[Search] [txt|pdfized|bibtex] [Tracker] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]
Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
INTERNET-DRAFT                                       John Kaippallimalil
Intended Status: Informational                                    Huawei
Expires: August 14, 2014                            Rajesh S. Pazhyannur
                                                                   Cisco
                                                           Parviz Yegani
                                                                 Juniper
                                                       February 10, 2014


             Mapping 802.11 QoS in a PMIPv6 Mobility Domain
              draft-kaippallimalil-netext-pmip-qos-wifi-04


Abstract


   This document provides recommendations on procedures and mapping of
   QoS parameters between 802.11 and PMIPv6. QoS parameters in 802.11
   that reserve resources for 802.11 streams should be mapped to PMIP
   QoS resources for IP sessions and flows. QoS reservation sequences in
   802.11 should allow cases where MN initiate resource reservation, as
   well as cases where the network initiates resource reservation.
   Additionally, it should be possible for QoS parameters for PMIPv6
   flows and mobility sessions to be mapped to 802.11 traffic stream
   reservations. The sequences and parameters to be mapped to provide a
   consistent behavior across 802.11 and PMIPv6 QoS are described here.



Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as
   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 1]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html


Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



Table of Contents

   1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.3. Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2. End-to-End QoS with no Admission Control  . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3. End-to-End QoS with Admission Control . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.1. Case A: MN Initiates QoS Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.2. Case B: Network Initiates QoS Signaling (802.11aa based)  . 11
     3.3. Case C: Hybrid (Network Initiated for PMIP, MN initiated
          in 802.11)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.4. Case D: Network Initiated Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.5. Case E: MN Initiated Release  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     3.6. Service Guarantees in 802.11  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   4. Mapping of QoS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     4.1 Connection Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.2. QoS Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.3. Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.4. Preemption Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     7.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     7.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Appendix A: QoS in 802.11, PMIPv6 and 3GPP Networks  . . . . . . . 23
     A.1. QoS in IEEE 802.11 Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 2]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


     A.2. QoS in PMIPv6 Mobility domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     A.3. QoS in 3GPP Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24



1. Introduction

   802.11 networks can currently apply QoS policy by using ALG
   (Application Level Gateway) to detect an application (e.g. SIP
   signaling) and then install QoS for the corresponding IP flow on the
   Wireless LAN Controller (WLC)/ Access Point (AP). However, this is
   not a general mechanism and would require ALG or detection of
   application level semantics in the access to install the right QoS.

   [PMIP-QoS] describes a application neutral procedure to obtain QoS
   for PMIPv6 flows and sessions. However, there are differences in
   parameters and procedures that need to be mapped between PMIPv6 QoS
   and 802.11. PMIPv6 has the notion of QoS for mobility sessions and
   flows while in 802.11 these should correspond to QoS for 802.11 data
   frames. Parameters in 802.11 QoS do not always have a one-to-one
   correspondence in PMIPv6 QoS. Further, 802.11 and PMIP QoS procedures
   need to be aligned based on whether QoS setup is triggered by the MN
   or pushed by the the network, as well as working with WMM or 802.11aa
   mechanisms.

   This document provides information on using PMIPv6 QoS parameters for
   an MN connection over a 802.11 access network. The recommendations
   here allow for dynamic QoS policy information per Mobile Node (MN)
   and  session to be configured by the 802.11 access network. PMIPv6
   QoS signaling between MAG and LMA provisions the per MN QoS policies
   in the MAG. In the 802.11 access network modeled here, the MAG is
   located at the Access Point (AP)/ Wireless LAN Controller (WLC) .
   Figure 1 below provides an overview of the entities and protocols.

                                      +--------+          +-------+
                                      |  AAA   |          |  PCF  |
                                      +---+----+          +---+---+
                                          |                   |
                                          |                   |
        +----+                        +---+----+          +---+---+
        |    | 802.11 (WMM, 802.11aa) |        |  PMIPv6  |       |
        | MN <------------------------> AP/WLC <==========>  LMA  |
        |    |     (ADDTS, DELTS)     | (MAG)  |   QoS    |       |
        +----+                        +--------+          +-------+

        Figure 1: QoS Policy in 802.11 Access

   MN and AP/WLC use 802.11 QoS mechanisms to setup admission controlled



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 3]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   flows. The AP/WLC is a MAG that requests for QoS policy from the LMA.
   The MN uses ADDTS (Add Traffic Stream) to setup QoS for a traffic
   stream between itself and the AP, and DELTS (Delete Traffic Stream)
   to delete that stream. In WMM [WMM 1.2.0], the AP advertises if
   admission control is mandatory for an access class. Admission control
   for best effort or background access classes is not recommended. In
   addition to WMM capability, 802.11aa allows for AP/WLC to support an
   ADDTS reservation request to the MN. This makes it simpler to support
   a PMIPv6 QoS request that is pushed to the AP/WLC.

   The parameter mapping recommendations described here support the
   procedures by which the 3GPP network provisions QoS per application
   dynamically or during authorization of the Mobile Node (MN). However,
   the 802.11 procedures described here are not limited to work for just
   the 3GPP policy provisioning. If PMIPv6 QoS parameters can be
   provisioned on the MAG via mechanisms defined in [PMIP-QoS], the
   802.11 procedures can be applied in general for provisioning OoS in a
   802.11 network.

