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Versions: 00                                                            
          INTERNET-DRAFT                                   Roger deBry
                                                       IBM Corporation
                                                           T. Hastings
                                                     Xerox Corporation
                                                            R. Herriot
                                                      Sun Microsystems
                                                        Scott Isaacson
                                                          Novell, Inc.
                                                         November 1996
          
          
          
          
                      Internet Printing Protocol - IPP/1.0
                         draft-isaacson-ipp-info-00.txt
                              Expires May 27, 1997
          
          
          
          Status of this Memo
          
            This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are
            working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
            (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
            other groups may also distribute working documents as
            Internet-Drafts.
          
            Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum
            of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted
            by other documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to
            use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them
            other than as "work in progress."
          
            To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please
            check the "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the
            Internet-Drafts Shadow Directories on ftp.is.co.za
            (Africa), nic.nordu.net (Europe), munnari.oz.au (Pacific
            Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu (US
            West Coast).
          
          Abstract
          
            This Internet-Draft specifies an Internet Printing
            Protocol (IPP) that is intended to be version 1.0. This
            protocol is heavily influence by the semantic operations
            and attributes defined in ISO/IEC 10175 Document Printing
            Application (DPA) parts 1 and 3.  It also incorporates
            some of the implementation and interoperability lessons
          
          
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            learned from other printing related standards such as
            POSIX System Administration - Part 4 (POSIX 1378.4) and
            X/Open A Printing System Interoperability
            Specification (PSIS).
          
            IPP is defined as a set of abstract data types and
            operations. The operations are implemented using a simple
            request and response mechanism built on top of HTTP.  The
            abstract data types are encoded as simple ASCII text
            strings.
          
            The IPP protocol covers only end user operations on basic
            print service objects. Authentication is realized by
            mechanisms outside the scope of the protocol, but the
            protocol does introduce some access control functionality
            so that only authorized end users are allowed to submit
            print jobs to printers whose implementation and site
            policy support access control.  Also, the Cancel Job
            operation requires some authentication so that jobs can
            only be canceled by the end user who submitted the job.
            Extended monitoring and management is possible through
            other protocols such as the SNMP Printer MIB.  In the
            areas where there are no existing standards, some
            proposed and emerging standards are being worked
            (management, security, etc.).  As these services become
            more stable, this document (and hence the protocol) can
            be updated to reflect the integration and relationships
            with these other standards.
          
          Table of Contents
          
          1. Introduction                                            5
          2. Distributed Printing                                    6
            2.1 Generic Print System Components                      6
            2.2 IPP Components                                       7
          3. IPP Objects                                             7
            3.1 Printer                                              7
            3.2 Job                                                  9
            3.3 Job Template                                        10
            3.4 Object Relationships                                10
            3.5 Object Identity                                     10
          4. Naming                                                 11
            4.1 Directory Services                                  12
            4.2 Directory Entry Schema                              12
               4.2.1 Name                                           13
               4.2.2 Description                                    13
               4.2.3 Location                                       13
               4.2.4 Maximum Print Quality                          14
          
          
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               4.2.5 Cost                                           14
               4.2.6 Resolution                                     14
               4.2.7 Color Supported                                14
               4.2.8 Fonts Supported                                14
               4.2.9 Maximum Speed                                  14
               4.2.10 Device Id                                     14
               4.2.11 Make and Model                                15
               4.2.12 Marker Type                                   15
               4.2.13 Document Formats Supported                    15
               4.2.14 Sides Supported                               15
               4.2.15 Finishings Supported                          16
            4.3 Directory Entries Using LDAP                        16
          5. IPP Operations                                         17
            5.1 HTTP Overview                                       18
            5.2 IPP Operation Encoding                              18
               5.2.1 HTTP Request-Header Fields                     19
               5.2.2 HTTP Response-Header Fields                    20
            5.3 The Print Job                                       20
               5.3.1 Print Job Object Header                        21
               5.3.2 Document Header                                21
               5.3.3 Document-Content Header                        21
               5.3.4 Job Attributes                                 22
               5.3.5 Document Attributes                            22
            5.4 Operation Semantics                                 22
               5.4.1 Print Operation                                23
               5.4.2 Cancel Job Operation                           24
               5.4.3 Get Attributes Operation                       25
               5.4.4 Get Jobs Operation                             26
          6. Object Attributes                                      27
            6.1 Attribute Syntaxes                                  27
            6.2 Job Attributes                                      30
               6.2.1 Job Informational Attributes (Set by a Client/End
               User)                                                31
               6.2.2 Job Informational Attributes (Set by a Printer)31
               6.2.3 Job Status Attributes (Set by Printer)         32
               6.2.4 Job Sheet Attributes (Set by Client/End User)  38
               6.2.5 Notification Attributes (Set by a Client/End
               User)                                                38
               6.2.6 Job Scheduling Attributes (Set by Client/End
               User)                                                40
               6.2.7 Job Production Attributes (Set by Client/End
               User)                                                42
               6.2.8 Attributes for Conversion of Text and HTML Files
               (Set by Client/End User)                             54
               6.2.9 Job Resource Attributes (Set by the program that
               produces or senses the PDL)                          56
               6.2.10 Number of Documents (Set by Printer)          59
               6.2.11 Document Data (Set by a Client/End User)      60
          
          
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            6.3 Operation Attributes (Set by Client)                61
               6.3.1 operation-locale (type3Locale)                 61
               6.3.2 operation-notification-address (url)           62
               6.3.3 operation-user-name (name)                     62
               6.3.4 operation-host-name (name)                     62
            6.4 Printer Attributes (Set by the Administrator)       62
               6.4.1 printer-name (name)                            63
               6.4.2 printer-location (string)                      63
               6.4.3 printer-model (string)                         63
               6.4.4 printer-type (type2Enum)                       63
               6.4.5 printer-state (type1Enum)                      64
               6.4.6 printer-state-message (string)                 66
               6.4.7 message (string)                               66
               6.4.8 printer-job-templates (1#urlDefault)           66
               6.4.9 locale (type3Locale)                           66
               6.4.10 notification-events (1#type2Enum)             66
               6.4.11 notification-addresses (1#url)                67
               6.4.12 end-user-acl (1#name)                         67
               6.4.13 maximum-printer-speed (positiveIntegerUnits)  67
               6.4.14 fonts-substitutions (1#stringPair)            68
               6.4.15 fonts-supported (1#stringState)               68
               6.4.16 media-supported (1#nameState)                 68
               6.4.17 document-formats-supported (1#type2FormatState)68
               6.4.18 numbers-up-supported (1#type3EnumState)       69
               6.4.19 finishings-supported (1#type2EnumState)       69
               6.4.20 sides-supported (1#type2EnumState)            69
               6.4.21 print-qualities-supported (1#type2EnumState)  69
               6.4.22 printer-resolutions-supported
               (1#positiveIntegerCrossState)                        70
               6.4.23 code-sets-supported (1#type3EnumState)        70
               6.4.24 off-peak-times-supported (1#type3EnumState)   70
               6.4.25 events-supported (1#type2EnumState)           70
               6.4.26 locales-supported (1#type3LocaleState)        71
               6.4.27 job-sheets-supported (1#type3EnumState)       71
               6.4.28 maximum-copies (positiveInteger)              71
               6.4.29 maximum-job-octets (positiveInteger)          72
               6.4.30 maximum-impressions (positiveInteger)         72
               6.4.31 maximum-media-sheets (positiveInteger)        72
               6.4.32 maximum-job-retention-period (deltaTime)      72
               6.4.33 maximum-end-user-priority (type1Enum)         72
               6.4.34 queued-job-count (cardinal)                   73
               6.4.35 scheduling-algorithm (type3Enum)              73
            6.5 Job Templates                                       73
            6.6 Conformance                                         73
          7. Security Considerations                                74
          8. References                                             74
          9. Author's Address                                       75
          10. Appendix A: Sample IPP Operations                     78
          
          
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            10.1 Querying the printer                               78
            10.2 Print Operation - with print data included         79
            10.3 Print Operation - with no data included            79
            10.4 Querying the state of the job                      80
            10.5 Canceling a Job                                    80
            10.6 Listing jobs on a Printer                          81
          
          
          1. Introduction
          
            The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is an application
            level protocol that can be used for distributed printing
            on the Internet. The protocol is heavily influenced by
            the printing model introduced in the Document Printing
            Application (ISO/IEC 10175 DPA) standard, which describes
            a distributed printing service. DPA identifies the end
            user and administrative roles associated with a
            distributed printing service, and defines the set of
            operations supported by the service. This IPP
            specification (version 1.0) deals only with the end user
            role. These ideas and concepts, when unified with other
            Internet protocols and services, realize a distributed
            print service for the Internet.
          
            This specification uses the verbs: "shall", "should",
            "may", and "need not" to specify conformance requirements
            as follows:
          
            -  "shall":  indicates an action that the subject of the
               sentence must implement in order to claim conformance
               to this specification
          
            -  "may":  indicates an action that the subject of the
               sentence does not have to implement in order to claim
               conformance to this specification, in other words that
               action is an implementation option
          
            -  "need not":  indicates an action that the subject of
               the sentence does not have to implement in order to
               claim conformance to this specification.  The verb
               "need not" is used instead of "may not", since "may
               not" sounds like a prohibition.
          
            -  "should":  indicates an action that is recommended for
               the subject of the sentence to implement, but is not
               required, in order to claim conformance to this
               specification.
          
          
          
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          2. Distributed Printing
          
            This document assumes a distributed computing environment
            where requesters of print services (clients,
            applications, PC drivers, etc.) cooperate and interact
            with print service providers.  Although the underlying
            configuration may be a complex n-tier client/server
            system, an important simplifying step in this protocol is
            that the only object the requester of the print service
            ever sees is a "printer". It is important, however, to
            understand that in a real system, other components of a
            print service exist.
          
          2.1 Generic Print System Components
          
            Every distributed print service, including those using
            the Internet Printing Protocol, includes elements from
            the following list.
          
            -  End Users:  End Users are humans (or agents or
               applications who work on behalf of a human) who submit
               print jobs.
          
            -  Print clients:  Print clients are computer network
               nodes with which humans interact in order to manipulate
               the distributed print service. A print client uses some
               protocol to invoke print service operations on another
               node. Each operation has arguments and results
               associated with it. The print client provides arguments
               which add information about the operation requested,
               and receives results which describe the status and
               outcome of the operation.
          
            -  Print servers:  Print servers may be embedded in an
               output device or implemented in a separate system which
               is associated with an output device. The print server
               receives requests from the print client and sends back
               results which describe the status and outcome of the
               operation requested.  A print server normally provides
               queuing, job management, and device management
               functions.
          
            -  Queues:  Print jobs may be queued or stored on a spool
               prior to printing. This allows a print service provider
               to accept one or more print jobs while the printer (or
               printers) is busy processing another job. Queues, if
               present, may be implemented in the client, in the
          
          
          
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               server, in the output device, or in some combination of
               the three.
          
            -  Output Devices: Output devices interpret the print data
               and generate some form of output. In the case of a
               laser printer, for example, this normally means
               rasterizing the print data and putting the resulting
               marks on paper.  An output device may receive print
               data directly from a client or through a Print server.
          
            A specific implementation of a print service may not
            include all of the elements described here, and the
            physical packaging of elements is up to the
            implementation. For example, an output device may include
            a queue or a print server may include a rasterizer.
          
          2.2 IPP Components
          
            The print model defined by the Internet Printing Protocol
            simplifies the user's view of the system components
            described in the previous section by encapsulating the
            important elements of the system into five simple
            objects:
          
            -  End Users (no specific object definition via
            attributes)
            -  Clients (no specific object definition via attributes)
            -  Printers (section 6.4)
            -  Print Jobs (section 6.2)
            -  Job Templates (section 6.5)
          
            Clients use the following operations:
          
            -  Print (section 5.4.1)
            -  Cancel Job (section 5.4.2)
            -  Get Attributes (section 5.4.3)
            -  Get Jobs (section 5.4.4)
          
          3. IPP Objects
          
            This section describes the IPP objects.
          
          3.1 Printer
          
            One of the most significant objects in the IPP model is
            the Printer. To the end user, the Printer object
            represents the functionality of the actual output device
            along with the queuing, job management, and device
          
          
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            management functions often associated with a print
            server.  An IPP Printer object implements the Internet
            Printing Protocol.  Using the protocol, end users may
            query the attributes of the Printer, submit jobs to the
            Printer, determine subsequent states of submitted and
            queued jobs and state of the Printer, and cancel their
            own print jobs. The realization of a Printer object may
            take on different forms for any given configuration of
            real components. However, the details of the
            configuration of real components must be transparent to
            the end user.
          
            In addition, a Printer is an abstraction for any document
            Output Device.  This means that a Printer could be used
            to represent any real or virtual device which can support
            the Printer operations and interfaces.  For example, a
            Printer could be used to front end a fax-out device, any
            kind of imager, or even a CD writer.
          
            Some examples of configurations containing IPP Printer
            object include:
          
            -  An output device, with no spooling capabilities,
               supporting IPP
            -  An output device, with a built-in spooler, supporting
               IPP
            -
            -
            -  A print server with one or more associated output
               devices with the print server supporting IPP.
               - The associated output devices may or may not be
                 capable of spooling jobs
               - The associated output devices may or may not support
                 IPP
          
            See the following figures for some examples on how to
            view IPP Printer objects on top of other printing system
            models:
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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            Legend:
          
            ##### indicates an IPP Printer object which is
                  either embedded in an output device or is
                  hosted in a server.  An IPP Printer object
                  may or may not queue/spool.
          
            any   indicates any network protocol or direct
                  connect, including IPP
          
          
            embedded printer:
                                                      output device
                                                    +---------------+
             O   +--------+                         |  ###########  |
            /|\  | client |------------IPP------------># Printer #  |
            / \  +--------+                         |  ###########  |
                                                    +---------------+
          
          
            hosted printer:
                                                    +---------------+
             O   +--------+        ###########      |               |
            /|\  | client |--IPP--># Printer #-any->| output device |
            / \  +--------+        ###########      |               |
                                                    +---------------+
          
          
                                                    +---------------+
            fan out:                                |               |
                                                +-->| output device |
                                            any/    |               |
             O   +--------+      ###########  /     +---------------+
            /|\  | client |-IPP-># Printer #-*
            / \  +--------+      ###########  \     +---------------+
                                            any\    |               |
                                                +-->| output device |
                                                    |               |
                                                    +---------------+
          
          
          
          
          3.2 Job
          
            A Job object is used to model a job.  A job can contain
            one or more documents.  However, there are no separate
            document objects.  The impact of this is that there are
          
          
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            no attributes that pertain to one document in a job but
            not to others, except for a single attribute that
            specifies the document data, its location, and its
            format. Note: In future versions, documents may become
            separate objects with attributes whose scope and
            application are different from the corresponding job
            attributes.
          
