Network Working Group A. Kato Internet-Draft NTT Software Corporation Intended status: Informational M. Scott Expires: January 7, 2016 CertiVox T. Kobayashi Y. Kawahara NTT July 6, 2015 Optimal Ate Pairing draft-kato-optimal-ate-pairings-00 Abstract Pairing is a special map from two elliptic curve that called Pairing- friend curves to a finite field and is useful mathematical tools for constructing cryptographic primitives. It allows us to construct powerful primitives. (e.g. [3] and [4]) There are some types of pairing and its choice has an impact on the performance of the primitive. For example, Tate Pairing [3] and Ate Pairing [4] are specified in IETF. This memo focuses on Optimal Ate Pairing [2] which is an improvement of Ate Pairing. This memo defines Optimal Ate Pairing for any pairing-friendly curve. We can obtain concrete algorithm by deciding parameters and building blocks based on the form of a curve and the description in this memo. It enables us to reduce the cost for specifying Optimal Ate Pairing over additional curves. Furthermore, this memo provides concrete algorithm for Optimal Ate Pairing over BN-curves [7] and its test vectors. Status of This Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 1]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2016. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Requirements Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.1. Elliptic Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.2. Bilinear Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Optimal Ate Pairing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.1. Guide for Decision on Parameters for Optimal Ate Pairing 5 4.2. Miller Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.3. Straight Line Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Optimal Ate Pairing over BN-curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.1. Straight Line Function over BN-curves . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.2. Doubling Step of Miller Loop over BN-Curves . . . . . . . 9 5.3. Addition Step of Miller Loop over BN-Curves . . . . . . . 10 6. Algorithm Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. Change log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Appendix A. Test Vectors of Optimal Ate Pairing over BN-curves . 13 A.1. 254-Bit-Curves by Beuchat et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A.2. 254-Bit-Curves by Nogami et al. / Aranha et al. . . . . . 14 A.3. 254-Bit-Curves by Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 A.4. 254-Bit-Curves by BCMNPZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 2]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 1. Introduction Pairing is a special map from two elliptic curve that called Pairing- friend curves (PFCs) to a finite field and is useful mathematical tools for constructing cryptographic primitives. It allows us to construct powerful primitives like Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) [5] and Functional Encryption (FE) [6]. The IBE and FE provide a rich decryption condition. Some Pairing-Based Cryptography is specified in IETF. (e.g. [3] and [4]) There are some types of pairing and its choice has an impact on the performance of the primitive. For example, primitives by using Tate Pairing [3] and Ate Pairing [4] are specified in IETF. This memo focuses on Optimal Ate Pairing which is an improvement of Ate Pairing. Optimal Ate Pairing allows us to construct Pairing-Based Cryptography with high performance and is implemented in some open source softwares. ([8], [9], and [10]) This memo defines Optimal Ate Pairing [2] for any PFC. We can obtain concrete algorithm by deciding parameters and two building