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Versions: 00                                                            
Applications Area Working Group                               S. Ma, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                  L. Liang
Intended status: Informational                                   J. Wang
Expires: November 14, 2011                               ZTE Corporation
                                                            May 13, 2011

            Survey of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure System


   This document presents a survey of VDI (Virtual Desktop
   Infrastructure) system.  Current popular VDI solutions are focused
   on, such as Microsoft RDS, Citrix XenDesktop, Redhat enterprise
   virtualization for desktops and VMware View.  By analyzing the
   architecture and protocol flows of these solutions, the common
   features of VDI architecture and protocol are summarized.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 14, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Terminology and Abbreviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Survey of VDI System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Citrix XenDesktop  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.2.  Microsoft RDS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.3.  Redhat Enterprise Virtualization for Desktops  . . . . . . 11
     2.4.  VMware View  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   3.  VDI Related Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.1.  T.120  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.1.1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.1.2.  T.120 protocol suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14  Basic architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.2.  RDP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       3.2.1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       3.2.2.  RDP protocol stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  Basic architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17  Bandwidth saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19  User experience improvement  . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     3.3.  SPICE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       3.3.1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       3.3.2.  SPICE Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21  Basic architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21  Bandwidth saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23  User experience improvement  . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     3.4.  ICA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       3.4.1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       3.4.2.  ICA Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24  Basic architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24  Bandwidth saving and User experience
                   improvement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     3.5.  RFB  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       3.5.1.  RFB Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25  Basic architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25  Bandwidth saving and User experience
                   improvement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   4.  Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   5.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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1.  Introduction

   Virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) is the practice of hosting a
   desktop operating system within a virtual machine (VM) running on a
   centralized server.  VDI provides services for users to access their
   desktops remotely and users can choose PC, tablet computer or mobile
   phone as the client device.  The OS (Operating System) and
   applications of the desktop are running on virtual machines which are
   deployed in Data Center.  All desktops are managed under a central
   management system.

   The benefits of VDI include reduction of IT cost and improvement of
   security.  Centralized desktop management makes IT maintenance tasks
   more effective, for example backup and upgrade can be done on Data
   Center side.  Since enterprise's data is kept in Data Center, it will
   not be lost even when client devices are broken.  Users can access
   the data but can't copy it out of the datacenter, so the data
   security is guaranteed.

   The mainstream VDI products include Microsoft's RDS, Citrix's
   XenDesktop, Redhat's Enterprise Virtualization for Desktops and
   VMware's VMware View.  The architecture, features and VDI protocols
   of these products are analyzed in this document.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

1.2.  Terminology and Abbreviation

   o  Device redirection: In VDI system, remote desktop must provide the
      same user experience as local desktop, so the physical interfaces
      of client device, such as USB, audio/video interface and serial/
      parallel ports should be accessed by Guest OS on remote desktop.
      So client device's interfaces must be redirected to remote virtual

   o  GCC: Generic Conference Control

   o  GPU: Graphic Processor Unit

   o  Guest OS: An OS runs on top of a virtual machine manager.

   o  HDX: High-Definition user eXperience

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   o  ICA: Independent Computing Architecture

   o  MCS: Multipoint Communication Service

   o  OS: Operation System

   o  PDU: Protocol Data Unit

   o  RD: Remote Desktop

   o  RDP: Remote Desktop Protocol

   o  RDS: Remote Desktop Service

   o  Resource pool: Resource pool is based on a large quantity of
      physical server.  The computing and storage resources of the
      servers are managed as a whole, and it is a logical resource pool
      to users.  Users need not to know which server the resource is on
      when he use it.  Resource pool can improve resource's utilization
      and scalability, and resource will be managed more effectively.

   o  RFB: Remote Framebuffer

   o  SPICE: Simple Protocol for Independent Computing Environment

   o  TPKT: ISO transport services on top of the TCP

   o  VDA: Virtual Desktop Agent, which acts as the bridge between
      virtual machine and VDI client, such as accepting VDI connection,
      taking input from VDI client, transferring graphics output of
      virtual machine to VDI client and etc.

   o  VDI: Virtual Desktop Infrastructure

   o  VM: Virtual machine is a logical machine.  Several virtual
      machines can share one physical machine's resource.  The virtual
      CPU, memory and storage are allocated from physical resource by
      virtualization layer software, and they can be scheduled under
      certain policy.

   o  VMM: Virtual Machine Manager

2.  Survey of VDI System

   Remote terminal technology was brought into market very early, such
   as X-WINDOW, Microsoft's Terminal Services and RealVNC's VNC.  Early
   products are used for server sharing, remote collaboration, and

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   remote control.  The messages transferred between server and client
   contain screen images and the keyboard/mouse events.  VDI inherits
   from the remote terminal technology, with exception that the desktops
   are not running on physical servers, but in virtual machines.
   Virtual machines can be allocated on demand, so VDI is more flexible
   and has higher resource utilization.  VDI also adopts variety of
   technologies to improve user experience, such as enhanced desktop
   display quality, supporting for USB/audio/video device redirection
   and etc.

