Network Working Group                                           J. Jeong
Internet-Draft                                   Sungkyunkwan University
Intended status: Standards Track                                   T. Oh
Expires: September 14, 2017            Rochester Institute of Technology
                                                          March 13, 2017

       Problem Statement for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Networking


   This document specifies the problem statement for IPv6-based vehicle-
   to-infrastructure networking.  Dedicated Short-Range Communications
   (DSRC) is standardized as IEEE 802.11p for the wireless media access
   in vehicular networks.  This document addresses the extension of IPv6
   as the network layer protocol in vehicular networks and is focused on
   the networking issues in one-hop communication between a Road-Side
   Unit (RSU) and vehicle.  The RSU is connected to the Internet and
   allows vehicles to have the Internet access if connected.  The major
   issues of including IPv6 in vehicular networks are neighbor discovery
   protocol, stateless address autoconfiguration, and DNS configuration
   for the Internet connectivity over DSRC.  Also, when a vehicle and an
   RSU have an internal network, respectively, the document discusses
   the issues of the internetworking between the vehicle's internal
   network and the RSU's internal network (e.g., prefix discovery,
   prefix exchange, and service discovery), and also security and
   privacy issues.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 14, 2017.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Internetworking between the Vehicle and RSU Networks . . . . .  6
   6.  IPv6 Addressing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   7.  Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   8.  IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   9.  DNS Naming Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   10. IP Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   11. Service Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   12. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     14.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     14.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Appendix A.  Changes from
                draft-jeong-its-v2i-problem-statement-02  . . . . . . 13

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1.  Introduction

   Recently, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) have been focusing on
   intelligent services in road networks, such as driving safety,
   efficient driving, and entertainment.  For this VANET, Dedicated
   Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC-WAVE] has been standardized
   as IEEE 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p], which is an extension of IEEE 802.11a
   [IEEE-802.11a] with a consideration of the vehicular network's
   characteristics such as a vehicle's velocity and collision avoidance.

   Now the deployment of VANET is demanded into real road environments
   along with the popularity of smart devices (e.g., smartphone and
   tablet).  Many automobile vendors (e.g., Benz, BMW, Ford, Honda, and
   Toyota) started to consider automobiles as computers instead of
   mechanical machines since many current vehicles are operating with
   many sensors and software.  Also, Google made a great advancement in
   self-driving vehicles with many special software modules and hardware
   devices to support computer-vision-based object recognition, machine-
   learning-based decision-making, and GPS navigation.

   With this trend, vehicular networking has been researched to enable
   vehicles to communicate with other vehicles and infrastructure nodes
   in the Internet by using TCP/IP technologies [ID-VN-Survey], such as
   IP address autoconfiguration, routing, handover, and mobility
   management.  IPv6 [RFC2460] is suitable for vehicular networks since
   the protocol has abundant address space, autoconfiguration features,
   and protocol extension ability through extension headers.

   This document specifies the problem statement of IPv6-based vehicle-
   to-infrastructure (V2I) networking, such as IPv6 addressing
   [RFC4291], neighbor discovery [RFC4861], address autoconfiguration
   [RFC4862], and DNS naming service [RFC6106][RFC3646][ID-DNSNA].  This
   document also specifies the problem statement of the internetworking
   between a vehicle's internal network and an RSU's internal network,
   such as prefix discovery, prefix exchange, and service discovery, in
   the case where the vehicle and the RSU have their own internal
   network.  In addition, the document analyzes the characteristics of
   vehicular networks to consider the design of V2I networking.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

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3.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminology described in [RFC4861] and
   [RFC4862].  In addition, four new terms are defined below:

   o  Road-Side Unit (RSU): A node that has a Dedicated Short-Range
      Communications (DSRC) device for wireless communications with the
      vehicles and is connected to the Internet.  Every RSU is usually
      deployed at an intersection so that it can provide vehicles with
      the Internet connectivity.

   o  Vehicle: A node that has the DSRC device for wireless
      communications with vehicles and RSUs.  Every vehicle may also
      have a GPS-navigation system for efficient driving.

   o  Traffic Control Center (TCC): A node that maintains road
      infrastructure information (e.g., RSUs and traffic signals),
      vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., average vehicle speed and
      vehicle inter-arrival time per road segment), and vehicle
      information (e.g., a vehicle's identifier, position, direction,
      speed, and trajectory).  TCC is included in a vehicular cloud for
      vehicular networks.

