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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
Network Working Group                                         C. Lonvick
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Expires: August 13, 2004                               February 13, 2004


                  RADIUS Attributes for soBGP Support
                   draft-lonvick-sobgp-radius-04.txt

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://
   www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 13, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document defines a set of RADIUS attributes designed to support
   the provisioning of the soBGP protocol.  A router will encapsulate
   the components of a soBGP certificate into a profile composed of
   ordered TLVs and transport them to a centralized server capable of
   verifying the associated signature.  The certralized will respond
   notifying the client of the validity of the signed information.

   This draft goes along with other IDs submitted for Secure Origin BGP
   (soBGP) both of which are edited by James Ng and Russ White.
   draft-white-sobgp-bgp-deployment-01.txt [1],
   draft-ng-sobgp-bgp-extensions-01.txt [2] Mostly this work relates to
   "Extensions to BGP to Support Secure Origin BGP (soBGP)" and is
   explained in additional detail in "Deployment Considerations for



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   Secure Origin BGP (soBGP)".  This draft should also be consistent
   with the formats of the information exchanged in the "Secure Origin
   BGP (soBGP) Certificates" ID written by Brian Weis.
   draft-weis-sobgp-bgp-certificates-01.txt [3]

   The purpose of this draft is to explain the concept of offloading the
   validation steps of soBGP certificates, Authcerts, PrefixPolicycerts,
   and ASPolicycerts. RADIUS may not be the best way to do this but it's
   the best that I know of at this moment. Once the concepts of soBGP
   are discussed, the transport to support offload should be reviewed
   and a proper mechanism should be chosen.

Table of Contents

   1.     Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.     Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.1    Stored-Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.1.1  Stored-Policy-Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.1.2  Stored-Policy-End  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   2.2    Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   2.2.1  IPv4-Prefix  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   2.2.2  IPv6-Prefix  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   2.2.3  AFI/SAFI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   2.2.4  Serial Number  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   2.2.5  URL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   2.2.6  Signature Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   2.2.7  Autonomous System  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   2.2.8  Signature  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   2.2.9  PP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   2.2.10 Entitycert Revocation List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   2.3    Authcert Validation Responses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   2.3.1  Authcert-Accept  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   2.3.2  Authcert-Reject  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   3.     Certificate Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   3.1    soBGP Certificate Validation Request . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   3.1.1  Cert-Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   3.1.2  Authcert Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   3.1.3  PrefixPolicycert Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   3.1.4  ASPolicycert Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.     Table of Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.     Useage Notes and Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.1    Certificate Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.2    Usernames and Passwords  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.3    Stored Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.4    Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   5.5    Authcert Verification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   5.6    Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.     Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21



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   7.     IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   8.     Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   9.     Changes from Prior Drafts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
          References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
          Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
          Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . .  26













































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1. Introduction

   A router participating in soBGP will need to validate received
   Authcerts, PrefixPolicycerts, and ASPolicycerts.  Each of these are
   validated with the Entitycert named within them. The best way to do
   this is by having their associated Entitycerts contained on the
   router and using the information stored in them to perform the
   necessary validation steps.  Unfortunately, this would entail the
   storage and consistent maintenance of Entitycerts on all
   participating routers in the AS.  One way to centralize this would be
   for a device to store all of the Entitycerts and then have each of
   the participating routers submit the pertinent information from each
   received Authcert, PrefixPolicycert and ASPolicycert to it for the
   computationally intensive validation steps.  This centralized device,
   henceforth to be known as the sob-server in this document, could then
   transmit a pass/fail message back to the router.  This would reduce
   the amount of administration of the Entitycert database to one device
   - with appropriate backup.  This document defines a set of RADIUS
   attributes designed to support the provisioning of the soBGP
   protocol.  The participating routers are expected to form and
   transmit a RADIUS RFC 2865 [4] Access-Request message with the
   appropriate pieces of information from a received Authcert,
   PrefixPolicycert or ASPolicycert. This Access-Request will go to the
   sob-server which will perform the steps necessary to validate the
   information.  It will then form and transmit an Access-Accept or
   Access-Reject response to the router.

   Since many components of the soBGP certs are reused, it seems best to
   define a profile for each of the certs.  Section 2 will define the
   specific TLVs and Section 3 will define the Profiles for the
   Authcert, PrefixPolicycert, and ASPolicycert.

