Independent Submission                                      K. Makhijani
Internet-Draft                                                   L. Dong
Intended status: Informational                                 Futurewei
Expires: 6 September 2022                                   5 March 2022


    Virtualization of PLC in Industrial Networks - Problem Statement
                      draft-km-iotops-iiot-frwk-02

Abstract

   Conventional Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) impose several
   challenges on factory floors as their numbers and size on the factory
   floors/plants continues to grow.  Virtualized PLCs can help overcome
   many of those concerns.  They can improve the automation in Industry
   control networks by simplifying communication between higher-level
   applications and low-level factory floor machine operations.  Virtual
   PLCs provide an opportunity to integrate a diverse set of non-
   internet protocols supporting Industrial-IoT and IP connections to
   improve coordination between applications and field devices.  Besides
   automation, virtual PLCs also enhance programmability in industry
   process control systems by abstracting control functions from I/O
   modules.  However, to achieve desired outcome and benefits, both
   operational and application networks should evolve.

   This document introduces virtual PLC concept, describes the details
   and benefits of virtualized PLCs, then focuses on the problem
   statement and requirements.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 6 September 2022.






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Copyright Notice

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Acronyms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Virtualized PLCs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Limitations with Physical PLCs  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.2.1.  Integrated Application Control Loop . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.2.2.  Single purpose to Multipurpose  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.3.  Simulation and Analytics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.4.  Managing Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Benefits and Opportunities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.3.1.  Processing Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.3.2.  Flexibility and Efficient Resource Use  . . . . . . .   8
       3.3.3.  Interoperability and Optimization . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.3.4.  Device Density on Factory Floor . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.4.  Incremental Realization Approaches  . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.4.1.  Softwarized PLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.4.2.  Local Disaggregation of Control and I/O Modules . . .   9
       3.4.3.  Fully Virtualized PLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Overview of Industrial Network Architecture . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Associating virtualized PLCs with IO Devices  . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Expectations from the Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.1.  Hierarchical Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.2.  Safety and Reliability of Operations  . . . . . . . .  12
     4.4.  Multiprotocol Supporting PLCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.5.  Identification of virtualized PLC . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.6.  Security Aspects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.1.  Virtualized PLC Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.2.  Key Performance Indicator Requirements  . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.3.  Network Related Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17



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   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Appendix A.  Appendix A.  Purdue Model (ICA-95) . . . . . . . . .  19
     A.1.  Separation between Manufacturing and Enterprise
           Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     A.2.  Collaborating with SDOs with Industry Network Focus . . .  21
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

1.  Introduction

   Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been instrumental to the
   growth of automation in industrial process control.  Industry 4.0 and
   similar initiatives have put even more emphasis on automation of the
   entire production process.  For example, a typical workflow in the
   Smart Factory to manufacture customized orders (reconfigurable
   manufacturing [RECONF]) is executed autonomously, comprising several
   related and inter-dependent processes.  In this workflow, all the
   dependencies and transitions occur seamlessly without human
   intervention - such as requesting inventory before it becomes
   unavailable, dispatching a request for specific maintenance,
   performing quality control on the material, and adjusting operations
   automatically.

   This type of system-level automation requires close coordination
   between PLCs (low-level machine controlling components) on the
   factory floors and the high-level decision-making software.  However,
   in the current Industry control architecture, PLC operations are
   isolated from higher-level components; they operate in an entirely
   different proprietary hardware environment.  Moreover, the number of
   PLCs on a floor are growing along with their physical size to support
   faster processors and more memory.  This makes management of PLCs
   with different type of hardware even more difficult.  Although PLCs
   can be customized, they are designed for limited set of controls,
   therefore their extensibility is limited.  To overcome above
   mentioned challenges it should be possible to incorporate multiple
   control functions in a hardware-agnostic platform.

   Virtualization is a proven technique to abstract software logic from
   the underlying hardware.  Information Technology (IT) has proven that
   virtualization benefits cost savings, flexibility, and efficient
   resource usage.  In the context of Industrial networks,
   virtualization serves to integrate IT and OT software components,
   which are essential for integrated automation.

   This document describes the 'virtualized PLC' concept and its
   realization.  In Section 4 limitations in physical PLCs are covered
   along with the benefits of virtualized PLC.  Finally, Section 5
   discusses requirements to support virtualized PLCs and their impact
   on the network.



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2.  Terminology

   Industrial Control Network:
      Industrial control networks are the interconnection of equipment
      used to operate, control, or monitor machines in the industry
      environment.  It involves different levels of communications -
      between field bus devices, digital controllers, and software
      applications.

   Industry Automation:
      Mechanisms that enable the machine to machine communication by use
      of technologies that enable automatic control and operation of
      industrial devices and processes leading to minimizing human
      intervention.

   Control Loop:
      Control loops are part of process control systems in with desired
      process response is provided as an input to the controller, which
      performs the corresponding action (using actuators) and reads the
      output values.  Since no error correction is performed, these are
      called open control loops.