blocks based on the form of a curve. It enables us to reduce the cost for describing the body of Optimal Ate Pairing when Optimal Ate Pairing is specified over additional curves in IETF. Furthermore, this memo provides concrete algorithm for Optimal Ate Pairing over BN-curves [7] and its test vectors. This memo is expected to use by combining Optimal Ate Pairing with a suitable PFC for a primitive in order to realize same functional structure of ECDSA and ECDH. (i.e. DSA over elliptic curve and DH over elliptic curve) 2. Requirements Terminology The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this memo are to be interpreted as described in [1]. 3. Preliminaries In this section, we introduce the definition of elliptic curve and bilinear map, notation used in this memo. 3.1. Elliptic Curve Throughout this memo, let p > 3 be a prime, q = p^n, and n be a natural number. Also, let F_q be a finite field. The curve defined by the following equation E is called an elliptic curve. E : y^2 = x^3 + A * x + B such that A, B are in F_q, 4 * A^3 + 27 * B^2 != 0 mod F_q Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 3]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 Solutions (x, y) for an elliptic curve E, as well as the point at infinity, are called F_q-rational points. The additive group is constructed by a well-defined operation in the set of F_q-rational points. Typically, the cyclic additive group with prime order r and the base point G in its group is used for the cryptographic applications. Furthermore, we define terminology used in this memo as follows. O_E: the point at infinity over elliptic curve E. #E(F_q): number of points on an elliptic curve E over F_q. cofactor h: h = #E(F_p)/r. embedding degree k: minimum integer k such that r is a divisor of q^k - 1 3.2. Bilinear Map Let G_1 be an additive group of prime order r and let G_2 and G_T be additive and multiplicative groups, respectively, of the same order. Let P, Q be generators of G_1, G_2 respectively. We say that (G_1, G_2, G_T) are asymmetric bilinear map groups if there exists a bilinear map e: (G_1, G_2) -> G_T satisfying the following properties: 1. Bilinearity: for any S in G_1, for any T in G_2, for any a, b in Z_r, we have the relation e([a]S, [b]T) = e(S, T)^{a * b}. 2. Non-degeneracy: for any T in G_2, e(S, T) = 1 if and only if S = O_E. Similarly, for any S in G_1, e(S, T) = 1 if and only if T = O_E. 3. Computability: for any S in G_1, for any T in G_2, the bilinear map is efficiently computable. 4. Optimal Ate Pairing This section specifies Optimal Ate Pairing e for c_0, ..., c_l and s_i = sum_{j=i}^l c_j * q^j with following conditions 1. c_l is not 0 2. r is a divisor of s_0 3. r^2 is not a divisor of s_0 Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 4]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 4. r does not divide s_0 * k * q^{k-1} - (q^k - 1)/r * sum_{i=0}^l i * c_i * q^{i - 1} Section 4.1 shows a guide to decide these parameters c_0, ..., c_l. Optimal Ate Pairing is specified below and Miller Loop f which are its building blocks are introduced in Section 4.2. Straight Line Function l which is building blocks of Optimal Ate Pairing and Miller Loop are defined in Section 4.3. Section 4.3 only show the definitions because its descriptions are based on the form (of the PFC?). Practically, concrete algorithms need to be specified for a form of PFC. Input: o A point P in G_1 o A point Q in G_2 Output: o The value e(P, Q) in G_T Method: 1. f = 1 2. ln = 1 3. for i = 0 to l (a) f = f * f_{c_i, Q}^{q^i}(P) end for 4. for i = 0 to l - 1 (a) ln = ln * l_{[s_i + 1]Q, [c_i * q^i]Q}(P) end for 5. return (f * ln)^{(q^k - 1)/r} 4.1. Guide for Decision on Parameters for Optimal Ate Pairing This subsection shows a guide for decision on parameters c_0, ..., c_l for Optimal Ate Pairing. According to [2], a way is to choice coefficients of short vector of the following lattice L with a minimal number of coefficients as parameters c_0, ..., c_l. Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 5]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 L = (v_1, ..., v_phi(k)) where o v_1 is column vector t(r, -q, -q^2, ..., -q^{phi(k) - 1}) o v_i is column vector whose i component is 1 and other components is 0 for i = 2, ..., phi(k) 4.2. Miller Loop In this subsection, we specify Miller Loop f which is building block of Optimal Ate Pairing. Input: o A point P in G_1 o A point Q in G_2 o An integer s Output: o f_{s, Q}(P) Method: 1. compute s_0, ..., s_L such that |s| = sum_{j=0}^L s_j * 2^j with s_j is in {0, 1} and s_L = 1 2. T = Q 3. f = 1 4. for j = L - 1 down to 0 (A) Doubling Step (a) ln = l_{T, T}(P) (b) T = 2 * T (B) f = f^2 * ln (C) if s_j = 1 (a) Addition Step (i) ln = l_{T, Q}(P) Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 6]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 (ii) T = T + Q (b) f = f' * ln end if end for 5. if s < 0, then f = f^{-1} 6. return f 4.3. Straight Line Function Straight Line Function l_{Q, Q'}(P) is calculated by a point P for linear equation defined as a line l though points Q, Q'. Note that Straight Line Function l_{Q, Q'}(P) is calculated by a point P for linear equation defined as a tangent line to an elliptic curve E at a point Q of E on condition that Q = Q'. The function is used for Optimal Ate Pairing in Section 4 and Miller Loop in Section 4.2 5. Optimal Ate Pairing over BN-curves In this section, we specify Optimal Ate Pairing over BN-curves [7]. BN-curves define over a finite field F_p, and have embedding degree k = 12, r(t) = 36 * t^4 + 36 * t^3 + 18 * t^2 + 6 * t + 1, and p(t) = 36 * t^4 + 36 * t^3 + 24 * t^2 + 6 * t + 1, where t is the specific integer in [7]. The extension fields are defined by following: F_{p^2} is set to F_p[u]/(u^2 - e2) F_{p^6} is set to F_{p^2}[v]/(u^3 - e6) F_{p^12} is set to F_{p^6}[w]/(w^2 - e12) The constants e3, e6 and e6 which are varied by G_T are defined in [7]. Hence parameters for Optimal Ate Pairing over D-Type twisted curve are following by the method in Section 4.1: 1. l = 3 2. c_0 = 6 * t + 2 3. c_1 = 1 Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 7]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 4. c_2 = -1 5. c_3 = 1 These short vectors are specified in section 4. A of [2]. Algorithm of Optimal Ate Pairing by Miller Loop in Section 4.2 based on building blocks specified in Section 5.2 and Section 5.3 and Straight Line Function f in Section 5.1 over BN-curves is as following: Input: o A point P in G_1 o A point Q in G_2 Output: o The value e(P, Q) in G_T Method: 1. f_1 = f_{c_0, Q}(P) 2. l_1 = l_{[p^3]Q}, - [p^2]Q}(P) 3. l_2 = l_{[p^3]Q - [p^2]Q, [p]Q}(P) 4. l_3 = l_{[p]Q - [p^2]Q + [p^3]Q, [6 * t + 2]Q} 5. return (f_1 * l_1 * l_2 * l_3)^{(p^k - 1)/r} 5.1. Straight Line Function over BN-curves This subsection shows an operation of Straight Line Function over BN- curves for Optimal Ate Pairing. Input: o A point Q = (x_1, y_1) in G_2 o A point Q' = (x_2, y_2) in G_2 o A point P = (x, y) in G_1 Output: Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 8]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 o l_{Q, Q'}(P) Method: 1. If Q != +- Q' (A) lambda = (y_2 - y_1)/(x_2 - x_1) (B) t0 = -lambda * x (C) t1 = lambda * x_1 - y_1 (D) ln = y + t0 * w + t1 w^3 2. If Q = Q' (A) lambda = (3 * x_1^2)/(2 * y_1) (B) t0 = -lambda * x (C) t1 = lambda * x_1 - y_1 (D) ln = y + t0 w + t1 w^3 (E) return ln 