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Versions: 00 01                                                         
Network Working Group               Paul J. Leach, Microsoft
INTERNET-DRAFT                         Rich Salz, Open Group
<draft-leach-uuids-guids-00.txt>
Category: Informational
Expires August 24, 1997                    February 24, 1997



                             UUIDs and GUIDs

STATUS OF THIS MEMO

  This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working
  documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
  and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
  working documents as Internet-Drafts.

  Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
  and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
  time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
  material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

  To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
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  munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
  ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

  Distribution of this document is unlimited.  Please send comments to
  the authors or the CIFS mailing list at <cifs@listserv.msn.com>.
  Discussions of the mailing list are archived at
  <URL:http://microsoft.ease.lsoft.com/archives/CIFS.html>.


ABSTRACT

  This specification defines the format of UUIDs (Universally Unique
  IDentifier), also known as GUIDs (Globally Unique IDentifier). A UUID
  is 128 bits long, and if generated according to the one of the
  mechanisms in this document, is either guaranteed to be different
  from all other UUIDs/GUIDs generated until 3400 A.D. or extremely
  likely to be different (depending on the mechanism chosen). UUIDs
  were originally used in the Network Computing System (NCS) [1] and
  later in the Open Software Foundation's (OSF) Distributed Computing
  Environment [2].

  This specification is derived from the latter specification with the
  kind permission of the OSF.


Table of Contents

1.   Introduction......................................................2


[Page 1]


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2.   Motivation........................................................2

3.   Specification.....................................................3

 3.1  Format ..........................................................3

 3.2  Algorithms for Creating a UUID ..................................5

   3.2.1  Clock Sequence...............................................5

   3.2.2  System Reboot................................................6

   3.2.3  Clock Adjustment.............................................7

   3.2.4  Clock Overrun................................................7

   3.2.5  UUID Generation..............................................7

 3.3  String Representation of UUIDs ..................................8

 3.4  Comparing UUIDs .................................................9

 3.5  Byte order of UUIDs .............................................9

4.   Node IDs when no IEEE 802 network card is available...............9

5.   Obtaining IEEE 802 addresses.....................................11

6.   Security Considerations..........................................12

7.   Acknowledgements.................................................12

8.   References.......................................................12

9.   Authors' addresses...............................................12




1. Introduction

  This specification defines the format of UUIDs (Universally Unique
  IDentifiers), also known as GUIDs (Globally Unique IDentifiers). A
  UUID is 128 bits long, and if generated according to the one of the
  mechanisms in this document, is either guaranteed to be different
  from all other UUIDs/GUIDs generated until 3400 A.D. or extremely
  likely to be different (depending on the mechanism chosen).


2. Motivation

  One of the main reasons for using UUIDs is that no centralized
  authority is required to administer them (beyond the one that
  allocates IEEE 802.1 node identifiers). As a result, generation on

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  demand can be completely automated, and they can be used for a wide
  variety of purposes. The UUID generation algorithm described here
  supports very high allocation rates: 10 million per second per
  machine if you need it, so that they could even be used as
  transaction IDs.

  UUIDs are fixed-size (128-bits) which is reasonably small relative to
  other alternatives. This fixed, relatively small size lends itself
  well to sorting, ordering, and hashing of all sorts, storing in
  databases, simple allocation, and ease of programming in general.


3. Specification

  A UUID is an identifier that is unique across both space and time,
  with respect to the space of all UUIDs. To be precise, the UUID
  consists of a finite bit space. Thus the time value used for
  constructing a UUID is limited and will roll over in the future
  (approximately at A.D. 3400, based on the specified algorithm). A
  UUID can be used for multiple purposes, from tagging objects with an
  extremely short lifetime, to reliably identifying very persistent
  objects across a network.

  The generation of UUIDs does not require that a registration
  authority be contacted for each identifier. Instead, it requires a
  unique value over space for each UUID generator. This spatially
  unique value is specified as an IEEE 802 address, which is usually
  already available to network-connected systems. This 48-bit address
  can be assigned based on an address block obtained through the IEEE
  registration authority. This section of the UUID specification
  assumes the availability of an IEEE 802 address to a system desiring
  to generate a UUID, but if one is not available section 4 specifies a
  way to generate a probabilistically unique one that can not conflict
  with any properly assigned IEEE 802 address.