            Job attributes are broken up into the following groups:
          
            -  Job Informational (sections 6.2.1, 6.2.2)
            -  Job Status (section 6.2.3)
            -  Job Sheet (section 6.2.4)
            -  Notification (section 6.2.5)
            -  Job Scheduling (section 6.2.6)
            -  Job Production (section 6.2.7)
            -  Conversion of Text Files (section 6.2.8)
            -  Job Resources (section 6.2.9)
            -  Number of Documents (section 6.2.10)
            -  Document Attributes (6.2.11)
          
          
          3.3 Job Template
          
            A Job Template object is used to model job defaults.  A
            Job Template is essentially a set of job attributes that
            initialize a newly created job object.
          
            Issue: The notion of Job Template needs more work.
          
          3.4 Object Relationships
          
            Instances of objects within the system have relationships
            which must be maintained persistently along with the
            persistent storage of the objects themselves.  A Printer
            can contain zero or more Job objects.  Therefore, a job
            object is contained in exactly one Printer object.  A Job
            object contains one or more Documents.
          
            A Printer object is associated with zero or more Job
            Template objects.
          
          3.5 Object Identity
          
            All instances of all objects have an identifier attribute
            that makes them unique so that they can be unambiguously
            referenced.
          
          
          
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            The following objects have the following mandatory
            identifier attributes:
          
                  Object       Identifier       Containing
                                                Object
          
                  Printer      printer-name     None
                  Job          job-identifier   Printer
                  Job          job-template-    None
                  Template     name
          
          4. Naming
          
            Clients identify Printer objects by using an HTTP type
            URL. For example, a URL for a Printer object named
            "printer-1" whose network node's domain name is
            "some.domain.com", might look like:
          
            http://some.domain.com/printer-1
          
            In this case, the URL identifies the use of the HTTP
            protocol.  The Printer is located at the node identified
            by the DNS name "some.domain.com" and "printer-1" is the
            name of the Printer.
          
            Another example is the following URL:
          
            http://1.2.3.4:nnn/printer-2
          
            In this case, the URL identifies the use of the HTTP
            protocol.  The Printer is located at the node identified
            by the IP address of "1.2.3.4" using port nnn for the
            HTTP server, and "printer-2" is the name of the Printer.
            (The actual value of nnn is to be assigned by IANA as
            part of this standards project).
          
            It is not necessary to expose the Job Template objects
            that might be associated with a given printer as separate
            objects.  They can be exposed in two ways through URL
            naming.
          
            -  The Job Template can be hidden from the end user by a
               URL that represents just the Job Template name (but
               does not expose the Printer object name) as the two
               URLS
          
                  1)
                     http://some.domain.com/two-sided-printer, and
                  2)
                     http://some.domain.com/draft-printer.
          
          
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               These look like two different Printers , but underneath
               they represent the same Printer object, but that
               Printer object has two associated Job Templates and
               each is exposed through a different URL for the same
               Printer object. Each one of the Job Templates specified
               by a URL would contain a different Job Template default
               attribute set.  One Job Template would contain the
               defaults for two-sides printing and the other would
               contain the defaults for draft printing.
          
            -  The Job Template can be exposed along with the name of
               the Printer object directly in the URL as in:
          
                 1)
                    http://some.domain.com/hr-printer/resumes
                 2)
                    http://some.domain.com/hr-printer/1040forms
          
               In this case there  are "resumes" and "1040forms" Job
               Templates associated with the "hr-printer" Printer.
          
            This specification establishes, through IANA, a new well
            known port, port nnn, for the use of IPP over HTTP. The
            purpose of this new well known port would be to
            distinguish printing from non-printing content. While any
            acceptable HTTP content could be inter-mixed over HTTP
            well known port 80, only IPP printing would be acceptable
            on port nnn.
          
          4.1 Directory Services
          
            IPP does not require any specific directory service.
            However, this specification does define a generic schema
            that can be used for any specific instance of a directory
            service.  That is, some of the attributes from the
            Printer object are called out as attributes that may be
            added to a directory entry which represents that Printer.
            This allows directory users to find and locate IPP
            Printers by either a simple name look up or by some
            filtered attribute search.
          
          
          4.2 Directory Entry Schema
          
            The following attributes define the generic directory
            entry schema.  All directories entries for IPP Printers
            in all types of directories should support at least these
            attributes.
          
          
          
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            Issue: The use of "objective" attributes vs. "subjective"
            attributes still needs to be resolved.  For example, for
            Maximum Print Quality is it better to have values like
            "high", "medium", "low" or to have explicit, quantified,
            measurable values?  Some of the issues are: end users
            don't often know what explicit objective values are or
            what they really mean and they want to depend on an
            administrator to define what is "high" quality printing
            and what is "low" quality, especially since today's
            objective values that equate to "high" are tomorrow's
            objective values that equate to "medium".  On the other
            hand, some end users demand the control and power
            explicit values can give them when they do filtered
            searching.  For example, they know and appreciate the
            difference between 20 ppm printers and 23 ppm printers.
          
            Issue: We must specify which attributes are "mandatory"
            and which are "optional".  LDAP uses the terms "must" and
            "may" to identify attributes that "must" appear and
            attributes that "may" appear in a given entry in the
            directory.
          
          4.2.1 Name
          
            This directory attribute is the printers name. It is a
            URL so it contains sufficient information to not only
            name, but to address the printer using IPP as well.
          
          4.2.2 Description
          
            This directory attribute is a free form string that can
            contain any site-specific descriptive information about
            this printer.
          
          4.2.3 Location
          
            This directory attribute is a free form string that can
            contain any site specific location information.
          
            In order for filtered searches to be more effective, a
            given site may use some regular structuring within the
            string values such as "SITE:USA-San
            Jose,BUILDING:A1,FLOOR:2,ROOM:555" or "department5-
            2ndFloor-A5-IndianHills-Chicago-IL-USA".
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          4.2.4 Maximum Print Quality
          
            This directory attribute indicates a somewhat subjective
            evaluation of the overall printing quality.  The syntax
            and values shall be the same as for the print-quality Job
            attribute.
          
          4.2.5 Cost
          
            This directory attribute indicates a somewhat subjective
            evaluation of the overall cost of printing at this
            printer: "high", "medium", or "low".
          
          4.2.6 Resolution
          
            This directory attribute is the maximum resolution of the
            Printer in dpi.
          
            The syntax and semantics shall be the same as for the
            printer-resolution-select job attribute.
          
          4.2.7 Color Supported
          
            This directory attribute specifies whether the Printer
            supports color and, if so, what type.  The values are a
            type2Enum (see section 6).  Standard values are:  "none",
            "highlight", "three color (CMY)", "four color (CMYK)",
            "monochromatic".
          
          4.2.8 Fonts Supported
          
            This directory attribute takes on a list of fonts that
            are supported by the printer.  The syntax and values
            shall be the same as for the fonts-used job attribute..
          
          4.2.9 Maximum Speed
          
            This directory attribute is the maximum speed of the
            printer ppm, ipm, spm, lpm, or cps.  The syntax and
            values shall be the same as for the maximum-printer-speed
            Printer attribute.
          
          4.2.10 Device Id
          
            This directory attribute can be used for automatic driver
            download, database access, or other automatic
            configuration tasks. It might be used to generate a
          
          
          
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            platform specific id such as the Windows Plug-and-Play
            id.
          
            Issue: Is this the IEEE 1284-1994 device id, the Object
            Identifier as used in the Host Resource MIB hrDeviceId
            object, or some other identifier?
          
          4.2.11 Make and Model
          
            This directory attribute is a simple text string defined
            by the manufacturer that contains some reference to the
            make and model of the entity being represented to the
            end-user by this Printer object. The syntax shall be:
          
                vendor-name "/" model-name
          
            where the vendor-name is the same as that registered with
            IANA for use in domain names.
          
            For example:  "vendor-x/super-duper-printer".
          
          4.2.12 Marker Type
          
            This directory attribute is the printing mechanism of the
            print device: electrophotographic-laser, inkjet-aqueous,
            thermal-transfer, etc.  The syntax and values shall be
            the same as for the printer-types Printer attribute,
            except the value of the Marker Type directory attribute
            shall be single-valued
          
          4.2.13 Document Formats Supported
          
            This directory attribute is a list of all of the document
            formats that the printer and/or its interpreter(s)
            support.  The syntax and values shall be the same as for
            the document-format Job attribute.
          
          4.2.14 Sides Supported
          
            This directory attribute specifies the capabilities of
            the Printer for marking on sides of the medium.  The
            syntax and values shall be the same as the sides Job
            attribute.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          4.2.15 Finishings Supported
          
            This directory attribute identifies the finishing
            operations supported by the Printer. The syntax and
            values shall be the same as  the finishing job attribute.
          
          4.3 Directory Entries Using LDAP
          
            To allow directory users to locate an IPP Printer, a
            corresponding entry must be defined within a directory.
            This section describes how this is done using the
            Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
          
            The LDAP directory entry includes the name of the entry
            and the attributes as defined in "4.2 Directory Entry
            Schema". The following is an example of how to define a
            directory entry for a Printer object using LDAP. It is
            given to assist the reader's understanding of this
            specification.
          
            To create a Printer object directory entry using LDAP:
          
            1. An administrator uses a program to create an entry for
            the Printer object on a directory server that supports
            LDAP.  The administrator defines the Distinguished Name
            (dn) and the default subjective attributes for the
            Printer object directory entry.
          
            Issue:  Should the administrator also define default
            objective attributes or wait for the Printer object
            itself to initialize these attributes?
          
            2. The Printer object invokes the ldap_open API to open a
            connection to the directory server:
          
            Example:  ld=ldap_open ("dir.host.name", LDAP_PORT)
          
            where ld is the connection handle for subsequent LDAP
            APIs.
          
            3. The Printer object invokes an ldap "bind" API to
            authenticate with the directory server.
          
            Example:  ldap_simple_bind_s (ld, dn, NULL) (which does a
            simple authentication without a password).
          
            4. The Printer object invokes the ldap_modify or
            ldap_modify_s API to define the objective attributes for
          
          
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            the Printer object entry as identified by its
            Distinguished Name (dn).
          
            Example:  ldap_modify_s (ld, dn, mods) (where mods is a
            NULL-terminated array of objective attributes and values
            to add or modify in the directory entry)
          
            5. The Printer object invokes the ldap_unbind API to
            close the connection to the directory server.
          
            Example:  ldap_unbind (ld)
          
            When one or more objective attributes are modified for a
            Printer object, the Printer object repeats steps 2-5 to
            update the modified objective attributes in its directory
            entry.
          
            To locate a Printer object entry using LDAP, a program
            can use the ldap_search or ldap_search APIs or a user can
            specify an LDAP URL.
          
            For example, to locate all Printer objects that support
            duplex, a user can specify URL:
          
            ldap:///dir.host.name???(&(objectClass=printer)
               (sides-supported=2-sided-long-edge))
          
            Issue: Is it allowed to filter the search based on the
            object class itself, in this case the object class of
            Printer?  We need to define this new object class.  How
            do we do this? One proposal is to subclass the device
            class defined in X.500:
          
               printer OBJECT-CLASS ::= {
                 SUBCLASS OF {device}
                 MUST CONTAIN {<list of mandatory attributes>}
                 MAY CONTAIN {<list of optional attributes>}
          
          
          5. IPP Operations
          
            This section introduces the IPP operations.  Since IPP
            specifies the use of HTTP as the underlying communication
            protocol, the mapping of IPP operations on top of HTTP
            methods is also shown.
          
          
          
          
          
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          5.1 HTTP Overview
          
            IPP is based on the existing HTTP standard.  IPP is a
            lightweight application-level protocol designed with the
            Internet in mind. It is a generic, stateless, object-
            oriented protocol which can be used for any task through
            extension of its request methods (commands).
          
            HTTP allows an open-ended set of methods to be used to
            indicate the purpose of a request. It builds on the
            discipline of reference provided by the Uniform Resource
            Location (URL) and message formats similar to those used
            by Internet Mail and the Multipurpose Internet Mail
            Extensions (MIME).
          
            HTTP is based on a request-response paradigm. A
            requesting program (a client) establishes a connection
            with a receiving program (a server) and sends a request
            to the server in the form of a request method, a URL, and
            protocol version, followed by a MIME-like message
            containing request modifiers, client information, and
            possibly print data.  The server responds with a status
            line, including its protocol version, and a success or
            failure code, followed by a MIME-like message containing
            server information, entity meta-information, and possibly
            some content.
          
            Current practice requires that the connection be
            established by the client prior to each request and
            closed by the server after sending the response. Both
            clients and servers shall be capable of handling cases
            where either party closes the connection prematurely, due
            to user action, automated time out, or program failure.
          
          5.2 IPP Operation Encoding
          
            IPP messages consist of requests from client to server
            and responses from server to client.
          
                IPP MESSAGE = Request | Response
          
            Requests and responses use the generic message format of
            RFC 822 for transferring entities. Both messages may
            include optional header fields and an entity body. The
            entity body is separated from the headers by a null line
            (a line with nothing preceding the CRLF).
          
                Request = Request-line
          
          
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                       * (General-Header
                             |  Request-Header
                             |  Entity-Header)
                       CRLF
                       [ Entity-Body ]
          
                Response = Status-line
                       * (General-Header
                             |  Request-Header
                             |  Entity-Header)
                       CRLF
                       [ Entity-Body ]
          
            All IPP headers conform to the syntax
          
                IPP-Header = field-name ":" [field-value] CRLF.
          
