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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
Network Working Group                                         C. Lonvick
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Expires: February 17, 2004                               August 19, 2003


                  RADIUS Attributes for soBGP Support
                   draft-lonvick-sobgp-radius-03.txt

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://
   www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 17, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document defines a set of RADIUS attributes designed to support
   the provisioning of the soBGP protocol.  A router will encapsulate
   the components of an AuthCert or PolicyCert into TLVs and transport
   them to a centralized server capable of verifying the associated
   signature.

   This draft goes along with other IDs submitted for Secure Origin BGP
   (soBGP) both of which are edited by James Ng and Russ White.
   draft-white-sobgp-bgp-deployment-00.txt [1],
   draft-ng-sobgp-bgp-extensions-00.txt [2] Mostly this work relates to
   "Extensions to BGP to Support Secure Origin BGP (soBGP)" and is
   explained in additional detail in "Deployment Considerations for
   Secure Origin BGP (soBGP)".  The purpose of this draft is to explain



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   the concept of offloading the Authcert validation steps, and the
   Entitycert storage, from the router.  RADIUS may not be the best way
   to do this but it's the best that I know of at this moment. Once the
   concepts of soBGP are discussed, the transport to support offload
   should be reviewed and a proper mechanism should be chosen.

Table of Contents

   1.    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.    Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.1   Stored-Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.1.1 Stored-Policy-Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.1.2 Stored-Policy-End  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.2   Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.2.1 IPv4-Prefix  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.2.2 IPv6-Prefix  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.3   Authcert Validation Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.3.1 Authcert-Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.3.2 Authcert-URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   2.3.3 Authcert-Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   2.4   Authcert Validation Responses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   2.4.1 Authcert-Accept  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   2.4.2 Authcert-Reject  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.    Table of Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   4.    Useage Notes and Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.1   Certificate Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.2   Usernames and Passwords  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.3   Stored Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.4   Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   4.5   Authcert Verification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   4.6   Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   5.    Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   6.    IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.    Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.    Changes from Prior Drafts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
         References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
         Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
         Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 19













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1. Introduction

   A router participating in soBGP will need to validate received
   Authcerts. The best way to do this is by having their associated
   Entitycerts contained on the router and using the information stored
   in them to perform the necessary validation steps.  Unfortunately,
   this would entail the storage and consistent maintenance of
   Entitycerts on all participating routers in the AS.  One way to
   centralize this would be for a device to store all of the Entitycerts
   and then have each of the participating routers submit the pertinent
   information from each received Authcert to it for the computationally
   intensive validation steps.  This centralized device, henceforth to
   be known as the sob-server in this document, could then transmit a
   pass/fail message back to the router.  This would reduce the amount
   of administration of the Entitycert database to one device - with
   appropriate backup.  This document defines a set of RADIUS attributes
   designed to support the provision of the soBGP protocol.  The
   participating routers are expected to form and transmit a RADIUS RFC
   2865 [4] Access-Request message with the appropriate pieces of
   information from a received Authcert.  This Access-Request will go to
   the sob-server which will perform the steps necessary to validate the
   Authcert information.  It will then form and transmit an
   Access-Accept or Access-Reject response to the router.

   This draft is still rather drafty.  It does not discuss validation of
   Policycerts yet, but that's still a subject of discussion anyway.

   Discussion of this draft may be directed to the author, or to the
   mailing list discussing soBGP.  sobgp@external.cisco.com

   More information about soBGP may be found on the web page. ftp://
   ftp-eng.cisco.com/sobgp/index.html



















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2. Attributes

   The Attributes are listed in this section.  In all cases, each RADIUS
   message may only include Attributes pertaining to a single AS. There
   are useage notes later in this document which should answer any
   questions outstanding from the Attribute section.

2.1 Stored-Policy

   This set of Attributes requests any policy information stored on the
   sob-server in an Access-Request message, and delivers the policies
   through Access-Challenge messages using the Prefix set of of
   Attributes described below.  Each Access-Challenge message will
   describe a policy associated with a single AS.  The router will
   continue requesting more policies through additional Access-Requests.
   When there are no additional policies stored on the sob-server, or if
   there were no policies stored there to begin with, then an
   Access-Accept message with an appropriate attribute will be sent to
   the router.