3.1 Format

  The following table gives the format of a UUID. The UUID consists of
  a record of 16 octets. The fields are in order of significance for
  comparison purposes, with "time_low" the most significant, and "node"
  the least significant.

   Field                      Data      Octet  Note
                              Type      #

   time_low                   unsigned  0-3    The low field of the
                              32 bit           timestamp.
                              integer

   time_mid                   unsigned  4-5    The middle field of the
                              16 bit           timestamp.
                              integer


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   time_hi_and_version        unsigned  6-7    The high field of the
                              16 bit           timestamp multiplexed
                              integer          with the version number.

   clock_seq_hi_and_reserved  unsigned         The high field of the
                              8 bit            clock sequence                                        8
                              integer          multiplexed with the
                                               variant.

   clock_seq_low              unsigned  9      The low field of the
                              8 bit            clock sequence.
                              integer

   node                       unsigned         The spatially unique
                              48 bit           node identifier.                                        10-15
                              integer



  To minimize confusion about bit assignments within octets, the UUID
  record definition is defined only in terms of fields that are
  integral numbers of octets. The version number is in the most
  significant 4 bits of the time stamp (time_hi), and the variant field
  is in the most significant 3 bits of the clock sequence
  (clock_seq_high).

  The timestamp is a 60 bit value. For UUID version 1, this is
  represented by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as a count of 100-
  nanosecond intervals since 00:00:00.00, 15 October 1582 (the date of
  Gregorian reform to the Christian calendar).

  The following table lists currently defined versions of the UUID.

       Msb0  Msb1   Msb2  Msb3   Version  Description

        0      0     0      1       1     The version specified
                                          in this document.

        0      0     1      0       2     Reserved for DCE
                                          Security version, with
                                          embedded POSIX UIDs.

  The variant field determines the layout of the UUID. The structure of
  UUIDs is fixed across different versions within a variant, but not
  across variants; hence, other UUID variants may not interoperate with
  the UUID variant specified in this document. Interoperability of
  UUIDs is defined as the applicability of operations such as string
  conversion, comparison, and lexical ordering across different
  systems. The variant field consists of a variable number of the msbs
  of the clock_seq_hi_and_reserved field.

  The following table lists the contents of the variant field.



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       Msb0  Msb1   Msb2  Description

        0      -     -    Reserved, NCS backward compatibility.

        1      0     -    The variant specified in this document.

        1      1     0    Reserved, Microsoft Corporation GUID.

        1      1     1    Reserved for future definition.

  The clock sequence is required to detect potential losses of
  monotonicity of the clock. Thus, this value marks discontinuities and
  prevents duplicates. An algorithm for generating this value is
  outlined in the _Clock Sequence_ section below.

  The clock sequence is encoded in the 6 least significant bits of the
  clock_seq_hi_and_reserved field and in the clock_seq_low field.

  The node field consists of the IEEE address, usually the host
  address. For systems with multiple IEEE 802 nodes, any available node
  address can be used. The lowest addressed octet (octet number 10)
  contains the global/local bit and the unicast/multicast bit, and is
  the first octet of the address transmitted on an 802.3 LAN.

  Depending on the network data representation, the multi-octet
  unsigned integer fields are subject to byte swapping when
  communicated between different endian machines.

  The nil UUID is special form of UUID that is specified to have all
  128 bits set to 0 (zero).


3.2 Algorithms for Creating a UUID

  Various aspects of the algorithm for creating a UUID are discussed in
  the following sections. UUID generation requires a guarantee of
  uniqueness within the node ID for a given variant and version.
  Interoperability is provided by complying with the specified data
  structure. To prevent possible UUID collisions, which could be caused
  by different implementations on the same node, compliance with the
  algorithm specified here is required.


3.2.1 Clock Sequence
  The clock sequence value must be changed whenever:

  - the UUID generator detects that the local value of UTC has gone
  backward.

  - the UUID generator has lost its state of the last value of UTC
  used, indicating that time may have gone backward; this is typically
  the case on reboot.