   PMIPv6 QoS parameters need to be mapped to 802.11 QoS parameters. In
   some cases, there is no one-to-one mapping. And in other cases such
   as bandwidth, the values received in PMIP should be mapped to the
   right 802.11 parameters. This document provides recommendations to
   perform QoS mapping between PMIPv6 and 802.11 QoS.

   [PMIP-QoS] does not explicitly describe how the QoS signaling and QoS
   sub-options map into corresponding signaling and parameters in the
   802.11 access network. This mapping and the procedures in the 802.11
   network to setup procedures are the focus of this document.   The
   end-to-end flow spanning 802.11 access and PMIPv6 domain and the QoS
   parameters in both segments are described here. Thus, it provides a
   systematic way to map  the various QoS parameters available in
   initial authorization, as well as setup of new sessions (such as a
   voice/video call). The mapping recommendations allow for proper
   provisioning and consistent interpretation between the various QoS
   parameters provided by PMIP QoS, and 802.11.

   The rest of the document is organized as follows. Chapter 2 provides
   an overview of establishing mobility sessions with no admission
   control. These mechanisms are specified in [PMIP QoS] and outlined
   here since the mobility session established is the basis for
   subsequent admission controlled requests for flows. Chapter 3
   describes how end to end QoS with 802.11 admission control is
   achieved. The mapping of parameters between 802.11 and PMIP QoS is
   described in Chapter 5.


1.1. Terminology



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 4]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


1.2. Definitions

   Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR)
       GBR in a mobile network defines the guaranteed (reserved) bit
       rate resources of service data flow on a connection (bearer)
       [TS23.203].

   Maximum Bit Rate (AMBR)
       MBR represents the maximum bandwidth of a flow with reservation.

   Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (MBR)
       AMBR represents the total bandwidth that all flows of a user is
       allowed. AMBR does not include flows with reservation.

   Allocation Retention Priority (ARP)
       ARP is used in the mobile network to determine the order in which
       resources for a flow may be preempted during severe congestion or
       other resource limitation. ARP of 1 is the highest priority while
       15 is the lowest [TS23.203].

   Peak Data Rate
       In WMM, Peak Data Rate specifies the maximum data rate in bits
       per second. The Maximum Data Rate does not include the MAC and
       PHY overheads [WMM 1.2.0].

   Mean Data Rate
       This is the average data rate in bits per second. The Mean Data
       Rate does not include the MAC and PHY overheads [WMM1.2.0]

   Minimum Data Rate
       In WMM, Minimum Data Rate specifies the minimum data rate in bits
       per second. The Minimum Data Rate does not include the MAC and
       PHY overheads [WMM 1.2.0].

   TSPEC
       The TSPEC element in 802.11 contains the set of parameters that
       define the characteristics and QoS expectations of a traffic
       flow.

   TCLAS
       The TCLAS element specifies an element that contains a set of
       parameters necessary to identify incoming MSDU (MAC Service Data
       Unit) that belong to a particular TS (Traffic Stream) [802.11].



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 5]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


1.3. Abbreviations

   3GPP         Third Generation Partnership Project
   AAA          Authentication Authorization Accounting
   AMBR         Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate
   ARP          Allocation and Retention Priority
   AP           Access Point
   DSCP         Differentiated Services Code Point
   EPC          Enhanced Packet Core
   GBR          Guaranteed Bit Rate
   MAG          Mobility Access Gateway
   MBR          Maximum Bit Rate
   MN           Mobile Node
   PCF          Policy Control Function
   PDN-GW       Packet Data Network Gateway
   QCI          QoS Class Indicator
   QoS          Quality of Service
   TCLAS                Type Classification
   TSPEC                Traffic Conditioning Spec
   WLC          Wireless Controller



2. End-to-End QoS with no Admission Control

   PMIPv6 and 802.11 QoS with no admission control is specified in [PMIP
   QoS]. This section is provided as background here since prior to the
   establishment of an admission controlled flow, a mobility session as
   described here is established. IETF (RFC 4594) and GSMA have defined
   mapping between DSCP and IEEE 802.11 UP (User Priority). The  AP/WLC
   (MAG) should be pre-configured to use the mapping from one of these
   specifications.

   An MN that attempts to connect to a 802.11 network typically
   authenticates first and may have an authorization profile downloaded.
   The AP/WLC may use the QoS profile for the MN for policing flows.
   However, the network can obtain more dynamic policy that corresponds
   to current mobile network conditions and preferences using PMIP QoS.













Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 6]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


                          +--------+
      +----+              | AP/WLC |              +-------+
      | MN |              | (MAG)  |              |  LMA  |
      +-+--+              +---+----+              +---+---+
        |                     |                       |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
      |           [0] connection setup to mobile network            |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                     |                       |
        |                     |  PBU(QoS-i, ALLOC)[1] |
        |                     |---------------------->|  QoS Policy
        |                     |  PBA (QoS-r, NEG) [2] |<--------------->
        |                     |<----------------------|
        |                     |                       |
        |                     |  PBU(QoS-r, ALLOC)[3] |
        |                     |---------------------->|
        |                     |  PBA (QoS-r, RESP)[4] |
        |                     |<----------------------|
        |                     |                       |

      Figure 2: Default connection setup

    [0] MN signals to setup connection. The AP/WLC obtains an
        authorization profile that includes QoS information, or may have
        an administratively configured profile with QoS information.

    [1] The completion of 802.11 and IP setup serves as a trigger for
        the MAG (AP/WLC) to request for dynamic QoS parameters. The MAG
        sends a PBU containing QoS Option with operation code set to
        ALLOCATE, and DSCP, QoS Attributes set to initially authorized
        values for the MN's default connection (QoS-i).