   If Brian goes along with the use of "codes" in his ID, then most of
   the atributes will be expanded to inclue that concept.  Until then,
   the Types will be static.

   Discussion of this draft may be directed to the author, or to the
   mailing list discussing soBGP.  sobgp@external.cisco.com

   More information about soBGP may be found on the web page. ftp://
   ftp-eng.cisco.com/sobgp/index.html










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2. Attributes

   The Attributes are listed in this section.  In all cases, each RADIUS
   message may only include Attributes pertaining to a single AS. There
   are useage notes later in this document which should answer any
   questions outstanding from the Attribute section.

2.1 Stored-Policy

   This set of Attributes requests any policy information stored on the
   sob-server in an Access-Request message, and delivers the policies
   through Access-Challenge messages using the Prefix set of of
   Attributes described below.  Each Access-Challenge message will
   describe a policy associated with a single AS.  The router will
   continue requesting more policies through additional Access-Requests.
   When there are no additional policies stored on the sob-server, or if
   there were no policies stored there to begin with, then an
   Access-Accept message with an appropriate attribute will be sent to
   the router.

2.1.1 Stored-Policy-Request

   A summary of the Stored-Policy-Request Attribute format is shown
   below.  This format will only be used in the Access-Request message
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |            Value
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            Value Continued        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [SPR] for Stored-Policy-Request

   Length - The length of the Attribute; 6 octets.

   Value - The Value field is four octets.  In an Access-Request
   message, it contains the request number for the available policies
   stored on the sob-server.  The first value will be 0x00000001. If the
   sob-server responds with a policy (described next), then the router
   will send a request with a value of 0x00000002.  This will continue
   until the sob-server has no more policies to send. At that point, the
   sob-server will respond with an Access-Accept message described
   below.

   This Attribute is also used in Access-Challenge messages.  In that



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   case, the Value is the AS number of the Authorized Originator.  This
   is the autonomous system number of an entity authorized to advertise
   the associated IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes.

2.1.2 Stored-Policy-End

   A summary of the Stored-Policy-End Attribute format is shown below.
   This format will only be used in the Access-Accept message.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

   The Time component in this attribute is needed due to a concern of
   RADIUS. In soBGP, a peer will be able to send a notification of a
   change in the status of an Entitycert.  Also a participating soBGP
   router should have the resources to be able to keep track of the
   expiration times of certificates.  This will not be assumed by
   routers using the plan detailed in this document.  For that reason,
   some communications should occur periodically so the router may
   ascertain that the status of the certificates has not changed.  It
   would be best if the sob-server were to contact the router, but that
   is not a property of RADIUS.  Therefore, the router SHOULD contact
   the sob-server periodically.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Count                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Time                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [SPE] for Stored-Policy-End

   Length - The length of the Attribute; 8 octets.

   Count - The Count field is two octets and contains the number of
   policies that have been transmitted to the router.  The router should
   verify that the value returned in this message is the same value that
   was most recently transmitted in the associated request message.

   Time - The Time field is the number of seconds for which the
   downloaded policies should be considered valid.  The receiver is not
   obligated to honor this timer.  A value of 0 is not valid and MUST
   NOT be used.

2.2 Prefixes

   Multiple instances of each of the attributes defined in this section
   may be included in a single RADIUS packet.  In all cases, each RADIUS



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   message may only include these Attributes pertaining to a single AS.

2.2.1 IPv4-Prefix

   A summary of the IPv4-Prefix Attribute format is shown below. The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |  Pref-Length  |   IPv4 Prefix
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                   continued ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [IP4] for IPv4-Prefix.

   Length - The length of this Attribute; >=4.

   Pref-Length - In accordance with Section 4 of RFC 2858 [6], this is
   NLRI information.  The Pref-Length decribes the lenth of the prefix
   used.  A special value of 0x00 is reserved to indicate that no IPv4
   address block announcements should be received from the originating
   AS.

   IPv4 Prefix - The non-zero octets of the IPv4 Prefix.  A special
   value of 0x0000 is reserved when the Pref-Length is 0x00.  When that
   value is used in an Access-Accept message in response to a
   Stored-Policy-Request message, this will denote that no IPv4 address
   block announcements should be received from that originating AS.
   Consistent with RFC 2858, unused bits after the Pref-Length bits are
   considered to be meaningless padding.