   Feedback Control Loop:
      Feedback control loop is a system in which the output of a control
      system is continuously measured and compared to the input
      reference value.  The controller uses any deviation from the input
      value to adjust the output value for the desired response.  Since
      there is a feedback of error signal to the input, these are called
      closed control loops.

   Programmable logic controllers (PLC):
      Industrial computers/servers to control manufacturing processes
      such as assembly lines.

   Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA):
      Software System to control industrial processes and collect and
      manage data.

   Distributed Control Systems (DCS):
      Systems of sensors and controllers that are distributed throughout
      a plant.

   Manufacturing Execution System (MES):
      Systems that connect production equipment across the factory floor
      or multiple plants or sites.

   Fieldbus Devices:




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      Operational Technology field devices include valves, transmitters,
      switches, actuators, etc.

   Virtualized PLC (vPLC):
      A software component of PLC, in which the control part of factory
      devices is decoupled from the I/O component.  With vPLCs, the I/O
      stays local to the machines (sensors, actuators, and drives),
      while the controller logic lives as a software service implemented
      over RT- hypervisors.

   Scan-Cycle:
      A scan cycle is the time to read the inputs, execute the program
      (e.g., ladder logic), and update the outputs.  The actual scan
      time is affected by the processing speed of the PLC, the size of
      the program, the type of instructions used in the program.  In
      virtualized PLCs, general-purpose processor speed and memory are
      much higher than most physical PLCs.

2.1.  Acronyms

   *  HMI: Human Machine Interface

   *  MES: Manufacturing Execution System

   *  CIN: Converged Industrial Network

   *  IIC: Industrial Internet Consortium

   *  IDMZ: Industrial Demilitarized Zone

   *  PLC: Programmable Logic Controller

   *  PDU: Protocol Data unit

   *  SCADA: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

   *  DCS: Distributed Control System

   *  OT: Operational Technology

   *  IT: Information Technology

3.  Virtualized PLCs








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3.1.  Definition

   Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are specialized physical
   devices (or computers) that are used to control the operation of
   machines by coordinating the input sensors (temperature, pressure,
   position, vibration, humidity, torque, etc. readings) to the output
   actuators (such as motion control, voltage change, pressure valves,
   etc.).  PLC components include a control unit, memory (to store the
   data, state, and process control instructions), and I/O modules to
   communicate with Fieldbus devices (sensors and actuators) using
   different standard or proprietary protocols.

   Compared with commodity CPUS, most PLC control unit processing power
   is extremely low, whereas new complex process control applications
   require sophisticated and faster compute capabilities.  Utilizing
   commodity-grade CPUs for many PLC function blocks provides higher
   compute and memory for PLC programs by separating its control unit
   and memory from the physical PLCs.  This will leave only I/O modules
   connected to the devices.  Thus,

      Virtualized PLC is a hardware-agnostic abstraction of the
         control unit and memory functions of a PLC.  It is hardware-
         independent and still needs an interface to communicate with
         the I/O modules.

   The concept has been discussed both in research [PLC-40] and industry
   [VPLC-DRAGOS] [VPLC_IIC] [VPLC_CONV].  In the following section
   motivation for virtualized-PLCs.

3.2.  Limitations with Physical PLCs

3.2.1.  Integrated Application Control Loop

   Application performance is improved with better coordination between
   applications and field devices.  One way to achieve this is when
   seamless sharing of both data and control operations, and it is
   possible when both application and controller software use a common
   language or interface.  Today OPC-UA model is well-established and
   provides a protocol-independent data model for the standard
   representation of several Fieldbus protocols and requires a
   translation layer.  The use of software PLCs can unify the collection
   of data and control processes even more efficiently since the
   software PLCs are already hardware-independent.

   Like IT, the manufacturing and process industry is evolving to a non-
   monolithic mode of system operations.  In a large-scale industrial
   operation, several control processes run simultaneously and have
   high-performance requirements.



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3.2.2.  Single purpose to Multipurpose

   Currently, PLC controllers are designed for a single purpose long-
   term use.  There is an implicit expectation that PLC functions and
   corresponding I/O devices will not be replaced for many years once
   installed.  This paradigm makes it difficult for industries to handle
   changing requirements and can be prohibitive to adopting new
   technologies and deploying new types of sensors that could provide
   better monitoring.  With virtualized PLC, re-programming control
   logic to tweak the assembly line becomes a lot easier.

3.2.3.  Simulation and Analytics

   Physical PLCs are difficult to troubleshoot.  Upon failures,
   operators have to manually study the log files to generate traces
   from historical data.  Since Virtual PLCs are hardware-agnostic, they
   are almost identical to their simulation counterparts.  When replayed
   with actual historical event data, the run-time state of a PLC at any
   instance in the past can be recreated, which would help to
   troubleshoot and root-cause failure events.  It is difficult to do
   this type of root-cause analysis with physical PLCs.