        This request is for QoS of all flows of a connectivity session
        of the MN and includes DSCP, Per-MN-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate, Per-MN-
        Agg-Max-UL-Bit-Rate, Per-Session-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate, Per-
        Session-Agg-Max-UL-Bit-Rate and Allocation-Retention-Priority
        fields derived from the MN initial authorization profile. The
        Traffic Selector field should not be present.

    [2] The LMA queries the policy server and obtains a response. The
        policy server may grant the QoS requested or may change the QoS
        levels based on network or other dynamic conditions (QoS-r in
        figure). This example assumes that the LMA cannot provide the
        QoS requested by the MAG.

        The LMA sets the operational code to NEGOTIATE and responds with
        downgraded parameters for DSCP, Per-MN-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate, Per-
        MN-Agg-Max-UL-Bit-Rate, Per-Session-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate, Per-



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 7]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


        Session-Agg-Max-UL-Bit-Rate and Allocation-Retention-Priority.
        The Traffic Selector field is not present since the provisioning
        applies to the entire PMIPv6 connectivity session.

    [3] The MAG receives the downgraded QoS and sends a revised PBU with
        the QoS options that the LMA is prepared to offer. The
        operational code is set to ALLOCATE.

    [4] The LMA can accept the requested QoS. The LMA sends a PBA
        message with the revised QoS options and operational code set to
        RESPONSE.

   The new QoS values will be used by the MAG to police flows of the MN
   and will supercede earlier (or initially) provisioned QoS values. MAG
   polices session flows to not exceed Per-Session-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate,
   Per-Session-Agg-Max-UL-Bit-Rate. If there are multiple sessions, the
   total bandwidth should not exceed Per-MN-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate, Per-MN-
   Agg-Max-UL-Bit-Rate.


3. End-to-End QoS with Admission Control

   This section outlines a few use cases to illustrate how parameters
   and mapping are applied for flows that require admission control.
   These cases illustrate the various provisioning sequences and
   mechanisms. It is not intended to be exhaustive.

   The general procedure here is that a flow that requires admission
   control is part of a PMIPv6 connectivity session. QoS options for the
   overall session are provisioned as described in section 2. As a
   result of some application layer signaling, specific flows of the
   application may require admission controlled QoS which can be
   provisioned on a per flow basis.

   There are two main types of interaction possible to provision QoS for
   flows that require admission control - one case is where the MN
   initiates the QoS request and the network provisions the resources.
   The second is where the network provisions resources as a result of
   some out of band signaling (like application signaling). In the
   second scenario, if the MN supports 802.11aa, the network can push
   the QoS configuration to the MN. If the MN only supports WMM QoS,
   then MN requests for QoS for the 802.11 segment and the MAG
   provisions based on QoS already provisioned for the MN. These three
   cases are described in sections 3.1 - 3.3.

   In each of the sequences, QoS parameters need to be mapped between
   802.11 and PMIPv6. The table below provides an overview of the
   mapping for establishing QoS for an admission controlled flow.



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 8]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   Further details of the parameters and mappings are provided in
   section 4.

      +------------------------------+------------------------------+
      |    MN <--> AP/WLC(802.11)    | AP/WLC(MAG) <--> LMA PMIPv6  |
      +------------------------------+------------------------------+
      | (TCLAS) TCP/UDP IP           |   Traffic Selector (IP flow) |
      | (TCLAS) User Priority        |   DSCP                       |
      +------------------------------+------------------------------+
      | (TSPEC)Minimum Data Rate, DL |   Guaranteed-DL-Bit-Rate     |
      | (TSPEC)Minimum Data Rate, UL |   Guaranteed-UL-Bit-Rate     |
      | (TSPEC)Mean Data Rate UL/DL  |   -                          |
      | (TSPEC)Peak Data Rate, DL    |   Aggregate-Max-DL-Bit-Rate  |
      | (TSPEC)Peak Data Rate, UL    |   Aggregate-Max-UL-Bit-Rate  |
      +------------------------------+------------------------------+

      Table 1: 802.11 - PMIPv6 QoS Parameter Mapping


3.1. Case A: MN Initiates QoS Request

   During an MN flow setup that requires admission control in the 802.11
   network, QoS parameters for the flow needs to be provisioned. This
   procedure outlines the case where the MN is configured (e.g. in SIM)
   to start the QoS signaling. In this case, the MN sends an ADDTS
   request indicating the QoS required for the flow. The AP/WLC (MAG)
   obtains the corresponding level of QoS to be granted to the flow by
   PMIPv6 PBU/PBA sequence with QoS options with the LMA. Details of the
   QoS provisioning for the flow are described below.






















Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                 [Page 9]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


                                  +--------+
      +----+                      | AP/WLC |            +-------+
      | MN |                      | (MAG)  |            |  LMA  |
      +-+--+                      +---+----+            +---+---+
        |                             |                     |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
      |   [0] establish connection session to mobile network        |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                             |                     |
      +-------------+                 |                     |
      |upper layer  |                 |                     |
      |notification |                 |                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                 |                     |
        |                             |                     |
        | ADDTS Request (TCLAS,TSPEC) |                     |
        |---------------------------->| PBU(QoS options)[2] |
        |             [1]             |-------------------->| QoS Policy
        |                             |PBA (QoS option) [3] |<--------->
        | ADDTS Response(TCLAS,TSPEC) |<--------------------|
        |<----------------------------|                     |
        |             [4]             |                     |

      Figure 3: MN initiated QoS setup

    [0] The MN has a best effort connectivity session as described in
        section 2. This allows the MN to perform application level
        signaling and setup.