4.  Overview

   This document specifies the problem statement of vehicle-to-
   infrastructure (V2I) networking based on IPv6.  The main focus is
   one-hop networking between a vehicle and an RSU or between vehicles
   via an RSU.  However, this document does not address multi-hop
   networking scenarios of vehicles and RSUs.  Also, the problems focus
   on the network layer (i.e., IPv6 protocol stack) rather than the
   media access control (MAC) layer and the transport layer (e.g., TCP,
   UDP, and SCTP).

   Figure 1 shows the network configuration for V2I networking in a road
   network.  The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2) are deployed in the road
   network and are connected to the Vehicular Cloud through the
   Internet.  The TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud and the two
   vehicles (Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected to RSU1,
   and the last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to RSU2.
   Vehicle1 can communicate with Vehicle2 via RSU1.  Vehicle1 can
   communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2.

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                              *               *         .-------.
                             * Vehicular Cloud *<------>|  TCC  |
                              *               *         ._______.
                              ^               ^
                              |               |
                              |               |
                              v               v
                      .--------.             .--------.
                      |  RSU1  |<----------->|  RSU2  |
                      .________.             .________.
                      ^        ^                  ^
                      .        .                  .
                      .        .                  .
                      v        v                  v
               .--------.    .--------.         .--------.
               |Vehicle1|=>  |Vehicle2|=>       |Vehicle3|=>
               .________.    .________.         .________.

      <----> Wired Link   <....> Wireless Link   => Moving Direction

          Figure 1: The Network Configuration for V2I Networking

   Figure 2 shows internetworking between the vehicle's moving network
   and the RSU's fixed network.  There exists an internal network
   (Moving Network1), which is located inside Vehicle1.  Vehicle1 has
   the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two
   routers (Router1 and Router2).  The internal network (Fixed Network1)
   is located inside RSU1.  RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), one host
   (Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the collection of
   servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in the road
   networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation.
   Vehicle1's Router1 and RSU1's Router3 use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an
   external link (e.g., DSRC) for I2V networking.

   This document addresses the internetworking between the vehicle's
   moving network and the RSU's fixed network in Figure 2 and the
   required enhancement of IPv6 protocol suite for the V2I networking

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                            |              | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64
   .------------------------------.  .---------------------------------.
   |                        |     |  |     |                           |
   | .-------. .------. .-------. |  | .-------. .------. .-------.    |
   | | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| |  | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 |    |
   | ._______. .______. ._______. |  | ._______. .______. ._______.    |
   |     ^        ^         ^     |  |     ^         ^        ^        |
   |     |        |         |     |  |     |         |        |        |
   |     v        v         v     |  |     v         v        v        |
   | ---------------------------- |  | ------------------------------- |
   | 2001:DB8:10:1::/64 ^         |  |     ^ 2001:DB8:20:1::/64        |
   |                    |         |  |     |                           |
   |                    v         |  |     v                           |
   | .-------.      .-------.     |  | .-------. .-------.   .-------. |
   | | Host2 |      |Router2|     |  | |Router4| |Server1|...|ServerN| |
   | ._______.      ._______.     |  | ._______. ._______.   ._______. |
   |     ^              ^         |  |     ^         ^           ^     |
   |     |              |         |  |     |         |           |     |
   |     v              v         |  |     v         v           v     |
   | ---------------------------- |  | ------------------------------- |
   |  2001:DB8:10:2::/64          |  |       2001:DB8:20:2::/64        |
   .______________________________.  ._________________________________.
      Vehicle1 (Moving Network1)            RSU1 (Fixed Network1)

      <----> Wired Link   <....> Wireless Link   (*) Antenna

     Figure 2: Internetworking between Vehicle Network and RSU Network

5.  Internetworking between the Vehicle and RSU Networks

   This section discusses the internetworking between the vehicle's
   moving network and the RSU's fixed network.  As shown in Figure 2, it
   is assumed that the prefix assignment for each subnet inside the
   vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's fixed network through a prefix
   delegation protocol.  Problems are a prefix discovery and prefix
   exchange.  The prefix discovery is defined as how routers in a moving
   network discover the prefixes of the subnets in the moving network,
   as shown in Figure 2.  The prefix exchange is defined as how a
   vehicle and an RSU exchange their prefixes with each other.  Once
   these prefix discovery and prefix exchange are established, the
   unicast of packets should be supported between the vehicle's moving
   network and the RSU's fixed network.  Also, the DNS naming service
   should be supported for the DNS name resolution for a host or server
   in either the vehicle's moving network or the RSU's fixed network.

