Network Working Group                                          S. Loreto
Internet-Draft                                                  Ericsson
Intended status: Informational                            P. Saint-Andre
Expires: April 29, 2010                                            Cisco
                                                              G. Wilkins
                                                              S. Salsano
                                             Univ. of Rome "Tor Vergata"
                                                            Oct 26, 2009

      Best Practices for the Use of Long Polling and Streaming in
                           Bidirectional HTTP

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   There is widespread interest in using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol
   (HTTP) to enable asynchronous or server-initiated communication from
   a server to a client as well as from a client to a server.  This
   document describes how to better use HTTP, as it exists today, to
   enable such "bidirectional HTTP" using "long polling" and "HTTP
   streaming" mechanisms.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Long Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2.  Long Polling Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  HTTP Streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  HTTP Streaming Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Overview of Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  Bayeux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2.  BOSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.3.  Server-Sent Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  HTTP Best Practices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.1.  Two Connection Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.2.  Pipelined Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.3.  Proxies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.4.  HTTP Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.5.  Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.6.  Network Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   6.  Future Work  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   10. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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1.  Introduction

   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol [HTTP-1.1] is a request/response
   protocol.  HTTP defines the following entities: clients, proxies, and
   servers.  A client establishes connections to a server for the
   purpose of sending HTTP requests.  A server accepts connections from
   clients in order to service HTTP requests by sending back responses.
   Proxies are intermediate entities that can be involved in the
   delivery of requests and responses from the client to the server and
   vice versa.

   In the standard HTTP model, a server cannot initiate a connection
   with a client nor send an unrequested HTTP response to the client;
   thus the server cannot push asynchronous events to clients.
   Therefore, in order to receive asynchronous events as soon as
   possible, the client needs to poll the server periodically for new
   content.  However, continual polling can consume significant
   bandwidth by forcing a request/response round trip when no data is
   available.  It can also be inefficient because it reduces the
   responsiveness of the application since data is queued until the
   server receives the next poll request from the client.

   To improve this situation, several server push programming mechanisms
   have been implemented in recent years.  These mechanisms, which are
   often grouped under the common label "Comet" [COMET], enable a web
   server to send updates to clients without waiting for a poll request
   from the client.  Such mechanisms can deliver updates to clients in a
   more timely manner while avoiding the latency experienced by client
   applications due to the frequent open and close connections necessary
   to periodically poll for data.

   The two most common server push mechanisms are "Long Polling" and
   "HTTP Streaming":

   Long Polling:  The server attempts to "hold open" (not immediately
      reply to) each HTTP request, responding only when there are events
      to deliver.  In this way, there is always a pending request
      available to use for delivering events as they occur, thereby
      minimizing the latency in message delivery.

   HTTP Streaming:  The server keeps a request open indefinitely; that
      is, it never terminates the request or closes the connection, even
      after it pushes data to the client.

   It is possible to define other technologies for bidirectional HTTP,
   however such technologies typically require changes to HTTP itself
   (e.g., by defining new HTTP methods).  This document focuses only on
   bidirectional HTTP technologies that work within the current scope of

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   HTTP as defined in [HTTP-1.1] and [HTTP-1.0].

   The remainder of this document is organized as follows.  Section 2
   analyzes the "long polling" technique.  Section 3 analyzes the "HTTP
   streaming" technique.  Section 4 provides an overview of the specific
   technologies that use server-push technique.  Section 5 lists best
   practices for bidirectional HTTP using existing technologies.

   The preferred venue for discussion of this document is the mailing list; visit
   <> for further information.

2.  Long Polling

2.1.  Definition

   With the traditional or "short" polling technique, a client sends
   regular requests to the server and each request attempts to "pull"
   any available events or data.  If there are no events or data
   available, the server returns an empty response and the client waits
   for a period before sending another poll request.  The frequency
   depends on the latency which can be tolerated in retrieving updated
   information from the server.  This mechanism has the drawback that
   the consumed resources (server processing and network) strongly
   depend on the acceptable latency in the delivery of updates from
   server to client.  If the acceptable latency is low (e.g., on the
   order of seconds) then the frequency of the poll request can cause an
   unacceptable burden on the server, the network, or both.