2.1.  Citrix XenDesktop

   XenDesktop is Citrix's VDI solution.  For Guest OS in XenDesktop, it
   could only be Microsoft's Windows.  For Client device, it could
   support different platforms, like Windows, Linux and Mac OS.
   Virtualization platform can be Citrix's XenServer, or 3rd party's
   products, such as Microsoft Hyper-V and VMware ESX.  The protocol
   between client and server is ICA (Independent Computing

   The architecture of XenDesktop is shown in Figure 1:

                                  | Desktop   |
                                  | Delivery  |
                                  | Controller|
                                /       |
     +----------+  +----------+/  +-----+-----+   +--------------+
     | Desktop  |--| Access   |---| +-------+ |   |  Application |
     | Receiver |  | Gateway  |   | |Virtual| |---|   Delivery   |
     +----------+  +----------+   | |Desktop| |   |  Controller  |
                         |        | +-------+ |   +--------------+
                   +-----+-----+  | XenServer |   +--------------+
                   |  Active   |  | Resource  |---| Provisioning |
                   | Directory |  |   Pool    |   |    Server    |
                   +-----------+  +-----------+   +--------------+

                     Figure 1 XenDesktop architecture

   The key components of XenDesktop:

   1.  Desktop Receiver: The client-side software, which is running on
       client devices, connects to remote desktop through ICA protocol.

   2.  Access Gateway: Responsible for external user authentication.
       Before the external user accesses the desktop, he must connect to

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       the Access Gateway and pass the authentication.  External users's
       connection to Access Gateway is secured by SSL.

   3.  Desktop Delivery Controller: Responsible for management of
       virtual desktop and client connection.  When a virtual desktop
       boots up, it will register with Desktop Delivery Controller.
       Desktop Delivery Controller will maintain the state of the
       desktop.  When a client initiates a connection, Desktop Delivery
       Controller chooses an appropriate virtual desktop to connect.
       Finally it forwards the client's connection to the desktop.

   4.  XenServer Resource Pool: XenServer is Citrix's virtualization
       platform, provides virtual machine for virtual desktop and
       manages all of the virtual machines.

   5.  Provisioning Server: Responsible for providing OS images.  OS
       images contain pre-configured profile, but applications are not
       included.  When virtual desktop boots up, the OS image will be
       sent to virtual machine over network.

   6.  Application Delivery Controller: Responsible for application
       delivery.  User's profile contains assigned application list, and
       user can choose which application to load.

   7.  Virtual Desktop Agent: Running on virtual desktop, which accepts
       the ICA connection from client.

   8.  Active Directory: Responsible for user authentication.

   Besides above specific components, additional general components
   could be deployed, such as License server, DNS Server, DHCP Server
   and so on.

   Before users access their virtual desktops, they must pass the
   authentication.  Following is the procedure:

   1.  User launches the browser, and connects to Access Gateway.
       Access Gateway generates the login page;

   2.  User inputs credentials, and Access Gateway authenticates the
       user's credentials against Active Directory;

   3.  Upon successful authentication, Access Gateway connects to
       Desktop Delivery Controller;

   4.  Desktop Delivery Controller retrieves the credentials from Access
       Gateway, and authenticates the user against Active Directory;

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   5.  After success authentication, Desktop Delivery Controller
       determines which virtual desktops are available for the user;

   6.  Access Gateway creates a web page containing a list of virtual
       desktops for the user, and sends the web page to user's browser.

   After successful authentication, user can access virtual desktop by
   clicking the icon on the web page.  Following is the procedure:

   1.  User clicks the virtual desktop's icon on the web page, Access
       Gateway sends the information to Desktop Delivery Controller;

   2.  Desktop Delivery Controller checks the status of user's virtual
       desktop.  If there is no available desktop, Desktop Delivery
       Controller will request XenServer to launch one.  The desktop
       then opens the ICA port to wait for client connections;

   3.  Desktop Delivery Controller creates an ICA file for the virtual
       desktop, and transfers the file to Access Gateway.  Then Access
       Gateway transfers the ICA file to VDI client;

   4.  After receiving the ICA file, VDI client executes it and sends a
       connection request to Access Gateway;

   5.  Access Gateway forwards the connection request to virtual

   6.  When detecting the connection request, the virtual desktop sends
       the logon information to Desktop Delivery Controller for

   7.  For valid validation, Desktop Delivery Controller fetches a
       license from the license server and sends credentials and license
       to virtual desktop.  The connection is created after virtual
       desktop logon against Active Directory with the credentials.

   To optimize user experience, XenDesktop provides HDX (High Definition
   eXperience) technology.  HDX contains several techniques as

   1.  HDX MediaStream: Optimized for multimedia stream, the compressed
       multimedia packages are transferred in raw format to client
       device, and the client device plays them locally;

   2.  HDX RealTime: Enhances real-time voice and video using advanced
       encoding and streaming to ensure a no compromise end-user

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   3.  HDX Broadcast: Optimized for bandwidth to ensure high-performance
       of virtual desktops and applications over any network, including
       high-latency and low-bandwidth environments.  User can set
       bandwidth limits and close some features to save bandwidth;

   4.  HDX Plug-n-Play: Enables devices redirection for USB, printers
       and peripherals;

   5.  HDX RichGraphics: Optimizes for 2D/3D applications by using the
       rending ability of server and client;

   6.  HDX WAN Optimization: Adopts compression and cache technologies
       to reduce bandwidth on the WAN.

2.2.  Microsoft RDS

   RDS (Remote Desktop Service) is next-generation product of Microsoft
   TS (Terminal Service).  In Windows server 2008 R2, it is named as
   RDS.  The protocol used in RDS between desktop client and server is
   RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol).