3.2.4.  Managing Complexity

   Complexity is a trait of overall system architecture.  With Physical
   PLCS, the plant-floors will continue to deploy proprietary protocols
   and PLCs, leading to either managing solutions from different vendors
   or being locked into one vendor-provided solution.  While the former
   adds to the complexity, the latter may not use innovation outside a
   specific vendor.

   Architecturally, PLCs require a lot of different types of
   connections, such as PLC-PLC (peer to peer), PLC-SCADA, PLC-HMI, etc.
   Depending on the interface and protocol, scaling PLCs would lead to a
   higher number of gateways (and more wiring) that are difficult from a
   maintenance perspective and can also cause poor performance.  With
   physical PLCs, heterogeneity of protocol interface will not go away.

   Faults with PLC input/output (I/O) modules and field devices account
   for 80 percent of system failures.  Common causes of failure include
   the rugged environment that devices are subjected to.  In some cases,
   consolidating different PLCs on a single powerful PC and protecting a
   single node (hosting several PLCs) from failures of a power outage,
   electromagnetic or radio frequency interference is a lot easier than
   protecting a high number of PLCs.  In other cases, PLCs can be placed
   in the edge network, separated from the rugged environment.





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3.3.  Benefits and Opportunities

3.3.1.  Processing Capabilities

   Virtualization enables running software on commodity hardware.  One
   of the most important benefits is using more sophisticated processors
   to perform complex computations beyond legacy PLCs (floating point,
   arithmetic operations, counters, etc.).  Currently, there are already
   PLC control units supported on FPGAs [FPGA_PLC] indicating the need
   for faster and parallel processing.  Virtualization will enable
   further integration of such different With the availability of high-
   en.

3.3.2.  Flexibility and Efficient Resource Use

   Traditional PLCs are fixed-function controllers typically used for
   specific jobs on the factory floor.  Today, software-based PLCs are
   available for general-purpose commercial hardware, but they have been
   mainly used for simulation and training purposes.  Now there is more
   emphasis on customizations which will require PLCs to be programmed
   every time a new custom product is requested, leading to longer
   manufacturing cycles.  Virtualization can enable running multiple
   instances with its own set of allocated resources.  Thus, it will be
   possible to run different configurations for different customizations
   simultaneously with efficient use of resources only on-demand.

   Moreover, when virtualized PLCs and IT applications are on the same
   platform, it is possible to have close coordination between the OT
   and IT functions.  Although it may not be compelling, virtualized
   PLCs potentially eliminate the need for dedicated PLCs on the floor,
   creating space and reducing the number of interconnections.

3.3.3.  Interoperability and Optimization

   Having abstracted PLC logic allows using a common communication
   protocol, thus improving interoperability between different vendors
   supplied I/O modules.  Besides improving performance, this approach
   also simplifies configuration, configuration, and monitoring.

3.3.4.  Device Density on Factory Floor

   With the innovations in IoT devices, it is anticipated that there
   will be newer ways to measure, monitor, and collect various
   environment-specific metrics; this signifies an even larger number of
   devices and a corresponding increase in the number of controllers.
   Virtualization can further simplify control of a considerably high
   number of devices through a single PLC, thereby reducing some network
   resource requirements.



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   While applications and services are beginning to get disaggregated,
   PLCs' virtualization is very early stage.

3.4.  Incremental Realization Approaches

   Once virtualized, a PLC may be placed flexible anywhere in the
   network and closer to the higher-level applications.  However,
   expanding beyond a factory site is a drastic change from the existing
   isolated OT mindset.  To address such concerns, the following
   different approaches are possible:

3.4.1.  Softwarized PLC

   This is the basic approach with minimal change and minimal impact.  A
   PLC software is virtualized and runs on proprietary or commodity
   hardware supporting legacy I/O modules.  This type of change is
   isolated to a specific PLC functionality, and the only benefit is
   hardware independence.  Potentially, there is a one-to-one
   replacement of physical to software PLC.

3.4.2.  Local Disaggregation of Control and I/O Modules

   In addition to above approach, the software component of PLC (its
   control unit) runs on commodity hardware; I/O modules are separated
   from the PLC to provide a clear separation between I/O and
   programmable components.  It requires trivial I/0 interconnects to do
   trivial Fieldbus frame forwarding to I/O modules which may not
   require any memory or processing capability as shown in Figure 1.

                       .-,,-.                     fieldbus
         +-+        .-( cite )-.     IP   _______   i/f
         | |  ---->(  network   )------->[_______] ------> |==|
         +-+        '-(      ).-'          I/O          I/O device
      virtualized      '-.-'           inter-connects
        PLC

      Figure 1: virtualization of PLC and separation from I/O devices

   Utilizing IT-style virtualization infrastructure, different instances
   of virtualized PLC may run simultaneously on a single machine, or
   even different types of PLCs may run together as a single instance of
   virtualized PLC.  A clean separation between PLC logic from I/O
   module allows changes to PLC logic and I/O devices independently.
   With this level of hardware independence, a virtualized PLC can be
   instantiated on the same hardware and SCADA, HMI, or ICS components
   providing close integration of these entities.