    [1] The trigger for MN to request QoS is an upper layer
        notification. This may be the result of end-to-end application
        signaling and setup procedures (e.g. SIP)

        If the MN is configured to start QoS signaling, the MN sends an
        ADDTS request with TSPEC and TCLAS identifying the flow for
        which QoS is requested. The TSPECs for both uplink and downlink
        in this request should contain the Minimum Data Rate and Peak
        Data Rate .

    [2] If there are sufficient resources at the AP/WLC to satisfy the
        request, the MAG (AP/WLC sends a PBU with QoS options,
        operational code  ALLOCATE and Traffic Selector identifying the
        flow. The Traffic selector is derived from the TCLAS to identify
        the flow requesting QoS. 802.11 QoS parameters in TSPEC are
        mapped to PMIPv6 parameters. The mapping of TCLAS and TSPEC
        parameters to PMIPv6 is shown in Table 1.

    [3] The LMA obtains the authorized QoS for the flow and responds to
        the MAG with operational code set to RESPONSE. Mapping of PMIPv6



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 10]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


        parameters to 802.11 TSPEC and TCLAS is shown in Table 1.

        In networks like 3GPP, the reserved bandwidth for flows are
        accounted separately from the non-reserved session bandwidth.
        The Traffic Selector identifies the flow for which the QoS
        reservations are made.

    [4] The AP/WLC (MAG) provisions the corresponding QoS and replies
        with ADDTS Response containing authorized QoS in TSPEC and flow
        identification in TSPEC.

        The AP/WLC polices these flows according to the QoS
        provisioning.



3.2. Case B: Network Initiates QoS Signaling (802.11aa based)

   In some cases (e.g. LTE/SAE), the policy server in the network may be
   configured to initiate the policy reservation request for a flow.
   This use case illustrates how an MN and 802.11 network that support
   802.11aa can provision QoS to flows of the MN that when the policy
   server pushes the reservation request.
                                  +--------+
      +----+                      | AP/WLC |         +-------+
      | MN |                      | (MAG)  |         |  LMA  |
      +-+--+                      +---+----+         +---+---+
        |                             |                  |
      +----------------------------------------------------------------+
      |   [0] establish connection session to mobile network           |
      +----------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                             |                  |
        |                             |                  | Policy update
        |                             |UPN(QoS option)[2]|<-------------
        | ADDTS Reserve Request       |<-----------------|       [1]
        |         (TCLAS, TSPEC)[3]   |                  |
        |<----------------------------|                  |
        | ADDTS Reserve Response      |                  |
        |         (TCLAS, TSPEC)[4]   |                  |
        |---------------------------->|                  |
        |                             |UPA(QoS option)[5]|
        |                             |----------------->|
        |                             |                  |

      Figure 4: Network initiated QoS setup with 802.11aa

    [0] The MN sets up best effort connectivity session as described in
        Case A. This allows the MN to perform application level



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 11]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


        signaling and setup.

    [1] The policy server sends a QoS reservation request to the LMA.
        This is usually sent in response to an application that requests
        the policy server for higher QoS for some of its flows.

        The LMA reserves resources for the flow requested.

    [2] LMA sends PMIP UPN (Update Notification) to the MAG with QoS
        parameters for the flow for which the LMA reserved resources in
        step [1]. In UPN, the operational code in QoS option is set to
        ALLOCATE and the Traffic Selector identifies the flow for QoS.

        The LMA QoS parameters include Guaranteed-DL-Bit-
        Rate/Guaranteed-UL-Bit-Rate and Aggregate-Max-DL-Bit-
        Rate/Aggregate-Max-UL-Bit-Rate for the flow. In networks like
        3GPP, the reserved bandwidth for flows are accounted separately
        from the non-reserved session bandwidth.

    [3] If there are sufficient resources to satisfy the request, the
        AP/WLC (MAG) sends an ADDTS Reserve Request (802.11aa)
        specifying the QoS reserved for the traffic stream including
        TSPEC and TCLAS element mapped from PMIP QoS Traffic Selector to
        identify the flow.

        PMIPv6 parameters are mapped to TCLAS and TSPEC as shown in
        Table 1.

        If there are insufficient resources at the AP/WLC, the MAG will
        not send and ADDTS message and will continue processing of step
        [5].

    [4] MN accepts the QoS reserved in the network and replies with
        ADDTS Reserve Response.

    [5] The MAG (AP/WLC) replies with UPA confirming the acceptance of
        QoS options and operational code set to RESPONSE. The AP/WLC
        police flows based on the new QoS.

        If there are insufficient resources at the AP/WLC, the MAG sends
        a response with UPA status code set to
        CANNOT_MEET_QOS_SERVICE_REQUEST.