            IPP/1.0 defines the octet sequence CRLF as the end-of-
            line marker for all protocol elements except the entity-
            body.
          
            Note that HTTP 1.1 defines a slightly different syntax,
            allowing for dynamically generated messages to be
            transmitted. This would be required for cases such as PC
            driver generated Print Operations.  HTTP 1.1 defines a
            message header which specifies a transfer encoding called
            "chunks".
          
            IPP messages are contained within HTTP methods.  The HTTP
            POST method is used for the Print operation and the
            Cancel Job operation.  The HTTP GET method is used for
            the Get Attributes operation and the Get Jobs operation
            (section 5.4).
          
          5.2.1 HTTP Request-Header Fields
          
            HTTP request header fields allow the client to pass
            additional information about the request, and about the
            client itself, to the server.  All header fields are
            optional and when used it is assumed that IPP would use
            these headers in a standard way.  IPP requests will be
            completely encapsulated within the entity body of an HTTP
            request. The HTTP Entity-Header has the form
          
          
               HTTP-Entity-Header =      Content-Encoding
                                    | Content-Length
                                    | Content-Type
          
          
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                                    | extension-header
          
            The Content-Length field must always be a valid length,
            This means that for any Print Operations based on HTTP
            1.0, the entire content must be generated before this
            header can be built.  HTTP 1.1 provides the notion of
            "chunks" which will allow the content to be generated
            dynamically as the data is sent.
          
          
            Content-Type will always be "Application/IPP".
          
          5.2.1.1 IPP Request-Line
          
            The first line of the entity body in an IPP operation is
            the IPP Request-Line. The Request-Line defines the
            Operation and the IPP Version.
          
               IPP-Request-Line = Operation-token  IPP/1.0  CRLF
          
               Operation-token  = Print | Cancel-Job |
                                  Get-Attributes | Get-Jobs
          
          
          5.2.2 HTTP Response-Header Fields
          
            HTTP response fields allow the server to pass additional
            information about the response back to the client. IPP
            will use these headers in a standard way.  IPP responses
            will be completely encapsulated within the entity body of
            an HTTP response.
          
          5.2.2.1 IPP Status-Line
          
            The first line of the entity body in an IPP response is
            the IPP Status-Line. The status-line consists of a
            protocol version followed by a numeric status-code and an
            associated text message.
          
               IPP-Status-Line = IPP/1.0 Status-Code  Reason-Phrase
            CRLF
          
          5.3 The Print Job
          
            In section 5.4.1, the Print Operation is described.  In
            order to understand that operation better, we first
            present the notion of a Print Job.  The entity body of a
            print operation request will contain a Print Job, as
          
          
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            defined below. The headers defined here are IPP headers,
            but follow the same syntax as the basic HTTP headers.
          
          
               Print-Job = Print-Job-Object-Header  ;section (5.3.1)
                         [Job-Attributes]           ;section (5.3.4)
                         *(Documents)
          
                 Document =   Document-Header       ;section (5.3.2)
                              [Document-attributes] ;section (5.3.5)
                              [Content-Header       ;section (5.3.3)
                                  content]
          
          5.3.1 Print Job Object Header
          
               Print-Job-Object Header = Content-Encoding
                          | Content-Length
                          | Content-Type
                          | extension-header
          
            Content-Type is always "IPP Print Object". Other header
            fields are as defined for HTTP 1.0.
          
          5.3.2 Document Header
          
            The document header allows the insertion of multiple
            documents within a job. At this point only a limited
            number of document attributes are defined. However, this
            structure allows the addition of other attributes which
            can be specified on a document boundary.
          
               Document-Header =   Content-Encoding
                    | Content-Length
                    | Content-Type
                    | extension-header
          
            Content type is always "IPP Document". Other header
            fields are as defined in HTTP 1.0.
          
          5.3.3 Document-Content Header
          
            The document-content-header provides additional meta-
            information about the document. The document content
            header is an optional field and would not be present if
            the document was pointed to by a document URL attribute.
            It is composed of a number of document header fields as
            follows:
          
          
          
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               Document-Content-Header =      Content-Encoding
                          | Content-Length
                          | Content-Type
                          | extension-header
          
            Content-Type is defined as :
          
               Content-Type = Data-Stream-Format "/" Version
          
            Thus, for example, if the document to be printed was a
            Postscript Level 2 document, the Content-Type would be
            specified as:
          
                 Content-Type: Postscript/2.0
          
            Other header fields are as defined by HTTP 1.0.
          
          5.3.4 Job Attributes
          
            Job attributes are defined in section 6.2.  Attributes
            will always be sent as
          
               Job-Attribute = Attr-name ":" Attr-value     CRLF
          
               Attr-value = 1#Value
          
            In the above example, "1#Value" means one or more ","
            separated values.
          
          5.3.5 Document Attributes
          
            Document attributes are defined in section 6.2.11. The
            syntax for a document attribute is
          
               Document-Attribute = Attr-Name ":" Attr-Value    CRLF
          
               Attr-Value = 1#Value
          
            In the above example, "1#Value" means one or more ","
            separated values.
          
          5.4 Operation Semantics
          
            In this section the four IPP operations are described in
            terms of their contents and semantics.
          
          
          
          
          
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          5.4.1 Print Operation
          
            When an end user submits a job, the client submits a
            Print Request and receives a Print Response.
          
            Note that the Printer name is not needed since it is the
            target of the entire operation. A Print Job contains the
            information needed by the Printer object to print a
            document or set of documents.  When the print operation
            is invoked, the Entity-Body in the HTTP request includes
            an IPP Print Job. The concrete syntax of the Print Job is
            defined in section 5.3.
          
            Each Printer object has an associated Job Template object
            assigned by the Administrator.  When accepting a Print
            operation, the Printer shall use the corresponding value
            of an attribute from the Printer's Job Template as the
            default value for any job attribute that the submitting
            client omits from the Print operation.
          
            If neither the client nor the Printer's Job Template
            supplies a value for a job attribute, then the output
            device shall supply its own default value for that job
            attribute, if necessary, in order to produce output.
          
          
          5.4.1.1 Print Request
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Print
            Request:
          
               Job and       A set of Job object and Document
               Document      attributes as defined in section 6.2
               Attributes
          
               Requested     A set of attributes without values in
               Attributes    whose values the requester is
                             interested.
               Document      Document content is optional and shall
               Contents      not be included when a URL is provided
                             in the document-URL attribute which
                             points to the content.
          
          
          5.4.1.2 Print Response
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Print
            Response:
          
          
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               Job-          A URL Used for all other operations on
               Identifier    this Job.
               Job Status    Current-job-state
          
               Printer State Printer-state
          
               Result        The requested attributes with their
               Attributes    current values, if the requester
                             supplied any Requested Attributes
          
               Message       Optional message
          
               Errors        Optional Error Information
          
          
          
          5.4.2 Cancel Job Operation
          
            This operation allows a user to cancel one specific Print
            Job any time after the print job has been established on
            the Printer Object. Some pages may be printed before a
            job is terminated if printing has already started when
            the Cancel Job operation is received.  Only the end-user
            who is also the job originator (job-originator Job
            attribute) can cancel the job.
          
            The Cancel HTTP request will be sent to the URL
            identifying the job to be canceled.
          
          5.4.2.1 Cancel-Job Request
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Cancel
            Job Request:
          
          
               Message       Optional message to the operator.
          
               job-          The number (cardinal) of minutes that
               retention-    that job is to be retained after the job
               period        has been canceled.  This parameter
                             updates the value of the job-retention-
                             period that may have been submitted by
                             the submitter in the Print operation.
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          5.4.2.2 Cancel-Job Response
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Cancel
            Job Response:
          
               Job Status    Optional Job status information
          
               Errors        Optional Error Information
          
          
          
          5.4.3 Get Attributes Operation
          
            This operation allows an end-user to obtain information
            from the Print object concerning jobs, printers, and
            print queues, based on ISO 10175. The entity-body of the
            Get Attributes operation contains the set of attributes
            that the requester is interested in.  The requester
            should not supply values in the Requested Attributes
            input parameter; the Printer shall ignore the values of
            any supplied by the requester. The attribute list is
            returned in the response with the appropriate attribute
            values filled in. If no attribute list is supplied, then
            all attributes defined for that object are returned.
          
          5.4.3.1 Get-Attributes Request
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Get
            Attributes Request:
          
               Selector       Job-Identifier (URL) or
                              Printer URL or
                              Job Template URL
          
               Requested      A set of attributes without values in
               Attributes     whose values the requester is
                              interested
          
          
          5.4.3.2 Get-Attributes Response
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Get
            Attributes Response:
          
               Result         The requested attributes of the object
               Attributes     with their current values, if the
                              requester supplied any Requested
                              Attributes
          
          
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               Errors         Optional error information
          
          
          
          5.4.4 Get Jobs Operation
          
            This operation allows a client to retrieve a list of
            print jobs belonging to the target Printer object. A list
            of attributes the client is interested in seeing may be
            appended to the request. If no attributes are asked for
            the default set of job-name and total-job-octets is
            returned for each job along with the job-identifier. Jobs
            will be returned in the order in which they are scheduled
            to print.
          
          5.4.4.1 Get-Jobs Request
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Get
            Jobs Request:
          
               selector      Indicates which jobs the requester
                             seeks.  The values are type2Enum (see
                             section 6).  Standard values are: "
                             all-jobs" - including completed jobs
          
          
                             "pending" - all jobs which are pending
                             and processing
          
          
                             "my-jobs" - my jobs that are pending or
                             processing
          
               Requested     A set of attributes without values in
               Attributes    whose values the requester is
                             interested.
          
          
          
          5.4.4.2 Get-Jobs Response
          
            The following abstract data types are part of the Get
            Jobs Response:
          
               Jobs          A list of Job URLs is returned. The list
                             is in "scheduled" order.  The job-
          
          
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                             identifier attribute shall be returned
                             as the first attribute of each job to
                             mark the beginning of the set of
                             attributes for the next job.
          
               Result        In addition to the job-identifier
               Attributes    attribute which is always returned,
                             either the Requested Attributes are
                             returned or the following attributes by
                             default, if the requester did not supply
                             any Requested Attributes: job-total-
                             octets and number-of-intervening-job.
                             This last attribute is necessary since
                             an end user may request just their own
                             jobs and they need some relative
                             position indicator if there are other
                             jobs interspersed in the waiting list
                             which are not returned in the response
                             or cannot be because of site security
                             policy restrictions.
          
               Errors        Optional Error Information
          
          
          6. Object Attributes
          
            This section describes the attributes, syntaxes, and
            values that are part of IPP. The sections below show the
            objects and their associated attributes which are
            included within the scope of this protocol.  The text in
            these sections has been heavily influenced by the ISO/IEC
            10175 DPA (Final, June 1996).
          
          6.1 Attribute Syntaxes
          
            The syntax for attribute values is specified using the
            notation of RFC 822.
          
            The special syntax State is used to form other syntaxes
            for xxx-supported attributes of the Printer object that
            indicate job attributes that the Printer supports.  Such
            support may include operator intervention, delivery of an
            order that the provider has previously placed, or may
            require that the provider place a special order.  The
            syntax for State is itself a type2Enum.  The standard
            values are: [":not-ready" / ":on-order" / ":special-
            order"]
          
          
          
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            An attribute value with an empty State means that the
            indicated value is ready to be used without human
            intervention.
          
            An attribute value with a ":not-ready" State means that
            operator intervention is required.
          
            An attribute value with a ":on-order" State means that
            the provider has placed an order for the indicated value
            and that the operator must wait until the resource is
            delivered before the job can be printed.  However, an
            end-user may submit a job that requires such a resource
            and the Printer shall accept such a job.
          
            An attribute value with a ":special-order" State means
            that the provider shall make a special order for the
            resource, when a job is submitted that needs such a
            resource.  However, an end-user may submit a job that
            requires such a resource and the Printer shall accept
            such a job.
          
            For example, the media-supported printer attribute might
            contain the following values:
          
               media-supported = na-letter-white, na-letter-
          transparent,
                              b:not-ready
          
            Meaning that na-letter-white and na-letter-transparent
            are loaded into the two trays of the output device and
            that b is supported, but requires the operator to change
            the trays.
          
            The sections below reference the following syntax items:
          
               string                 arbitrary ASCII strings, no
                                      control characters, except
                                      <SPACE>.
               StringPair             string ":" string
               stringState            string State
               name                   arbitrary ASCII strings, no
                                      control characters, and no
                                      <SPACE> characters.
               Url                    Universal Resource Locator
               dateTime               date and time in RFC 822
                                      format
               deltaTime              [hours ":"] minutes
               cardinal               0 .. n represented as ASCII
          
          
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                                      digits
               type1Enum              standard names, must revise
                                      the IPP standard to add a new
                                      name.  No private names are
                                      allowed.
               type2Enum              standard names, but an
                                      implementor can, at any time,
                                      add new values by proposing
                                      them to the PWG for
                                      registration (or an IANA-
                                      appointed registry advisor
                                      after the PWG is no longer
                                      certified) where they are
                                      reviewed for approvoal..
                                      IANA keeps the registry.
                                      Implementors can support
                                      private (un-registered) with
                                      a suitable distinguishing
                                      prefix, such as -xxx- where
                                      xxx is the company name
                                      registered with IANA for use
                                      in domain names.
               Type3Enum              standard names, but an
                                      implementor can add new
                                      values by submitting a
                                      registration request directly
                                      to IANA, no PWG or IANA-
                                      appointed registry advisor
                                      review is required.
                                      Implementors can support
                                      private (un-registered) names
                                      with a suitable
                                      distinguishing prefix, such
                                      as -xxx- where xxx is the
                                      company name registered with
                                      IANA for use in domain names.
               type2EnumState         type2Enum State
               type3EnumState         type3Enum State
          
               boolean                tokens: yes, y, true, or t
                                      and no, n, false, or f.
               positiveInteger        1 .. n represented as ASCII
                                      digits
               positiveIntegerCross   positiveInteger [ "x"
                                      positiveInteger ]
               positiveIntegerCrossS  positiveIntegerCross State
               tate
               positiveIntegerRange   positiveInteger  ":"
          
          
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                                      positiveInteger
               positiveIntegerUnits   positiveInteger units
               positiveIntegerState   positiveInteger State
               units                  "ppm" |  ipm
                                              "   " | "spm" | "cps"
                                      | "lpm"
               type3Locale            type3Country ":"
                                      type3Language ":"
                                      type3CodeSet
               type3Country           type3Enum - Standard values
                                      are the two-character country
                                      codes from ISO 639.
               type3Language          type3Enum - Standard values
                                      are the two-character
                                      language codes from ISO 3166.
               type3CodeSet           type3Enum - Standard values
                                      are from the IANA Code Set
                                      registry.
               type2Format            name [ "/" version ]
               version                name
               type3LocaleState       type3Locale State
          
            Also, the following conventions (from RFC 822) are used:
          
               "1#" in front of a     means one or more values
               data syntax            separated by ",".
          