   The architecture of RDS is presented in Figure 2:

     +----------+  +----------+   +-----------+    +--------------+
     |   RD     |--|   RD     +---|    RD     |----|      RD      |
     |  Client  |  | Gateway  |   | Connection|\   |Virtualization|
     +----------+  +----------+   |   Broker  | \  |     Host     |
                                  +-----+-----+  \ +--------------+
                                        |         \
                                  +-----+-----+    +--------------+
                                  |  Active   |    | RD Session   |
                                  | Directory |    |    Host      |
                                  +-----------+    +--------------+

                         Figure 2 RDS architecture

   The key components in RDS:

   1.  RD Client: Remote desktop client software running on client
       devices, which connects to virtual desktop using RDP protocol;

   2.  RD Gateway(RDG): RD Gateway authorizes external RD clients and
       provides secure connection for external RD client to access
       virtual desktop;

   3.  RD Connection Broker (RDCB): Responsible for assigning correct
       resource to RD clients and session load balancing.  User can have

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       a personal desktop, which means that the RDCB assigns the same
       virtual machine to the user whenever he logins.  RDCB also can
       assign virtual machine dynamically.  When user logs on, RDCB
       selects one from virtual machine pool and assign it to user.
       Every user shares the same virtual machine image;

   4.  Remote Desktop Session Host (RDSH): Responsible for hosting
       windows-based programs or the full Windows desktop for RD
       clients.  Users can connect to an RD Session Host server to run
       programs, save files, and use network resources on that server;

   5.  RD Virtualization Host(RDVH): RDVH integrates with Hyper-V to
       provide virtual machines for virtual desktops;

   6.  Active Directory: Responsible for user access authentication.

   The connection procedure for RD Client is shown as below:

   1.  A RD Session Host works as a RD Redirector.  When a client
       connects to RD Redirector, RD Redirector forwards the connection
       to RD Connection Broker;

   2.  RD Connection Broker queries personal desktop configuration from
       Active Directory;

   3.  RD Connection Broker retrieves user's virtual machine from RD
       Virtualization Host.  If user's virtual machine is not running,
       RD Virtualization Host will launch it;

   4.  RD Connection Broker returns the information of virtual machine
       to RD Redirector;

   5.  RD Redirector forwards the information to RD Client,and redirects
       RD Client to virtual machine;

   6.  RD Client connects to virtual machine.

   To improve user experience, RDS provides RemoteFX technology in RDP
   7.1.  RemoteFX contains a set of features shown as following:

   1.  Host side rendering: Allows graphics to be rendered on the host
       device instead of the client device.  This enables support for
       all graphics types by sending highly compressed bitmap images to
       the endpoint device in an adaptive manner.  This also allows the
       applications to run at full speed on the host computer by taking
       advantage of the GPU and the CPU, providing an experience which
       is similar to that of a local computer;

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   2.  GPU virtualization: Supports several virtual GPU with one
       physical GPU, and each virtual GPU is used by one virtual

   3.  Intelligent Screen Capture: Only the screen change will be
       encoded and transferred to client.  Intelligent Screen Capture
       also tracks network speed and then dynamically adjusts according
       to the available bandwidth;

   4.  RemoteFX Encoder: Allows encoding to be done either on the
       processor, GPU, or dedicated hardware;

   5.  RemoteFX Decoder: Decodes bitmaps on the client computer which
       have been remoted from the virtual desktop to the client
       computer.  The client computer can decode by using software in
       the GPU, processor, or by using a hardware decoder;

   6.  USB device redirection: Supports all usb devices redirection over
       RDP, no client side drivers needed.

2.3.  Redhat Enterprise Virtualization for Desktops

   Redhat Enterprise Virtualization for Desktops is Redhat's VDI
   solution,which supports both Windows and Linux desktop.  The protocol
   between client and desktop is SPICE (Simple Protocol for Independent
   Computing Environment).

   The architecture of Redhat Enterprise Virtualization for Desktops is
   shown in Figure 3:

    +--------+ SPICE +-------------------------+
    | SPICE  |-------| Redhat Enterprise       |
    | Client | \     |Virtualization Hypervisor|
    +--------+  \    +------------+------------+
                 \                |
                  \  +------------+------------+   +---------------+
                   \ | Redhat Enterprise       |---|LDAP Directory/|
                    \|Virtualization Manager   |   |Active Directoy|
                     +-------------------------+   +---------------+

    Figure 3 Redhat Enterprise Virtualization for Desktops architecture

   The key components of Redhat Enterprise Virtualization for Desktops:

   1.  SPICE client: The client side software installed on client
       devices, which connects to virtual desktop using SPICE protocol;

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   2.  SPICE Protocol: An open source VDI protocol, used between SPICE
       client and virtual desktop;