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   Since the location of virtualized PLC is within the manufacturing
   zone, there is no impact on the security design.

3.4.3.  Fully Virtualized PLC

   Eventually, virtualized PLCs may be placed anywhere (in the cloud,
   edge, or on-site) in a location-independent manner.  All the benefits
   considered in Section 3.4.2 apply with an advantage of leveraging
   multi-tenant edge-compute infrastructure as a tenant.

   However, the network will be required to provide more security and
   safety mechanisms.

4.  Problem Statement

   The addition of PLC virtualization capabilities impacts the PLC
   device and the network elements in the infrastructure.  Design
   considerations must be made to ensure that such impacts facilitate
   automation by simplifying configurations, improving operations and
   management, and reducing process-change overheads.  Nevertheless, it
   is a change from the current state of the Industrial Networks.

   This section describes the challenges, starting with brief
   information on the current architecture to set the context.

4.1.  Overview of Industrial Network Architecture

   The physical network architecture for process control, as shown in
   Figure 2 is rigidly hierarchical.  Note that the figure is over-
   simplified, and in general, each level will have additional
   hierarchies to extend the networks for scale.  For example, a PLC
   controlling a group of Fieldbus devices may, in turn, be controlled
   by another PLC controller [networked-PLC] that runs ProfiNet protocol
   because both sets of devices are interdependent.  For such cases,
   protocol translation gateways are required.  Several network switches
   are needed to interconnect gateways and numerous devices on the
   factory floor.

   The hierarchical architecture comprises security-oriented zones known
   as ICA-95 model (or Purdue model see Appendix A) in which each zone
   contains well-defined levels.  Among the three zones (Manufacturing,
   IDMZ, and Enterprise), the enterprise zone network is all IP, while
   the manufacturing and IDMZ network on the factory floor is a
   combination of IP and Industrial protocols.  The communication across
   the zone tends to get complex as each zone runs over different
   network technologies.  A large number of IP-based firewalls and
   translation gateways are deployed in all the zones to control data
   movement between IT and OT networks.



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   Industry control systems (SCADA, HMI, MES) perform complex
   operations.  They collect data from devices and simultaneously
   administer several process control loop instances to handle complex
   processes.  Traditional best practices indirectly required data
   delivery from L2 to L3 levels in reports, which caused a significant
   time lag.

             +-+-+-+-+-+-+      External
          ^  | Data Apps |      business logic network
          :  +-+-+-+-+-+-+        (L5)
          :    |      |
          v  +-+-+  +-+-+     Translation
             |IDS|..|FW |     gateways and firewalls
          ^  +-+-+  +-+-+ -----+  (L4)
          :     |              |
          v  +-+-+-+-+-+-+  +-+-+-+-+--+
             | vendor A  |  |vendor B  |  Interconnection
             | controller|  |controller|  of controllers
          ^  +-+-+-+-+-+-+  +-+-+-+-+-+-   (L2-L3)
          :       |         |
          :   +-+-+-+-+    +-+-+-+-+
          v   | PLCs-X |   |PLCs-Y |--+  Device-controllers
          ^   +-+-+-+-+    +-+--+-+|      (L1)
          :     |           |      |
          :   +--+        +-+    +-+
          v   |  |        | |    | |    Field level devices
              +--+        +-+    +-+     (L0)

        Figure 2: Hierarchy of Functions Industrial Control Networks

4.2.  Associating virtualized PLCs with IO Devices

   A physical PLC is generally associated with a few I/O devices and is
   directly connected.  The I/O modules are not required to authenticate
   or verify the connection.  A virtualized PLC is a software instance;
   it may now be anywhere in the network; therefore, the system must
   authenticate the virtualized PLC and I/O device connection pairing.
   This is necessary to maintain the reliability and safety of the
   system and prevent unauthenticated PLC from interacting with the
   software.  The association must be done under the constraint that I/O
   modules are basic devices without any compute capability.  Thus, the
   network should provide these functions through gateways or
   interconnecting devices.








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4.3.  Expectations from the Networks

   The magnitude by which compute capability is improved allows a single
   virtualized controller to handle more complex and faster scan cycles.
   Then, the network to manage communication delays, packet formation,
   processing, and forwarding overheads become critical to overall
   system performance.  Harnessing compute power at a lower cost from
   edge-compute platforms is expected for several reasons.  It is
   anticipated that edge-networks will offer general purpose compute and
   store capabilities for latency-sensitive applications.  This piece of
   infrastructure can serve many sites and needed not be owned but can
   be leased, providing cloud-like services.It is a big change from the
   traditional Purdue model or ICA architecture.