3. If Q = -Q' (A) ln = x - x_1 w^3 4. return ln 5.2. Doubling Step of Miller Loop over BN-Curves This subsection shows an operation of Doubling Step of Miller Loop over BN-curves. (i.e. operation of method 4-(A) in Section 4.2 over BN-curves) Input: o A point P = (x, y) in G_1 o A point Q = (x_1, y_1) in G_2 Output: o ln such that l_{Q, Q}(P) Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 9]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 o A point T = (x_3, y_3) such that [2]Q Method: 1. lambda = (3 * x_1^2)/(2 * y_1) 2. x_3 = lambda^2 - 2 * x_1 3. y_3 = lambda * (x_1 - x_3) - y_1 4. t0 = -lambda * x 5. t1 = lambda * x_1 - y_1 6. ln = y + t0 w + t1 w^3 7. return ln and T 5.3. Addition Step of Miller Loop over BN-Curves This subsection shows an operation of Addition Step of Miller Loop over BN-curves. (i.e. operation of method 4-(C)-(a) in Section 4.2 over BN-curves) Input: o A point Q = (x_1, y_1) in G_2 o A point Q' = (x_2, y_2) in G_2 o A point P = (x, y) in G_1 Output: o ln such that l_{Q, Q'}(P) o A point T = (x_3, y_3) such that Q + Q' Method: 1. lambda = (y_2 - y_1)/(x_2 - x_1) 2. x_3 = lambda^2 - x_1 - x_2 3. y_3 = lambda * (x_1 - x_3) - y_1 4. t0 = -lambda * x Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 10]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 5. t1 = lambda * x_1 - y_1 6. ln = y + t0 w + t1 w^3 7. return ln and T 6. Algorithm Identifiers TBD 7. Security Considerations The security of cryptographic primitive which is constructed by pairing depends on pairing-friendly curves (PFC). PFC must satisfy computational assumption which the primitive requires at the level of security strength in system when the primitive is constructed by using Optimal Ate Pairing. 8. Acknowledgements TBD 9. Change log NOTE TO RFC EDITOR: Please remove this section in before final RFC publication. 10. References 10.1. Normative References [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997. [2] Vercauteren, F., "Optimal pairings", Proceedings IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 56(1): 455-461 (2010), 2010. 10.2. Informative References [3] Boyen, X. and l. Martin, "Identity-Based Cryptography Standard (IBCS) #1: Supersingular Curve Implementations of the BF and BB1 Cryptosystems", RFC 5091, December 2007. [4] Hitt, L., "ZSS Short Signature Scheme for Supersingular and BN Curves", draft-irtf-cfrg-zss-02 (work in progress), 2013. Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 11]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 [5] Boneh, D. and M. Franklin, "Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing", Proceedings Lecture notes in computer sciences; CRYPTO --CRYPTO2001, 2001. [6] Okamoto, T. and K. Takashima, "Fully Secure Functional Encryption with General Relations from the Decisional Linear Assumption", Proceedings Lecture notes in computer sciences; CRYPTO --CRYPTO2011, 2010. [7] Kasamatsu, K., Kanno, S., Kobayashi, T., and Y. Kawahara, "Barreto-Naehrig Curves", draft-kasamatsu-bncurves-01 (work in progress), 2015. [8] "University of Tsukuba Elliptic Curve and Pairing Library", 2013, <http://www.cipher.risk.tsukuba.ac.jp/tepla/index_e.html>. [9] Aranha, D. and C. Gouv, "RELIC is an Efficient LIbrary for Cryptography", 2013, <https://code.google.com/p/relic- toolkit/>. [10] Scott, M., "The MIRACL IoT Multi-Lingual Crypto Library", 2015, <https://github.com/CertiVox/MiotCL.git>. Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 12]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 Appendix A. Test Vectors of Optimal Ate Pairing over BN-curves In this section, we specify test vectors of optimal ate pairing over BN-curves which are specified by [7] in the following way. Parameter: Pairing-Param-ID is an identifier with which the pairing parameter set can be referenced. Input: P is a point of E in G_1 Q is a point of E' in G_2 Output: e(P, Q) is computation of pairing in G_T A.1. 