   3.  Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor(RHEV-H): Redhat
       virtualization platform to provide virtual machine for virtual

   4.  Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager(RHEV-M): Management
       System for all components in Redhat's VDI solution;

   5.  LDAP Directory/Active Directory: Responsible for authentication.

   The connection procedure for SPICE client is described as below:

   1.  User launches browser and connects to RHEV-M, and RHEV-M returns
       a logon page.  Then user inputs corresponding ID and password

   2.  RHEV-M authenticates user against Active Directory;

   3.  After successful authentication, RHEV-M returns a web page
       containing a list of available virtual desktops for the user;

   4.  User selects the desktop by clicking the icon on the web page.
       Then RHEV-M requests RHEV-H to run the specified virtual desktop;

   5.  The SPICE client connects to the virtual desktop with SPICE

2.4.  VMware View

   VMware View is VMware's virtual desktop solution, which uses VMware
   vSphere as the virtualization platform.  VMware View supports several
   VDI protocols, like Microsoft RDP, PCoIP and HP RGS protocols.  For
   HP RGS, it can only be used for connecting HP Blades.

   The architecture of VMware View is shown in Figure 4.

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     +----------+  +----------+   +-----------+
     |  View    |  |  View    +   |           |
     |  Client  |--|Connection|---|  vSphere  |
     |          |  |  Server  |   |           |
     +----------+  +-----+----+   +-----+-----+
                         |              |
                   +-----+-----+  +-----+-----+
                   |  Active   |  |  vCenter  |
                   | Directory |  |   Server  |
                   +-----------+  +-----------+

                     Figure 4 VMware View architecture

   The key components of VMware View:

   1.  View client: The client software for accessing View desktops,
       which runs either on a Windows or Mac PC as a native application
       or on a thin client;

   2.  View Connection Server: View Connection Server acts as a broker
       for client connections.  It authenticates users through Active
       Directory and directs the request to the appropriate virtual

   3.  vSphere: The virtualization platform, which provides virtual
       machines for virtual desktops;

   4.  vCenter Server: Management System for configuration, deployment
       and virtual machine management;

   5.  View Agent: View Agent is installed on all virtual machines.
       This agent communicates with View Client to provide features such
       as connection monitoring, virtual printing, and access to locally
       connected USB devices;

   VMware View has following features:

   1.  VMware View supports USB, printers and other peripherals

   2.  Users can configure the amount of bandwidth used by Adobe Flash
       content to improve the overall Web browsing experience and make
       other applications more responsive;

   3.  VMware View supports multimedia redirection, and the media file
       is send to client to be decoded locally;

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   4.  VMware View supports single-sign-on, which means that users need
       to log in only once to access virtual desktop;

   5.  Besides Active Directory authentication, VMware also supports RSA
       SecurID and Smart Card authentication.

3.  VDI Related Protocols

   In this section, current hot-discussed VDI protocols, like RDP, SPICE
   and ICA, are investigated.  For closed protocol, such as ICA, the
   information is collected from published documents on Internet.  For
   each protocol, they are organized from perspective of: Basic
   architecture, Bandwidth saving and User experience improvement.
   Bandwidth saving and User experience improvement are two key factors
   for VDI protocol success.

3.1.  T.120

   T.120 is listed here for better understanding of Microsoft's RDP,
   which is described in next section.

3.1.1.  Introduction

   The T.120-series Recommendations, which are issued by ITU,
   collectively define a multipoint data communication service for use
   in multimedia conferencing environments.  Depending on the type of
   T.120 implementations, the result product can make connections,
   transmit and receive data, and collaborate using compatible data
   conferencing features, such as program sharing, whiteboard
   conferencing, and file transfer.

   The key functionalities of T.120 are:

   1.  Establish and maintain conferences without any platform

   2.  Manage multiple participants and programs;

   3.  Send and receive data accurately and securely over a variety of
       supported networking connections.

3.1.2.  T.120 protocol suite  Basic architecture

   The T.120 system model is comprised of a communications
   infrastructure and the application protocols that make use of it.

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   Figure 5 shows the full model with both standardized and non-
   standardized applications.

      |                     User applications                       |
                   |                                  |
          +------------------+               +------------------+
          | Standard appl.   |               |Non-standard appl.|
          | protocol entity  |               |  protocol entity |
          +------------------+               +------------------+
      |       |     +---------------------------------+     |        |
      |       |     | Generic conference control(GCC) |     |        |
      |       |     |         ITU Rec. T.124          |     |        |
      |       |     +---------------------------------+     |        |
      |       |                      |                      |        |
      |       |                      |                      |        |
      | +---------------------------------------------------------+  |
      | |           Multipoint communication service(MCS)         |  |
      | |                ITU-T Recs T.122 and T.125               |  |
      | +---------------------------------------------------------+  |
      |                              |                               |
      | +---------------------------------------------------------+  |
      | |           Network-specific Transport protocols          |  |
      | |                   ITU-T Rec. T.123                      |  |
      | +---------------------------------------------------------+  |
      |                                                              |
      | ITU-T Rec. T.120 infrastructure Recommendations              |

                          Figure 5 T.120 protocol

   Generally, each layer provides services to the layer above and
   communicates to its peer(s) by sending Protocol Data Units (PDUs) via
   services provided by the layer below.  The lower level layers (T.122,
   T.123, T.124, and T.125) specify an application-independent mechanism
   for providing multipoint data communication services to any
   application that can use these facilities.  The upper level
   application layers define protocols, such as shared white boarding
   and multipoint file transfer.  Applications using these standardized
   protocols can co-exist in the same conference with applications using
   proprietary protocols.