   By contrast with such "short polling", "long polling" attempts to
   minimize both latency in server-client message delivery and the
   processing/network resource as compared to normal polling techniques.
   The server achieves these efficiencies by responding to a request
   only when a particular event, status, or timeout has occurred.  Once
   the server sends a long poll response, typically the client
   immediately sends a new long poll request.  Effectively this means
   that at any given time the server will be holding open a long poll
   request, to which it replies when new information is available for
   the client.  As a result, the server is able to asynchronously
   "initiate" communication.

   The basic life cycle of an application using "long polling" is as

   1.  The client makes an initial request and then waits for a

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   2.  The server defers its response until an update is available, or a
       particular status or timeout has occurred.

   3.  When an update is available, the server sends a complete response
       to the client.

   4.  The client typically sends a new long poll request, either
       immediately or after a pause to allow an acceptable latency

   The long polling mechanism can be applied to either persistent or
   non-persistent HTTP connections.  The use of persistent HTTP
   connections will avoid the additional overhead of establishing a
   TCP/IP connection for every long poll.

2.2.  Long Polling Issues

   The long polling mechanism introduces the following issues.

   Header Overhead:  With the long polling technique, every long poll
      request and long poll response is a complete HTTP message and thus
      contains a full set of HTTP headers in the message framing.  For
      small infrequent messages, the headers can represent a large
      percentage of the data transmitted.  This does not introduce
      significant technical issues if the network MTU allows all the
      information (including the HTTP header) to fit within a single IP
      packet.  On the other hand, it can introduce business issues
      related to data cost, as the amount of transferred data can be
      significantly larger than the real payload carried by HTTP.

   Maximal Latency:  After a long polling response is sent to a client,
      the server must wait for the next long polling request before
      another message can be sent to the client.  This means that while
      the average latency of long polling is close to one network
      transit, the maximal latency is over three network transits (long
      poll response, next long poll request, long poll response).
      However, because HTTP is carried on TCP/IP, packet loss and
      retransmission can occur, so maximal latency for any TCP/IP
      protocol will be more than three network transits (lost packet,
      next packet, negative ack, retransmit).

   Connection Establishment:  A common criticism of both short polling
      and long polling is that these mechanisms frequently open TCP/IP
      connections and then close them.  However, both polling mechanisms
      work well with persistent HTTP connections that can be reused for
      many poll requests.  Specifically, the short duration of the pause
      between a long poll response and the next long poll request avoids
      the closing of idle connections.

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   Allocated Resources:  Operating systems and network appliances will
      allocate resources to TCP/IP connections and to HTTP requests
      outstanding on those requests.  The long polling mechanism
      requires that for each client, both a TCP/IP connection and an
      HTTP request are held open.  Thus it is important to consider the
      resources related to both of these when sizing a long polling
      application.  Typically the resources used per TCP/IP connection
      are minimal and can scale reasonably.  Frequently the resources
      allocated to HTTP requests can be significant, and scaling the
      total number of requests outstanding can be limited on some
      gateways, proxies, and servers.

   Graceful Degradation:  A long polling client or server that is under
      load has a natural tendency to gracefully degrade in performance
      at a cost of message latency.  If load causes either a client or
      server to run slowly, then events to be pushed to clients will
      queue (waiting either for a long poll request or for available CPU
      to use a held long poll request).  If multiple messages are queued
      for a client, then they may be delivered in a batch within a
      single long poll response.  This can significantly reduce the per-
      message overhead and thus ease the work load of the client or
      server for the given message load.

3.  HTTP Streaming

3.1.  Definition

   The "HTTP streaming" mechanism keeps a request open indefinitely.  It
   never terminates the request or closes the connection, even after the
   server pushes data to the client.  This mechanism significantly
   reduces the network latency because the client and the server do not
   need to open and close the connection.

   The basic life cycle of an application using "HTTP streaming" is as

   1.  The client makes an initial request and then waits for a

   2.  The server defers the response to a poll request until an update
       is available, or a particular status or timeout has occurred.

   3.  Whenever an update is available, the server sends it back to the
       client as a part of the response.

   4.  The data sent by the server does not terminate the request or the
       connection.  The server returns to step 3.

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   The HTTP streaming mechanism is based on the capability of the server
   to send several pieces of information on the same response, without
   terminating the request or the connection.  This result can be
   achieved by both HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/1.0 servers.

