration).  Self-adapting network configuration would adjust the
   network into the best possible situation, which also prevents
   configuration errors from having lasting impact.

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3.2.3.  Security Setup

   Setting up security for a network generally requires very detailed
   human intervention, or relies entirely on default configurations that
   may be too strict or too risky for the particular situation of the
   network.  While some aspects of security are intrinsically top-down
   in nature (e.g. broadcasting a specific security policy to all
   hosts), others could be self-managed within the network.

   In an autonomic network, where nodes within a domain have a mutually
   verifiable domain identity, security processes could run entirely
   automatically.  Nodes could identify each other securely, negotiating
   required security settings and even shared keys if needed.  The
   location of trust anchors (certificate authority, registration
   authority), certificate revocation lists, policy server, etc., can be
   found by service discovery.  Transactions such as a certificate
   revocation list download can be authenticated via a common trust
   anchor.  Policy distribution can also be entirely automated, and
   secured via a common trust anchor.

   These concepts lead to a network where the intrinsic security is
   automatic and applied by default, i.e., a "self-protecting" network.
   For further discussion, see [I-D.behringer-default-secure]

3.2.4.  Troubleshooting and Recovery

   Current networks suffer difficulties in locating the cause of network
   failures.  Although network devices may issue many warnings while
   running, most of them are not sufficiently precise to be identified
   as errors.  Some of them are early warnings that would not develop
   into real errors.  Others are in effect random noise.  During a major
   failure, many different devices will issue multiple warnings within a
   short time, causing overload for the NMS and the operators.  However,
   for many scenarios, human experience is still vital to identify real
   issues and locate them.  This situation may be improved by
   automatically associating warnings from multiple network devices
   together.  Also, introducing automated learning techniques (comparing
   current warnings with historical relationships between warnings and
   actual faults) could increase the possibility and success rate of
   autonomic network diagnoses and troubleshooting.

   Depending on the network errors, some of them may always require
   human interventions, particularly for hardware failures.  However,
   autonomic network management behavior may help to reduce the impact
   of errors, for example by switching traffic flows around.  Today this
   is usually manual (except for classical routing updates).  Fixing
   software failures and configuration errors currently depends on
   humans, and may even involve rolling back software versions and

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   rebooting hardware.  Such problems could be autonomically corrected
   if there were diagnostics and recovery functions defined in advance
   for them.  This would fulfill the concept of self-healing.

   Another possible autonomic function is predicting device failures or
   overloads before they occur.  A device could predict its own failure
   and warn its neighbors; or a device could predict its neighbor's
   failure.  In either case, an autonomic network could respond as if
   the failure had already occurred by routing around the problem and
   reporting the failure, with no disturbance to users.  The criteria
   for predicting failure could be temperature, battery status, bit
   error rates, etc.  The criteria for predicting overload could be
   increasing load factor, latency, jitter, congestion loss, etc.

4.  Features Needed by Autonomic Networks

   The task of autonomic networking is to build up individual autonomic
   processes that could properly combine to respond to every type of
   network event.  Building on the preceding background information, and
   on the reference model in
   [I-D.irtf-nmrg-autonomic-network-definitions], this section will
   outline the gaps and missing features in general terms, and in some
   cases mentions general design principles that should apply.

4.1.  More Coordination among Devices or Network Partitions

   Network services are dependent on a number of devices and parameters
   to be in place in a certain order.  For example after a power failure
   a coordinated sequence of "return to normal" operations is desirable
   (e.g., switches and routers first, DNS servers second, etc.).  Today,
   the correct sequence of events is either known only by a human
   administrator, or automated in a central script.  In a truly
   autonomic network, elements should understand their dependencies, and
   be able to resolve them locally.

   In order to make right or good decisions autonomically, the network
   devices need to know more information than just reachability
   (routing) information from the relevant or neighbor devices.  There
   are dependencies between such information and configurations, which
   devices must be able to derive for themselves.