   Following is one brief description of each protocol:

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   1.  T.121: T.121 provides a template for T.120 resource management
       that developers should use as a guide for building application
       protocols.  It also provides guidance to user application
       developers on how to utilize the T.120 infrastructure in a
       coherent and consistent way;

   2.  T.122:T.122 defines the multi-point services available to the
       developer.  Together with T.125, they form MCS, the multi-point
       "engine" of the T.120 conference.  MCS relies on T.123 to
       actually deliver the data.  MCS is a powerful tool that can be
       used to solve virtually any multi-point application design

   3.  T.123: T.123 specifies transport profiles for different transport
       networks like, Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN),
       Integrated Switched Digital Networks (ISDN), TCP/IP and etc.
       From perspective of MCS layer, it presents a uniform OSI
       transport interface and services (X.214/X.224).  Built-in error
       correction facilities are also included in this layer;

   4.  T.124:The T.124 specifies the Generic Conference Control (GCC),
       which provides a comprehensive set of facilities for establishing
       and managing the multi-point conference;

   5.  T.125: T.125 defines: 1) Procedures for a single protocol for the
       transfer of data and control information from one MCS provider to
       a peer MCS provider. 2) The structure and encoding of the MCS
       protocol data units used for the transfer of data and control

3.2.  RDP

3.2.1.  Introduction

   Remote Desktop Protocol, which is issued by Microsoft, provides
   remote display and input capabilities over network connections for
   Windows-based applications running on a server.  It is based on, and
   is an extension of, the T-120 family of protocol standards.  So it
   inherits corresponding capabilities and benefits from T.120, such as
   the architectural features necessary to support multipoint and
   multipoint data delivery, which allows data from an application to be
   delivered in "real-time" to multiple parties without having to send
   the same data to each session individually.

3.2.2.  RDP protocol stack

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   As RDP is an extension of the core T.120 protocol, it re-uses
   services from T.123, T.122, T.125 and T.124 of T.120 protocol suite.
   In T.120 protocol architecture, RDP is at the same place of
   application protocols.  It defines application PDU for information
   exchange between server and client, like capability set, bitmap
   update, keyboard/mouse event and so on.

   |  RDP Server                           |
   | +----------------------------------+  |
   | |               RDP                |  |
   | +----------------------------------+  |
   |         |                 |           |
   |         |         +----------------+  |           +----+
   |         |         |      GCC       |  |           |  C |
   |         |         +----------------+  |--channel--|  L |
   |         |                 |           |           |R I |
   | +----------------------------------+  |---  ... --|D E |
   | |               MCS                |  |           |P N |
   | +----------------------------------+  |--channel--|  T |
   |                  |                    |           |    |
   | +----------------------------------+  |           +----+
   | |       ISO transport protocol     |  |
   | +----------------------------------+  |
   |                  |                    |
   | +----------------------------------+  |
   | |               TCP                |  |
   | +----------------------------------+  |

                           Figure 6 RDP protocol

   RDP uses channel service provided by MCS layer for lossless
   communication between client and server components over the main RDP
   data connection.  Each channel is targeted for one specific
   application data, such as printer redirection, clipboard redirection
   and etc.

   There are two types of virtual channels in RDP: static virtual
   channel and dynamic virtual channel.  A maximum of 31 static virtual
   channels can be created at connection time.  The list of desired
   virtual channels is requested and confirmed during the Basic Settings
   Exchange phase of the server-client connection sequence and the
   endpoints are joined during the Channel Connection phase.  Virtual
   channel data is application-specific and opaque to RDP.  Each virtual

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   channel acts as an independent data stream.  The client and server
   examine the data received on each virtual channel and route the data
   stream to the appropriate endpoint for further processing.  Dynamic
   virtual channel is put forward to solve the limitation of static
   virtual channel number.  It is implemented on top of a static virtual
   channel named DRDYNVC.  In the DRDYNVC static virtual channel,
   different services could be allocated and deleted dynamically.

   RDP supports two security classifications: standard RDP security and
   enhanced RDP security:

   1.  For standard RDP security, client and server use matched
       encryption and decryption keys for data security.  The encryption
       and decryption keys are generated during connection sequence,
       based on random number generated on server and client.  The
       client and server both generate a 32-byte random value using a
       cryptographically-safe pseudorandom number generator.  Then the
       server sends the random value which it generated (along with its
       public key embedded in a certificate) to the client in the Server
       Security Data during the Basic Settings Exchange phase of the
       connection sequence.  After receiving that, the client sends its
       random value to the server (encrypted with the server's public
       key) in the Security Exchange PDU as part of the RDP Security
       Commencement phase of the connection sequence.  As the client
       doesn't authenticate server credential, this security method
       could not protect data from man in-the-middle.  It still exists
       in RDP for backward compatibility;

   2.  For enhanced security, RDP traffic is no longer protected by
       using the techniques described in standard RDP security.
       Instead, all security operations (such as encryption and
       decryption, data integrity checks, and server authentication) are
       implemented by external security protocols, like TLS.  In this
       way, there is no longer need to manually implement protocol
       security mechanisms, which is replaced with well-known and proven
       security protocol packages to provide end-to-end security.