   Thus, the plant-floor networks are now extended to edge networks
   expanding the security zones creating 'new' requirements for multi-
   tenancy support (isolation and network segmentation) in OT networks.
   Note that in IT networks, these technologies are mature and already
   standardized.

4.3.1.  Hierarchical Structure

   Virtualized PLCs and their flexible placement require flat structure
   so that flow of information is context based and need not follow
   strict hierarchy.  Hierarchical flow of information is not always
   efficient and is centralized.  It does not inherently support
   autonomous decision making which is central to Industry 4.0 type of
   initiatives.  In contrast, a distributed architecture with some form
   of centralized view will be ideal since it combines both autonomous
   operations and global view.

4.3.2.  Safety and Reliability of Operations

   The Fieldbus modules and PLCs are designed to perform for long period
   of times.  The commands or operations dispatched from virtual PLCs
   must conform to same safety standards.  Similarly, the communication
   between PLC control unit and I/O module is highly reliable and such
   data losses must be prevented.

4.4.  Multiprotocol Supporting PLCs

   A virtualized PLC can act as a single logical controller to
   communicate with a different group of I/O devices over one or more
   non-internet protocols such as Modbus, Profibus, CANbus, Profinet
   [SURV], etc.  Since each protocol specifies its packet format,
   different translation gateways are generally needed.  Thus, a multi-
   protocol virtual PLC can reduce the number of gateways.




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   However, the challenge is to provide a standard communication format
   for different I/O devices.  Since it is not feasible to have a single
   flat Fieldbus Fieldbus protocol due to address scale limitations
   (limited address space up to 256 devices), an I/O interconnect is
   required to perform format translation.  Then the packet on the wire
   should be multi-protocol aware. i.e., virtualized PLC needs to know
   what type of Fieldbus device it is communicating with at the other
   end.

4.5.  Identification of virtualized PLC

   The Fieldbus devices are serial buses and identify PLC as a device
   with a specific bus address.  It may be required for virtualized PLC
   to support dual addresses, one exposed for the I/O module and the
   other for IT applications.  Converged IT/OT networks should leverage
   specifics of factory floors designs and assign device ids based on
   machine locations and context.  As an example, a device with basic
   address 0x14 may be defined as 'device 0x14, cell 'C1' and factory
   floor 'F1', PLC bus address '0x1' in the communication path.  The
   reachability to a specific I/O module should have complete
   information from virtualized PLC.

4.6.  Security Aspects

   The fundamental paradigm of security as described in ICA-95
   architecture changes with virtualized PLC since those PLCs won't be
   in the local manufacturing zone.  The zone-aware security will not
   apply.

   Instead, the system will need a multi-dimensional security profile.
   The first one encompasses both enterprise and manufacturing zones,
   and the second is location-specific, i.e., using secure channels such
   as VPN, IPSEC, etc.

5.  Requirements

5.1.  Virtualized PLC Requirements

   A virtualized PLC's function and operation should be identical to
   that of physical PLC.  The following requirements relate to
   virtualized PLC's reachability, identification, and discovery (or
   attachment) in the network.

   *  Addresses scope

   The virtualized PLC is expected to be an IP-addressed endpoint when
   communicating with higher-level applications.  However, southbound
   communication may require some structured addressing scheme to reach



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   the Fieldbus device in the network (e.g., see [semantic-addressing]
   and [asymmetric-addr]).  There is no need to enforce IP addresses for
   Fieldbus devices since they are constrained devices, and IP may not
   be the most suitable address structure.  A uniquely reachable address
   space for all the Fieldbus I/O devices and PLCs is required such that
   intermediate network elements know how to route (or switch) to those
   addresses.  Moreover, as the scale of the industry network grows,
   there will be many 'same' types of devices with limited address space
   (a Fieldbus or ModBus address limits up to 256) all across the floor.
   It is maybe desirable to support variable-length identifiers to
   handle both IT servers and I/O module-type devices.

   *  Converged Namespace

   Addresses are resolved from namespaces.  It should be possible to
   associate all the endpoints (OT and IT) as part of their system-
   defined namespace.  The solution should not require different
   operations and management schemes for industry I/O modules vs. IT
   applications.  It will improve security by verifying an endpoint
   against a namespace.  However, each vertical sector should be able to
   choose its namespace.  For example, In some cases, the classification
   may be based on a level (PLCs, cell sites, type of application,
   etc.), and the corresponding address is derived by concatenating them
   together since factory devices do not change their location often in
   the topology.

   *  Network Identifiers:

   Virtualized PLC should be identifiable by what application it can
   talk to or the service they are part of [semantic-addressing].  The
   network identification is required for setting up security or
   firewall policies.  Note: legacy devices do not have network
   identifiers, and deeper packet inspection will be required to
   identify a specific PLC.  Alternately [semantic-addressing] may be
   useful in structuring the identifiers.