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  While a node is operational, the UUID service always saves the last
  UTC used to create a UUID. Each time a new UUID is created, the
  current UTC is compared to the saved value and if either the current
  value is less (the non-monotonic clock case) or the saved value was
  lost, then the clock sequence is  incremented modulo 16,384, thus
  avoiding production of duplicate UUIDs.

  The clock sequence must be initialized to a random number to minimize
  the correlation across systems. This provides maximum protection
  against node identifiers that may move or switch from system to
  system rapidly. The initial value MUST NOT be correlated to the node
  identifier.

  The rule of initializing the clock sequence to a random value is
  waived if, and only if all of the following are true:

  - The clock sequence value is stored in non-volatile storage.

  - The system is manufactured such that the IEEE address ROM is
  designed to be inseparable from the system by either the user or
  field service, so that it cannot be moved to another system.

  - The manufacturing process guarantees that only new IEEE address
  ROMs are used.

  - Any field service, remanufacturing or rebuilding process that could
  change the value of the clock sequence must reinitialise it to a
  random value.

  In other words, the system constraints prevent duplicates caused by
  possible migration of the IEEE address, while the operational system
  itself can protect against non-monotonic clocks, except in the case
  of field service intervention. At manufacturing time, such a system
  may initialise the clock sequence to any convenient value.


3.2.2 System Reboot
  There are two possibilities when rebooting a system:

  - the UUID generator state - the last UTC, adjustment, and clock
  sequence - of the UUID service has been restored from non-volatile
  store

  - the state of the last UTC or adjustment has been lost.

  If the state variables have been restored, the UUID generator just
  continues as normal. Alternatively, if the state variables cannot be
  restored, they are reinitialised, and the clock sequence is changed.

  If the clock sequence is stored in non-volatile store, it is
  incremented; otherwise, it is reinitialised to a new random value.




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3.2.3 Clock Adjustment
  UUIDs may be created at a rate greater than the system clock
  resolution. Therefore, the system must also maintain an adjustment
  value to be added to the lower-order bits of the time. Logically,
  each time the system clock ticks, the adjustment value is cleared.
  Every time a UUID is generated, the current adjustment value is read
  and incremented atomically, then added to the UTC time field of the
  UUID.


3.2.4 Clock Overrun
  The 100 nanosecond granularity of time should prove sufficient even
  for bursts of UUID creation in high-performance multiprocessors. If a
  system overruns the clock adjustment by requesting too many UUIDs
  within a single system clock tick, the UUID service may raise an
  exception, handled in a system or process-dependent manner either by:

  - terminating the requester

  - reissuing the request until it succeeds

  - stalling the UUID generator until the system clock catches up.

  If the processors overrun the UUID generation frequently, additional
  node identifiers and clocks may need to be added.


3.2.5 UUID Generation
  UUIDs are generated according to the following algorithm:

  - Determine the values for the UTC-based timestamp and clock sequence
  to be used in the UUID, as described above.

  - For the purposes of this algorithm, consider the timestamp to be a
  60-bit unsigned integer and the clock sequence to be a 14-bit
  unsigned integer. Sequentially number the bits in a field, starting
  from 0 (zero) for the least significant bit.

  - Set the time_low field equal to the least significant 32-bits (bits
  numbered 0 to 31 inclusive) of the time stamp in the same order of
  significance.

  - Set the time_mid field equal to the bits numbered 32 to 47
  inclusive of the time stamp in the same order of significance.

  - Set the 12 least significant bits (bits numbered 0 to 11 inclusive)
  of the time_hi_and_version field equal to the bits numbered 48 to 59
  inclusive of the time stamp in the same order of significance.

  - Set the 4 most significant bits (bits numbered 12 to 15 inclusive)
  of the time_hi_and_version field to the 4-bit version number
  corresponding to the UUID version being created, as shown in the
  table above.


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  - Set the clock_seq_low field to the 8 least significant bits (bits
  numbered 0 to 7 inclusive) of the clock sequence in the same order of
  significance.

  - Set the 6 least significant bits (bits numbered 0 to 5 inclusive)
  of the clock_seq_hi_and_reserved field to the 6 most significant bits
  (bits numbered 8 to 13 inclusive) of the clock sequence in the same
  order of significance.