3.3. Case C: Hybrid (Network Initiated for PMIP, MN initiated in
   802.11)

   This use case outlines a scenario where an MN attaches to the 802.11



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 12]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   and then obtains services in the mobile network. When the MN
   attaches, PMIP signaling between the MAG and LMA establishes mobile
   connection and related QoS. Subsequently, the MN starts an
   application that requires dedicated bandwidth resources and signals
   that using TSPEC/ADDTS request. The details of this sequence are
   described below.
                              +--------+
      +----+                  | AP/WLC |           +-------+
      | MN |                  | (MAG)  |           |  LMA  |
      +-+--+                  +---+----+           +---+---+
        |                         |                    |
        |                         |                    |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |   [0] establish connection session to mobile network          |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                         |                    |  Policy update
        |                         | UPN(QoS option)[2] |<--------------
        |                         |<-------------------|       [1]
      +-------------+             | UPA(QoS option)[3] |
      |upper layer  |             |------------------->|
      |notification |             |                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+             |                    |
        |                         |                    |
        | ADDTS Request(TSPEC)[4] |                    |
        |------------------------>|                    |
        | ADDTS Response(TSPEC)[5]|                    |
        |<------------------------|                    |
        |                         |                    |

      Figure 5: Network initiated QoS setup with WMM

    [0] The MN sets up best effort connectivity session as described in
        Case A. This allows the MN to perform application level
        signaling and setup.

    [1] The policy server sends a QoS reservation request to the LMA.
        This is usually sent in response to an application that requests
        the policy server for higher QoS for some of its flows.

        The LMA reserves resources for the flow requested.

    [2] LMA sends PMIP UPN (Update Notification) to the MAG with QoS
        option operational code set to ALLOCATE and QoS parameters for
        which the LMA reserved resources in step [1]. In UPN, the
        Traffic selector field in QoS Option identifies the flow for
        QoS.

        The LMA QoS parameters include Guaranteed-DL-Bit-



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 13]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


        Rate/Guaranteed-UL-Bit-Rate and Aggregate-Max-DL-Bit-
        Rate/Aggregate-Max-UL-Bit-Rate for the flow. In networks like
        3GPP, the reserved bandwidth for flows are accounted separately
        from the non-reserved session bandwidth. This is indicated by
        using the Traffic Selector in PMIPv6 QoS.

    [3] If there are sufficient resources to satisfy the request, the
        MAG (AP/WLC) replies with UPA confirming the acceptance of QoS
        options and operation code set to RESPONSE.  If there are
        insufficient resources at the AP/WLC, the MAG may send a
        response with UPA status code set to
        CANNOT_MEET_QOS_SERVICE_REQUEST.

        The AP/WLC can police flows based on the new QoS. However, the
        AP/WLC does not initiate QoS reservation signaling on 802.11
        because either it or the MN does not support 802.11aa.

    [4] The trigger for the MN to request QoS is an upper layer
        notification. This may be the result of end-to-end application
        signaling and setup procedures (e.g. SIP)

        The MN sends an ADDTS request with TSPEC and TCLAS identifying
        the flow for which QoS is requested. The TSPECs for both uplink
        and downlink in this request should contain the Minimum Data
        Rate and Peak Data Rate. The MAG maps PMIPv6 parameters obtained
        earlier as shown in Table 1.

        If the MN supports only WMM QoS, TCLAS is not sent. The AP/WLC
        may identify the flow based on connection signaling (e.g. 3GPP
        23.402, WCS), most recent updates from PMIP QoS (i.e. that in
        message [3] above), or some combination thereof.

    [5] The AP/WLC (MAG) provisions the corresponding QoS and replies
        with ADDTS Response containing authorized QoS in TSPEC.

        The AP/WLC (MAG) may revise the offer to the MN based on PMIPv6
        QoS reservation.


3.4. Case D: Network Initiated Release

   QoS resources reserved for a session are released on completion of
   the session. When the application session completes, the policy
   server, or the MN may signal for the release of resources. In this
   use case, the network initiates the release of QoS resources.






Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 14]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


                             +--------+
      +----+                 | AP/WLC |           +-------+
      | MN |                 | (MAG)  |           |  LMA  |
      +-+--+                 +---+----+           +---+---+
        |                        |                    |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
      |         [0] Establishment of application session            |
      |              and reservation of QoS resources               |
      |                                                             |
      |                  ( Session in progress)                     |
      |                                                             |
      |               Release of application session                |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                        |                    | Policy update
        |                        |UPN(QoSx,DE-ALLOC)[2]<--------------
        |                        |<-------------------|       [1]
        |                        |UPA(QoSx,RESPONSE)[3]
        |                        |------------------->|
        | DELTS Request          |                    |
        |       (TS INFO)[4]     |                    |
        |<-----------------------|                    |
        | DELTS Response         |                    |
        |       (TS INFO)[5]     |                    |
        |----------------------->|                    |
        |                        |                    |

      Figure 6: Network initiated QoS resource release

    [0] The MN establishes and reserves QoS resources as in use cases A,
        B or C.
        When the application session terminates, the policy server
        receives notification that the session has terminated.

    [1] LMA receives a policy update indicating that QoS for flow (QoSx)
        should be released. The LMA releases local resources associated
        with the flow.

    [2] LMA sends a UPN with QoS options - Traffic Selector field
        identifying the flow for which QoS resources are to be released,
        and operation code set to DE-ALLOCATE. No additional LMA QoS
        parameters are sent.

    [3] MAG replies with UPA confirming the acceptance and operation
        code set to RESPONSE.

    [4] AP/WLC (MAG) releases local QoS resources associated with the
        flow. AP/WLC derives the corresponding 802.11 Traffic Stream
        from the PMIPv6 Traffic Selector. The AP sends a DELTS Request



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 15]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


        with TS INFO identifying the reseravtion.

    [5] MN sends DELTS Response confirming release.

        Since the MN has completed the session, it may send a DELTS to
        explicitly request release QoS resources at AP. If the AP and MN
        are 802.11aa capable, the release of resources may also be
        signaled to the MN.