   *  Legacy support:

   Virtualized PLCs and legacy PLCs must co-exist with support for
   deployed protocol formats and their core capabilities.  This is
   needed to maintain non-disruptive operations.

   *  Auto-configuration:

   Procedures should be efficient, i.e., comparable to the processing
   capabilities of the I/O devices.  On-boarding procedures (manual or
   automatic) must have built-in or well-defined authentication.




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   *  Controller and Fieldbus Pairing:

   Virtualized PLCs must support a secure method of pairing
   authenticating with their I/O devices.  Virtualization allows
   multiple PLCs to control (or at least monitor) the same device.  This
   can potentially lead to conflicts in device operation.  Therefore,
   careful access control mechanisms are required to prioritize
   operation across the PLCs.

   *  Efficient Transport Protocol

   Currently, factory-floor Fieldbus devices do not directly use any
   transport protocols designed for the purpose, e.g., [MQTT_SPEC] and
   [OPC_ARCH].  The data collected from sensors is encapsulated in TCP.
   Alternate native transport based on principles of MQTT type of
   protocols could help to improve the traffic efficiency in industrial
   networks.

5.2.  Key Performance Indicator Requirements

   *  Process Control

   Performance depends on the deterministic behavior of devices.  A
   virtualized PLC must maintain all deterministic and low latency
   attributes of physical PLC.

   *  Safety mechanisms

   To keep a factory floor hazard and accident-free environment, the
   virtualized PLC must implement mechanisms for proper operation of a
   device, including commands sent from virtualized PLC that must not
   exceed thresholds and are error-free and valid for the Fieldbus
   operation.

   *  Deterministic or Time Sensitive Service Guarantees

   Mechanisms should be implemented to assure time-sensitive delivery of
   traffic.  For this, [DETNET] or TSN technologies can be used.

   *  Security

   Mechanisms should be implemented to protect against man-in-the-middle
   attacks.  Encryption overheads must be budgeted from virtualized PLC
   to Fieldbus to maintain process control latency.  Due to low
   processing power, lightweight mechanisms should be devised.






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5.3.  Network Related Requirements

   The topologies in the manufacturing zones do not change frequently,
   and devices are designated in a zone or a cell for long-term use.
   Such observations can help simplify network designs.  Industry
   networks could substantially benefit from a hybrid software-defined
   networking and distributed routing approach.  Former for initial
   provisioning (or controlled bootstrapping), latter for reachability
   and health of the fabric.  Such hybrid techniques eliminate the need
   for implementing complex routing protocol features.

   *  Backward Compatibility

   Seamless integration of virtualized PLCs must be supported.  The
   network must support legacy traffic, and its performance should be no
   worse than before the inclusion of virtualized PLCs.

   *  Efficiency of connections

   Industrial networks have different connection endpoints, such as PLC-
   PLC, PLC-SCADA, SCADA-IT-Systems, PLC-Firewalls, PLC-gateways, PLC-I/
   O modules.  Without subscribing to a specific wire format, a flexible
   packet format should be designed to address smooth connections
   between any of the above endpoints.  It implies that a variety of
   endpoints interconnect in an identical fashion without requiring
   device-specific translations.  Efficient connections lead to less
   processing or states in the network with improved resiliency and
   performance.  There may be opportunities to design packet formats
   with minimal overheads by using in-band programmability paradigms
   that carry embedded metadata and control information relating to
   reachability, latency, jitter, reliability, and exceptions
   characteristics.  This approach is expected to reduce configurations
   and the number of policies required for data steering through the
   network.  Existing methods that may be used, evaluated or extended
   include IP with TSN, DETNET[DETNET], reachability headers SCHC, IPv6
   compression schemes, or may be evaluated against newer schemes.

   *  Traffic segmentation support

   As virtualized PLCs are spun off like VMs, connectivity with fieldbus
   devices will be affected.  It should not have adverse effect on
   deterministic, low latency behavior on the other segmented traffic
   (i.e., connectivity between another set of endpoints).  Each
   segmented traffic may be associated with a different protocol or
   traffic profile, including legacy traffic format and profiles.  The
   methods to support segmentation include virtual network technologies
   inside the fabric such as VxLAN, VPNs, etc.




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   *  Resilient and Extensible Topologies

   The industry network protocols must not limit to a constrained
   physical topology.  It must support a multi-path distributed
   connectivity framework to prevent bottlenecks traffic concentration.

   *  Dynamic Bandwidth Management

   Even industrial networks generate a high volume of data from the
   sensors.  Managing bandwidth for different types of data
   (operational, control, statistics) should be supported through
   existing QoS or in-band monitoring technologies.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document requires no actions from IANA.

7.  Security Considerations

   The architecture at the very least must adhere to the security
   guidance provided by ICS-95.