   A HTTP response content length can be defined using 3 options:

   Content-Length header:  This indicates the size of the entity body in
      the message, in bytes.

   Transfer-Encoding header:  The 'chunked' valued in this header
      indicates the message will be break into chunks of known size.

   End of File (EOF):  This is actually the default approach for
      HTTP/1.0 where the connections are not persistent.  Clients do not
      need to know the size of the body they are reading; instead they
      expect to read the body until the server closes the connection.
      Although with HTTP/1.1 the default is for persistent connections,
      it still possible to use EOF by setting the 'Connection:close'
      header in either the request or the response, to indicate that the
      connection should not be considered 'persistent' after the current
      request/response is complete.  The client's inclusion of the
      'Connection: close' header field in the request will also prevent

      The main issue with EOF is that it is difficult to tell the
      difference between a connection terminated by a fault and one that
      is correctly terminated.

   An HTTP/1.0 server can use only EOF as a streaming mechanism.  By
   contrast, both EOF and "chunked transfer" are available to an
   HTTP/1.1 server.

   The "chunked transfer" mechanism is the one typically used by
   HTTP/1.1 servers for streaming.  It does so by including the header
   "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" at the beginning of the response, which
   enables it to send the following parts of the response in different
   "chunks" over the same connection.  Each chunk starts with the
   hexadecimal expression of the length of its data, followed by CR/LF
   (the end of the response is indicated with a chunk of size 0).

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           HTTP/1.1 200 OK
           Content-Type: text/plain
           Transfer-Encoding: chunked

           This is the data in the first chunk

           and this is the second one


                   Figure 1: Transfer-Encoding response

   A HTTP/1.0 server will omit the Content-Length header in the response
   to achieve the same result, so it will be able to send the following
   parts of the response on the same connection (in this case the
   different parts of the response are not explicitly separated by HTTP
   protocol, and the end of the response is achieved by closing the

3.2.  HTTP Streaming Issues

   The HTTP streaming mechanism introduces the following issues.

   Network Intermediaries:  The HTTP protocol allows for intermediaries
      (proxies, transparent proxies, gateways, etc.) to be involved in
      the transmission of a response from server to the client.  There
      is no requirement for an intermediary to immediately forward a
      partial response and it is legal for it to buffer the entire
      response before sending any data to the client (e.g., caching
      transparent proxies).  HTTP streaming will not work with such

   Maximal Latency:  Theoretically, on a perfect network, an HTTP
      streaming protocol's average and maximal latency is one network
      transit.  However, in practice the maximal latency is higher due
      to network and browser limitations.  The browser techniques used
      to terminate HTTP streaming connections are often associated with
      JavaScript and/or DOM elements that will grow in size for every
      message received.  Thus in order to avoid unlimited memory growth
      in the client, an HTTP streaming implementation must occasionally
      terminate the streaming response and send a request to initiate a
      new streaming response (which is essentially equivalent to a long
      poll).  Thus the maximal latency is at least three network
      transits.  Also, because HTTP is carried on TCP/IP, packet loss
      and retransmission can occur, so maximal latency for any TCP/IP
      protocol will be more than three network transits (lost packet,

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      next packet, negative ack, retransmit).

   Client Buffering:  There is no requirement in existing HTTP
      specifications for a client library to make the data from a
      partial HTTP response available to the client application.  For
      example, if each response chunk contains a statement of
      JavaScript, there is no requirement in the browser to execute that
      JavaScript before the entire response is received.  However, in
      practice most browsers do execute JavaScript received in partial
      responses, but some require a buffer overflow to trigger
      execution, so blocks of white space can be sent to achieve buffer

   Framing Techniques:  Using HTTP streaming, several application
      messages can be sent within a single HTTP response.  The
      separation of the response stream into application messages needs
      to be perfomed at the application level and not at the HTTP level.
      In particular it is not possible to use the HTTP chunks as
      application message delimiters, since intermediate proxies might
      "re-chunk" the message stream (for example by combining different
      chunks into a longer one).  This issue does not affect the long
      polling technique, which provides a canonical framing technique:
      each application message can be sent in a different HTTP response.