  - Set the 2 most significant bits (bits numbered 6 and 7) of the
  clock_seq_hi_and_reserved to 0 and 1, respectively.

  - Set the node field to the 48-bit IEEE address in the same order of
  significance as the address.


3.3 String Representation of UUIDs

  For use in human readable text, a UUID string representation is
  specified as a sequence of fields, some of which are separated by
  single dashes.

  Each field is treated as an integer and has its value printed as a
  zero-filled hexadecimal digit string with the most significant digit
  first. The hexadecimal values a to f inclusive are output as lower
  case characters, and are case insensitive on input. The sequence is
  the same as the UUID constructed type.

  The formal definition of the UUID string representation is provided
  by the following extended BNF:

  UUID                   = <time_low> "-" <time_mid> "-"
                           <time_high_and_version> "-"
                           <clock_seq_and_reserved>
                           <clock_seq_low> "-" <node>
  time_low               = 4*<hexOctet>
  time_mid               = 2*<hexOctet>
  time_high_and_version  = 2*<hexOctet>
  clock_seq_and_reserved = <hexOctet>
  clock_seq_low          = <hexOctet>
  node                   = 6*<hexOctet
  hexOctet               = <hexDigit> <hexDigit>
  hexDigit =
          "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9"
          | "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f"
          | "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F"

  The following is an example of the string representation of a UUID:

       f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6





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3.4 Comparing UUIDs

  Consider each field of the UUID to be an unsigned integer as shown in
  the table in section 3.1. Then, to compare a pair of UUIDs,
  arithmetically compare the corresponding fields from each UUID in
  order of significance and according to their data type. Two UUIDs are
  equal if and only if all the corresponding fields are equal. The
  first of two UUIDs follows the second if the most significant field
  in which the UUIDs differ is greater for the first UUID. The first of
  a pair of UUIDs precedes the second if the most significant field in
  which the UUIDs differ is greater for the second UUID.


3.5 Byte order of UUIDs

  UUIDs may be transmitted in many different forms, some of which may
  be dependent on the presentation or application protocol where the
  UUID may be used.  In such cases, the order, sizes and byte orders of
  the UUIDs fields on the wire will depend on the relevant presentation
  or application protocol.  However, it is strongly RECOMMENDED that
  the order of the fields conform with ordering set out in section 3.1
  above. Furthermore, the payload size of each field in the application
  or presentation protocol MUST be large enough that no information
  lost in the process of encoding them for transmission.

  In the absence of explicit application or presentation protocol
  specification to the contrary, a UUID is encoded as a 128-bit object,
  as follows: the fields are encoded as 16 octets, with the sizes and
  order of the fields defined in section 3.1, and with each field
  encoded with the Most Significant Byte first (also known as network
  byte order).

  0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                          time_high                            |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |       time_mid                |         time_hi_and_version   |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |clk_seq_hi_res |  clk_seq_low  |         node (0-1)            |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                         node (2-5)                            |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



4. Node IDs when no IEEE 802 network card is available

  If a system wants to generate UUIDs but has no IEE 802 compliant
  network card or other source of IEEE 802 addresses, then this section
  describes how to generate one.

  The ideal solution is to obtain a 47 bit cryptographic quality random
  number, and use it as the low 47 bits of the node ID, with the most

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  significant bit of the first octet of the node ID set to 1. This bit
  is the unicast/multicast bit, which will never be set in IEEE 802
  addresses obtained from network cards; hence, there can never be a
  conflict between UUIDs generated by machines with and without network
  cards.

  If a system does not have a primitive to generate cryptographic
  quality random numbers, then in most systems there are usually a
  fairly large number of sources of randomness available from which one
  can be generated. Such sources are system specific, but often
  include:

  - the percent of memory in use

  - the size of main memory in bytes

  - the amount of free main memory in bytes

  - the size of the paging or swap file in bytes

  - free bytes of paging or swap file

  - the total size of  user virtual address space in bytes

  - the total available user address space bytes

  - the size of boot disk drive in bytes

  - the free disk space on boot drive in bytes

  - the current time

  - the amount of time since the system booted

  - the individual sizes of files in various system directories

  - the creation, last read, and modification times of files in various
  system directories

  - the utilization factors of various system resources (heap, etc.)