          
            NOTE - For consistency, no Job (or Job Template) or
            Printer attribute has the syntax # meaning zero or more
            values separated by ",".  Instead, a distinguished value,
            such as "none", is used to indicate no value.  For the
            Printer Object, the omission of the attribute entirely,
            is also used to indicate no value.  In all such cases for
            the Printer object where a conforming implementation may
            omit the attribute all together, an explicit sentence
            indicates the meaning of the Printer attribute when the
            attribute is unspecified.
          
          6.2 Job Attributes
          
            A job object contains a set of job attributes and one or
            more documents.  A client shall create a job and send it
            to a server using the Print operation. When accepting a
            Print operation, the Printer shall use the corresponding
            value of an attribute from the Printer's Job Template as
            the default value for any job attribute that the
            submitting client omits from the Print operation.
          
          
          
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            A client may use a job template associated with the
            selected printer in order to initialize the job. To do
            so, the client uses the Get-Attributes operation to get
            the URLs of the Printer's Job Templates.  Then the client
            may get the default attributes from the Printer's default
            Job Template in order to initialize a display to the end-
            user with the Printer's defaults.  See the printer-job-
            templates Printer attribute.  However, a client need not
            access the Job Template in order to issue a Print
            operation; the client can depend on the Printer to supply
            the default job object attribute values as part of the
            Print operation.
          
            Each section heading below contains the name of an
            attribute and its syntax in parentheses using the rules
            of RFC 822.
          
          6.2.1 Job Informational Attributes (Set by a Client/End
          User)
          
            The client may specify these attributes in the Print
            operation to provide information to identify a print-job.
          
            The client may also specify these attributes in the
            operations: Get-Attributes, and Get-Jobs.
          
          6.2.1.1 job-name (string)
          
            This attribute supplies a human readable string for
            naming the print-job.
          
            This attribute is intended to be printed on a start
            sheet, returned in a Get-Jobs result, or used in
            notification messages.
          
            If the client does not specify this attribute, a Printer
            shall set it to the value of the document-name attribute
            of the first document in the job.
          
          6.2.2 Job Informational Attributes (Set by a Printer)
          
            The Print shall add all of these attributes to a job to
            provide information to identify a print-job.
          
            The client may specify these attributes in the
            operations: Get-Attributes and Get-Jobs, but not in
            Print.
          
          
          
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          6.2.2.1 job-identifier (url)
          
            This attribute provides the job-identifier for this job
            on the Printer.  The Printer shall generate a job-
            identifier value as a URL.
          
            The value of the job-identifier attribute shall be
            returned by the Printer as part of the PrintResult in the
            Print operation.
          
          6.2.2.2 job-originator (name)
          
            This attribute specifies the name of the person
            submitting the print job.  The Printer shall set this
            attribute to the most authentic name that it can obtain
            from the client. The operation-user-name attribute is
            intended to be a source of the most authentic name.
          
          6.2.2.3 job-originating-host (name)
          
            This attribute identifies the originating host of the
            job. The Printer shall set this attribute to the value of
            the operation-host-name which is intended to be the most
            authentic host name of the client.
          
          6.2.2.4 job-locale (type3Locale)
          
            This attribute identifies the locale of the job, i.e, the
            country, language, and coded character set. The Printer
            sets this attribute from the value of the operation-
            locale.
          
            The Printer shall use this attribute to determine the
            locale for notification messages that it sends.
          
            Issue: Is there a more standard syntax for locale?
          
          6.2.3  Job Status Attributes (Set by Printer)
          
            The Printer shall add these attributes to a job when a
            client submits a job, and the Printer shall assign
            appropriate values to each such job-status attribute.
          
            The Printer uses these attributes to specify the job
            status before, during and after the processing of the
            print-job by the Printer.
          
          
          
          
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            The client may specify job-status attributes in: Get-
            Attributes and Get-Jobs, but not Print.
          
          6.2.3.1 current-job-state (type1Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the current state of the job.
            Standard values are:
          
               Unknown     The job state is not known, or is
                           indeterminate.
               held        The job is waiting to be released for
                           scheduling for any number of reasons
                           as specified by the value of the job's
                           job-state-reasons attribute.
               pending     The job is waiting to start processing
                           on a printer.
               processing  The server is processing the job, or
                           has made the job ready for printing,
                           but the output device is not yet
                           printing it, either because the job
                           hasn't reached the output device or
                           because the job is queued in the
                           output device or some other spooler,
                           awaiting the output device to print
                           it.
          
                           Or
          
                           The server has completed processing
                           the job and the output device is
                           currently printing the job. That is,
                           an output device is either printing
                           pages of the job, or failing in its
                           attempt to print pages of the job
                           because of some wait state, such as,
                           start-wait, end-wait, needs-attention,
                           etc.  The complete job state includes
                           the detailed status represented in the
                           printer's printer-state attribute.
               paused      The job has been paused
               Interrupte  The job has been interrupted by some
               d           intervening job, and shall resume
                           processing automatically once the
                           intervening job has completed.
          
          
          
          
          
          
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               Terminatin  The job has been canceled by a Cancel-
               g           Job request or aborted by the server
                           and is in the process of terminating.
                           The job's job-state-reasons attribute
                           contains the reasons that the job is
                           being terminated.
               Retained    The job is being retained at the
                           server as a result of the job's job-
                           retention-period being non-zero. The
                           job has (1) completed successfully or
                           with warnings or errors, (2) been
                           aborted while printing by the server,
                           or (3) been canceled by the Cancel-Job
                           request before or during processing.
                           The job's job-state-reasons attribute
                           contains the reasons that the job has
                           been retained.
                           While in the retained state, all of
                           the job's document data (and
                           resources, if any) shall be retained
                           by the server; thus a job in the
                           retained state could be reprinted,
                           using some means outside the scope of
                           IPP V1.0.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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               Completed   The job has:
          
          
                               (1) completed successfully or with
                           warnings or errors,
                               (2) been aborted by the server
                           while printing, or
                               (3) been canceled by the Cancel-
                           Job request,
          
          
                           AND the job's:
                               (1) job-retention-period was zero
                           or has expired, or
                               (2) job-discard-time has arrived.
                           The job's job-state-reasons attribute
                           contains the reason(s) that the job
                           has been completed.
                           While in the completed state, a job's
                           document data (and resources if any)
                           need not be retained by the server;
                           thus a job in the completed state
                           could not be reprinted. The length of
                           time that a job may be in this state,
                           before transitioning to unknown, is
                           implementation-dependent.  However,
                           servers that implement the completed
                           job-state shall retain, as a minimum,
                           the following attributes for any job
                           in the completed state: job-
                           identifier, job-originator, job-name,
                           current-job-state, output-device-
                           assigned, and job-state-reasons.
          
          
            The IPP protocol supports all values for job states, but
            Printers need only support those states which are
            appropriate for the particular implementation.
          
          6.2.3.2 output-device-assigned (name)
          
            This attribute identifies the Output Device to which the
            Printer has assigned this job.
          
            If an Output Device implements a Printer, the Printer
            need not set this attribute.
          
          
          
          
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            If a Print Server implements a Printer, the value shall
            be empty until the Printer assigns an Output Device to
            the job.
          
            The value of the job's output-device-assigned attribute
            shall remain after the job has completed, so that end
            users can determine the Output Device on which the job
            was printed.
          
          6.2.3.3 submission-time (dateTime)
          
            This attribute indicates the time at which this job was
            accepted by the Printer.  If the Printer does not support
            the notion of time, the attribute need not be stored as
            part of the job object.
          
          6.2.3.4 number-of-intervening-jobs (cardinal)
          
            This attribute indicates the number of jobs that are
            "ahead" of this job in the current scheduled order.  For
            efficiency, it is only necessary to calculate this value
            when an operation if performed that requests this
            attribute.
          
            NOTE - This attribute is necessary since an end user may
            request just their own jobs and they need some relative
            position indicator if there are other jobs interspersed
            in the waiting list which are not returned in the
            response or cannot be because of site security policy
            restrictions.
          
          6.2.3.5 job-message-from-operator (string)
          
            This attribute provides a message from an operator,
            system administrator or "intelligent" process to indicate
            to the end user the reasons for modification or other
            management action taken on a job.
          
          6.2.3.6 completion-time (dateTime)
          
            This attribute indicates the time at which this job
            completed. This time is useful for jobs which are
            retained after printing.  If the Printer does not support
            the notion of time, the attribute is not stored as part
            of the Job object.
          
          
          
          
          
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          6.2.3.7 job-state-reasons (1#type2Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the reason or reasons that the
            job is in the state that it is in (e.g., held,
            terminating, retained, completed, etc.).  The printer
            shall indicate the particular reason(s) by setting the
            value of the job-state-reasons attribute.
          
            The following standard values are defined:
          
               none                There are not reasons associated
                                   with the job's current state.
               documents-needed    The complete job has been
                                   accepted by the server, but the
                                   server is waiting for its files
                                   to be transferred before the job
                                   can be scheduled to be printed.
               job-hold-set        The value of the job's job-hold
                                   attribute is TRUE.
               job-print-after-    The value of the job's job-print-
               specified           after or print-off-peak
                                   attributes have specified a time
                                   specification that has not yet
                                   occurred.
               Required-           At least one of the resources
               resources-not-      needed by the job, such as media,
               ready               fonts, resource objects, etc., is
                                   not ready on any of the physical
                                   printer's for which the job is a
                                   candidate.
               Successful          The job completed successfully.
               completion
               Completed-with-     The job completed with warnings.
               warnings
               Completed-with-     The job completed with errors
               errors              (and possibly warnings too).
               Cancelled-by-user   The job was cancelled by the user
                                   using the CancelJob request.
               Cancelled-by-       The job was cancelled by the
               operator            operator using the CancelJob
                                   request.
               Aborted-by-system   The job was aborted by the
                                   system.
               Logfile-pending     The job's logfile is pending file
                                   transfer.
               Logfile-            The job's logfile is being
               transferring        transferred.
          
          
          
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          6.2.3.8 impressions-completed (cardinal)
          
            This attribute contains the number of impressions that
            the Printer has completed printing.  If the Printer
            cannot report this number, the Printer leaves this
            attribute unspecified.
          
          6.2.3.9 media-sheets-completed (cardinal)
          
            This attribute contains the number of media-sheets that
            the Printer has completed printing.  If the Printer
            cannot report this number, the Printer leaves this
            attribute unspecified.
          
          6.2.4 Job Sheet Attributes (Set by Client/End User)
          
            The client shall specify these attributes to control the
            printing of job sheets.
          
            The client may also specify job sheet attributes in: Get-
            Attributes and Get-Jobs.
          
          6.2.4.1 job-sheets (type3Enum)
          
            This attribute determines what type of job-sheets the
            Printer shall print with the job.
          
            The standard values are: none, and default-sheet.
          
            The value "none" means that the Printer shall print no
            job sheets.  The value "default-sheet" means that the
            Printer shall print the job sheets defined by an
            administrator. If the administrator's policy is not to
            support none, the Printer shall use the default-sheet
            value if the client supplies the "none" value.
          
            NOTE - The effect of this attribute on jobs and documents
            is controlled by the files-are-one-document and files-
            are-interleaved job attributes.
          
          6.2.5 Notification Attributes (Set by a Client/End User)
          
            The client shall specify these attributes to indicate
            events that the client is interested in, along with the
            notification address and method for performing the
            notification.
          
          
          
          
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            The client may also specify notification attributes in:
            Get-Attributes and Get-Jobs.
          
          6.2.5.1 notification-events (1#type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies the events about which the end
            user want to be notified.
          
            Standard values are: none, job-completion, job-problems
            and printer-problems.
          
            If this attribute contains the event none, the Printer
            shall not notify.  This value is useful if an
            administrator has set up a notification Printer default
            but the end user does not want notification.  If the none
            value and other values are supplied, the Printer shall
            ignore the none value.
          
            If this attribute contains the value: job-completion, the
            Printer shall notify the client when the job containing
            this attribute completes with or without errors or is
            cancelled by the end-user or the operator.
          
            If this attribute contains the value:  job-problems, the
            Printer shall notify the client when this job has a
            problem while this job is printing. Problems include:
            paper jam and out-of-paper.
          
            If this attribute contains the value:  printer-problems,
            the Printer shall notify the client when any job,
            including this job, has a problem while this job is
            waiting to print or printing. Problems include: paper jam
            and out-of-paper.
          
          6.2.5.2 notification-address (url)
          
            This address specifies both the address and mechanism for
            delivery of notification events to the client. The client
            specifies this attribute in the operation-notification-
            address attribute which the Printer in turn uses to set
            this attribute.
          
            The Printer shall use this attribute as the address for
            sending messages to a job submitter when an event occurs
            that the end user has registered an interest in or when
            certain other events occur, such as Cancel-Job.
          
          
          
          
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            If the URL has a "mailto:" scheme, then email is used and
            the rest of the URL is used as the email address.  If the
            URL has a "http:" scheme, then an HTTP  method is used to
            add HTML formatted events to the end of the specified
            HTML file.
          
          6.2.6 Job Scheduling Attributes (Set by Client/End User)
          
            The client shall specify these attributes to provide the
            Printer with information for the scheduling a print-job.
          
            The client may also specify these attributes in: Get-
            Attributes and Get-Jobs.
          