   Server redirection procedure is defined in RDP for load-balancing
   scenarios.  A client connection can be redirected to a specific
   session on another server by using the Server Redirection PDU.  In
   the Server Redirection PDU, necessary information is include, such as
   session ID, redirection information flag, user credential
   information, load balance information, target server address and etc.
   When the client receives this redirection indication, it will
   disconnect from current server and try to connect target server,
   which is specified in Server Redirection PDU.

   In RDP framework, it's flexible to define more service using separate

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   static/dynamic channel.  Bandwidth saving

   RDP uses a bulk compressor to compress virtual channel data and some
   data in PDUs sent from server to client.  During information exchange
   phase of the connection sequence, server and client negotiate the
   bulk compressor.  One version of the bulk compressor (the RDP 4.0
   bulk compressor) is based on the Microsoft Point-To-Point Compression
   (MPPC) Protocol and uses an 8 kilobyte history buffer.  A more
   advanced version of the compressor (the RDP 5.0 bulk compressor) is
   derived from the RDP 4.0 bulk compressor, but uses a 64 kilobyte
   history buffer and modified Huffman-style encoding rules.  Besides
   employing bulk compression for generic data, RDP also uses variations
   of run length encoding (RLE) rules to implement compression of bitmap
   data sent from server to client.  "NSCodec Extension" and "RemoteFX
   Codec Extension" (lossy image codec) specify the image codec that can
   be used to encode screen images by utilizing efficient and effective

   As RDP is one extension of T.120 protocols, each RDP packet will be
   wrapped with corresponding headers defined in T.120 protocols, like
   TPKT header, X.224 Class 0 Data TPDU and etc.  In some situations,
   for example point-to-point connection, these additional overhead is
   not necessary.  In RDP protocol, it defined two choices: slow-path
   which follows strictly T.120 protocols and fast-path with the goal of
   improving bandwidth.  For fast-path, the TPKT Header, X.224 Class 0
   Data TPDU, and MCS Send Data Indication are replaced.  The Security
   Header is collapsed into the fast-path output header, and the Share
   Data Header is replaced by a new fast-path format.  The contents of
   the graphics and pointer updates are also changed to reduce their
   size, particularly by removing or reducing headers.

   The real-time display interaction is accomplished by continuously
   sending updated bitmap images from server to client.  Even though
   these bitmaps may be compressed, it is still not a bandwidth
   efficient mechanism to employ, especially when dealing with graphics-
   intensive applications that refresh regularly.  "GDI Acceleration
   Extension" aims to reduce the bandwidth associated with graphics
   remoting by encoding the drawing operations that produce an image
   instead of encoding the actual image.  For example, instead of
   sending the bitmap image of a filled rectangle from server to client,
   an order to render a rectangle at coordinate (X, Y) with a given
   width, height, and fill color is sent to the client.  The client then
   executes the drawing order to produce the intended graphics result.
   In addition to defining how to encode common drawing operations, "GDI
   Acceleration Extension" also facilitates the use of caches to store
   drawing primitives such as bitmaps, color tables, and characters.

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   The effective use of caching techniques helps to reduce wire traffic
   by ensuring that items used in multiple drawing operations are sent
   only once from server to client (retransmission of these items for
   use in conjunction with future drawing operations is not required
   after the item has been cached on the client).

   For video and audio application, "Video Redirection Virtual Channel
   Extension" and "Audio Output Virtual Channel Extension" define video
   and audio delivery message and procedure between server and client.
   Before stream traffic starts, server and client will exchange their
   own capabilities, also for media format.  After successful
   negotiation, media stream data will be sent between server and client
   with both agreed format, for example MPEG-2, instead of transferring
   raw data.  User experience improvement

   For VDI applications, user experience is very important for more
   widely acceptance of this technology.  When using client component to
   access desktop on remote side, the user hopes to get experience of
   using local computer, such as real-time interactive, plug-n-play
   service, bi-directional multimedia services and etc.

   In RDP protocol suite, it uses techniques mentioned in previous
   "bandwidth saving" section to improve interactive capability and
   multi-media services.