  - current mouse cursor position

  - current caret position

  - current number of running processes, threads

  - handles or IDs of the desktop window and the active window

  - the value of stack pointer of the caller

  - the process and thread ID of caller



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  -  various processor architecture specific performance counters
     (instructions executed, cache misses, TLB misses)

  (Note that it precisely the above kinds of sources of randomness that
  are used to seed cryptographic quality random number generators on
  systems without special hardware for their construction.)

  In addition, items such as the computer's name and the name of the
  operating system, while not strictly speaking random, will help
  differentiate the results from those obtained by other systems.

  The exact algorithm to generate a node ID using these data is system
  specific, because both the data available and the functions to obtain
  them are often very system specific. However, assuming that one can
  concatenate all the values from the randomness sources into a buffer,
  and that a cryptographic hash function such as MD5 [3] is available,
  the following code will compute a node ID:

  #include <md5.h>
  #define HASHLEN 16

  void GenNodeID(
      unsigned char * pDataBuf,  // concatenated "randomness values"
      long cData,                // size of randomness values
      unsigned char NodeID[6]           // node ID
  )
  {
    int i, j, k;
    unsigned char Hash[HASHLEN];
    MD_CTX context;

    MDInit (&context);
    MDUpdate (&context, pDataBuf, cData);
    MDFinal (Hash, &context);

    for (j = 0; j<6; j++) NodeId[j]=0;
    for (i = 0,j = 0; i < HASHLEN; i++) {
          NodeID[j++] ^= Hash[i];
          if (j == 6) j = 0;
      };
      NodeID[0] |= 0x80;         // set the multicast bit
  };

  Other hash functions, such as SHA-1 [4], can also be used (in which
  case HASHLEN will be 20). The only requirement is that the result be
  suitably random _ in the sense that the outputs from a set uniformly
  distributed inputs are themselves uniformly distributed, and that a
  single bit change in the input can be expected to cause half of the
  output bits to change.


5. Obtaining IEEE 802 addresses

  The following URL

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      http://stdsbbs.ieee.org/products/oui/forms/index.html

  contains information on how to obtain an IEEE 802 address block. Cost
  is $1000 US.


6. Security Considerations

  It should not be assumed that UUIDs are hard to guess; they should
  not be used as capabilities.


7. Acknowledgements

  This document draws heavily on the OSF DCE specification for UUIDs.
  Ted Ts'o provided helpful comments, especially on the byte ordering
  section which we mostly plagiarized from a proposed wording he
  supplied (all errors in that section are our responsibility,
  however).


8. References

  [1]  Lisa Zahn, et. al., Network Computing Architecture, Prentice
     Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990

  [2] DCE: Remote Procedure Call, Open Group CAE Specification C309
  ISBN 1-85912-041-5 28cm. 674p. pbk. 1,655g. 8/94

  [3] R. Rivest, RFC 1321, "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm",
     04/16/1992.

  [4]  SHA Spec - TBD


9. Authors' addresses

  Paul J. Leach
  Microsoft
  1 Microsoft Way
  Redmond, WA, 98052, U.S.A.
  Email:

         paulle@microsoft.com

  Rich Salz
  The Open Group
  11 Cambridge Center
  Cambridge, MA 02142, U.S.A.
  Email r.salz@opengroup.org




Appendix A _ UUID Reference Implementation

  /*
  ** Copyright (c) 1990- 1993, 1996 Open Software Foundation, Inc.