          6.2.6.1 job-priority (type1Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies a priority for scheduling the
            print-job. Printers that employ a priority-based
            scheduling algorithm use this attribute.
          
            There are three standard values: high, default, and low.
            Among those jobs that are ready to print, a Printer shall
            print all such jobs with a high priority before printing
            those with a default or low priority, and a Printer shall
            print all such jobs with a default priority before
            printing those with a low priority.
          
            If the client does not specify this attribute, the
            Printer assumes that the end user places no constraints
            concerning priority on the scheduling of the print-job,
            and it has a priority value of default.
          
            An operator can modify a job to have any priority. An
            end-user is restricted by the value of the maximum-end-
            user-priority Printer attribute.
          
          6.2.6.2 job-print-after (dateTime)
          
            This attribute specifies the calendar date and time of
            day after which the print-job shall become a candidate
            for printing.
          
            If the value of this attribute is in the future, the
            Printer shall set the value of the job's current-job-
            state to held and add the job-print-after-specified value
            to the job's job-state-reasons attribute and shall not
            schedule the print-job for printing until the specified
            date and time has passed.  When the specified date and
          
          
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            time arrives, the Printer shall remove the job-print-
            after-specified value from the job's job-state-reason
            attribute and, if no other reasons remain, shall change
            the job's current-job-state to pending so that the job
            becomes a candidate for being scheduled to print.
          
            If this attribute is unspecified or the value is in the
            past, the job shall be a candidate for scheduling
            immediately.
          
          6.2.6.3 job-print-off-peak (type3Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies the off-peak period during which
            the print-job shall become a candidate for printing.
          
            Standard values are:  "evening", "night", "weekend",
            "second-shift", "third-shift".
          
            If this attribute is specified, it contains a value with
            which an administrator has associated allowable print
            times. An administrator is encouraged to pick names that
            suggest the type of off-peak period.
          
            If the value of this attribute is in the future, the
            Printer shall set the value of the job's current-job-
            state to held and add the job-print-after-specified value
            to the job's job-state-reasons attribute and shall not
            schedule the print-job for printing until the specified
            date and time has passed.  When the specified date and
            time arrives, the Printer shall remove the job-print-
            after-specified value from the job's job-state-reason
            attribute and, if no other reasons remain, shall change
            the job's current-job-state to pending so that the job
            becomes a candidate for being scheduled to print.
          
            If this attribute is unspecified, the job shall be a
            candidate for scheduling immediately.
          
          6.2.6.4 job-retention-period (deltaTime)
          
            The retention time is expressed in hours and minutes,
            e.g. 6:00 (6 hours), or 20 (20 minutes).
          
            This attribute specifies the minimum period of time
            following the completion of job processing and printing
            that the server shall keep job attributes and document
            data.  The Printer may keep these attributes and data
          
          
          
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            longer than the value of the job-retention-period
            attribute.
          
            NOTE - the requester may change this job attribute using
            the input parameter to the Cancel-Job operation.
          
          6.2.7 Job Production Attributes (Set by Client/End User)
          
            The client shall specify these attributes to affect the
            rendering, production and finishing of the documents in
            the job.  Similar types of instructions may also be
            contained in the document to be printed.
          
            If there is a conflict between the value of one of these
            attributes, and a corresponding instruction in the
            document (either implicit or explicit), the value of the
            attribute shall take precedence over the document
            instruction.
          
            Job Production and Resource Attributes each address a
            similar set of features but they have different uses.
          
            A job production attribute provides a client with a way
            to request some feature at print time that may  not have
            been embedded within the document data when the document
            was created.  A job production attribute also provides a
            client with a way to override a feature at print time
            that was embedded within the document data when the
            document was created.
          
            Note: until companies that supply interpreters for PDL's,
            such as PostScript and PCL allow a way to specify
            overrides for internal job production instructions, a
            Printer may not be able to implement these attributes for
            some PDL's.
          
            A job resource attribute tells a Printer what features
            the job needs. A program that translates document data to
            a Printer's PDL, and/or merges production attributes into
            the document data should add job resource attributes to a
            job.
          
            For example, a job production attribute medium-select
            with the value of "letter" requests that a job be printed
            on letter paper, but gives no information about what
            resources the job needs. For example, a job resource
            attribute media-used with the values of "letter" and
            "ledger" tell a Printer that the job needs letter and
          
          
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            ledger paper, but gives no information about which pages
            use each medium.
          
            The client may also specify job production-instruction
            attributes in: Get-Attributes and GetJobs.
          
          6.2.7.1   medium-select (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the medium that the Printer
            shall use for all pages of the document regardless of
            what media are specified within the document.
          
            The values for medium include medium-names, medium-sizes,
            input-trays and electronic forms so that one attribute
            specifies the media.
          
            Standard values are (taken from ISO DPA and the Printer
            MIB):
          
               default           The default medium for the
                                 output device
               iso-a4-white      Specifies the ISO A4 white
                                 medium
               iso-a4-colored    Specifies the ISO A4 coloured
                                 medium
               iso-a4-           Specifies the ISO A4
               transparent       transparent medium
               iso-a3-white      Specifies the ISO A3 white
                                 medium
               iso-a3-colored    Specifies the ISO A3 coloured
                                 medium
               iso-a5-white      Specifies the ISO A5 white
                                 medium
               iso-a5-colored    Specifies the ISO A5 coloured
                                 medium
               iso-b4-white      Specifies the ISO B4 white
                                 medium
               iso-b4-colored    Specifies the ISO B4 coloured
                                 medium
               iso-b5-white      Specifies the ISO B5 white
                                 medium
               iso-b5-colored    Specifies the ISO B5 coloured
                                 medium
               jis-b4-white      Specifies the JIS B4 white
                                 medium
               jis-b4-colored    Specifies the JIS B4 coloured
                                 medium
          
          
          
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               jis-b5-white      Specifies the JIS B5 white
                                 medium
               jis-b5-colored    Specifies the JIS B5 coloured
                                 medium
          
          
            The following standard values are defined for North
            American media:
          
               na-letter-white   Specifies the North American
                                 letter white medium
               na-letter-        Specifies the North American
               colored           letter coloured medium
               na-letter-        Specifies the North American
               transparent       letter transparent medium
               na-legal-white    Specifies the North American
                                 legal white medium
               na-legal-colored  Specifies the North American
                                 legal coloured medium
          
          
            The following standard values are defined for envelopes:
          
               iso-b4-envelope   Specifies the ISO B4 envelope
                                 medium
               iso-b5-envelope   Specifies the ISO B5 envelope
                                 medium
               iso-c3-envelope   Specifies the ISO C3 envelope
                                 medium
               iso-c4-envelope   Specifies the ISO C4 envelope
                                 medium
               iso-c5-envelope   Specifies the ISO C5 envelope
                                 medium
               iso-c6-envelope   Specifies the ISO C6 envelope
                                 medium
               iso-designated-   Specifies the ISO Designated
               long-envelope     Long envelope medium
               na-10x13-         Specifies the North American
               envelope          10x13 envelope medium
               na-9x12-envelope  Specifies the North American
                                 9x12 envelope medium
               monarch-envelope  Specifies the Monarch envelope
               na-number-10-     Specifies the North American
               envelope          number 10 business envelope
                                 medium
               na-7x9-envelope   Specifies the North American
                                 7x9 inch envelope
          
          
          
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               na-9x11-envelope  Specifies the North American
                                 9x11 inch envelope
               na-10x14-         Specifies the North American
               envelope          10x14 inch envelope
               na-number-9-      Specifies the North American
               envelope          number 9 business envelope
               na-6x9-envelope   Specifies the North American
                                 6x9 inch envelope
               na-10x15-         Specifies the North American
               envelope          10x15 inch envelope
          
          
            The following standard values are defined for the less
            commonly used media (white-only):
          
               executive-white   Specifies the white executive
                                 medium
               folio-white       Specifies the folio white
                                 medium
               invoice-white     Specifies the white invoice
                                 medium
               ledger-white      Specifies the white ledger
                                 medium
               quarto-white      Specified the white quarto
                                 medium
               iso-a0-white      Specifies the ISO A0 white
                                 medium
               iso-a1-white      Specifies the ISO A1 white
                                 medium
               iso-a2-white      Specifies the ISO A2 white
                                 medium
               iso-a6-white      Specifies the ISO A6 white
                                 medium
               iso-a7-white      Specifies the ISO A7 white
                                 medium
               iso-a8-white      Specifies the ISO A8 white
                                 medium
               iso-a9-white      Specifies the ISO A9 white
                                 medium
               iso-10-white      Specifies the ISO A10 white
                                 medium
               iso-b0-white      Specifies the ISO B0 white
                                 medium
               iso-b1-white      Specifies the ISO B1 white
                                 medium
               iso-b2-white      Specifies the ISO B2 white
                                 medium
          
          
          
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               iso-b3-white      Specifies the ISO B3 white
                                 medium
               iso-b6-white      Specifies the ISO B6 white
                                 medium
               iso-b7-white      Specifies the ISO B7 white
                                 medium
               iso-b8-white      Specifies the ISO B8 white
                                 medium
               iso-b9-white      Specifies the ISO B9 white
                                 medium
               iso-b10-white     Specifies the ISO B10 white
                                 medium
               jis-b0-white      Specifies the JIS B0 white
                                 medium
               jis-b1-white      Specifies the JIS B1 white
                                 medium
               jis-b2-white      Specifies the JIS B2 white
                                 medium
               jis-b3-white      Specifies the JIS B3 white
                                 medium
               jis-b6-white      Specifies the JIS B6 white
                                 medium
               jis-b7-white      Specifies the JIS B7 white
                                 medium
               jis-b8-white      Specifies the JIS B8 white
                                 medium
               jis-b9-white      Specifies the JIS B9 white
                                 medium
               jis-b10-white     Specifies the JIS B10 white
                                 medium
          
          
            The following standard values are defined for engineering
            media:
          
               a                 Specifies the engineering A
                                 size medium
               b                 Specifies the engineering B
                                 size medium
               c                 Specifies the engineering C
                                 size medium
               d                 Specifies the engineering D
                                 size medium
               e                 Specifies the engineering E
                                 size medium
          
          
          
          
          
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            The following standard values are defined for input-trays
            (from ISO DPA and the Printer MIB):
          
               top        The top input tray in the printer.
               middle     The middle input tray in the printer.
               bottom     The bottom input tray in the printer.
               envelope   The envelope input tray in the
                          printer.
               manual     The manual feed input tray in the
                          printer.
               large-     The large capacity input tray in the
               capacity   printer.
               Main       The main input tray
               side       The side input tray
          
          
            The following standard values are defined for media sizes
            (from ISO dPA):
          
               iso-a0  Specifies the ISO A0 size: 841 mm by
                       1189 mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a1  Specifies the ISO A1 size: 594 mm by 841
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a2  Specifies the ISO A2 size: 420 mm by 594
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a3  Specifies the ISO A3 size: 297 mm by 420
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a4  Specifies the ISO A4 size: 210 mm by 297
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a5  Specifies the ISO A5 size: 148 mm by 210
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a6  Specifies the ISO A6 size: 105 mm by 148
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a7  Specifies the ISO A7 size: 74 mm by 105
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a8  Specifies the ISO A8 size: 52 mm by 74
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a9  Specifies the ISO A9 size: 37 mm by 52
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-a10 Specifies the ISO A10 size: 26 mm by 37
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
          
               iso-b0  Specifies the ISO B0 size: 1000 mm by
                       1414 mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b1  Specifies the ISO B1 size: 707 mm by
                       1000 mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b2  Specifies the ISO B2 size: 500 mm by 707
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
          
          
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               iso-b3  Specifies the ISO B3 size: 353 mm by 500
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b4  Specifies the ISO B4 size: 250 mm by 353
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b5  Specifies the ISO B5 size: 176 mm by 250
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b6  Specifies the ISO B6 size: 125 mm by 176
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b7  Specifies the ISO B7 size: 88 mm by 125
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b8  Specifies the ISO B8 size: 62 mm by 88
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b9  Specifies the ISO B9 size: 44 mm by 62
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
               iso-b10 Specifies the ISO B10 size: 31 mm by 44
                       mm as defined in ISO 216
          
               na-letter   Specifies the North American letter
                           size: 8.5 inches by 11 inches
               na-legal    Specifies the North American legal
                           size: 8.5 inches by 14 inches
               executive   Specifies the executive size (7.25 X
                           10.5 in)
               folio       Specifies the folio size (8.5 X 13
                           in)
               invoice     Specifies the invoice size (5.5 X
                           8.5 in)
               ledger      Specifies the ledger size (11 X 17
                           in)
               quarto      Specifies the quarto size (8.5 X
                           10.83 in)
          
               iso-c3      Specifies the ISO C3 size: 324 mm by
                           458 mm as defined in ISO 269
               iso-c4      Specifies the ISO C4 size: 229 mm by
                           324 mm as defined in ISO 269
               iso-c5      Specifies the ISO C5 size: 162 mm by
                           229 mm as defined in ISO 269
               iso-c6      Specifies the ISO C6 size: 114 mm by
                           162 mm as defined in ISO 269
               iso-        Specifies the ISO Designated Long
               designated  size: 110 mm by 220 mm as defined in
               -long       ISO 269
          
               na-10x13-       Specifies the North American
               envelope        10x13 size: 10 inches by 13
                               inches
          
          
          
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               na-9x12-        Specifies the North American
               envelope        9x12 size: 9 inches by 12 inches
               na-number-10-   Specifies the North American
               envelope        number 10 business envelope
                               size: 4.125 inches by 9.5 inches
               na-7x9-         Specifies the North American 7x9
               envelope        inch envelope size
               na-9x11-        Specifies the North American
               envelope        9x11 inch envelope size
               na-10x14-       Specifies the North American
               envelope        10x14 inch envelope size
               na-number-9-    Specifies the North American
               envelope        number 9 business envelope size
               na-6x9-         Specifies the North American 6x9
               envelope        envelope size
               na-10x15-       Specifies the North American
               envelope        10x15 envelope size
               monarch-        Specifies the Monarch envelope
               envelope        size (3.87 x 7.5 in)
          
               a               Specifies the engineering A
                               size: 8.5 inches by 11
                               inches
               b               Specifies the engineering B
                               size: 11 inches by 17
                               inches
               c               Specifies the engineering C
                               size: 17 inches by 22
                               inches
               d               Specifies the engineering D
                               size: 22 inches by 34
                               inches
               e               Specifies the engineering E
                               size: 34 inches by 44
                               inches
          
               jis-b0    Specifies the JIS B0 size: 1030mm x
                         1456mm
               jis-b1    Specifies the JIS B1 size: 728mm x
                         1030mm
               jis-b2    Specifies the JIS B2 size: 515mm x
                         728mm
               jis-b3    Specifies the JIS B3 size: 364mm x
                         515mm
               jis-b4    Specifies the JIS B4 size: 257mm x
                         364mm
               jis-b5    Specifies the JIS B5 size: 182mm x
                         257mm
          
          
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               jis-b6    Specifies the JIS B6 size: 128mm x
                         182mm
               jis-b7    Specifies the JIS B7 size: 91mm x 128mm
               jis-b8    Specifies the JIS B8 size: 64mm x 91mm
               jis-b9    Specifies the JIS B9 size: 45mm x 64mm
               jis-b10   Specifies the JIS B10 size: 32mm x 45mm
          
          
          6.2.7.2 finishing (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the finishing operation that
            the Printer should apply to each copy of the printed
            document.
          