   Following extension protocols are defined to mitigate environment
   experience of server and client:

   1.  Clipboard Virtual Channel Extension: specifies how to keep two
       distinct system clipboards in sync so that at any given time, the
       data available to an application on one computer (via its local
       clipboard) is identical to the data available to another
       application on a remote computer (via its local clipboard);

   2.  Remote Programs Virtual Channel Extension: provides support to
       present a remote application (running remotely on the server) as
       a local user application (running on the client machine).  It
       extends the core RDP protocol to deliver this seamless windows

   3.  File System Virtual Channel Extension: provides support to
       redirect access from the server to the client file system.  In a
       typical terminal server scenario, many of the nonvolatile
       resources used by the server (such as hard drives, flash drives,
       and floppy disks) are located on the client.  The server exposes
       a file system driver that is visible to server-based applications

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       as a hard drive, which allows the applications to access the
       client file systems;

   4.  Serial Port Virtual Channel Extension: provides support to
       redirect serial and parallel ports from client to the server.
       This allows the server to access client ports as if the connected
       devices were local to the server;

   5.  Print Virtual Channel Extension: provides support to redirect
       printers from client to the server.  This allows the server
       access to printers physically connected to the client as if the
       devices were local to the server;

   6.  Smart Card Virtual Channel Extension: is designed to remotely
       execute requests on a client's Smart Cards for Windows.  When
       Smart Card Redirection is in effect, server application smart
       card subsystem calls are automatically remapped to the
       client"Cside Smart Cards for Windows, which will then receive the
       corresponding request;

   7.  Plug and Play Devices Virtual Channel Extension: This protocol is
       used to redirect Plug and Play (PNP) devices from client to the
       server, for example USB devices.  This allows the server access
       to devices that are physically connected to the client as if the
       device were local to the server.

3.3.  SPICE

3.3.1.  Introduction

   SPICE was originally developed by Qumranet, which was acquired by Red
   Hat in 2008.  Later Redhat open sourced its SPICE hosted virtual
   desktop protocol.  Now open-source SPICE project aims to provide a
   complete open source solution for interaction with virtualized
   desktop devices.  The SPICE protocol, acting similar functions as
   Microsoft RDP, provides client and server communication to support
   virtual desktop infrastructure.

3.3.2.  SPICE Protocol  Basic architecture

   SPICE protocol defines a set of protocol messages for accessing,
   controlling, and receiving inputs from remote computing devices
   (e.g., keyboard, video, and mouse) across networks, and sending
   output to them.  SPICE uses simple messaging and does not depend on
   any RPC standard or a specific transport layer.

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   From architecture perspective, SPICE is architected a bit different
   than RDP and ICA.  While RDP and ICA are made of up two components (a
   remote software component that runs in the OS of the Windows host
   you're connecting to, and a client), SPICE is actually made up of
   three components:

   1.  Remote guest component: A virtual graphics adapter running in the
       VM, just like RDP/ICA

   2.  Client component; The SPICE client software, just like RDP/ICA;

   3.  Remote host component: A virtual graphics device which the
       hypervisor makes available to the VM.

   In other words, because SPICE has a hypervisor component, it will
   only work when your remote hosts are VMs.

   Similar with RDP, SPICE protocol spilt the communication session into
   multiple communication channels.  Currently the following
   communication channels are defined in the protocol: a) the main
   channel serves as the main spice session connection; b) display
   channel for receiving remote display updates; c) inputs channel for
   sending mouse and keyboard events; d) cursor channel for receiving
   pointer shape and position; e) Playback channel for receiving audio
   stream; f) Record channel for sending audio capture.  More channel
   types will be added as the protocol evolves.  Since RDP is based on
   T.120, it could use channel service from lower layer.  But for SPICE,
   it has to do channel management along with application protocols,
   which may lead to some implementation complexity.

   For user authentication in SPICE, the server generates a 1024 bit RSA
   key and sends the public part to the client (via RedLinkInfo).
   Client uses this key to encrypt the password and send it back to
   server (after RedLinkMess).  Server decrypt the password, compare it
   to ticket.

   SPICE doesn't define encryption mechanism in application layer, which
   means that it depends on external security protocols for security
   guarantee so that having maximum flexibility in choosing an
   encryption method.

   SPICE defines full server redirection primitives to support live
   migration.  RDP supports server redirection for load balance purpose,
   which means server redirection only occurs during 1st server access.
   SPICE could support server redirection during run-time and
   corresponding migration process control.

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   SPICE uses different compression strategy for different media
   resource.  It uses QUIC/LZSS/GLZ for lossless image compression.
   QUIC (based on SFALIC) and GLZ (based on LZSS with a history-based
   global dictionary) are Redhat proprietary algorithms.  As the video/
   audio is played using different media player in the virtual machine,
   it's not easy to send raw media data to client directly.  In current
   SPICE architecture, the video/audio media file firstly is decoded in
   virtual machine, then captured by SPICE and sent to client using
   algorithm MJPEG for video and CELT for audio.

   Similar with RDP, SPICE supports transmission 2D graphic primitives
   to client to fully re-use client computing resource and save
   bandwidth.  In current SPICE implementation, SPICE server also does
   optimization for graphic commands by building up one graphic command
   tree and removing un-necessary commands (for example, it is hidden by
   other commands) to further saving bandwidth.

   Caching for pixmaps, palettes and cursors are also defined in SPICE
   in order to avoid redundant transmissions to the client.  In current
   implementation, the server is responsible for cache management, such
   as add or remove from the cache.  The client cache size is set by the
   client and transferred to the server through the display channel
   initialization message.  The server monitors the current cache
   capacity and when it lacks space it removes the least recently used
   cache items until there is enough available cache space.  The server
   sends an invalidate command with these items and the client removes
   them.  In rendering-related messages, corresponding cache id will be
   specified instead of carrying over actual image data.  User experience improvement

   SPICE defines a framework to support interactive operation between
   client and server based on techniques described in pervious section.
   For service like device redirection, SPICE protocol currently has no
   definition.  But SPICE community has plan and is going on for

   1.  Network tunneling: using virtual network interface to enable
       sharing of network resources.  Currently the focus is on printer
       sharing but is not limited to that;

   2.  USB sharing: allows clients to share their USB devices with SPICE
       servers.  USB sharing is currently supported already in the
       official RHEV versions, through a proprietary component.  An open
       source replacement for this is coming along nicely.