2.1.1 Stored-Policy-Request

   A summary of the Stored-Policy-Request Attribute format is shown
   below.  This format will only be used in the Access-Request message
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |            Value
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            Value Continued        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [SPR] for Stored-Policy-Request

   Length - The length of the Attribute; 6 octets.

   Value - The Value field is four octets.  In an Access-Request
   message, it contains the request number for the available policies
   stored on the sob-server.  The first value will be 0x00000001. If the
   sob-server responds with a policy (described next), then the router
   will send a request with a value of 0x00000002.  This will continue
   until the sob-server has no more policies to send. At that point, the
   sob-server will respond with an Access-Accept message described
   below.

   This Attribute is also used in Access-Challenge messages.  In that



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   case, the Value is the AS number of the Authorized Originator.  This
   is the autonomous system number of an entity authorized to advertise
   the associated IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes.

2.1.2 Stored-Policy-End

   A summary of the Stored-Policy-End Attribute format is shown below.
   This format will only be used in the Access-Accept message.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Count                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Time                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [SPE] for Stored-Policy-End

   Length - The length of the Attribute; 8 octets.

   Count - The Count field is two octets and contains the number of
   policies that have been transmitted to the router.  The router should
   verify that the value returned in this message is the same value that
   was most recently transmitted in the associated request message.

   Time - The Time field is the number of seconds for which the
   downloaded policies should be considered valid.  The receiver is not
   obligated to honor this timer.  A value of 0 is not valid and MUST
   NOT be used.

2.2 Prefixes

   Multiple instances of each of the attributes defined in this section
   may be included in a single RADIUS packet.  In all cases, each RADIUS
   message may only include these Attributes pertaining to a single AS.

2.2.1 IPv4-Prefix

   A summary of the IPv4-Prefix Attribute format is shown below.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | IPv4 Prefix ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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   Type - [IP4] for IPv4-Prefix

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets; >=3 octets.

   IPv4 Prefix - The non-zero octets of the IPv4 Prefix.  A special
   value of 0x00 is reserved when the Length is 0x03.  When that value
   is used in an Access-Accept message in response to a
   Stored-Policy-Request message, this will denote that no IPv4 address
   bock announcements should be received from that originating AS.

2.2.2 IPv6-Prefix

   A summary of the IPv6-Prefix Attribute is shown below.  The fields
   are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |  IPv6 Prefix..
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [IP6] for IPv6-Prefix

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets; >=3

   IPv6 Prefix - The IPv6 Address Block represented as a prefix.  A
   special value of 0x00 is reserved when the Prefix Length is 0x01.
   This will denote that no IPv6 address bock announcements should be
   received from that originating AS.

2.3 Authcert Validation Request

   This Attribute validates an Authcert received by a router through
   soBGP.  This will first be requested in an Access-Request message
   with the pertinent information.  The sob-server will respond with
   either an Access-Accept or an Access-Reject message with specific
   information as described below.

2.3.1 Authcert-Header

   A summary of the Authcert-Header Attribute format is given below.
   The fields are transmitted left to right.









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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Authorizing Autonomous System
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            ..Continued            |           Options             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Authorized Originator                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Serial Number
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            ..Continued                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [HDR] for Authcert-Header

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets; 20.

   Authorizing Autonomous System - The autonomous system authorizing
   other entities to advertise prefixes within this block.

   Options - The Options associated with this Authcert.

   Authorized Originator - The autonomous system number of an entity
   authorized to advertise the associated IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes.

   Serial Number - A eight octet unsigned integer indicating the serial
   number of this Authorization certificate.

2.3.2 Authcert-URL

   A summary of the Authcert-URL Attribute format is given below.  The
   fields are transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | URL ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [URL] for Authcert-URL

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets.

   URL - A uniform resource locater indicating a location where the
   public key of the entity which signed this certificate can be found
   along with any certificate revocation information.




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2.3.3 Authcert-Signature

   A summary of the Authcert-Signature Attribute format is given below.
   The fields are transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |        Signature Type         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Signature ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [Sig] for Authcert-Signature

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets.