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  ** Copyright (c) 1989 by Hewlett-Packard Company, Palo Alto, Ca. &
  ** Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Mass.
  ** To anyone who acknowledges that this file is provided "AS IS"
  ** without any express or implied warranty: permission to use, copy,
  ** modify, and distribute this file for any purpose is hereby
  ** granted without fee, provided that the above copyright notices and
  ** this notice appears in all source code copies, and that none of
  ** the names of Open Software Foundation, Inc., Hewlett-Packard
  ** Company, or Digital Equipment Corporation be used in advertising
  ** or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without
  ** specific, written prior permission.  Neither Open Software
  ** Foundation, Inc., Hewlett-Packard Company, nor Digital Equipment
  ** Corporation makes any representations about the suitability of
  ** this software for any purpose.
  */
  #include <sys/types.h>
  #include <sys/time.h>

  typedef unsigned long   unsigned32;
  typedef unsigned short  unsigned16;
  typedef unsigned char   unsigned8;
  typedef unsigned char   byte;

  #define CLOCK_SEQ_LAST              0x3FFF
  #define RAND_MASK                   CLOCK_SEQ_LAST

  typedef struct _uuid_t {
      unsigned32          time_low;
      unsigned16          time_mid;
      unsigned16          time_hi_and_version;
      unsigned8           clock_seq_hi_and_reserved;
      unsigned8           clock_seq_low;
      byte                node[6];
  } uuid_t;

  typedef struct _unsigned64_t {
      unsigned32          lo;
      unsigned32          hi;
  } unsigned64_t;

  /*
  **  Add two unsigned 64-bit long integers.
  */
  #define ADD_64b_2_64b(A, B, sum) \
      { \
          if (!(((A)->lo & 0x80000000UL) ^ ((B)->lo & 0x80000000UL))) {
  \
              if (((A)->lo&0x80000000UL)) { \
                  (sum)->lo = (A)->lo + (B)->lo; \
                  (sum)->hi = (A)->hi + (B)->hi + 1; \
              } \
              else { \
                  (sum)->lo  = (A)->lo + (B)->lo; \
                  (sum)->hi = (A)->hi + (B)->hi; \

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              } \
          } \
          else { \
              (sum)->lo = (A)->lo + (B)->lo; \
              (sum)->hi = (A)->hi + (B)->hi; \
              if (!((sum)->lo&0x80000000UL)) (sum)->hi++; \
          } \
      }

  /*
  **  Add a 16-bit unsigned integer to a 64-bit unsigned integer.
  */
  #define ADD_16b_2_64b(A, B, sum) \
      { \
          (sum)->hi = (B)->hi; \
          if ((B)->lo & 0x80000000UL) { \
              (sum)->lo = (*A) + (B)->lo; \
              if (!((sum)->lo & 0x80000000UL)) (sum)->hi++; \
          } \
          else \
              (sum)->lo = (*A) + (B)->lo; \
      }

  /*
  **  Global variables.
  */
  static unsigned64_t     time_last;
  static unsigned16       clock_seq;

  static void
  mult32(unsigned32 u, unsigned32 v, unsigned64_t *result)
  {
      /* Following the notation in Knuth, Vol. 2. */
      unsigned32 uuid1, uuid2, v1, v2, temp;

      uuid1 = u >> 16;
      uuid2 = u & 0xFFFF;
      v1 = v >> 16;
      v2 = v & 0xFFFF;
      temp = uuid2 * v2;
      result->lo = temp & 0xFFFF;
      temp = uuid1 * v2 + (temp >> 16);
      result->hi = temp >> 16;
      temp = uuid2 * v1 + (temp & 0xFFFF);
      result->lo += (temp & 0xFFFF) << 16;
      result->hi += uuid1 * v1 + (temp >> 16);
  }

  static void
  get_system_time(unsigned64_t *uuid_time)
  {
      struct timeval tp;
      unsigned64_t utc, usecs, os_basetime_diff;


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      gettimeofday(&tp, (struct timezone *)0);
      mult32((long)tp.tv_sec, 10000000, &utc);
      mult32((long)tp.tv_usec, 10, &usecs);
      ADD_64b_2_64b(&usecs, &utc, &utc);

      /* Offset between UUID formatted times and Unix formatted times.
       * UUID UTC base time is October 15, 1582.
       * Unix base time is January 1, 1970. */
      os_basetime_diff.lo = 0x13814000;
      os_basetime_diff.hi = 0x01B21DD2;
      ADD_64b_2_64b(&utc, &os_basetime_diff, uuid_time);
  }