254-Bit-Curves by Beuchat et al. This subsection shows test vector of 254-bit curves by Beuchat et al. [7] and reprints its parameters under F_{p^2} = F_p[u]/(u^2 + 5), F_{p^6} = F_{p^2}[v]/(v^3 - u), F_{p^12} = F_{p^6}[w]/(w^2 - v) as a reference. Parameter: Pairing-Param-ID: Beuchat Input: P = (0x0A971735A70FBDD0F94D7D6EFBBC81BEA78D2D92A8510F3344038A41641 9AD97, 0x09456E41754237447752A448282C0873785F724447E1299826F53AC55 6936D3F) Q = (0x115231D7B49901BA97CB93B5227F7F7F438A346532893DD5FAFD5189509 24AA9 + 0x0DF12398FB78695A50BB3499B7E23B0D9035989B91A76D13AF7BC643 74BFB8A6 u, 0x051D0E087527BC9F41379FB0272EC91E5F28EE011B183EF7D671 2EF3FC9A1A66 + 0x0107E6654DC6C36E163B7867AECB98E4046084734524DBB56 2E73E5A811F678A u) Output: e(P,Q) = (0x06A4E0DD1F7FD2F9E5DACAB02CEC9CE8254925C5DC6697E153F05A 242CBCA8A8 + 0x22A0E22C097AEC1187087B7632C9B963B0E779BC8D09848C44D 3EA95CD1C1F8C u + 0x0751037182B5F93BCAB31B115A2C0A0DCC09C6DB7602E0 Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 13]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 551DD44925F3D364B3 v + 0x04B6BFFB9EB68AD6A99ACF52B8AAD1D17D328847C 6313201A6B659C9DAA5CDFE uv + 0x13BE65D47487BF6D96C146C18855C1F87BF 994F9F1048524568EA0CB9DC402AD v^2 + 0x1202BE31EB2BDCBEF9F3CC00F1B2 CC35FADBE1A0D66CCBF40B024ADFA84C77D1 uv^2 + 0x15F9E3D10B580FF1AB22 82EF1DC39A88E06F93A18303E9520D99B86D665F5380 w + 0x0A1C6D26A6D6830 31D95C4369DB90F5FEE36D5008AA498D2CB6F2DDE6258CDA6 uw + 0x1611153BF 02F1CF7985B98C3F3CB641D39283DBA55E22D1C614568F84959C6FC vw + 0x10B EF55B7539743CBEAB13E49116A143302F6F28CCD71A69860CEF5208483809 uvw + 0x166BD873D0C65DE66300A168BBDC16F0AB1B57A0809973239F2109A7D25AD3 49 v^2w + 0x14D4B5014F840144D03C0C6B6010BB246EE6A69BF704D7542FBAA8 F2D2A27308 uv^2w) A.2. 254-Bit-Curves by Nogami et al. / Aranha et al. This subsection shows test vector of 254-bit curves by Nogami et al. / Aranha et al. [7] and reprints its parameters under F_{p^2} = F_p[u]/(u^2 + 1), F_{p^6} = F_{p^2}[v]/(v^3 - (1 + u)), F_{p^12} = F_{p^6}[w]/(w^2 - v) as a reference. Parameter: Pairing-Param-ID: Nogami-Aranha Input: P = (0x2074A81D4402A0B63B947335C14B2FC3C28FEA2973860F686114BEC4670 E4EB7, 0x06A41108087B20038771FC89FB94A82B2006034A6E8D871B3BC284846 631CBEB) Q = (0x049EEDB108B71A87BFCFC9B65EB5CF1C2F89554E02DF4F8354E4A00F521 83C77 + 0x1FB93AB676140E87D97226185BA05BF5EC088A9CC76D966697CFB8FA 9AA8845D u, 0x0CD04A1ED14AD3CDF6A1FE4453DA2BB9E686A637FB3FF8E25736 44CC1EDF208A + 0x11FF7795CF59D1A1A7D6EE3C3C2DFC765DEF1CAA9F14EA264 E71BD7630A43C14 u) Output: e(P,Q) = (0x03E1F2693AC6D549898C78897EB158490A4832E296F888D3014050 0DB7BD3D12 + 0x1EBC54A76E844EB5D352945226FB103DE9EC1A4FC689B87FAA6 6EF8ABA79D3ED u + 0x0A5A5405542F67384D683A48C281F3676B67554ED5DA17 00784169A0B47A57E4 v + 0x048B66DAFCAEE86DB4D46AB71A9FE848443EF81F4 88D8366A727B39698CF7201 uv + 0x142715D6482BC6FA77377C9CBC2A51C047C 16DE88483D5A889C7EF4DF5F03BDB v^2 + 0x11EE0C12164133041C3DCF312CE1 11C845B60092818F7B72805D4AFF61427934 uv^2 + 0x22371AF975DAE562F686 988CDBBD02702C959BBF843A1FB3C7532D07BE3D7A3A w + 0x04052CA96090068 4A1B26C434B2776AA70736841474C16208CCD1A7C27927E19 uw + 0x05D259DA3 F3AAAA54A6AE5FE8272A5B79D7F4E5BDF3B5E3C815AD781113F7548 vw + 0x084 3C37BC5BDBF253E3BCE568F5905A63867D8836855B74CBA0C800D5DC41B71 uvw Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 14]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 + 0x13CA93E1377EF0F6DD38FC2F96DBD3E8B0922F60D1F274EAC63DC1AF2EE975 4C v^2w + 0x0D467F3DA4FB329A5CB406D0A7B743A3A2FFCD09BF95EE8A856B94 AF191D96AF uv^2w) A.3. 