2.2.2 IPv6-Prefix

   A summary of the IPv6-Prefix Attribute is shown below.  The fields
   are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |  Pref-Length  |  IPv6 Prefix..
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [IP6] for IPv6-Prefix

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets; >=4




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   Pref-Length - The Pref-Length decribes the lenth of the prefix used.
   A special value of 0x00 is reserved to indicate that no IPv6 address
   block announcements should be received from the originating AS.

   IPv6 Prefix - The IPv6 Address Block represented as a prefix.  A
   special value of 0x00 is reserved when the Pref-Length is 0x00. This
   will denote that no IPv6 address block announcements should be
   received from that originating AS.  Unused bits after the Pref-Length
   bits are considered to be meaningless padding.

2.2.3 AFI/SAFI

   This Attribute provides the Adress Family Identifier and Subsequent
   Address Family Identifier.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |              AFI              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     SAFI      |           Context             |    Count      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [AFI] for AFI/SAFI

   Length - The entire length of this message is 8 octets.

   AFI - The Address Family Identifier.

   SAFI - The Subsequent Address Family Identifier.

   Context - Since this TLV is reused in different manners, this field
   will denote the context in which it should be interpreted.  The
   following table will lay out the values of Context and Count.


   Value of   Value of     Subsequent TLVs
    Context    Count      needed to complete
                            the Context.

     0x00       0x1       Only ONE [IPV4] or [IPV6]
     0x01   0x1 or more   ONE or MORE [AS]
     0x02   0x1 or more   ONE or MORE [AS]

   A Context of 0x00 denotes a true AFI/SAFI to be used in the Authcert.
   The Count MUST be 1 and only one IPv4 or IPv6 NLRI value will be
   accepted after this TLV.




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   A context of 0x01 denotes the Attached Transit Autonomous Systems.
   The Count must be 1 more more and only that number of AS's will be
   accepted after this TLV.

   A context of 0x02 denotes the Attached Non-transit Autonomous
   Systems. The Count must be 1 or more and only that number of AS's
   will be accepted after this TLV.

2.2.4 Serial Number

   This Attribute provides the Serial Number used in all of the soBGP
   certificates.  A summary of the Serial Number Attribute is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |        Serial Number
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             continued             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [SN] for Serial Number

   Length - The entire length of this message is 6 octets.

   The Serial Number is 4 octets and identifies the cert.

2.2.5 URL

   A summary of the URL Attribute format is given below.  The fields are
   transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | URL ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [URL] for URL

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets.

   URL - A uniform resource locator indicating a location where
   information about a certificate, key, revocation list, etc., may be
   found.





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2.2.6 Signature Type

   A summary of the Signature Type Attribute format is given below.  The
   fields are transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |        Signature Type         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Number of Issuers         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [SgT] for Signature Type

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets.

   Signature Type - A two byte unsigned integer denoting the type of
   signature (the algorithm used to build this signature).  Each
   possible signing algorithm is assigned a value in this field.

   Number of Issuers - The number of Entitycert references included in
   the signature payload.  If more than one Entitycert reference
   follows, all Entitycert MUST contain the same public key for the same
   authorizing autonomous system.

2.2.7 Autonomous System

   A summary of the Autonomous System Attribute format is given below.
   The fields are transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |      Autonomous System
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
              continued..          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [AS] for Autonomous System

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets, 6 octets.

   Autonomous System - the AS number.

2.2.8 Signature

   A summary of the Signature Attribute format is given below.  The



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   fields are transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |         Signature ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [Sig] for Signature

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets, 6 octets.

   The signature itself.  The signature will be as taken from
   draft-ng-sobgp-extensions-01.txt [2].  The signature is calculated
   using the private key of the authorizing entity across all TLV values
   in the profile in their order.

2.2.9 PP Options

   A summary of the PP Options (for PrefixPolicycert) Attribute format
   is given below.  The fields are transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |             Options...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           continued               |             SubTVs...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [PPO] for PP Options

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets.