8.  Acknowledgements

9.  Informative References

   [asymmetric-addr]
              Makhijani, K. and L. Dong, "Requirements and Scenarios for
              Industry Internet Addressing", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-km-industrial-internet-requirements-00, 10
              June 2021, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-
              km-industrial-internet-requirements-00>.

   [DETNET]   Finn, N., Thubert, P., Varga, B., and J. Farkas,
              "Deterministic Networking Architecture", RFC 8655,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8655, October 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8655>.

   [FPGA_PLC] Huabing, Z., Benlei, L., Bolin, D., and F. Xiao, "Research
              on FPGA-based Programmable Logic Controllers’ Technology",
              TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical
              Engineering Vol. 11, DOI 10.11591/telkomnika.v11i12.3701,
              December 2013,
              <https://doi.org/10.11591/telkomnika.v11i12.3701>.

   [IIC]      "Industry IoT Consortium", n.d.,
              <https://www.iiconsortium.org>.




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   [IIC_TALK] William Diab, W., "Overview of IIC – Building the IIoT
              Ecosystem", 12 October 2021, <https://github.com/iot-
              dir/Meetings/blob/main/20211012/slides/
              Diab_IIC_Overview_for_IETF_1021_rev2.pdf>.

   [ISA95]    "ANSI/ISA-95.00.01-2010 (IEC 62264-1 Mod) Enterprise-
              Control System Integration - Part 1: Models and
              Terminology", n.d., <https://www.isa.org/standards-and-
              publications/isa-standards/isa-standards-committees/
              isa95>.

   [MQTT_SPEC]
              "MQTT Version 3.1.1 Plus Errata 01", December 2015,
              <http://docs.oasis-open.org/mqtt/mqtt/v3.1.1/mqtt-
              v3.1.1.html>.

   [networked-PLC]
              "Should PLCs be networked?", 4 October 2004,
              <https://www.plantengineering.com/articles/should-plcs-be-
              networked>.

   [OPC]      "Open Platform Communications", n.d.,
              <https://opcfoundation.org>.

   [OPC_ARCH] "OPC 10000-1 - Part 1: Overview and Concepts", 2 November
              2017, <https://opcfoundation.org/developer-tools/
              specifications-unified-architecture/part-1-overview-and-
              concepts/>.

   [OPC_INFO] "OPC-UA Information Model Specifications", n.d.,
              <https://opcfoundation.org/developer-tools/specifications-
              opc-ua-information-models>.

   [PLC-40]   Azarmipour, M., Elfaham, H., Gries, C., and U. Epple, "PLC
              4.0: A Control System for Industry 4.0", IECON 2019 - 45th
              Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial
              Electronics Society, DOI 10.1109/iecon.2019.8927026,
              October 2019,
              <https://doi.org/10.1109/iecon.2019.8927026>.

   [RECONF]   Koren, Y., "Reconfigurable Manufacturing System", CIRP
              Encyclopedia of Production Engineering pp. 1417-1423,
              DOI 10.1007/978-3-662-53120-4_6629, 2019,
              <https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53120-4_6629>.

   [semantic-addressing]
              Jia, Y., Trossen, D., Iannone, L., Shenoy, N., and P.
              Mendes, "Gap Analysis in Internet Addressing", Work in



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              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-jia-intarea-internet-
              addressing-gap-analysis-01, 23 October 2021,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-jia-intarea-
              internet-addressing-gap-analysis-01>.

   [SURV]     Galloway, B. and G. Hancke, "Introduction to Industrial
              Control Networks", IEEE Communications Surveys &
              Tutorials Vol. 15, pp. 860-880,
              DOI 10.1109/surv.2012.071812.00124, 2013,
              <https://doi.org/10.1109/surv.2012.071812.00124>.

   [VPLC-DRAGOS]
              Scott, A., "Programmable Logic Controller Virtualization",
              8 February 2019, <https://www.dragos.com/blog/industry-
              news/programmable-logic-controller-virtualization/>.

   [VPLC_CONV]
              Cruz, T., Simoes, P., and E. Monteiro, "Virtualizing
              Programmable Logic Controllers: Toward a Convergent
              Approach", IEEE Embedded Systems Letters Vol. 8, pp.
              69-72, DOI 10.1109/les.2016.2608418, December 2016,
              <https://doi.org/10.1109/les.2016.2608418>.

   [VPLC_IIC] Lou, D., Graf, U., and M. Tseng, "Virtualized Programmable
              Logic Controllers. An Industrial Internet Consortium Tech
              Brief", 7 September 2021,
              <https://www.iiconsortium.org/pdf/IIC-Edge-vPLC-Tech-
              Brief-20210907.pdf>.