254-Bit-Curves by Scott This subsection shows test vector of 254-bit curves by Scott [7] and reprints its parameters under F_{p^2} = F_p[u]/(u^2 + 1), F_{p^6} = F_{p^2}[v]/(v^3 - (1 + u)), F_{p^12} = F_{p^6}[w]/(w^2 - v) as a reference. Parameter: Pairing-Param-ID: Scott Input: P = (0x8a9143801f541142f89e498a1c06ba0959b8f9713abda0881e5de80d8af f11a + 0x17df54e2be5e8afeb9a42f412825f79c32841307471fb2b6a14e3a0f c6e010f4) Q = (0x21794a9da7b34b2c1614315d7d90a282c484c8fd49c0c8ba75b079ae304 7d566 + 0x1a9b474c4519e6faee5b32c7cb65547d8707137bca00c9c182d10b7e 3e305936 u, 0xb00d54bf5a298d0eacdefb0efdb74d1a7e744722f61cc8844884 fcce20ff876 + 0x5ecf8bd02e1f5363c8402163c9a235df56b133cc2c8a926c0e 65e985d746b7b u) Output: e(P,Q) = (0x13d3127ba07feffc8c1a608afc58a33a25148176968ef0ec0a2e09 b62344f984 + 0x1774dfc7361e1d4cd2de4bf62cd9b460f0a78487e75994f9e25 51fed2f9d2b78 u + 0x2c7888f053123b5a815125b2c409e3f986594f6c35585c fb1ed1a1cbbd2ea65 v + 0xe7e7af51c459f6e0ef489348664bc4277e023a5031 bee98658d5b357c07d7e8 uv + 0x8d0f0dd32f31d3624dd9e179233a1f2f2d13c c1869f2eb933cd3cded75efe0d v^2 + 0x63e676f8cc5be53e8718cc9e61a8c5a 018ac47e3a66f83f4c403ec8caaa130e v^2u + 0x1643c6ec6cf54a1970bfea19 c55e34a312eb5c825f8d31354200d29339d2ca61 w + 0xaae41d356d24b0234dc 2b714b595aa297f585bbe9a7c4840d58d62cdfaa1764 wu+ 0x1ea5e2efa342adc bc3ac757254d03bfde32ef6a8445bfa6a7b13aee776430594 wv + 0x3aa5bc92f 95887ce42ef03e666dd1455d640a031b062ed7a65fbf0a59d996b8 wvu + 0xf77 35a9655207b2fe6e8e73d8f8c3f79f8a08aaeb670e6b9059d8f0739891ec wv^2 + 0x1a501fad47a0406e50b705a544377ee1ad7518adbbb49cbe30ce31770ae9be 2e wv^2u) Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 15]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 A.4. 254-Bit-Curves by BCMNPZ This subsection shows test vector of 254-bit curves by BCMNPZ [7] and reprints its parameters under F_{p^2} = F_p[u]/(u^2 + 1), F_{p^6} = F_{p^2}[v]/(v^3 - (1 + u)), F_{p^12} = F_{p^6}[w]/(w^2 - v) as a reference. Parameter: Pairing-Param-ID: BCMNPZ Input: P = (0x1bec8eae1f1d3959e394588e49d09f2d3070efda1f836640288cf21af54 88765 + 0x2d148d39f9edf5325d9a1f4820774930675669a6fe20284e435f4bfe 3d3273c) Q = (0xd62cf33cd0e46fdc338cfab52ca5cdebf1a9348e4460545441584ff4f8d c275 + 0x22701025e0cd2bfed4518febe8e7fa97a3c7f33f2fdd280e24d651be9 d17d7a8, 0x1cc6cbd065535e7f83be0cfc4f39d4687558fc21dcdc6e46aca508c 4f6cc1f90 + 86ee46779f9e9922a870137d033e484ec5c5ba979b75bba179064a bff0cf2a u) Output: e(P,Q) = (0x20f263ae42e42cfd53cf99dc238ed7b61951c1c767af88a72ad3c1 9ca54cdb2d + 0xa96b263aade3501f7201808028c4ce11793dd84127d80525fa5 7f892d3043f6 u + 0x3a31ca4864d996d64181d9a0b025e7368d60b1f53a8276a 2c39e02a58b6636e v + 0x2301fe7eb607f6dd63b72979753c96d23fdd487f116 77644884f86a83c837174 uv + 0xcbe52ab6e1c210cf80215816f38d8964c4534 7bd3802c66d85e616ca9786dde v^2 + 0x1c039dee75146d8ae6812568e77d11c fa060d11e0224dc6e28606bfb14090650 v^2u + 0x2344fb2b5dd57710d544583 83cd33bd8f928babfe6f7d641887a565790b88e24 w + 0x8e48a543c2a73cca42 811a2fea2e79eb3e628e27e54a477b5e1652466629608 wu+ 0x96a48564f586e1 d59d8a9393730824b885818e93a3ce4bfae057682efc37aeb wv + 0x17260fa31 ed89d4e90d7a1a2652379e4329927e61f15b11a2ce2a93c84050245 wvu + 0x5b d893369435b63a10384db8248dab8908f2173e166129d0cccd6d37c89dce6 wv^2 + 0x2a4dec6bbfe98df2c9169b06410c329d4c699747ca649e611d9960416d615 b5 wv^2u) Authors' Addresses Akihiro Kato NTT Software Corporation EMail: kato.akihiro-at-po.ntts.co.jp Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 16]

Internet-Draft Optimal Ate Pairing July 2015 Michael Scott CertiVox EMail: mike.scott-at-certivox.com Tetsutaro Kobayashi NTT EMail: kobayashi.tetsutaro-at-lab.ntt.co.jp Yuto Kawahara NTT EMail: kawahara.yuto-at-lab.ntt.co.jp Kato, et al. Expires January 7, 2016 [Page 17]