3.5. Case E: MN Initiated Release

   QoS resources reserved for a session are released on completion of
   the session. When the application session completes, the policy
   server, or the MN may signal for the release of resources. In this
   use case, the network initiates the release of QoS resources.


                             +--------+
      +----+                 | AP/WLC |           +-------+
      | MN |                 | (MAG)  |           |  LMA  |
      +-+--+                 +---+----+           +---+---+
        |                        |                    |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
      |         [0] Establishment of application session            |
      |              and reservation of QoS resources               |
      |                                                             |
      |                  ( Session in progress)                     |
      |                                                             |
      |               Release of application session                |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                        |                    |
        | DELTS Request          |                    |
        |       (TS INFO)[1]     |                    |
        |----------------------->|                    |
        | DELTS Response         |                    |
        |       (TS INFO)[2]     |                    |
        |<-----------------------|                    |
        |                        |PBU(QoSx,DE-ALLOC)[3]
        |                        |------------------->| Policy Update
        |                        |PBA(QoSx,RESPONSE)[4]<------------>
        |                        |<-------------------|
        |                        |                    |

      Figure 6: Network initiated QoS resource release

    [0] The MN establishes and reserves QoS resources as in use cases A,
        B or C.



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 16]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


        When the application session terminates, the MN prepares to
        release QoS  resources.

    [1] MN releases its own internal resources and sends a DELTS Request
        to the AP/WLC with TS (Traffic Stream) INFO.

    [2] AP/WLC receives the DELTS request, releases local resources and
        responds to MN with a DELTS response.

    [3] AP/WLC (MAG) initiates a PBU with Traffic Selector constructed
        from TCLAS and PMIPv6 QoS parameters from TSPEC (QoSx) as shown
        in Table 1.
    [4] LMA receives the PBU, releases local resources and informs
        policy server. The LMA then responds with a PBA.


3.6. Service Guarantees in 802.11

   The GBR - Guaranteed Bit Rate in mobile networks are used to request
   and commit resources in the network for providing the bandwidth
   requested. In 802.11 networks, a random backoff timer based on the
   access class only provides priority access to a shared medium. These
   mappings and recommendations allow the AP to schedule resources in a
   fair manner based on subscribed QoS and application request/policy
   server interaction.

   However, there are no guaranteed or committed resources in the 802.11
   network - only prioritization that gives better opportunity for
   frames to compete for a shared medium.

   It should also be noted that unlike mobile networks which inform the
   MN about QoS for established or modified connections (bearers), there
   is no means for an MN in 802.11 networks to find out the QoS that a
   policy server requests to be granted. Thus, the application in MN
   should make its determination to downgrade a request based on SDP and
   media parameters to downgrade to a lower quality.



4. Mapping of QoS Parameters

   This section outlines the handling of QoS parameters between 802.11
   and PMIP QoS. 802.11 QoS reservations are made for an MN's data
   frames. PMIP QoS provisioning on the other hand is for IP sessions
   and flows. Parameters in PMIP QoS and 802.11 also need to be mapped
   according to the recommendations below.





Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 17]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


4.1 Connection Mapping

   TSPEC in 802.11 is used to reserve QoS for a traffic stream (MN MAC,
   TS(Traffic Stream) id). The QoS reservation is for 802.11 frames
   associated with an MN's MAC address. TCLAS element with Classifier 1
   (TCP/UDP Parameters) should be used to identify a flow. The flow
   definition should use the specification in [PMIP-QoS] Traffic
   Selector. Thus, there is a one-to-one mapping between the TCLAS
   defined flow and that in Traffic Selector.

   When an 802.11 QoS reservation is complete, it is identified by a
   Traffic Stream (TS) identifier. This corresponds to the flow in
   PMIPv6 Traffic Selector, and identified in TCLAS. For releasing QoS
   resources identified by a PMIPv6 Traffic selector, the AP/WLC uses
   the above relationship to determine the corresponding TS identifier
   to be sent in the DELTS request.

   If the MN or AP/WLC is not able to convey TCLAS, the AP/WLC should
   use out of band methods to determine the IP flow for which QoS is
   requested. This includes correlation with connection signaling
   protocols (e.g. 3GPP 23.402 WCS) and Traffic Selector in most recent
   PMIP QoS updates.


4.2. QoS Class

   Table 1 contains a mapping between Access Class (WMM AC) and 802.1D
   in 802.11 frames, and DSCP in IP data packets. The table also
   provides the mapping between Access Class (WMM AC) and DSCP for use
   in 802.11 TSPEC and PMIP QoS reservations.

     QCI     DSCP   802.1D UP    WMM AC      Example Services
    ------------------------------------------------------------
      1       EF      6(VO)      3 AC_VO     conversational voice
      2       EF      6(VO)      3 AC_VO     conversational video
      3       EF      6(VO)      3 AC_VO     real-time gaming
      4      AF41     5(VI)      2 AC_VI     buffered streaming
      5      AF31     4(CL)      2 AC_VI     signaling
      6      AF32     4(CL)      2 AC_VI     buffered streaming
      7      AF21     3(EE)      0 AC_BE     interactive gaming
      8      AF11     1(BE)      0 AC_BE     web access
      9       BE      0(BK)      1 AC_BK     e-mail

      Table 2: QoS Mapping between QCI/DSCP, 802.1D UP, WMM AC

   The MN tags data packets with DSCP and 802.1D UP corresponding to the
   application and the subscribed policy or authorization. The AP/WLC
   polices sessions and flows based on these values and the QoS policy



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 18]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   for the MN.