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6.  IPv6 Addressing

   This section discusses IP addressing for V2I networking.  There are
   two policies for IPv6 addressing in vehicular networks.  The one
   policy is to use unique local IPv6 unicast addresses (ULAs) for
   vehicular networks [RFC4193].  The other policy is to use global IPv6
   addresses for the interoperability with the Internet [RFC4291].  The
   former approach is usually used by Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) for
   a separate multi-link subnet.  This approach can support the
   emergency notification service and navigation service in road
   networks.  However, for general Internet services (e.g., email
   access, web surfing and entertainment services), the latter approach
   is required.

   For the global IP addresses, there are two policies, which are a
   multi-link subnet approach for multiple RSUs and a single subnet
   approach per RSU.  In the multi-link subnet approach, which is
   similar to ULA for MANET, RSUs play a role of L2 switches and the
   router interconnected with the RSUs is required.  The router
   maintains the location of each vehicle belonging to an RSU for L2
   switching.  In the single subnet approach per RSU, which is similar
   to the legacy subnet in the Internet, RSUs play a role of L3 router.

7.  Neighbor Discovery

   The Neighbor Discovery (ND) is a core part of IPv6 protocol suite
   [RFC4861].  This section discusses the extension of ND for V2I
   networking.  The vehicles are moving fast within the communication
   coverage of an RSU.  The external link between the vehicle and the
   RSU can be used for V2I networking, as shown in Figure 2.

   ND time-related parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor
   Advertisement (NA) interval should be adjusted for high-speed
   vehicles and vehicle density.  As vehicles move faster, the NA
   interval should decrease for the NA messages to reach the neighboring
   vehicles promptly.  Also, as vehicle density is higher, the NA
   interval should increase for the NA messages to collide with other NA
   messages with lower collision probability.

8.  IP Address Autoconfiguration

   This section discusses the IP address autoconfiguration for V2I
   networking.  For the IP address autoconfiguration, the high-speed
   vehicles should also be considered.  The legacy IPv6 stateless
   address autoconfiguration [RFC4862], as shown in Figure 1, may not
   perform well because vehicles can pass through the communication
   coverage of the RSU before the address autoconfiguration with the
   Router Advertisement and Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)

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   To mitigate the impact of vehicle speed on the address configuration,
   RSU can perform IP address autoconfiguration includig the DAD
   proactively for the sake of the vehicles as an ND proxy.  If vehicles
   periodically report their mobility information (e.g., position,
   trajectory, speed, and direction) to TCC, TCC can coordinate RSUs
   under its control for the proactive IP address configuration of the
   vehicles with the mobility information of the vehicles.  DHCPv6 (or
   Stateless DHCPv6) can be used for the IP address autoconfiguration

   In the case of a single subnet per RSU, the delay to change IPv6
   address through DHCPv6 procedure is not suitable since vehicles move
   fast.  Some modifications are required for the high-speed vehicles
   that quickly crosses the communication coverages of multiple RSUs.
   Some modifications are required for both stateless address
   autoconfiguration and DHCPv6.

9.  DNS Naming Service

   This section discusses a DNS naming service for V2I networking.  The
   DNS naming service can consist of the DNS name resolution and DNS
   name autoconfiguration.

   The DNS name resolution translates a DNS name into the corresponding
   IPv6 address through a recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within the
   vehicle's moving network and DNS servers in the Internet
   [RFC1034][RFC1035], which are distributed in the world.  The RDNSSes
   can be advertised by RA DNS Option or DHCP DNS Option into the
   subnets within the vehicle's moving network.

   The DNS name autoconfiguration makes a unique DNS name for hosts
   within a vehicle's moving network and registers it into a DNS server
   within the vehicle's moving network [ID-DNSNA].  With Vehicle
   Identification Number (VIN), a unique DNS suffix can be constructed
   as a DNS domain for the vehicle's moving network.  Each host can
   generate its DNS name and register it into the local RDNSS in the
   vehicle's moving network.