   There are therefore increased requirements for horizontal information
   exchange in the networks.  Particularly, three types of interaction
   among peer network devices are needed for autonomic decisions:
   discovery (to find neighbours and peers), synchronization (to agree
   on network status) and negotiation (when things need to be changed).
   Although there are many existing protocols with some discovery,
   syncronization or negotiation ability, each of them only serves a

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   specific and narrow purpose.  To avoid continued proliferation of
   such protocols, there is a need for reusable discovery,
   synchronization and negotiation mechanisms, which would support the
   discovery of many different types of device, the synchronization of
   many types of parameter and the negotiation of many different types
   of objective.

4.2.  Reusable Common Components

   Elements of autonomic functions already exist today, within many
   different protocols.  However, all such functions have their own
   discovery, transport, messaging and security mechanisms as well as
   non-autonomic management interfaces.  Each protocol has its own
   version of the above-mentioned functions to serve specific and narrow
   purposes.  It is often difficult to extend an existing protocol to
   serve different purposes.  Therefore, in order to provide the
   reusable discovery, synchronization and negotiation mechanism
   mentioned above, it is desirable to develop a set of reusable common
   protocol components for Autonomic Networks.  These components should

   o  Able to identify other devices, users and processes securely.

   o  Able to automatically secure operations, based on the above
      identity scheme.

   o  Able to manage any type of information and information flows.

   o  Able to discover peer devices and services for various autonomic
      service agents (or autonomic functions).

   o  Able to support closed-loop operations when needed to provide
      self-managing functions involving more than one device.

   o  Separable from the specific autonomic service agents (or autonomic

   o  Reusable by other autonomic functions.

4.3.  Secure Control Plane

   The common components will in effect act as a control plane for
   autonomic operations, regardless whether they are implemented in-band
   as functions of the target network, in an overlay network, or even
   out-of-band in a separate network.  Autonomic operations will be
   capable of changing how the network operates and allocating resources
   without human intervention or knowledge, so it is essential that they
   are secure.  Therefore the control plane must be fully secure against

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   forged autonomic operations and man-in-the middle attacks, and as
   secure as reasonably possible against denial of service attacks.  It
   must be decided whether the control plane needs to be resistant to
   unwanted monitoring, i.e., whether encryption is required.

4.4.  Less Configuration

   Most existing protocols have been defined to be as flexible as
   possible.  Consequently, these protocols need many initial
   configurations to start operations.  There are many choices and
   options that are unnecessary in any particular case.  A large portion
   of these configurations target corner cases.  Furthermore, in many
   protocols that already exist for years, some design considerations
   are no longer valid since the hardware technologies have made
   dramatic progress in recent years.  There is much scope for
   simplifying the protocols and the operation of protocols.

   From another perspective, the deep reason why human decisions are
   often needed mainly result from the lack of information.  When a
   device can collect enough information horizontally from other
   devices, it should be able to decide many parameters by itself,
   instead of receiving them from top-down configuration.

   It is desired that the top-down management is reduced in the
   Autonomic Networking.  Ideally, only the abstract intent is needed
   from the human administrators.  Neither users nor administrators
   should need to create and maintain detailed policies and profiles; if
   they are needed, they should be built autonomically.  The local
   parameters should be decided by distributed Autonomic Nodes
   themselves, either from historic knowledge, analytics of current
   conditions, closed logical decision loops, or a combination of all.

4.5.  Forecasting and Dry Runs

   In a conventional network, there is no mechanism for trying something
   out.  That means that configuration changes have to be designed in
   the abstract and their probable effects have to be estimated
   theoretically.  The only alternative to this would be to test them on
   a complete and realistic network simulator, which is unlikely to be
   possible for a network of any size.  In any case, there is a risk
   that applying the changes to the running network will cause a failure
   of some kind.  An autonomic network should fill this gap by
   supporting a "dry run" mode in which a configuration change could be
   tested out in the control plane without actually affecting the data
   plane.  If the results are satisfactory, the change could be made
   live; if there is a problem, the change could be rolled back with no
   impact on users.