4.  Overview of Technologies

   This section provides an overview of how the specific technologies
   that implement server-push mechanisms employ HTTP to asynchronously
   deliver messages from the server to the client.

4.1.  Bayeux

   The Bayeux protocol [BAYEUX] was developed in 2006-2007 by the Dojo
   Foundation.  Bayeux can use both the long polling and HTTP streaming

   In order to achieve bidirectional communications, a Bayeux client
   will use two HTTP connections to a Bayeux server so that both server-
   to-client and client-to-server messaging can occur asynchronously.

   The Bayeux specification requires that implementations control
   pipeling of HTTP requests, so that requests are not pipelined
   inappropriately (e.g., a client-to-server message pipelined behind a
   long poll request).

   In practice, for JavaScript clients, such control over pipelining is
   not possible in current browsers.  Therefore JavaScript

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   implementations of Bayeux attempt to meet this requirement by
   limiting themselves to a maximum of two outstanding HTTP requests at
   any one time, so that browser connection limits will not be applied
   and the requests will not be queued or pipelined.  While broadly
   effective, this mechanism can be disrupted by non-Bayeux JavaScript
   simultaneously issuing requests to the same host.

   Bayeux connections are negotiated between client and server with
   handshake messages that allow the connection type, authentication
   method, and other parameters to be agreed upon between the client and
   the server.  Furthermore, during the handshake phase, the client and
   the server reveal to each other their acceptable bidirectional
   techniques and the client selects one from the intersection of those

   For non-browser or same-domain Bayeux, clients use HTTP POST requests
   to the server for both the long poll request and the request to send
   messages to the server.  The Bayeux protocol packets are sent as the
   body of the HTTP messages using the "text/json; charset=utf-8" MIME
   content type.

   For browsers that are operating in cross-domain mode, Bayeux clients
   use the "script src Ajax" ("AJAST") mechanism as described at

   Client-to-server messages are sent as encoded JSON on the URL query

   Server-to-client messages are sent as a JavaScript program that wraps
   the message JSON with a JavaScript function call to the already
   loaded Bayeux implementation.

4.2.  BOSH

   BOSH, which stands for Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP
   [BOSH], was developed by the XMPP Standards Foundation in 2003-2004.
   The purpose of BOSH is to emulate normal TCP connections over HTTP
   (TCP is the standard connection mechanism used in the Extensible
   Messaging and Presence Protocol as described in [XMPP]).  BOSH
   employs the long polling mechanism by allowing the server (called a
   "BOSH connection manager") to defer its response to a request until
   it actually has data to send to the client from the application
   server itself (typically an XMPP server).  As soon as the client
   receives a response from the connection manager, it sends another
   request to the connection manager, thereby ensuring that the
   connection manager is (almost) always holding a request that it can
   use to "push" data to the client.

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   In some situations, the client needs to send data to the server while
   it is waiting for data to be pushed from the connection manager.  To
   prevent data from being pipelined behind the long poll request that
   is on hold, the client can send its outbound data in a second HTTP
   request.  BOSH forces the server to respond to the request it has
   been holding on the first connection as soon as it receives a new
   request from the client, even if it has no data to send to the
   client.  It does so to make sure that the client can send more data
   immediately if necessary even in the case where the client is not
   able to pipeline the requests, respecting at the same time the two-
   connection limit discussed here under Section 5.1.

   The number of long polling request-response pairs is negotiated
   during the first request sent from the client to the connection
   manager.  Typically BOSH clients and connection managers will
   negotiate the use of two pairs, although it is possible to use only
   one pair or to use more than two pairs.

   The roles of the two response-response pairs typically switch
   whenever the client sends data to the connection manager.  This means
   that when the client issues a new request, the connection manager
   immediately answers to the blocked request on the other TCP
   connection, thus freeing it; in this way, in a scenario where only
   the client sends data, all the even requests are sent over one
   connection and the odd ones are sent over the other connection.

   BOSH is able to work reliably both when network conditions force
   every HTTP request to be made over a different TCP connection and
   when it is possible to use HTTP/1.1 and then relay on two persistent
   TCP connections.