            NOTE - The effect of this atttribute on jobs and
            documents is controlled by the files-are-one-document and
            files-are-interleaved job attributes.
          
            Standard values for this attribute are:
          
               none         Perform no finishing.
               staple       This indicates that staples are to
                            be used to bind the document. The
                            exact number and placement of the
                            staples is site-defined; other
                            finishing object attributes may be
                            included to provide this
                            information.
               staple-top-  This indicates that one or more
               left         staples should be placed on the top
                            left corner of the document
               staple-      This indicates that one or more
               bottom-left  staples should be placed on the
                            bottom left corner of the document
               staple-top-  This indicates that one or more
               right        staples should be placed on the top
                            right corner of the document
               staple-      This indicates that one or more
               bottom-      staples should be placed on the
               right        bottom right corner of the document
               saddle-      This indicates that one or more
               stitch       staples (wire stitches) are to be
                            used to bind the document along the
                            middle fold.  The exact number and
                            placement of the stitches is site-
                            defined.
          
          
          
          
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               edge-stitch  This indicates that one or more
                            staples (wire stitches) are to be
                            used to bind the document along one
                            edge.  The exact number and
                            placement of the staples is site-
                            defined.
               punch        This indicates that holes are
                            required in the finished document.
                            The exact number and placement of
                            the holes is site-defined  The
                            punch specification may be
                            satisfied (in a site- and
                            implementation-specific manner)
                            either by drilling/punching, or by
                            substituting predrilled media.
               cover        This value is specified when it is
                            desired to select a non-printed (or
                            pre-printed) cover for the
                            document. This does not supplant
                            the specification of a printed
                            cover (on cover stock medium) by
                            the document itself.
               bind         This indicates that a binding is to
                            be applied to the document; the
                            type and placement of the binding
                            is site-defined.
          
          
          6.2.7.3 number-up (type3Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies the number of source page-images
            to impose upon a single side of an instance of a selected
            medium.
          
            In general, only certain numeric values are valid for
            this attribute and the value "none", depending upon the
            Printer implementation to which the print-request is
            directed.  Standard values are: "none", "1", "2", "4".
          
            This attribute primarily controls the translation,
            scaling and rotation of page images, but a site may
            choose to add embellishments, such as borders to each
            logical page.  The value "none" shall not include any
            embellishments and shall place one logical page on a
            single side of an instance of the selected medium without
            any translation, scaling, or rotation.
          
          
          
          
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          6.2.7.4 sides (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies how source page-images are to be
            imposed upon the sides of an instance of a selected
            medium.
          
            The standard values are: 1-sided, 2-sided-long-edge, 2-
            sided-short-edge.
          
            1-sided imposes each consecutive source page-image upon
            the same side of consecutive media sheets.
          
            2-sided-long-edge imposes each consecutive pair of source
            page-image upon front and back sides of consecutive media
            sheets, such that the orientation of each pair of source-
            pages on the medium would be correct for the reader as if
            for binding on the long edge.  This imposition is
            sometimes called "duplex".
          
            2-sided-short-edge imposes each consecutive pair of
            source page-image upon front and back sides of
            consecutive media sheets, such that the orientation of
            each pair of source-pages on the medium would be correct
            for the reader as if for binding on the short edge.  This
            imposition is sometimes called "tumble" or "head-to-toe".
          
            Issue:  How does sides interact with portrait vs.
            landscape and reverse-landscape documents?
          
          6.2.7.5 copies (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute specifies the number of copies of the job
            to be printed. If this attribute is unspecified by both
            the client and the Printer's Job Template, its default
            value shall be 1.
          
            NOTE - The effect of this atttribute on jobs and
            documents is controlled by the files-are-one-document and
            files-are-interleaved job attributes.
          
          6.2.7.6 printer-resolution-select (positiveIntegerCross)
          
            This attribute specifies the resolution that the Printer
            should use.
          
            The syntax allows a single integer to specify the
            resolution or a pair of integers to specify the
            resolution when the x and y dimensions differ. When two
          
          
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            integers are specified, the first is in the x direction,
            ie., in the direction of the shortest dimension of the
            medium, so that the value is independent of whether the
            printer feeds long edge or short edge first.
          
          6.2.7.7 print-quality (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies the print quality that the
            Printer should use.
          
            The standard values are:
          
               draft          Lowest quality available on the printer
               normal    Normal or intermediate quality on the printer
               high      Highest quality available on the printer
          
          
          6.2.7.8 page-select (positiveIntegerRange)
          
            This attribute specifies the pages in the document that
            the Printer shall use. This attribute is unlikely to be
            useful for jobs with more than one document or in Job
            Templates. If this attribute is unspecified, then the
            Printer shall print all pages in a document.
          
          6.2.7.9 files-are-one-document (boolean)
          
            This attribute is relevant only if a job consists of two
            or more documents. It controls finishing operations, job-
            sheet placement, and the order of documents when the
            copies attribute exceeds 1.
          
            If the files for the job are a and b and this attribute
            is true, then files a and b are treated as a single
            document for finishing operations. Also, there will be no
            slip sheets between files a and b. If more than one copy
            is made, the ordering must be a, b, a, b, .... The
            attribute files-are-interleaved is ignored.
          
            If the files for the job are a and b and this attribute
            is false or unspecified by both the client and the
            Printer's Job Template, then each file is treated as a
            single document for finishing operations. Also, a client
            may specify that a slip sheet be between files a and b.
            If more than one copy is made, and the attribute files-
            are-interleaved false or unspecified, the ordering is a,
            a, b, b, .... If more than one copy is made, and the
          
          
          
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            attribute files-are-interleaved true, the ordering is a,
            b, a, b, ....
          
          6.2.7.10 files-are-interleaved (boolean)
          
            This attribute is used in conjunction with files-are-one-
            document (q.v.).
          
          
          
          6.2.8 Attributes for Conversion of Text and HTML Files (Set
          by Client/End User)
          
            The client shall specify these attributes to control
            formatting for text documents or HTML documents.
          
            A client need not specify these attributes for other
            types of documents, such as PostScript or PCL.
          
          6.2.8.1 width (cardinalUnits)
          
            This attribute specifies the media width for the document
            in characters.
          
          6.2.8.2 length (cardinalUnits)
          
            This attribute specifies the media length for the
            document in characters.
          
          6.2.8.3 left-margin (cardinalUnits
          
            This attribute specifies the left-margin for the document
            in characters.
          
          6.2.8.4 right-margin (cardinalUnits)
          
            This attribute specifies the right-margin for the
            document in characters.
          
          6.2.8.5 top-margin (cardinalUnits)
          
            This attribute specifies the top-margin for the document
            in lines.
          
          6.2.8.6 bottom-margin (cardinalUnits)
          
            This attribute specifies the bottom-margin for the
            document in lines.
          
          
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          6.2.8.7 repeated-tab-stops (cardinalUnits)
          
            This attribute specifies the tab stops for the document
            in characters.
          
          6.2.8.8 header-text (string)
          
            This attribute specifies the header text for the
            document.
          
          6.2.8.9 footer-text (string)
          
            This attribute specifies the footer text for the
            document.
          
          6.2.8.10 number-pages (boolean)
          
            This attribute specifies that the pages should be
            numbered in the document.
          
          6.2.8.11 default-font (string)
          
            This attribute specifies the font to use for all text in
            the document.
          
          6.2.8.12 font-size (cardinalUnits)
          
            This attribute specifies the font-size in points for text
            in the document.  The value of this attribute affects the
            size of the other text attributes.
          
            If this attribute is omitted and the Printer's default
            Job Template does not contain this attribute, the Printer
            shall assume a value of 10.  A value of 10 with a fixed
            pitch font, shall produce 12 characters per inch in the
            horizontal direction and with 6 lines per inch in the
            vertical direction.
          
          6.2.8.13 default-code-set (type3Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies the code-set in which the
            document is encoded.
          
          6.2.8.14 content-orientation (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies the orientation of the document.
          
            The standard values are:
          
          
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               portrait    The page orientation such that the
                           sides are longer than the top when
                           the page is held in the intended
                           human reading orientation
               landscape   The page orientation such that the
                           sides are shorter than the top when
                           the page is held in the intended
                           human readable orientation.
                           Landscape is defined to be a
                           rotation of the page by +90 degrees
                           with respect to the medium (i.e.
                           anti-clockwise) from the portrait
                           orientation
                           NOTE - The +90 direction was chosen
                           because simple finishing on the long
                           edge is the same edge whether
                           portrait or landscape
               reverse-    The page orientation defined to be a
               portrait    rotation of 180 degrees with respect
                           to portrait
               reverse-    The page orientation defined to be a
               landscape   rotation of 180 degrees with respect
                           to landscape.  Landscape is defined
                           to be a rotation of the page by -90
                           degrees with respect to the medium
                           (i.e. clockwise) from the portrait
                           orientation
                           NOTE - Reverse-landscape was added
                           because some applications rotate
                           landscape -90 degrees from portrait,
                           rather than +90 degrees.
          
          
          6.2.9 Job Resource Attributes (Set by the program that
          produces or senses the PDL)
          
            A program (described below) shall add these attributes,
            which describe the resources needed to print the job.
          
            A Printer may use these attributes to validate and
            schedule the print-job without interpreting the contents
            of the document. This provides the opportunity for a
            Printer to support a broad set of document formats yet
            still support fast efficient scheduling and validation of
            each job.
          
            The client/end user shall not specify these attributes.
            Instead, it is the duty of the program that translates
          
          
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            the document to the printer's PDL (or analyzes it) to add
            these attributes and their values to the job. Such a
            program may execute at a number of different points in
            time:
          
               1. The program produces a final form document and
               stores these resource attributes in a file before the
               end-user submits the print job.
          
               2. The program produces a final form document data
               stream when the end-user specifies "Print" to the
               application program (e.g., Windows GDI driver).
          
               3. The program running in the context of the Printer or
               server translates a revisable or final form document
               into a PDL that the output device understands.
          
            If any of these attributes is unspecified, the Printer
            shall assume that the all resources required by the
            document of the type specified by the missing attributes
            are ready, ie., are available to the Printer and/or
            output device without human intervention.
          
            These attributes may be unspecified if the translation
            program fails to provides such values, or if no
            translation occurs (e.g. the document is a PostScript
            document.
          
            Note: The Printer does not use these attributes during
            the actual printing of a document.
          
            Note: these attributes allow more than one value wherever
            it is possible for a job to specify more than one value
            of the corresponding job attribute, possibly by embedded
            instructions.
          
            The client may specify these attributes in: Get-
            Attributes and Get-Jobs.
          
            See the section on job production attributes for an
            explanation of how the job resource attributes differ
            from the job production attributes.
          
          6.2.9.1 document-formats-used (1#type2Format)
          
            This attribute identifies the document formats needed to
            print the document(s) in this job.
          
          
          
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            A format consists of two elements, a name and a version.
            The latter element is optional.
          
            The syntax is for type2Format:
          
                 name [ "/" version ]
          
            Examples include: PostScript, PostScript/2.0 and PCL/5e
          
            Note: The version component is optional.
          
            The names shall be registered with IANA as "printer
            languages" following the procedures established by the
            Printer MIB (currently proposed as an ITEF standard by
            RFC 1759).
          
          6.2.9.2 fonts-used (1#string)
          
            This attribute identifies the font resources used in the
            document(s) in the job.
          
          6.2.9.3 code-sets-used (1#type3Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the code-sets used in the
            document(s) in the Job. This attribute is relevant only
            for files that are not in ASCII, such as text files and
            possibly PCL files. PostScript files are always ASCII.
            Normally there is at most 1 code-set.
          
            Standard values are defined in the section specifying the
            default-code-set attribute.
          
          6.2.9.4 media-used (1#type2Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the media, media-sizes, input-
            trays or electronic forms needed to print the document(s)
            in the job.
          
            Standard values for this attribute are defined in the
            section specifying the medium-select attribute.
          
          6.2.9.5 sides-used (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies whether a job needs 1-sided, 2-
            sided-long-edge, or 2-sided-short-edge printing.
          
            Standard values for this attribute are defined in the
            section specifying the sides Job attribute.
          
          
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          6.2.9.6 print-quality-used (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies what print quality the job
            needs.
          
            Standard values for this attribute are defined in the
            section specifying the print-quality attribute.
          
          6.2.9.7 finishing-used (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies what finishing the job needs.
          
            Standard values for this attribute are defined in the
            section specifying the finishing attribute.
          
          6.2.9.8 printer-resolution-used (positiveIntegerCrossState)
          
            This attribute specifies what resolution the job needs.
          
            The interpretation of the values for this attribute are
            defined in the section on printer-resolution-select Job
            attribute.
          
          6.2.9.9 total-job-octets (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute specifies the total size of the job in
            octets. This attribute is the first of three that a
            translation program can use to specify the size of a job.
          