10.  IP Mobility Management

   This section discusses an IP mobility support in V2I networking.  In
   a single subnet per RSU, vehicles keep crossing the communication
   coverages of adjacent RSUs.  During this crossing, TCP/UDP sessions
   can be maintained through IP mobility support, such as Mobile IPv6
   (MIPv6) [RFC6275], Proxy MIPv6 [RFC5213][RFC5949], and Distributed
   Mobility Management (DMM) [RFC7333][RFC7429].  Since vehicles move

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   fast along roadways, this high speed should be considered for a
   parameter configuration in the IP mobility management.  With the
   periodic reports of the mobility information from the vehicles, TCC
   can coordinate RSUs and other network compoments under its control
   for the proactive mobility management of the vehicles along the
   movement of the vehicles.

   To support the mobility of a vehicle's moving network, Network
   Mobility Basic Support Protocol (NEMO) can be used [RFC3963].  Like
   Mobile IPv6, the high speed of vehicles should be considered for a
   parameter configuration in NEMO.

11.  Service Discovery

   Vehicles need to discover services (e.g., road condition
   notification, navigation service, and infotainment) provided by
   infrastructure nodes in a fixed network via RSU, as shown in
   Figure 2.  During the passing of an intersection or road segment with
   an RSU, vehicles should perform this service discovery quickly.

   Since with the existing service discovery protocols, such as DNS-
   based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] and Multicast DNS (mDNS)
   [RFC6762], the service discovery will be performed with message
   exchanges, the discovery delay may hinder the prompt service usage of
   the vehicles from the fixed network via RSU.  One feasible approach
   is a piggyback service discovery during the prefix exchange of
   network prefixes for the networking between a vehicle's moving
   network and an RSU's fixed network.  That is, the message of the
   prefix exchange can include service information, such as each
   service's IP address, transport layer protocol, and port number.

   IPv6 ND can be extended for the prefix and service discovery
   [ID-Vehicular-ND].  Vehicles and RSUs can announce the network
   prefixes and services in their internal network via ND messages
   containing ND options with the prefix and service information.  Since
   it does not need any additional service discovery protocol in the
   application layer, this ND-based approach can provide vehicles and
   RSUs with the rapid discovery of the network prefixes and services.

12.  Security Considerations

   The security and privacy are very important in secure vehicular
   networks for V2I networking.  Only valid vehicles should be allowed
   to use V2I networking in vehicular networks.  A Vehicle
   Identification Number (VIN) and a user certificate along with in-
   vehicle device's identifier generation can be used to authenticate a
   vehicle and the user through a road infrastructure node, such as an
   RSU connected to an authentication server in TCC.  Also, TLS

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   certificates can be used for secure vehicle communications.

   A security scheme providing authentication and access control should
   be provided in vehicular networks [VN-Security].  With this scheme,
   the secuirty and privacy can be supported for safe and reliable data
   services in vehicular networks.

   To prevent a vehicle from being tracked by an adversary with its
   Media Access Control (MAC) address or IPv6 address, each vehicle
   needs to periodically update its MAC address and the corresponding
   IPv6 address using randomness [RFC4086][RFC4941].  Such an update of
   the MAC and IPv6 addresses should not interrupt the communications
   between a vehicle and an RSU in the level of network layer (i.e., IP)
   or transport layer (e.g., TCP and UDP).

   To protect data packets exchanged between a vehicle and an RSU, they
   should be encrypted by a cryptography algorithm.  For this
   confidentiality, efficient encryption and decryption algorithms can
   be used along with an efficient key management scheme through
   Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) and Internet Protocol
   Security (IPsec) [Securing-VCOMM].

   This document shares all the security issues of the neighbor
   discovery protocol.  This document can get benefits from secure
   neighbor discovery (SEND) [RFC3971].

13.  Acknowledgements

   This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications
   Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government
   (MSIP) (No.R-20160222-002755, Cloud based Security Intelligence
   Technology Development for the Customized Security Service
   Provisioning).  This work was supported in part by ICT R&D program of
   MSIP/IITP (14-824-09-013, Resilient Cyber-Physical Systems Research)
   and the DGIST Research and Development Program (CPS Global Center)
   funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning.

   This document has greatly benefited from inputs by Alexandre
   Petrescu, Thierry Ernst, Nabil Benamar, Jerome Haerri, Richard Roy,
   and Sandra Cespedes.  The authors sincerely appreciate their

14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]          Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
                      Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,

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                      March 1997.

   [RFC2460]          Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol,
                      Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460,
                      December 1998.

   [RFC4193]          Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6
                      Unicast Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.