   For QoS reservations, TSPEC use WMM AC values and PMIP QoS uses
   corresponding DSCP values in Traffic Selector. 802.11 QoS Access
   Class AC_VO, AC_VI are used for QoS reservations. AC_BE, AC_BK should
   not be used in reservations.


4.3. Bandwidth

   There are bandwidth parameters that need to be mapped for admission
   controlled flows and others for non-admission controlled flows.

   Non-Admission Controlled Flows:

      Flows and sessions that do not need QoS reservation have no need
      for equivalent mapping for 802.11. These sessions and flows are
      policed by the AP/WLC to ensure that QoS policy obtained initially
      (during MN authorization) or dynamically over PMIP QoS is not
      exceeded by the MN.

      All connection sessions of the MN should not in total exceed Per-
      MN-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate and Per-MN-Agg-Max-UL-Bit-Rate in the
      downlink and uplink directions respectively. The non-admission
      controlled flows of a single connectivity session of an MN should
      not exceed Per-Session-Agg-Max-DL-Bit-Rate and Per-Session-Agg-
      Max-UL-Bit-Rate in the downlink and uplink directions
      respectively.


   Admission Controlled Flows:

      For flows that require reservation, the 802.11 Minimum Data Rate
      should be equal to Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR). If the MN requests
      Minimum Data Rate in ADDTS greater than GBR, then AP/WLC should
      reject the admission  request in ADDTS Response.















Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 19]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


       +-------------------------+------------------------------+
       | MN <--> AP/WLC(802.11)  | AP/WLC(MAG) <--> LMA PMIPv6  |
       +-------------------------+------------------------------+
       | Minimum Data Rate, DL   |   Guaranteed-DL-Bit-Rate     |
       | Minimum Data Rate, UL   |   Guaranteed-UL-Bit-Rate     |
       | Mean Data Rate UL/DL    |   [a]                        |
       | Peak Data Rate, DL      |   Aggregate-Max-DL-Bit-Rate  |
       | Peak Data Rate, UL      |   Aggregate-Max-UL-Bit-Rate  |
       +-------------------------+------------------------------+

       NOTE[a] AP/WLC may derive Mean Data Rate from Minimum and Maximum
               Data Rates. There is no equivalent parameter in PMIP QoS.

       Table 3: Bandwidth Parameters for Admission Controlled Flows

      During the QoS reservation procedure, if the MN requests Minimum
      Data Rate, or other parameters in excess of values authorized in
      PMIP QoS, the AP/WLC should deny the request in ADDTS Response.
      Bandwidth of admission controlled flows are policed according to
      the mappings in Table 2.


4.4. Preemption Priority

   Mobile networks with resource reservation configure ARP (Allocation
   Retention Priority) during authorization and it is obtained in [PMIP
   QoS]. There is no corresponding configuration in 802.11 QoS. However,
   the AP/WLC may use ARP to determine priority during call setup and
   vulnerability to release of reserved QoS resources.

   Parameter Allocation-Retention-Priority and sub fields of Priority,
   Preemption-Capability and Preemption-Vulnerability are used as
   defined in [PMIP-QoS].

   When a new ADDTS request for reservation of QoS resources arrives, if
   there is sufficient free resources, the AP/WLC proceeds to allocate
   it. If there are insufficient resources, the AP/WLC may preempt
   existing calls based on the Preemption-Capability of the new call and
   Preemption-Vulnerability of established calls.

   If the AP/WLC determines that an established flow with reserved
   resources should be released, the AP/WLC should inform the MN using
   ADDTS (802.11aa) and signal the LMA with a revised QoS reservation in
   PBU/PBA.



5. Security Considerations



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 20]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   This document describes mapping of 3GPP QoS profile and parameters to
   IEEE 802.11 QoS parameters. No security concerns are expected as a
   result of using this mapping.


6. IANA Considerations

   No IANA assignment of parameters are required in this document.


7.  References

7.1. Normative References

   [KEYWORDS]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC1776]   Crocker, S., "The Address is the Message", RFC 1776,
               April 1 1995.

   [TRUTHS]    Callon, R., "The Twelve Networking Truths", RFC 1925,
               April 1 1996.



7.2. Informative References

   [EVILBIT]  Bellovin, S., "The Security Flag in the IPv4 Header",
              RFC 3514, April 1 2003.

   [RFC5513]  Farrel, A., "IANA Considerations for Three Letter
              Acronyms", RFC 5513, April 1 2009.

   [RFC5514]  Vyncke, E., "IPv6 over Social Networks", RFC 5514, April 1
              2009.

   [PMIP-QoS] Liebsch, et al., "Quality of Service Option for Proxy
              Mobile IPv6", draft-ietf-netext-pmip6-qos-11, Feb 2014.

   [WMM 1.2.0] Wi-Fi Multimedia Technical Specification (with WMM-Power
              Save and WMM-Admission Control) Version 1.2.0

   [802.11aa]  Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical
              Layer (PHY) Specification, Amendment 2: MAC Enhancements
              for Robust Audio Video Streaming, IEEE 802.11aa-2012.

   [802.11-2012] 802.11-2012 - IEEE Standard for Information technology-
              -Telecommunications and information exchange between



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 21]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


              systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
              requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
              (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications

   [GSMA-IR34]Inter-Service Provider Backbone Guidelines 5.0, 22
              December 2010

   [RFC 2211] Wroclawski, J., "Specification of the Controlled Load
              Quality of Service", RFC 2211, September 1997.