   Signature Type - A two byte unsigned integer denoting the type of
   signature (the algorithm used to build this signature).  Each
   possible signing algorithm is assigned an integer from this field.

   Signature - The signature will be as taken from
   draft-ng-sobgp-extensions-01.txt [2]

2.4 Authcert Validation Responses

   The following Attributes will be sent in response to a group of
   Authcert Validation Request Attributes.  The Authcert-Accept
   Attribute will be sent in an Access-Accept message while the
   Authcert-Reject Attribute will be sent in an Access-Reject message.

2.4.1 Authcert-Accept

   A summary of the Authcert-Accept Attribute format is shown below.
   This format will only be used in the Access-Accept message.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Authorized Originator
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               Continued..         |          Time
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               Continued..         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [ACA] for Authcert-Accept



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   Length - The length of the attribute; 10 octets.

   Authorized Originator - The autonomous system number of an entity
   authorized to advertise the associated IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes.

   Time - The Time field is the number of seconds for which the
   downloaded policies should be considered valid.  The receiver is not
   obligated to honor this timer.  A value of 0 is not valid and MUST
   NOT be used.

2.4.2 Authcert-Reject

   A summary of the Authcert-Reject Attribute format is shown below.
   This format will only be used in the Access-Reject message.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Authorized Originator     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               Continued..         |          Reason Code
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [ACR] for Authcert-Reject

   Length - The length of the attribute; >=7 octets.

   Authorized Originator - The autonomous system number of an entity
   authorized to advertise the associated IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes.

   Reason Code - The reason for the rejection.  It may be a local policy
   decision on the router to accept the information contained in the
   received Authcert even if it is rejected by the sob-server.  As an
   example of that, if the URL is not found but the Authcert is
   validated otherwise, the router may choose to accept the information
   in the Authcert but at a lower trust level than if the signature is
   valid and the URL is found and properly processed.  The table below
   gives the Reason Codes and their explanations.












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   Reason Code                     Explanation
   0-filled        Invalid Code - This value MUST NOT be used.
   0b10000000      No Entitycert found matching this Authorized Originator.
   0b01000000      Entitycert found for this Authorized Originator but the
                   Serial Number in the Authcert is out of range.
   0b00100000      The Signature in the Authcert doesn't match the
                   calculated signature.
   0b000100000     The Entitycert found on the sob-server has expired.
   0b000010000     The URL could not be found.

   0b00000nnnn     Reserved for future use.
   0x00nn and beyond are also reserved for future use.







































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3. Table of Attributes

    The following table provides a guide to which of the above
   attributes may be found in which kinds of packets, and in what
   quantity.

   Request Accept Reject Challenge Acct-Request #  Attribute
   0-1     0      0      0-1       0           SPR Stored-Policy-Request
   0       0-1    0      0         0           SPE Stored-Policy-End
   0+      0+     0      0         0           IP4 IPv4-Prefix
   0+      0+     0      0         0           IP6 IPv6-Prefix
   0-1     0      0      0         0           HDR AC-Header
   0-1     0      0      0         0           URL
   0-1     0      0      0         0           SIG AC-Signature
   0-1     0      0      0         0           ACA AC-Accept
   0       0      0-1    0         0           ACR AC-Reject

    The following table defines the meaning of the above table entries.

   0     This attribute MUST NOT be present in packet.
   0+    Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in packet.
   0-1   Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in packet.





























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4. Useage Notes and Examples

   This section describes the expected implementation of the ideas
   presented in this document.

4.1 Certificate Validation

   Any device receiving an Entitycert can verify it by separating its
   components into appropriate segments and sending them to the
   sob-server. The sob-server will return either an accept or reject
   message.

   Likewise a router may submit a signed AuthCert or PolicyCert so an
   sob-server for validation.

   Note: I need to review Brian's work to ensure that the components of
   each of these certificates or signed information has an associated
   RADIUS attribute in this document.

4.2 Usernames and Passwords

   Some latitude is given in this area so that different policies may be
   enforced on different routers.  In the most expected case, all
   routers will be configured with identical Usernames and Passwords
   which will be sent in the Access-Request Attributes as described in
   [1].