  /*
  ** See "The Multiple Prime Random Number Generator" by Alexander
  ** Hass pp. 368-381, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software,
  ** 12/87.
  */
  static unsigned32 rand_m;
  static unsigned32 rand_ia;
  static unsigned32 rand_ib;
  static unsigned32 rand_irand;

  static void
  true_random_init(void)
  {
      unsigned64_t t;
      unsigned16 seed;

   /* Generating our 'seed' value Start with the current time, but,
    * since the resolution of clocks is system hardware dependent and
    * most likely coarser than our resolution (10 usec) we 'mixup' the
    * bits by xor'ing all the bits together.  This will have the effect
    * of involving all of the bits in the determination of the seed
    * value while remaining system independent.  Then for good measure
    * to ensure a unique seed when there are multiple processes
    * creating UUIDs on a system, we add in the PID.
    */
      rand_m = 971;
      rand_ia = 11113;
      rand_ib = 104322;
      rand_irand = 4181;
      get_system_time(&t);
      seed  =  t.lo        & 0xFFFF;
      seed ^= (t.lo >> 16) & 0xFFFF;
      seed ^=  t.hi        & 0xFFFF;
      seed ^= (t.hi >> 16) & 0xFFFF;
      rand_irand += seed + getpid();
  }

  static unsigned16
  true_random(void)
  {
      if ((rand_m += 7) >= 9973)

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          rand_m -= 9871;
      if ((rand_ia += 1907) >= 99991)
          rand_ia -= 89989;
      if ((rand_ib += 73939) >= 224729)
          rand_ib -= 96233;
      rand_irand = (rand_irand * rand_m) + rand_ia + rand_ib;
      return (rand_irand >> 16) ^ (rand_irand & RAND_MASK);
  }

  /*
  **  Startup initialization routine for the UUID module.
  */
  void
  uuid_init(void)
  {
      true_random_init();
      get_system_time(&time_last);
  #ifdef NONVOLATILE_CLOCK
      clock_seq = read_clock();
  #else
      clock_seq = true_random();
  #endif
  }

  static int
  time_cmp(unsigned64_t *time1, unsigned64_t *time2)
  {
      if (time1->hi < time2->hi) return -1;
      if (time1->hi > time2->hi) return 1;
      if (time1->lo < time2->lo) return -1;
      if (time1->lo > time2->lo) return 1;
      return 0;
  }

  static void new_clock_seq(void)
  {
      clock_seq = (clock_seq + 1) % (CLOCK_SEQ_LAST + 1);
      if (clock_seq == 0) clock_seq = 1;
  #ifdef NONVOLATILE_CLOCK
      write_clock(clock_seq);
  #endif
  }

  void uuid_create(uuid_t *uuid)
  {
      static unsigned64_t     time_now;
      static unsigned16       time_adjust;
      byte                    eaddr[6];
      int                     got_no_time = 0;

      get_ieee_node_identifier(&eaddr);      /* TO BE PROVIDED */

      do {
          get_system_time(&time_now);

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          switch (time_cmp(&time_now, &time_last)) {
          case -1:
              /* Time went backwards. */
              new_clock_seq();
              time_adjust = 0;
              break;
          case 1:
              time_adjust = 0;
              break;
          default:
              if (time_adjust == 0x7FFF)
                  /* We're going too fast for our clock; spin. */
                  got_no_time = 1;
              else
                  time_adjust++;
              break;
          }
      } while (got_no_time);

      time_last.lo = time_now.lo;
      time_last.hi = time_now.hi;

      if (time_adjust != 0) {
          ADD_16b_2_64b(&time_adjust, &time_now, &time_now);
      }

      /* Construct a uuid with the information we've gathered
       * plus a few constants. */
      uuid->time_low = time_now.lo;
      uuid->time_mid = time_now.hi & 0x0000FFFF;
      uuid->time_hi_and_version = (time_now.hi & 0x0FFF0000) >> 16;
      uuid->time_hi_and_version |= (1 << 12);
      uuid->clock_seq_low = clock_seq & 0xFF;
      uuid->clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = (clock_seq & 0x3F00) >> 8;
      uuid->clock_seq_hi_and_reserved |= 0x80;
      memcpy(uuid->node, &eaddr, sizeof uuid->node);
  }


















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