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4.6.  Benefit from Knowledge

   The more knowledge we have, the more intelligent we are.  It is the
   same for networks and network management.  It is when one component
   in the network lacks knowledge that affects what it should do, and
   another component has that knowledge, that we usually rely on a human
   operator or a centralised management tool to convey the knowledge.

   Up to now, the only available network knowledge is usually the
   current network status inside a given device or relevant current
   status from other devices.

   However, historic knowledge is very helpful to make correct
   decisions, in particular to reduce network oscillation or to manage
   network resources over time.  Transplantable knowledge from other
   networks can be helpful to initially set up a new network or new
   network devices.  Knowledge of relationships between network events
   and network configuration may help a network to decide the best
   parameters according to real performance feedback.

   In addition to such historic knowledge, powerful data analytics of
   current network conditions may also be a valuable source of knowledge
   that can be exploited directly by autonomic nodes.

5.  Security Considerations

   This document is focused on what is missing to allow autonomic
   network configuration, including of course security settings.
   Therefore, it does not itself create any new security issues.  It is
   worth underlining that autonomic technology must be designed with
   strong security properties from the start, since a network with
   vulnerable autonomic functions would be at great risk.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable comments made by
   participants in the IRTF Network Management Research Group.  A review
   by Rene Struik was especially helpful.

   This document was produced using the xml2rfc tool [RFC2629].

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8.  Change log [RFC Editor: Please remove]

   draft-irtf-nmrg-an-gap-analysis-02: Review comments actioned,

   draft-irtf-nmrg-an-gap-analysis-01: RG comments added and more
   content in "Approach toward Autonomy" section, 2014-08-30.

   draft-irtf-nmrg-an-gap-analysis-00: RG comments added, 2014-04-02.

   draft-jiang-nmrg-an-gap-analysis-00: original version, 2014-02-14.

9.  Informative References

              Behringer, M., Pritikin, M., and S. Bjarnason, "Making The
              Internet Secure By Default", draft-behringer-default-
              secure-00 (work in progress), January 2014.

              Behringer, M., Pritikin, M., Bjarnason, S., Clemm, A.,
              Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and L. Ciavaglia, "Autonomic
              Networking - Definitions and Design Goals", draft-irtf-
              nmrg-autonomic-network-definitions-03 (work in progress),
              August 2014.

   [RFC1157]  Case, J., Fedor, M., Schoffstall, M., and J. Davin,
              "Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 15, RFC
              1157, May 1990.

   [RFC1661]  Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)", STD 51,
              RFC 1661, July 1994.

   [RFC1994]  Simpson, W., "PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication
              Protocol (CHAP)", RFC 1994, August 1996.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC
              2131, March 1997.

   [RFC2136]  Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound,
              "Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)",
              RFC 2136, April 1997.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

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   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC
              2865, June 2000.

   [RFC2866]  Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2866, June 2000.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              December 2003.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC5575]  Marques, P., Sheth, N., Raszuk, R., Greene, B., Mauch, J.,
              and D. McPherson, "Dissemination of Flow Specification
              Rules", RFC 5575, August 2009.

   [RFC5905]  Mills, D., Martin, J., Burbank, J., and W. Kasch, "Network
              Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms
              Specification", RFC 5905, June 2010.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., and A.
              Bierman, "Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC
              6241, June 2011.

Authors' Addresses

   Sheng Jiang
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Q14, Huawei Campus, No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing, 100095
   P.R. China


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Internet-Draft      Autonomic Networking Gap Analysis       October 2014

   Brian Carpenter
   Department of Computer Science
   University of Auckland
   PB 92019
   Auckland  1142
   New Zealand


   Michael H. Behringer
   Cisco Systems
   Building D, 45 Allee des Ormes
   Mougins 06250


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