          6.2.9.10 job-impression-count (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute specifies the total size of the job in
            impressions.
          
          6.2.9.11 job-media-sheet-count (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute specifies the total size of the job in
            media-sheets.
          
          6.2.10 Number of Documents (Set by Printer)
          
            This group contains a single attribute which specifies
            the number of documents in the job.
          
            The Printer sets the value of this attribute depending on
            the number of documents that the client supplies in the
            Print operation.  The client shall not specify this
          
          
          
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            attribute (directly) in Print, but may specify this
            attribute in: Get-Attributes and Get-Jobs.
          
          6.2.10.1 number-of-documents (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute specifies the number of documents in the
            job. Each document shall contain its own set of document
            content attributes described below.
          
          6.2.11 Document Data (Set by a Client/End User)
          
            This group of attributes describes the document data for
            the job. These attributes also include the document data
            or reference it.
          
            All job attributes in other sections of this document
            occur only once per job and apply to all documents in a
            job.
          
            The client may specify document-data attributes in Print.
            The client must specify either the document-URL or
            document-content in Print.
          
            Except for document-content, the client may specify
            document-data attributes in: Get-Attributes, and Get-
            Jobs.
          
          6.2.11.1 document-format (type2Format)
          
            This attribute identifies the document format of this
            document.
          
            If the client does not specify this attribute, then the
            Printer shall attempt to determine the format in order to
            decide if the document data needs to be translated. The
            version component is optional.
          
          6.2.11.2 document-name (string)
          
            This attribute contains the name of the document used by
            the client to initially identify the document.
          
          6.2.11.3 document-URL (url)
          
            This attribute contains the URL of the document if the
            client specified the document with a URL.
          
          
          
          
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            If this attribute is specified, then document-content
            shall be unspecified.
          
          6.2.11.4 document-content (octetString)
          
            This attribute contains the actual contents of the
            document.
          
            If this attribute is specified, then document-URL shall
            be unspecified.
          
            This attribute shall be used during the transmission of
            the Print operation over a network. A Printer shall save
            the document data to a file and reference it with the
            document-URL. A Get-Attribute or Get-Jobs operation shall
            always find that this attribute is unspecified.
          
          6.3 Operation Attributes (Set by Client)
          
            NOTE:  These attributes have just been introduced and
            they are not as stable as the attributes in the other
            sections.  Some work is still needed to show the
            relationship between these attributes, job attributes,
            printer attributes, and authentication and authorization.
          
            The client shall set these attributes and associate them
            with an operation rather than an object.
          
            It is intended that a client program rather than an end-
            user has control over the setting of these values so that
            they cannot be easily forged.
          
          6.3.1 operation-locale (type3Locale)
          
            This attribute identifies the locale of the client. The
            Printer uses this attribute to determine the locale of
            (1) messages in the result of the operation, (2) in
            errors returned by the operation or (3) notification
            events sent to the submitter.
          
            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            job-locale attribute.
          
            If an operation does not specify this attribute, the
            Printer shall assume that the operation has the same
            locale as the Printer.
          
          
          
          
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          6.3.2 operation-notification-address (url)
          
            This attribute specifies both the address and mechanism
            for delivery of events.  If the URL has a "mailto:"
            scheme, then email is used and the rest of the URL is
            used as the email address.  If the URL has a "http:"
            scheme, then an HTTP APPEND method is used to add HTML
            formatted events to the end of the specified HTML file.
          
          6.3.3 operation-user-name (name)
          
            This attribute identifies the most authenticated end-user
            name that the client can supply. This name identifies the
            end-user performing the operation.
          
            This value shall be set by the system rather than the
            end-user in order to minimize the chance of forgery.
          
          6.3.4 operation-host-name (name)
          
            This attribute identifies the most authenticated host
            name that the client can supply. This name identifies the
            host from which the operation comes.
          
            This value shall be set by the system rather than the
            end-user in order to minimize the chance of forgery.
          
          6.4 Printer Attributes (Set by the Administrator)
          
            A printer object may be realized in either a Print Server
            or Output Device. Note: How these attribute are set by an
            Administrator is outside the scope of this specification.
          
            A Printer Object in an Output Device contains a set of
            printer object attributes that represent an Output Device
            capable of rendering a document in visible form.
            Examples include electronic and electro-mechanical
            printers such as laser printers, ink-jet printers, and
            various kinds of impact printers, but may include other
            types of output devices such as microfiche imagers and
            plotters as well.
          
            A Printer Object in a Print Server may supply queuing,
            spooling, and scheduling for an Output device that does
            not queue or spool.
          
            A Print Server, in the most common case, controls exactly
            one downstream Output Device. The Print Server's Printer
          
          
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            object has attributes whose values are the same as those
            of the Printer object in the downstream Output Device.
          
            A Printer Object in a Print Server may contain a set of
            printer object attributes that are the union of the
            Printer objects in the downstream Output Devices.  This
            object extends the capabilities of an Output Device.  For
            example, an administrator might define a single Print
            Server to represent all of the Output Devices of the same
            type and capability in a single location, associated with
            a particular server.  A end user would normally send a
            print-job to a Print Server, and allow the Print Server
            to assign the job to a particular Output Device  based on
            the relative load and availability of the printers under
            its control, thus providing a load balancing service.
            However, nothing precludes an administrator from
            configuring a print system so that an end user can send a
            print-job directly to an Output Device.
          
            The attributes defined in this section provide
            information about a particular Printer.
          
          6.4.1 printer-name (name)
          
            This attribute uniquely identifies the printer on its
            host.
          
          6.4.2 printer-location (string)
          
            This attribute identifies the location of this printer.
          
          6.4.3 printer-model (string)
          
            This attribute identifies the make and model of the
            printer.
          
          6.4.4 printer-type (type2Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the marking technology of the
            printer.
          
            The standard values for this attribute are the
            descriptive names specified by ISO DPA which have
            corresponding enum symbolic and numeric values assigned
            by the Printer MIB (RFC 1759).. These standard values
            are:
          
          
          
          
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               other                Other than the standard
                                    values
               unknown              Unknown printer type
               electrophotographic  electrophotographic LED
               -LED
               electrophotographic  electrophotographic laser
               -laser
               electrophotographic  other electrophotographic
               -other
               impact-moving-head-  9-pin impact moving head
               dot-matrix-9-pin     dot matrix
               impact-moving-head-  24-pin impact moving head
               dot-matrix-24-pin    dot matrix
               impact-moving-head-  neither 9-pin nor 24-pin
               dot-matrix-other     moving head dot matrix
               impact-moving-head-  fully formed impact moving
               fully-formed         head
               impact-band          impact band
               impact-other         impact other
               inkjet-aqueous       aqueous inkjet
               inkjet-solid         solid inkjet
               inkjet-other         other inkjet
               pen                  pen
               thermal-transfer     thermal transfer
               thermal-sensitive    thermal sensitive
               thermal-diffusion    thermal diffusion
               thermal-other        other thermal
               electro-erosion      electro-erosion
               electro-static       electro-static
               photographic-        photographic microfiche
               microfiche
               photographic-        photographic imagesetter
               imagesetter
               photographic-other   other photographic
               ion-deposition       ion deposition
               E-beam               E-beam
               typesetter           typesetter
          
          
          6.4.5 printer-state (type1Enum)
          
            This attribute identifies the current state of the
            printer and shall be set by the Printer.  The protocol
            support all values for printer states, however a Printer
            shall only generate the printer states which are
            appropriate for the particular implementation.
          
            The following standard values are defined:
          
          
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               unknown     The printer state is not known, or is
                           indeterminate, or is not returned by
                           the operation
               idle        The printer is ready to accept jobs,
                           but none have been scheduled on it.
               printing    The printer is currently printing a
                           job
               needs-      The printer needs human attention (no
               attention   special skills required).  This state
                           typically includes adding paper,
                           clearing a jam, changing the medium,
                           etc.
               paused      The operator has (temporarily) paused
                           the printer, by means outside the
                           scope of IPP V1.0.
               shutdown    The printer has been taken out of
                           service, (for a long time), whether
                           for repairs or others reasons.  The
                           printer's message generic attribute
                           may be used to record a reason and
                           estimated time for return to service
               job-start-  The currently processing job was
               wait        started with the job-start-wait
                           attribute set, and is awaiting
                           operator intervention or time-out.
               job-end-    The currently processing job was
               wait        started with the job-end-wait
                           attribute set, and is awaiting
                           operator intervention or time-out.
               job-        The currently processing job was
               password-   started with the job-password
               wait        attribute set, and is awaiting the
                           operator or user to enter the
                           password supplied by the job-password
                           attribute.
               needs-key-  The printer needs the attention of a
               operator    key operator.  Key operator functions
                           are printer-specific, but typically
                           include adding toner or developer, or
                           attending to a hardware fault.
               connecting- The server has scheduled a job on the
               to-printer  printer and is in the process of
                           connecting to a shared network
                           printer (and may not be able to
                           actually start printing the job for
                           an arbitrarily long time depending on
                           the usage of the printer by other
                           servers).
          
          
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               timed-out   The server was able to connect to the
                           printer (or is always connected), but
                           was unable to get a response from the
                           printer in the time specified by the
                           printer's printer-timeout-period
                           attribute.
          
          
          6.4.6 printer-state-message (string)
          
            This attributes specifies a message that gives further
            information about the current printer state and shall be
            set by the Printer.
          
          6.4.7 message (string)
          
            This attribute provides a message from an operator,
            system administrator or "intelligent" process to indicate
            to the end user information or status of the printer,
            such as why it is unavailable or when it is expected to
            be available.
          
          6.4.8 printer-job-templates (1#urlDefault)
          
            This attribute identifies the URL of each of the Job
            Templates that this Printer is associated with and the
            one Job Template this Printer uses as its default for
            supply job attributes that the client omits.  There shall
            be only one value with the default qualifier.  Other
            Printers can be associated with the same Job Templates.
          
            The syntax is:
          
                url [ ":" default ]
          
          6.4.9 locale (type3Locale)
          
            This attribute specifies the locale that the Printer
            operates in.
          
            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            job-locale attribute.
          
          6.4.10 notification-events (1#type2Enum)
          
            This attribute specifies the events on whose occurrence
            the Printer should notify those addresses specified by
            the notification-addresses attribute.
          
          
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            If the attribute is unspecified, the Printer does not
            perform notification, though the Printer still checks the
            job's notification-events attribute.
          
            In this attribute, job-problem and printer-problem have
            the same meaning.
          
            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            job's notification-events attribute.
          
            NOTE - This attribute is intended to notify operators,
            not end-users.
          
          6.4.11 notification-addresses (1#url)
          
            This attribute specifies the method and addresses to
            which the Printer should send messages when events
            specified by the notification-events attribute occur.
          
            If the attribute is unspecified, the Printer does not
            perform notification, though the Printer still checks the
            job's notification-events attribute.
          
            NOTE - This attribute is intended to notify operators,
            not end-users.
          
          6.4.12 end-user-acl (1#name)
          
            This attribute specifies the end users who are allowed to
            print on the Printer.
          
            If the attribute is unspecified, the Printer allows
            anyone to print.
          
          6.4.13 maximum-printer-speed (positiveIntegerUnits)
          
            This attribute indicates the maximum printer speed of the
            Printer in units of pages per minute, impressions per
            minute, lines per minute, and characters per minute. A
            job cannot control a Printer's speed, but a Printer
            Browser can use printer speed as a criteria.
          
            The standard units are a type2Enum and are: ppm, ipm,
            spm, lpm, cps.
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          6.4.14 fonts-substitutions (1#stringPair)
          
            This attribute specifies an appropriate substitute for a
            font that is advertised as supported in the fonts-
            supported attribute, even though the Printer doesn't
            actually have the font available.
          
            This attribute consists of a set of font pairs: a font
            name and the font to use instead.
          
            If this attribute is unspecified, the Printer does not
            perform any font substitutions.
          
          6.4.15 fonts-supported (1#stringState)
          
            This attribute identifies the font resources supported by
            this printer and indicates the state of readiness for
            each font.
          
            The standard names are defined in the section on default-
            font.
          
            Each item in the list contains the pair consisting of a
            font name and a state indicating the font's readiness
            state.
          
          6.4.16 media-supported (1#nameState)
          
            This attribute identifies the media, media-sizes, input
            trays, and electronic forms supported by this printer,
            and indicates the state of readiness for each medium
            resource.
          
            The standard names are defined in the section on the
            section on the medium-select.
          
            Standard states are: not-ready, on-order, and special-
            order.  The omission of a state shall indicate that the
            medium is ready, i.e., can be used without human
            intervention..
          
          6.4.17 document-formats-supported (1#type2FormatState)
          
            This attribute identifies the document-formats, including
            the document-format-versions, supported by the Printer.
            This set includes both the formats that are native to the
            Printer and those formats that the Printer can translate
            to one that is native to the Printer. From the client's
          
          
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            point of view, this set contains all formats in which
            documents can be submitted to this Printer.
          
            Proprietary document format identifiers, and versions are
            assigned by the owners of those formats.
          
            The state of readiness for each format is also included,
            though all formats should normally always be ready.
          
          6.4.18 numbers-up-supported (1#type3EnumState)
          
            This attribute identifies the number-up values supported
            by this printer..
          
            The state of readiness for each number-up value is also
            included, though all number-up conversions should always
            be ready.
          
          6.4.19 finishings-supported (1#type2EnumState)
          
            This attribute identifies the finishing operations
            supported by this Printer and states of readiness for
            each finishing.
          
            The standard finishing objects are defined in the section
            on the finishing Job attribute.
          
          6.4.20 sides-supported (1#type2EnumState)
          
            This attribute indicates the values of the sides
            attribute supported by this printer and the states of
            readiness of each value.
          
            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            sides attribute.
          
          6.4.21 print-qualities-supported (1#type2EnumState)
          
            This attribute indicates the values of the printer-
            quality attribute supported by this printer and the
            states of readiness for each print-quality value.
          
            The standard values are defined in the printer-quality
            attribute.
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          6.4.22 printer-resolutions-supported
          (1#positiveIntegerCrossState)
          
            This attribute indicates the values of the printer-
            resolution-select attribute supported by this printer and
            their states of readiness.
          