Appendix A.  Appendix A.  Purdue Model (ICA-95)

   The International Society of Automation (ICA) has developed a model
   [ISA95] to describe automated interfaces between enterprise and
   control systems.  In this widely deployed hierarchical model, five
   levels are defined and they follow a strict ordering of interfaces
   across the levels.  At the lowest level 0, are the physical devices
   while enterprise applications are at level 5.  In between these two
   levels, there are several supervisory, management, and intermediate
   data collection applications that provide information to












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     |      +-------------------------------+  Enterprise
     | L5   |    Enterprise applications    |  Security
     +--    +-------------------------------+  Zone
     |      +-------------------------------+
     | L4   | Gateways, servers (ops, mgmt) |  IDMZ
     +--    +-------------------------------+
     |      +-------------------------------+
     | L3   |    Supervisory controls       |  Industry
     |      +-------------------------------+  Security
     | L1   |  Device control               |  Zone
     |      +-------------------------------+
     | L0   |Sensors, Actuators, Robots, etc| (cells or zones)
     +--    +-------------------------------+

           Figure 3: ISA 95 or Purdue model of Automation Pyramid

A.1.  Separation between Manufacturing and Enterprise Networks

   The ICA-95 architecture recommends hierarchy, thereby a separation
   between factory devices and applications through three different
   security zones called Manufacturing, DMZ and enterprise zones as
   shown in Figure 3 as below:

   *  Enterprise Security Zone:  The IT applications reside in
         enterprise networks and perform tasks necessary for business
         operations such as inventory control, supply-chain logistics,
         schedule and capacity planning.  They need to collect data from
         the OT systems in order to make those decisions.

   *  Industrial Demilitarized Zone:  The OT and IT networks were
         designed to prevent direct communication between them.  The
         IDMZ serves as an information sharing layer between the IT and
         OT (L4 and L3) systems.  This indicates that additional
         security rules, inspection and protection of device identity
         and access is necessary when transiting from L3 to L4.

   *  Manufacturing Zone:  Consists of Levels 0 through 3 site wide














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         production system.  Operations at level 3 (L3) Support site-
         wide view of the production system.  They also provide data to
         L4.  Area supervisory control (L2) performs operation and
         control over a zone or smaller area in a production floor.
         Each area has specific set of tasks or operations to perform.
         Basic control at level 1 (L1) is for the actual control of the
         equipment.  The L1 components such include PLCs; they send
         commands to L0 equipments to perform tasks (e.g. start motor,
         alter pressure level, or reduce motor speed).  Finally, actual
         process takes place at level 0 (L0).  At this level for the
         process equipments performing actual operations are performed.
         This include equipment and devices such as motors, pressure
         valves, temperature, speed, etc sensors, etc.

   The devices or controllers at level 1 are the ones of specific
   interest for virtualization and the corresponding challenges are
   covered in later section.

A.2.  Collaborating with SDOs with Industry Network Focus

   The paradigms of networking in OT are quite different than IP based
   best-effort networking protocols.  Yet, IETF protocols are
   extensively used in OT applications.  Often, it is not possible to
   get contributors directly from the OT sectors, then it would make
   more sense to coordinate with well-established consortia where OT
   scenarios and requirements are is discussed may be utilized.  Two
   well established foundations are IIC [IIC] and OPC-UA [OPC].  For
   example, a [IIC_TALK] provided overview of IIC activities.

   Industrial IoT Consortium (IIC) provides use cases, scenarios, and
   best-practice frameworks to solve specific problems and solution pain
   points.  It is a rich resources of case studies and demonstrations of
   different test beds.  The IIC itself is not involved in standards
   development, but may help in formalizing requirements, further
   insights into solutions developed in IETF, and potentially help
   adoption of those solutions.















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   Open Platform Communications-Unified Architecture (OPC-UA) provides
   interoperability across different hardware platforms using a standard
   data model.  It standardizes various information models,
   corresponding client-server architecture and defines necessary access
   mechanisms to those information models.  The OPC-UA is an abstraction
   layer to provide common interface to different data look-up and event
   notifications.  A number of information models are provided by OPC-UA
   can be found here [OPC_INFO].  For example, OPC has a specification
   on PLCs.  It abstracts PLC specific protocols (such as Modbus,
   Profibus, etc.) into a standardized interface allowing HMI/SCADA
   systems to interface with a middleware that converts generic-OPC
   read/write requests into device-specific requests and vice-versa.

      Note: OPC-UA information model similar to YANG?

   IETF solutions will focus on leveraging or extending IETF
   technologies for IT and OT integration which is at the infrastructure
   or communication layer.  Thus, providing protocols that could
   potentially benefit higher-level OPC-UA work.

   Both IIC and OPC could provide guidance for the standards work.

Authors' Addresses

   Kiran Makhijani
   Futurewei
   Santa Clara, CA 95050,
   United States of America
   Email: kiran.ietf@gmail.com


   Lijun Dong
   Futurewei
   Santa Clara, CA 95050,
   United States of America
   Email: lijun.dong@futurewei.com















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