   The *******************

2.2.10 Entitycert Revocation List

   A summary of the ECR Attribute format is given below.  The fields are
   transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |  EC Revocation List
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [ECR] for EC Revocation List



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   Length - The entire length of this message in octets.

   A list of revoked ECs issued by the AS.  This must be in the format
   specified in RFC 3280 [10].

2.3 Authcert Validation Responses

   The following Attributes will be sent in response to a group of
   Authcert Validation Request Attributes.  The Authcert-Accept
   Attribute will be sent in an Access-Accept message while the
   Authcert-Reject Attribute will be sent in an Access-Reject message.

2.3.1 Authcert-Accept

   A summary of the Authcert-Accept Attribute format is shown below.
   This format will only be used in the Access-Accept message.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Authorized Originator
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               Continued..         |          Time
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               Continued..         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [ACA] for Authcert-Accept

   Length - The length of the attribute; 10 octets.

   Authorized Originator - The autonomous system number of an entity
   authorized to advertise the associated IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes.

   Time - The Time field is the number of seconds for which the
   downloaded policies should be considered valid.  The receiver is not
   obligated to honor this timer.  A value of 0 is not valid and MUST
   NOT be used.

2.3.2 Authcert-Reject

   A summary of the Authcert-Reject Attribute format is shown below.
   This format will only be used in the Access-Reject message.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1



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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Authorized Originator     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               Continued..         |          Reason Code
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [ACR] for Authcert-Reject

   Length - The length of the attribute; >=7 octets.

   Authorized Originator - The autonomous system number of an entity
   authorized to advertise the associated IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes.

   Reason Code - The reason for the rejection.  It may be a local policy
   decision on the router to accept the information contained in the
   received Authcert even if it is rejected by the sob-server.  As an
   example of that, if the URL is not found but the Authcert is
   validated otherwise, the router may choose to accept the information
   in the Authcert but at a lower trust level than if the signature is
   valid and the URL is found and properly processed.  The table below
   gives the Reason Codes and their explanations.

   Reason Code                     Explanation
   0-filled        Invalid Code - This value MUST NOT be used.
   0b10000000      No Entitycert found matching this Authorized Originator.
   0b01000000      Entitycert found for this Authorized Originator but the
                   Serial Number in the Authcert is out of range.
   0b00100000      The Signature in the Authcert doesn't match the
                   calculated signature.
   0b000100000     The Entitycert found on the sob-server has expired.
   0b000010000     The URL could not be found.

   0b00000nnnn     Reserved for future use.
   0x00nn and beyond are also reserved for future use.

















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3. Certificate Profiles

   This section defines the possible profiles that may be sent in an
   Access-Request packet.  At the time of this writing, three profiles
   are defined in the other soBGP works and will be defined here;
   Authcerts, PrefixPolicycerts, and ASPolicycerts.  The profiles will
   be composed of a header and then will contain Attributes described in
   Section 2.  The format of these profiles MUST be followed explicity
   as maintaining the order is vital for the signature to be calculated
   correctly.

3.1 soBGP Certificate Validation Request

   This Attribute requests that the sob-server validate an soBGP
   certificate received by a router through soBGP.  This will first be
   requested in an Access-Request message with the pertinent information
   described in the profile.  The sob-server will respond with either an
   Access-Accept or an Access-Reject message with specific information
   as described below.

3.1.1 Cert-Header

   A summary of the Cert-Header Attribute format is given below.  The
   fields are transmitted left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Cert Marker   |   Type ID     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type - [HDR] for Authcert-Header

   Length - The entire length of this message in octets; 4.

   Cert Marker - 0xa2 (0d162) identifying this as an SoBGP certificate
   validation request.

   Type ID - The specific type of soBGP Certificate as identified in the
   following table.