   [RFC 2212] Shenker, S., Partridge, C., and R. Guerin, "Specification
              of Guaranteed Quality of Service", RFC 2212, September
              1997.

   [RFC 2216] Shenker, S., and J. Wroclawski, "Network Element QoS
              Control Service Specification Template", RFC 2216,
              September 1997.

   [TS23.107] Quality of Service (QoS) Concept and Architecture, Release
              10, 3GPP TS 23.107, V10.2.0 (2011-12).

   [TS23.207] End-to-End Quality of Service (QoS) Concept and
              Architecture, Release 10, 3GPP TS 23.207, V10.0.0 (2011-
              03).

   [TS23.402] Architecture Enhancements for non-3GPP accesses(Release
              12), 3GPP TS 23.402, V12.2.0 (2013-09).

   [TS23.203] Policy and Charging Control Architecture, Release 11, 3GPP
              TS 23.203, V11.2.0 (2011-06).

   [TS29.212] Policy and Charging Control over Gx/Sd Reference Point,
              Release 11, 3GPP TS 29.212, V11.1.0 (2011-06).

   [TS29.273] 3GPP EPS AAA interfaces(Release 12), 3GPP TS 29.273
              v12.1.0 (2013-09)




Authors' Addresses

   John Kaippallimalil
   5340 Legacy Drive, Suite 175
   Plano, Texas 75024

   E-Mail: john.kaippallimalil@huawei.com




Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 22]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   Rajesh Pazhyannur
   170 West Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA 95134

   E-Mail: rpazhyan@cisco.com


   Parviz Yegani
   1194 North Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1206

   E-Mail: pyegani@juniper.net




Appendix A: QoS in 802.11, PMIPv6 and 3GPP Networks

A.1. QoS in IEEE 802.11 Networks

   IEEE 802.11-2012 [802.11-2012] provides an enhancement of the MAC
   layer in 802.11 networks to support QoS--EDCA (Enhanced Distributed
   Channel Access). EDCA uses a contention based channel access method
   to provide differentiated, distributed access using eight different
   UPs (User Priorities). EDCA also defines four access categories (AC)
   that provide support for the delivery of traffic. In EDCA, the random
   back-off timer and arbitration inter-frame space is adjusted
   according to the QoS priority. Frames with higher priority AC have
   shorter random back-off timers and arbitration inter-frame spaces.
   Thus, there is a better chance for higher priority frames to be
   transmitted. The Wi-Fi Alliance has created a specification referred
   to as WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) based on above.

   The MN uses ADDTS (Add Traffic Specs) to setup QoS for a traffic
   stream between itself and the AP, and DELTS to delete that stream. In
   WMM [WMM 1.2.0], the AP advertises if admission control is mandatory
   for an access class. Admission control for best effort or background
   access classes is not recommended. The Wi-Fi Alliance has created a
   specification referred to as WMM-AC (Wi-Fi Multimedia Admission
   Control) based on the above.


A.2. QoS in PMIPv6 Mobility domain

   [PMIP-QoS] defines a mobility option that can be used by the mobility
   entities in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 domain to exchange Quality of
   Service parameters associated with an MN's IP flows. Using the QoS
   option, the local mobility anchor and the mobile access gateway can



Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 23]


INTERNET DRAFT         Mapping WiFi QoS in PMIPv6      February 10, 2014


   exchange available QoS attributes and associated values. QoS
   attributes include node and mobile session Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate
   (AMBR) for upstream and downstream, Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) for
   upstream and downstream, Maximum Bit Rate (MBR) for upstream and
   downstream and the Allocation Retention Priority (ARP).

   [PMIP-QoS] does not explicitly describe how the QoS signaling and QoS
   sub-options map into corresponding signaling and parameters in the
   802.11 access network. This mapping and the procedures in the 802.11
   network to setup procedures are the focus of this document. The end-
   to-end flow spanning 802.11 access and PMIPv6 domain and the QoS
   parameters in both segments are described in subsequent sections.


A.3. QoS in 3GPP Networks

   3GPP has standardized QoS for EPC (Enhanced Packet Core) from Release
   8 [TS 23.107]. 3GPP QoS policy configuration defines access agnostic
   QoS parameters that can be used to provide service differentiation in
   multi vendor and operator deployments. The concept of a bearer is
   used as the basic construct for which the same QoS treatment is
   applied for uplink and downlink packet flows between the MN (host)
   and gateway [TS23.402]. A bearer may have more than one packet filter
   associated and this is called a Traffic Flow Template (TFT). The IP
   five tuple (IP source address, port, IP destination, port, protocol)
   identifies a flow.

   The access agnostic QoS parameters associated with each bearer are
   QCI (QoS Class Identifier), ARP (Allocation and Retention Priority),
   MBR (Maximum Bit Rate) and optionally GBR (Guaranteed Bit Rate). QCI
   is a scalar that defines packet forwarding criteria in the network.
   Mapping of QCI values to DSCP is well understood and GSMA has defined
   standard means of mapping between these scalars [GSMA-IR34].

   The use cases in subsequent sections use 3GPP policy along with PMIP
   QoS for provisioning of QoS in the 802.11 network. However, this is
   exemplary and alternative policy architectures may be used in
   practice.













Kaippallimalil et al.   Expires August 14, 2014                [Page 24]