   While it is not currently expected to be needed, a differentiated
   policy may be applied through the use of different Usernames on
   different routers when they initiate the policy download in the
   Access-Request Attribute.  For example, southern-facing routers could
   be configured with a Username of "South" and northern-facing routers
   could be given a Username of "North".  When the sob-server receives a
   policy download request from a router using a Username of "North", it
   will deliver a policy for the northern-facing routers.  Similarly for
   "South" and southern-facing routers.

4.3 Stored Policy

   A router SHOULD attempt to gather the stored policy from the
   sob-server when it first awakes.  It should be a local policy
   decision of how to proceed if the router cannot obtain the stored
   policy.

   If the router can gather policies, then these MAY be enforced above
   information received in the Authcerts since this will be locally
   defined and administered policy.  If the sob-server replies that it
   has no policies to deliver then the router should accept routing



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   updates in the manner described in
   draft-white-sobgp-bgp-deployment-01.txt [1].

4.4 Time

   Policies - The router should associate a countdown timer with a
   received policy.  Before the timer has reached 0, the router should
   request a new set of policies.  (Note: It may be a problem to
   associate all of the downloaded policies with a single timer.)

   Authcert - The router should associate a countdown timer with a
   validated Authcert.  Before that timer reches 0, the router should
   reaffirm the validity of the Authcert but only if the associated AS
   is still advertising routes.

4.5 Authcert Verification

   An Authcert will contain all of the policies which must be sent to
   the sob-server in the order they are placed within the Authcert.  It
   is very important that the elements be kept in order as the signature
   is calculated over them in that order.  (Note: Perhaps XML signing
   would be better?)

4.6 Redundancy

   As with all RADIUS solutions, it is usually important that the client
   devices be able to access an authoritative RADIUS server at all
   times. For this reason, it should be stressed that soBGP devices
   utilizing the procedure described in this document should have
   redundant sob-servers in their network with consistent databases of
   stored policies and certificates.




















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5. Security Considerations

   The security concerns of the mechanisms described in this document
   may be separated into two parts: concerns with the transport, and
   concerns with the content.

   The security concerns dealing with the transport of this mechanism
   are described in RFCs 2865 [4] and 2865 [6].  No further discussion
   is warranted in this document.

   The security concerns with the contents are identical to the security
   concerns of the contens of the Authcerts, Entitycerts and Policycerts
   in the other soBGP IDs.






































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6. IANA Considerations

   Need stuff here.
















































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7. Acknowledgments

   Glen Zorn suggested using Access-Challenge to convey Stored Policy.
   This seems to be much better than trying to use a stream of
   Access-Requests and a finale of an Access-Reject.














































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8. Changes from Prior Drafts

   -00 : Contained the basics but had poor formatting.

   -01 : The content was transferred to XML to be used with RFC 2629
   formatting using "xml2rfc".  (Thanks Marshall Rose.)

   -02 : Restructured the Stored Policy section to utilize
   Access-Challenges.  Added things to the tail-end sections.

   -03 : tried to harmonize with draft-weis-sobgp-certificates-00.txt
   This includes a change to the length of the Serial Number. And I
   fixed some spelling errors.  Not many of course.






































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References

   [1]  White, R., "Deployment Considerations for Secure Origin BGP
        (soBGP)", draft-white-sobgp-bgp-extensions-01.txt (work in
        progress), October 2002.

   [2]  Ng, J., "Extensions to BGP to Support Secure Origin BGP
        (soBGP)", draft-ng-sobgp-bgp-extensions-01.txt (work in
        progress), October 2002.

   [3]  Weis, J., "Extensions to BGP to Support Secure Origin BGP
        (soBGP)", draft-weis-sobgp-certificates-00.txt (work in
        progress), June 2003.

   [4]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A. and W. Simpson, "Remote
        Authentication Dial in User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2865, June
        2000.

   [5]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", RFC 2119, STD 14, March 1997.

   [6]  Rigney, C., Willats, W. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS Extensions", RFC
        2869, June 2000.

   [7]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for writing an IANA
        Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2869, BCP 26, October 1998.

   [8]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
        Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.


Author's Address

   Chris Lonvick
   Cisco Systems
   12515 Research Blvd.
   Austin, TX  78759
   US

   Phone: +1 512 378 1182
   EMail: clonvick@cisco.com










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