   [RFC4291]          Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6
                      Addressing Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4861]          Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H.
                      Soliman, "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6
                      (IPv6)", RFC 4861, September 2007.

   [RFC4862]          Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6
                      Stateless Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
                      September 2007.

   [RFC6106]          Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S.
                      Madanapalli, "IPv6 Router Advertisement Options
                      for DNS Configuration", RFC 6106, November 2010.

   [RFC3646]          Droms, R., Ed., "DNS Configuration options for
                      Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
                      (DHCPv6)", RFC 3646, December 2003.

   [RFC3315]          Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T.,
                      Perkins, C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host
                      Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)",
                      RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3736]          Droms, R., "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration
                      Protocol (DHCP) Service for IPv6", RFC 3736,
                      April 2004.

   [RFC6275]          Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko,
                      "Mobility Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011.

   [RFC5213]          Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V.,
                      Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6",
                      RFC 5213, August 2008.

   [RFC5949]          Yokota, H., Chowdhury, K., Koodli, R., Patil, B.,
                      and F. Xia, "Fast Handovers for Proxy Mobile
                      IPv6", RFC 5949, September 2010.

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   [RFC3963]          Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and
                      P. Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support
                      Protocol", RFC 3963, January 2005.

   [RFC7333]          Chan, H., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J.
                      Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility
                      Management", RFC 7333, August 2014.

   [RFC7429]          Liu, D., Zuniga, JC., Seite, P., Chan, H., and CJ.
                      Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management:
                      Current Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429,
                      January 2015.

   [RFC1034]          Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and
                      Facilities", RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1035]          Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Implementation
                      and Specification", RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC3971]          Arkko, J., Ed., "SEcure Neighbor Discovery
                      (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC6763]          Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
                      Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013.

   [RFC6762]          Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS",
                      RFC 6762, February 2013.

14.2.  Informative References

   [DSRC-WAVE]        Morgan, Y., "Notes on DSRC & WAVE Standards Suite:
                      Its Architecture, Design, and Characteristics",
                      IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 12(4),

   [IEEE-802.11p]     IEEE Std 802.11p, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
                      Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
                      Specifications Amendment 6: Wireless Access in
                      Vehicular Environments", June 2010.

   [IEEE-802.11a]     IEEE Std 802.11a, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
                      Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
                      specifications: High-speed Physical Layer in the 5
                      GHZ Band", September 1999.

   [ID-VN-Survey]     Jeong, J., Ed., Cespedes, S., Benamar, N., and J.
                      Haerri, "Survey on IP-based Vehicular Networking
                      for Intelligent Transportation Systems",

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                      (work in progress), July 2016.

   [ID-DNSNA]         Jeong, J., Ed., Lee, S., and J. Park, "DNS Name
                      Autoconfiguration for Internet of Things Devices",
                      draft-jeong-its-iot-dns-autoconf-01 (work in
                      progress), July 2016.

   [ID-Vehicular-ND]  Jeong, J., Ed., Shen, Y., Jo, Y., Jeong, J., and
                      J. Lee, "IPv6 Neighbor Discovery for Prefix and
                      Service Discovery in Vehicular Networks",
                      (work in progress), July 2016.

   [VN-Security]      Moustafa, H., Bourdon, G., and Y. Gourhant,
                      "Providing Authentication and Access Control in
                      Vehicular Network Environment", IFIP TC-
                      11 International Information Security Conference,
                      May 2006.

   [Securing-VCOMM]   Fernandez, P., Santa, J., Bernal, F., and A.
                      Skarmeta, "Securing Vehicular IPv6
                      Communications", IEEE Transactions on Dependable
                      and Secure Computing, January 2016.

   [RFC4086]          Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
                      "Randomness Requirements for Security", RFC 4086,
                      June 2005.

   [RFC4941]          Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
                      Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
                      in IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.

Appendix A.  Changes from draft-jeong-its-v2i-problem-statement-02

   The following changes are made from

   o  In Section 12, the considerations on security and privacy are

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Internet-Draft            V2I Problem Statement               March 2017

Authors' Addresses

   Jaehoon Paul Jeong
   Department of Software
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  440-746
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 31 299 4957
   Fax:   +82 31 290 7996

   Tae (Tom) Oh
   Department of Information Sciences and Technologies
   Rochester Institute of Technology
   One Lomb Memorial Drive
   Rochester, NY  14623-5603

   Phone: +1 585 475 7642

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