   Type ID Value         Denotes this type of soBGP Certificate
      0x01                        Authcert
      0x02                        PrefixPolicycert
      0x03                        ASPolicycert






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3.1.2 Authcert Profile

   The following profile displays the order and components required to
   transport an Authcert validation request.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [HDR]     |    Length     |     0xa2      |      0x01     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AS]      |    AS-Len     |      Autonomous System...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AS]      |    AS-Len     |      Autonomous System...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SN]      |    SN-Len     |        Serial Number...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [URL]     |    URL-Len    | URL ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [URL]     |    URL-Len    | URL ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AFI]     |    Length     |              AFI              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Reserved            |             SAFI              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | [IP4] or [IP6]|    Length     |  Pref-Length  |   IP Prefix
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SgT]     |    Length     |        Signature Type         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Number of Issuers       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AS]      |    AS-Len     |      Autonomous System...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SN]      |    SN-Len     |        Serial Number...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SIG]     |    Length     |         Signature ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+




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3.1.3 PrefixPolicycert Profile

   The following profile displays the order and components required to
   transport an PrefixPolicycert validation request.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [HDR]     |    Length     |     0xa2      |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AS]      |    AS-Len     |      Autonomous System...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [URL]     |    URL-Len    | URL ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   insert Authcert here

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [PPO]     |    Length     |             Options...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           continued               |             SubTVs...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SgT]     |    Length     |        Signature Type         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Number of Issuers       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AS]      |    AS-Len     |      Autonomous System...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SN]      |    SN-Len     |        Serial Number...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SIG]     |    Length     |         Signature ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


3.1.4 ASPolicycert Profile

   The following profile displays the order and components required to
   transport an AS Policycert validation request.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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   |     [HDR]     |    Length     |     0xa2      |      0x03     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AS]      |    AS-Len     |      Autonomous System...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SN]      |    SN-Len     |        Serial Number...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [URL]     |    URL-Len    | URL ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [URL]     |    URL-Len    | URL ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AFI]     |    Length     |              AFI              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Reserved            |             SAFI              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | [IP4] or [IP6]|    Length     |  Pref-Length  |   IP Prefix
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SgT]     |    Length     |        Signature Type         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Number of Issuers       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [AS]      |    AS-Len     |      Autonomous System...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SN]      |    SN-Len     |        Serial Number...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     [SIG]     |    Length     |         Signature ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+













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4. Table of Attributes

    The following table provides a guide to which of the above
   attributes may be found in which kinds of packets, and in what
   quantity.

   Request Accept Reject Challenge Acct-Request #  Attribute
   0-1     0      0      0-1       0           SPR Stored-Policy-Request
   0       0-1    0      0         0           SPE Stored-Policy-End
   0+      0+     0      0         0           IP4 IPv4-Prefix
   0+      0+     0      0         0           IP6 IPv6-Prefix
   0-1     0      0      0         0           HDR AC-Header
   0-1     0      0      0         0           SN  Serial Number
   0-1     0      0      0         0           URL URL
   0-1     0      0      0         0           SIG Signature
   0-1     0-1    0-1    0         0           AS  Autonomous System
   0       0-1    0      0         0           ACA AC-Accept
   0       0      0-1    0         0           ACR AC-Reject

    The following table defines the meaning of the above table entries.

   0     This attribute MUST NOT be present in packet.
   0+    Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in packet.
   0-1   Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in packet.



























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5. Useage Notes and Examples

   This section describes the expected implementation of the ideas
   presented in this document.

5.1 Certificate Validation

   Any device receiving an Entitycert can verify it by separating its
   components into appropriate segments and sending them to the
   sob-server. The sob-server will return either an accept or reject
   message.

   Likewise a router may submit a signed AuthCert or PolicyCert so an
   sob-server for validation.

   Note: I need to review Brian's work to ensure that the components of
   each of these certificates or signed information has an associated
   RADIUS attribute in this document.

5.2 Usernames and Passwords

   Some latitude is given in this area so that different policies may be
   enforced on different routers.  In the most expected case, all
   routers will be configured with identical Usernames and Passwords
   which will be sent in the Access-Request Attributes as described in
   [1].

   While it is not currently expected to be needed, a differentiated
   policy may be applied through the use of different Usernames on
   different routers when they initiate the policy download in the
   Access-Request Attribute.  For example, southern-facing routers could
   be configured with a Username of "South" and northern-facing routers
   could be given a Username of "North".  When the sob-server receives a
   policy download request from a router using a Username of "North", it
   will deliver a policy for the northern-facing routers.  Similarly for
   "South" and southern-facing routers.