   If the connection manager has no data to send to the client for an
   agreed amount of time (also negotiated during the first request),
   then the connection manager will respond to the request it has been
   holding with no data, and that response immediately triggers a fresh
   client request.  The connection manager does so to ensure that if a
   network connection is broken then both parties will realise that fact
   within a reasonable amount of time.

   Moreover BOSH defines the negotiation of an "inactivity period" value
   that specifies the longest allowable inactivity period (in seconds).
   This enables the client to ensure that the periods with no requests
   pending are never too long.

   BOSH allows data to be pushed immediately when HTTP Pipelining is
   available.  However if HTTP Pipelining is not available and one of
   the endpoints has just pushed some data, BOSH will usually need to
   wait for a network round trip time until it is able to push again.

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   BOSH uses standard HTTP POST request and response bodies to encode
   all information.

   BOSH normally uses HTTP Pipelining over a persistent HTTP/1.1
   connection.  However, a client can deliver its POST requests in any
   way permitted by HTTP 1.0 or HTTP 1.1.

   BOSH clients and connection managers are not allowed to use Chunked
   Transfer Coding, since intermediaries might buffer each partial HTTP
   request or response and only forward the full request or response
   once it is available.

   BOSH allows the usage of the Accept-Encoding and Content-Encoding
   headers in the request and in the response respectively, and then
   compresses the response body accordingly.

   Each BOSH session can share the HTTP connection(s) it uses with other
   HTTP traffic, including other BOSH sessions and HTTP requests and
   responses completely unrelated to the BOSH protocol (e.g., web page

4.3.  Server-Sent Events

   W3C Server-Sent Events specification [W3C.WD-eventsource-20090423]
   defines an API that enables servers to push data to Web pages over
   HTTP in the form of DOM events.

   The data is encoded as text/event-stream content and pushed using a
   HTTP streaming mechanism, but the specification suggests to disable
   HTTP chunking for serving event streams unless the rate of messages
   is high enough to avoid the possible negative effects of this
   technique as described here under Section 3.2.

   However it is not clear the benefit of using EOF rather than chunking
   with regards to intermediaries, unless they are HTTP/1.0.

5.  HTTP Best Practices

5.1.  Two Connection Limit

   HTTP [HTTP-1.1] section 8.1.4 recommends that a single user client
   should not maintain more than two connections to any server or proxy,
   to prevent the server from being overloaded.

   Web applications need to limit the number of long poll requests
   initiated, ideally to a single long poll that is shared between
   frames, tabs, or windows of the same browser.  However the security

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   constraints of the browsers make such sharing difficult.

   A possible best practice is for a server to use cookies to detect
   multiple long poll requests from the same browser and to avoid
   deferring both requests since this might cause connection starvation
   and/or pipeline issues.

5.2.  Pipelined Connections

   HTTP [HTTP-1.1] permits optional request pipelining over persistent
   connections.  Multiple requests can be enqueued before the responses

   There is a possible open issue regarding the inability to control
   "pipelining".  Normal requests can be pipelined behind a long poll,
   and are thus delayed until the long poll completes.

5.3.  Proxies

   Most proxies work well with long polling, because a complete HTTP
   response must be sent either on an event or a timeout.  Proxies
   should return that response immediately to the user-agent, which
   immediately acts on it.

   The HTTP streaming mechanism uses partial responses and sends some
   JavaScript in an HTTP/1.1 chunk as described under Section 3.  This
   mechanism can face problems caused by two factors: (1) it relies on
   proxies to forward each chunk (even though there is no requirement
   for them to do so, and some caching proxies do not), and (2) it
   relies on user-agents to execute the chunk of JavaScript as it
   arrives (even though there is also no requirement for them to do so).

   A "reverse proxy" basically is a proxy that pretends to be the actual
   server (as far as any client or client proxy is concerned), but it
   passes on the request to the actual server that is usually sitting
   behind another layer of firewalls.  Any short polling or long polling
   Comet solution should work fine with this, as will most streaming
   Comet connections.  The main downside is performance, since most
   proxies are not designed to hold many open connections (as a
   dedicated Comet server is).