            The state of readiness for each printer resolution is
            also included, though normally all printer-resolutions
            should always be ready.
          
            The syntax is discussed in the section on the printer-
            resolution-select attribute.
          
          6.4.23 code-sets-supported (1#type3EnumState)
          
            This attribute indicates the values of the default-code-
            set attribute supported by this printer and the states of
            readiness for each code-set.
          
            The standard values are defined in the default-code-set
            attribute.
          
          6.4.24 off-peak-times-supported (1#type3EnumState)
          
            This attribute indicates the values of the job-print-off-
            peak attribute supported by this printer and the states
            of readiness for each value.
          
            If this attribute is unspecified, then the Printer has no
            off-peak periods.
          
            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            job-print-off-peak Job attribute.
          
            Note: this document does not define how an administrator
            associates the off-peak names with actual time periods.
          
          6.4.25 events-supported (1#type2EnumState)
          
            This attribute indicates the values of the job and
            printer notification-events attribute supported by this
            Printer and the states of readiness for each value.
          
            If this attribute is unspecified, then the Printer does
            not support notification.
          
          
          
          
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            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            notification-events attribute.
          
          6.4.26 locales-supported (1#type3LocaleState)
          
            This attribute indicates the values of the job-locale
            attribute supported by this Printer and the states of
            readiness for each value.
          
            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            job-locale attribute.
          
          6.4.27 job-sheets-supported (1#type3EnumState)
          
            This attribute identifies the job-sheet values supported
            by this printer, and the state of readiness for each job-
            sheet.
          
            To allow no job sheets, the system administrator shall
            include the value "none" as a value for this attribute.
            The client specifies that there are no job sheets by
            using the value "none" as the value of the job-sheets
            attribute.
          
            If the job-sheets attribute is not specified or contains
            a value which the Printer does not support, then the
            server shall select from among the values of this
            attribute.  The server shall not select the value "none"
            unless it is the only value specified for the job-sheets-
            supported attribute.
          
            NOTE - When the client supplies a value other than
            "none", it is preferable for the server to produce some
            job jobsheet, even if not the desired one, rather than
            produce none at all or reject the job.
          
          6.4.28 maximum-copies (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute indicates the maximum number of copies of
            a document that can be rendered by this printer in a
            single print-job.
          
            If the attribute is unspecified, there is no limit on the
            maximum number of copies for this Printer.
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          6.4.29 maximum-job-octets (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute indicates that the Printer shall accept a
            job only if its size in octets is less that the value
            specified by this attribute.
          
            If the attribute is unspecified, there is no limit on the
            size of a job in octets.
          
          6.4.30 maximum-impressions (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute indicates that the Printer shall accept a
            job only if its size in impression is less that the value
            specified by this attribute.
          
            If the attribute is unspecified, there is no limit on the
            size of a job in impressions.
          
          6.4.31 maximum-media-sheets (positiveInteger)
          
            This attribute indicates that the Printer shall accept a
            job only if its size in media-sheets is less that the
            value specified by this attribute.
          
            If the attribute is unspecified, there is no limit on the
            size of a job in media-sheets.
          
          6.4.32 maximum-job-retention-period (deltaTime)
          
            This attribute indicates that when the Printer accepts a
            job, the retention period must not exceed the value of
            this attribute. Otherwise, the Printer sets the job's
            retention-period to the value of this attribute.
          
            If this attribute is unspecified, then the Printer places
            no limit on the retention time.
          
          6.4.33 maximum-end-user-priority (type1Enum)
          
            This attribute indicates that when the Printer accepts a
            job, the job-priority must not exceed the value of this
            attribute. Otherwise, the Printer sets the job's job-
            priority to the value of this attribute.
          
            If this attribute is unspecified, then the Printer places
            no limit on the job-priority.
          
          
          
          
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            The standard values are defined in the section on the
            job-priority attribute.
          
          6.4.34 queued-job-count (cardinal)
          
            This attribute contains a count of the number of jobs
            that are either pending and/or processing and shall be
            set by the Printer.
          
          6.4.35 scheduling-algorithm (type3Enum)
          
            This attribute indicates the current scheduling algorithm
            for this Printer.  Standard values are: "none",
            "smallest-job-first", "time-received".
          
          6.5 Job Templates
          
            The attributes for a Job Template can be any of the Job
            object attributes defined in the sections:
          
               Job Sheet Attributes
               Notification Attributes
               Job Scheduling Attributes
                 (except job-print-after)
               Job Production Attributes
                 (except page-select)
               Attributes for Conversion of Text and HTML Files
          
          6.6 Conformance
          
            A conforming implementation shall implement all
            operations, objects and attributes defined in this
            document.
          
            Also, for the core set of attributes listed in this
            specification, it is not required that a conforming
            server support all (standard) values of all supported
            attributes.  For example, it is not required that a
            printer implement all finishing methods indicated by the
            standard values.
          
            The explicit requirement of the term "supported", with
            respect to one of the attributes that deal with printer
            functions or resources, is that the server shall
            recognize the attribute and those values that are
            supported, and shall be able to respond to a query about
            which values that printer does, in fact, support.
          
          
          
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            IPP is explicitly designed to be extensible.  Additional
            attributes can be proposed to be registered by going
            through the type 2 enum process which will register their
            specification after approval with IANA.  In addition
            specific implementation instances may support not only
            the basic protocol as defined in this specification, but
            may add vendor-specific private extensions by prefixing
            attribute-names with their company name registered with
            IANA for use in domains.  See attribute syntax section.
            However, such private extensions shall not duplicate
            attribute semantics already in this specification.
          
          7. Security Considerations
          
            This protocol does not identify any new authentication
            mechanisms. The authentication mechanisms built into HTTP
            (such as SSL and SHTTP) are recommended.
          
            This protocol does define a simple authorization
            mechanism by introducing the "end-user-acl" attribute as
            part of the Printer object.  This ACL attribute is a
            multi-valued list of all of the authenticated names of
            end-users.  This protocol does not specify what the
            domain is for names in this ACL attribute.
          
            Issue:  Will it always be possible for a Printer to
            obtain a meaningful authenticated name that the Printer
            can match against the end-user-acl, or will some other
            mechanism be necessary, such as a password?
          
          8. References
          
            [1]  Smith, R., Wright, F., Hastings, T., Zilles, S., and
                 Gyllenskog, J., "Printer MIB", RFC 1759, March 1995.
          
            [2]  Berners-Lee, T, Fielding, R., and Nielsen, H.,
                 "Hypertext Transfer Protocol - HTTP/1.0", RFC 1945,
                 August 1995.
          
            [3]  Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA
                 Internet Text Messages", RFC 822, August 1982.
          
            [4]  Postel, J., "Instructions to RFC Authors", RFC 1543,
                 October 1993.
          
            [5]  ISO/IEC 10175 Document Printing Application (DPA),
                 Final, June 1996.
          
          
          
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            [6]  Herriot, R. (editor), X/Open A Printing System
                 Interoperability Specification (PSIS), August 1995.
          
            [7]  Kirk, M. (editor), POSIX System Administration -
                 Part 4: Printing Interfaces, POSIX 1387.4 D8, 1994.
          
            [8]  Borenstein, N., and Freed, N., "MIME (Multi-purpose
                 Internet Mail Extensions) Part One: Mechanism for
                 Specifying and Describing the Format of Internet
                 Message Bodies", RFC 1521, September, 1993.
          
            [9]  Braden, S., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
                 Application and Support", RFC 1123, October, 1989,
          
            [10] McLaughlin, L. III, (editor), "Line Printer Daemon
                 Protocol" RFC 1179, August 1990.
          
            [11] Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., McCahill, M. ,
                 "Uniform Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738,
                 December, 1994.
          
          9. Author's Address
          
             Scott A. Isaacson
            Novell, Inc.
            122 E 1700 S
            Provo, UT   84606
          
            Phone: 801-861-7366
            Fax:   801-861-4025
            EMail: scott_isaacson@novell.com
          
             Tom Hastings
            Xerox Corporation
            701 S. Aviation Blvd.
            El Segundo, CA   90245
          
            Phone: 310-333-6413
            Fax:   310-333-5514
            EMail: hastings@cp10.es.xerox.com
          
            Robert Herriot
            Sun Microsystems Inc.
            2550 Garcia Ave., MPK-17
            Mountain View, CA 94043
          
            Phone: 415-786-8995
            Fax:  415-786-7077
          
          
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            Email: robert.herriot@eng.sun.com
          
            Roger deBry
            HUC/003G
            IBM Corporation
            P.O. Box 1900
            Boulder, CO 80301-9191
          
            Phone: (303) 924-4080
            Fax: (303) 924-9889
            Email: debry@vnet.ibm.com
          
            Other Participants:
          
            Devon Taylor, Novell, Inc.
            Mike MacKay, Novell, Inc.
            Peter Zehler, Xerox, Corp.
            Keith Carter, IBM Corporation
            Carl-Uno Manros, Xerox, Corp.
            Don Wright - Lexmark
            Steve Gebert - IBM
            Ray Lutz - Cognisys
            Mabry Dozier - QMS
            Lee Ferrel - Canon
            Hiro Sato - Canon
            Pat Nogay - IBM
            Jim Walker - Dazel
            Jay Martin - Underscore
            Bill Wagner - DPI
            Stan McConnell - Xerox
            Bob Setterbo - Adobe
            Randy Turner - Sharp
            Rob Whittle - Novell
            Ron Bergman - Data Products
            Lloyd Young - Lexmark
            Andy Davidson - Tektronix
            Rick Landau - Digital
            David Kellerman - Northlake Software
            David Roach - Unisys
            Mike Timperman - Lexmark
            Chris Wellens - Interworking Labs
            Pete Loya - HP
            Bob Pentecost - HP
            Harry Lewis - IBM
            William Wagner - Digital Products
            Atsushi Yuki - Kyocera
            Rob Rhoads - Intel
            Jeff Barnett - IBM
          
          
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            Jim Walker - Dazel
            Jeff Copeland - QMS
            Chuck Adams - Tektronix
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          10. Appendix A: Sample IPP Operations
          
            The following examples illustrate typical flows using the
            IPP protocol. In these examples, the IPP Printer object
            named "printer-1" is located at the node identified by
            the DNS name "some.domain.com". A Job Template has been
            defined for printer-1 which establishes the print
            defaults.
          
            For brevity in the following flows, none of the HTTP
            headers are shown. CRLF sequences are not shown.
          
          10.1 Querying the printer
          
            Client                                  some.domain.com
          
            ------------------------------------------------->
            Post http://some.domain.com/printer-1   http/1.0
            Get-Attributes  IPP/1.0
               printer-state :
               sides-supported :
               media-supported :
               document-formats-supported :
          
            <-------------------------------------------------
            http/1.0  201 "Created" (a response)
               IPP/1.0 xxx "attribute list returned"
               printer-state : idle
               sides-supported : 1-sided
               media-supported : iso-a4-white, iso-b4-white
               document-formats-supported : Postscript/2.0
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          10.2 Print Operation - with print data included
          
            Client                                  some.domain.com
          
            ------------------------------------------------->
            Post http://some.domain.com/printer-1  http/1.0
               Print IPP/1.0
               Print-Job-Object Header
                  job-name : My Job
                  medium : iso-a4-white
                 notification-events : Job-completion
                 notification-address : joe@pc.domain.com
               Document Header
                  document-name : Letter to Mom
               Document-Content Header (content type =
            Postscript/2.0)
                  <Document in Postscript level 2 format>
          
          
            <-------------------------------------------------
            http/1.0  200 "accepted"
               IPP/1.0 xxx "print job accepted and queued"
                  job-identifier : some.domain.com/printer-1/0037
                  current-job-state : pending
                  printer-state : needs-sttention
          
          10.3 Print Operation - with no data included
          
            Client                                   some.domain.com
          
            ------------------------------------------------->
            Post http://some.domain.com/printer-1  http/1.0
               Print IPP/1.0
               Print-Job-Object Header
                  job-name : My Job
                  medium : iso-a4-white
                 notification-events : Job-completion
                 notification-address : joe@some.domain.com
               Document Header
                  document-name : Letter to Mom
                  document-URL : joe@pc.domain.com/Docs/To-mom.ps
          
            <------------------------------------------------
            http/1.0  200 "accepted"
               IPP/1.0 xxx "print job accepted and queued"
                  job-identifier : some.domain.com/printer-1/0037
                  current-job-state : pending
                  printer-state : processing
          
          
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          10.4 Querying the state of the job
          
            In this example, no attributes are specified, so all job
            attributes are returned.
          
            Client                                some.domain.com
          
            ------------------------------------------------->
            Post http://some.domain.com/printer-1/0037  http/1.0
               Get-Attributes  IPP/1.0
          
          
            <------------------------------------------------
            http/1.0 201 "Created" (a response)
               IPP/1.0  xxx "atribute list returned"
               job-Name : My Job
               job-Originator : Joe@some.domain.com
               job-originating-host : pc.domain.com
               notification-address : joe@pc.domain.com
               job-locale : xx:xx:xx
               current-job-status : printing
               submission-time : 1996 Nov 22 1214
               media-sheets-completed : 2
          
          
          10.5 Canceling a Job
          
            Client                                some.domain.com
          
            ------------------------------------------------->
            Post: http://some.domain.com/printer-1/0037
               Cancel-Job  IPP/1.0
          
          
          
            <----------------------------------------------
            http/1.0  200 "okay"
            Current-job-state : terminating
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          10.6 Listing jobs on a Printer
          
            List jobs on printer-1, only return job sizes. Jobs are
            returned in the order they are scheduled for printing. A
            Job-identifier attribute precedes the attributes returned
            for each job to delimit job boundaries.
          
            Client                                some.domain.com
          
            ------------------------------------------------->
            Post http/1.0 some.domain.com/printer-1
               Get-Jobs  IPP/1.0
                  total-job-octets :
          
            <-------------------------------------------------
            http/1.0  201 "Created" (a response)
               IPP/1.0 xxx "created an attribute list"
               job-identifier : 0033
               total-job-octets : 4567
               job-identifier : 0034
               total-job-octets : 12345
               job-identifier : 0035
               total-job-octets : 12356
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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