5.3 Stored Policy

   A router SHOULD attempt to gather the stored policy from the
   sob-server when it first awakes.  It should be a local policy
   decision of how to proceed if the router cannot obtain the stored
   policy.

   If the router can gather policies, then these MAY be enforced above
   information received in the Authcerts since this will be locally
   defined and administered policy.  If the sob-server replies that it
   has no policies to deliver then the router should accept routing



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   updates in the manner described in
   draft-white-sobgp-bgp-deployment-01.txt [1].

5.4 Time

   Policies - The router should associate a countdown timer with a
   received policy.  Before the timer has reached 0, the router should
   request a new set of policies.  (Note: It may be a problem to
   associate all of the downloaded policies with a single timer.)

   Authcert - The router should associate a countdown timer with a
   validated Authcert.  Before that timer reches 0, the router should
   reaffirm the validity of the Authcert but only if the associated AS
   is still advertising routes.

5.5 Authcert Verification

   An Authcert will contain all of the policies which must be sent to
   the sob-server in the order they are placed within the Authcert.  It
   is very important that the elements be kept in order as the signature
   is calculated over them in that order.  (Note: Perhaps XML signing
   would be better?)

5.6 Redundancy

   As with all RADIUS solutions, it is usually important that the client
   devices be able to access an authoritative RADIUS server at all
   times. For this reason, it should be stressed that soBGP devices
   utilizing the procedure described in this document should have
   redundant sob-servers in their network with consistent databases of
   stored policies and certificates.




















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6. Security Considerations

   The security concerns of the mechanisms described in this document
   may be separated into two parts: concerns with the transport, and
   concerns with the content.

   The security concerns dealing with the transport of this mechanism
   are described in RFCs 2865 [4] and 2865 [7].  No further discussion
   is warranted in this document.

   The security concerns with the contents are identical to the security
   concerns of the contens of the Authcerts, Entitycerts and Policycerts
   in the other soBGP IDs.






































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7. IANA Considerations

   Need stuff here.
















































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8. Acknowledgments

   Glen Zorn suggested using Access-Challenge to convey Stored Policy.
   This seems to be much better than trying to use a stream of
   Access-Requests and a finale of an Access-Reject.














































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9. Changes from Prior Drafts

   -00 : Contained the basics but had poor formatting.

   -01 : The content was transferred to XML to be used with RFC 2629
   formatting using "xml2rfc".  (Thanks Marshall Rose.)

   -02 : Restructured the Stored Policy section to utilize
   Access-Challenges. Added things to the tail-end sections.

   -03 : tried to harmonize with draft-weis-sobgp-certificates-00.txt
   This includes a change to the length of the Serial Number. And I
   fixed some spelling errors.  Not many of course.

   -04 : More harmonization and the introduction of the Profiles.  This
   allows for the reuse of previously defined TLVs.



































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References

   [1]   White, R., "Deployment Considerations for Secure Origin BGP
         (soBGP)", draft-white-sobgp-bgp-extensions-01.txt (work in
         progress), June 2003.

   [2]   Ng, J., "Extensions to BGP to Support Secure Origin BGP
         (soBGP)", draft-ng-sobgp-bgp-extensions-01.txt (work in
         progress), June 2003.

   [3]   Weis, J., "Extensions to BGP to Support Secure Origin BGP
         (soBGP)", draft-weis-sobgp-certificates-00.txt (work in
         progress), June 2003.

   [4]   Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A. and W. Simpson, "Remote
         Authentication Dial in User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2865, June
         2000.

   [5]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", RFC 2119, STD 14, March 1997.

   [6]   Rigney, C., Willats, W. and P. Calhoun, "NLRI stuff - need to
         work on this", RFC 2858, June 2000.

   [7]   Rigney, C., Willats, W. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS Extensions",
         RFC 2869, June 2000.

   [8]   Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for writing an IANA
         Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2869, BCP 26, October
         1998.

   [9]   Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
         Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.

   [10]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "revocation list stuff goes here",
         RFC 3280, July 1998.


Author's Address

   Chris Lonvick
   Cisco Systems
   12515 Research Blvd.
   Austin, TX  78759
   US

   Phone: +1 512 378 1182
   EMail: clonvick@cisco.com



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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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Acknowledgment

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   Internet Society.











































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