   Reverse proxies can come to grief when they try to share connections
   to the servers between multiple clients.  As an example, Apache with
   mod_jk shares a small set of connections (often 8 or 16) between all
   clients.  If long polls are sent on those shared connections, then
   the proxy can be starved of connections, which means that other
   requests (either long poll or normal) can be held up.  Thus Comet
   mechanisms currently need to avoid any connection sharing -- either

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   in the browser or in any intermediary -- because the HTTP assumption
   is that each request will complete as fast as possible.

   Much of the "badness" of both long polling and HTTP streaming for
   servers and proxies results from using a synchronous programming
   model for handling requests, since the resources allocated to each
   request are held for the duration of the request.  Asynchronous
   proxies and servers can handle Comet long polls with few resources
   above that of normal HTTP traffic.  Unfortunately some synchronous
   proxies do exist (e.g., apache mod_jk) and many HTTP application
   servers also have a blocking model for their request handling (e.g.,
   the Java servlet 2.5 specification).

5.4.  HTTP Responses

   The server responds to a request successfully received by sending a
   200 OK answer, but only when a particular event, status, or timeout
   has occurred.  The 200 OK body section contains the actual event,
   status, or timeout that occurred.

5.5.  Timeouts

   The long polling mechanism allows the server to respond to a request
   only when a particular event, status, or timeout has occurred.  In
   order to minimize as much as possible both latency in server-client
   message delivery and the processing/network resources needed, the
   long polling request timeout should be set to a high value.

   However, the value timeout value has to be chosen carefully; indeed,
   there can be problem if this value is set too high (e.g., the client
   might receive a 408 Request Timeout answer from the server or a 504
   Gateway Timeout answer from a proxy).  The default timeout value in a
   browser is 300 seconds, but most network infrastructures have proxies
   and server that do not have such a long timeout.

   Several experiments have shown success with timeouts as high as 120
   seconds, but generally 30 seconds is a safer value.  Therefore it is
   recommended that all network equipment wishing to be compatible with
   the long polling mechanism should implement a timeout substantially
   greater than 30 seconds (where "substantially" means several times
   more than the medium network transit time).

5.6.  Network Impact

   To follow.

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6.  Future Work

   This document focuses on best practices for bidirectional HTTP in the
   context of HTTP as it exists today.  Future documents might define
   additions to HTTP that could enable improved mechanisms for
   bidirectional HTTP.  Examples include:

   o  An HTTP extension for long polling, including request tracking,
      duplication, and retry methods.

   o  A method for monitoring the state of multiple resources.

   o  A request header to determine timeouts.

   o  A request header to determine the longest acceptable polling

   o  Improved rendezvous logic between the user agent, a proxy /
      connection manager, and the backend application server.

   o  Improved addressing for the entities involved in bidirectional
      HTTP, possibly including the use of URI templates.

   o  Possible improvements/extensions to XMLHttpRequest (XHR) API
      [W3C.WD-XMLHttpRequest2-20090820] to expose connection-handling
      details (e.g., use of pconns, pipelining, etc.)

7.  Acknowledgments

   Thanks to Joe Hildebrand, Mark Nottingham, and Martin Tyler for their

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require any actions by the IANA.

9.  Security Considerations

   To follow.

10.  Informative References

   [BAYEUX]   Russell, A., Wilkins, G., Davis, D., and M. Nesbitt,
              "Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP (BOSH)",

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   [BOSH]     Paterson, I., Smith, D., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP (BOSH)", XSF
              XEP 0124, February 2007.

   [COMET]    Russell, A., "Comet: Low Latency Data for the Browser",
              March 2006.

              Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and H. Nielsen, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0", RFC 1945, May 1996.

              Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

              Kesteren, A., "XMLHttpRequest Level 2", World Wide Web
              Consortium WD WD-XMLHttpRequest2-20090820, August 2009,

              Hickson, I., "Server-Sent Events", World Wide Web
              Consortium WD WD-eventsource-20090423, April 2009,

   [XMPP]     Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 3920, October 2004.

Authors' Addresses

   Salvatore Loreto
   Hirsalantie 11
   Jorvas  02420


   Peter Saint-Andre


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   Greg Wilkins


   Stefano Salsano
   Univ. of Rome "Tor Vergata"
   Via del Politecnico, 1
   Rome  00133


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