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3.4.  ICA

3.4.1.  Introduction

   Independent Computing Architecture is a proprietary protocol for an
   application server system, designed by Citrix Systems.  The protocol
   lays down a specification for passing data between server and
   clients, but is not bound to any one platform.  The ICA protocol is
   used within several of Citrix's products to provide desktop
   virtualization across many different platforms.  The three specific
   Citrix products utilizing ICA are WinFrame, XenApp and XenDesktop.
   The main purpose of these products is to allow a centralized set of
   Microsoft Windows based servers to deliver Windows applications/
   virtual machines to users on various platforms such as Linux, UNIX,
   MacOS and even Windows CE.

3.4.2.  ICA Protocol  Basic architecture

   From perspective of 7-Layer OSI model, ICA is one protocol on
   Presentation layer, which is defined for services like, data
   conversion, compression, decompression, encryption, decryption and

   Well known ports 1494/UDP/TCP and 2598/UDP/TCP are the two primary
   ports used for the ICA protocol.  Over these ports, the ICA protocol
   handles the transmission of data between the client and the server.
   Data transfer from the client to the server generally includes mouse
   movement, events and other requests.  Data transfers from the server
   to the client generally involve a high-level view of the display
   rather than a full image of the screen, dramatically saving bandwidth
   and reducing the dependency on latency.

   ICA protocol also uses channel-based architecture.  It is comprised
   of 32 virtual channels and each channel with a default priority.  QoS
   is provided based on prioritization and less important data is
   sacrificed if necessary.  Bandwidth saving and User experience improvement

   Since ICA is Citrix's proprietary protocol, more detailed information
   like how compression is defined is Citrix's secret.

   From Citrix's product view, Citrix provides HDX technology to deliver
   a "high definition" desktop virtualization user experience to end
   users for any application, device or network.  These user experience
   enhancements balance performance with low bandwidth - anything else

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   becomes impractical to use and scale.  HDX technology provides
   network and performance optimizations to deliver the best user
   experience over any network, including low bandwidth and high latency
   WAN connections.

3.5.  RFB

3.5.1.  RFB Protocol  Basic architecture

   RFB protocol adopts server-client architecture.  The remote endpoint
   where the user sits (typically with a display, keyboard, and pointer)
   is called the RFB client or viewer.  The endpoint where changes to
   the framebuffer originate (i.e., the windowing system and
   applications) is known as the RFB server.  RFB protocol works at the
   framebuffer level, which means that pixel information is transferred
   instead of graphics commands between RFB server and RFB client.  In
   this way, it makes RFB a "thin client" protocol, which has very few
   requirements of the client.  Thus RFB clients can run on the widest
   range of hardware, and the task of implementing a client is made as
   simple as possible.

   RFB protocol depends on one reliable transport layer.  From current
   practice, it usually operates over a TCP/IP connection.  During
   initialization, client will setup one TCP connection with server.
   After that, all information is carried over this connection.  This is
   different with SPICE or RDP, which defines several logical channels
   and each channel has one corresponding TCP connection.

   In current RFB protocol, two kinds of information are defined to be
   exchanged between server and client:

   o  Inputs: The input side of RFB protocol is based on a standard
      workstation model of a keyboard and multi-button pointing device.
      Input events are simply sent to the server by the client whenever
      the user presses a key or pointer button, or whenever the pointing
      device is moved.  These input events can also be synthesized from
      other non-standard I/O devices.  For example, a pen-based
      handwriting recognition engine might generate keyboard events.

   o  Display: The display side of RFB protocol is based around a single
      graphics primitive: "put a rectangle of pixel data at a given x,y
      position" whenever the server found there is change in the
      framebuffer or it is requested by the client explicitly.  In
      existing implementation, there are two practices for the server to
      find out there is change in framebuffer: a) the server
      periodically pulls the data from the framebuffer and compares it

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      with previous one.  Obviously this is computing resource consuming
      and not effective; b) The server utilizes mirror driver
      functionality in Windows OS.  It depends on notification from
      mirror driver whenever there is change in framebuffer.

   For RFB protocol, it has three ways for extension: a) adding new
   encodings or pseudo encodings; b) adding new security types; c)
   adding new message definitions.  The former two methods work like the
   plug-in mechanism and will not result in RFB protocol version

   In RFB protocol, only VNC authentication method is defined.  The work
   flow is: 1) The server sends a random 16-byte challenge; 2) The
   client encrypts the challenge with DES, using a password supplied by
   the user as the key.  To form the key, the password is truncated to
   eight characters, or padded with null bytes on the right; 3) The
   server verifies the response from client.  Beside this default
   security method, the client and server might also agree to use an
   extended security type to encrypt the session, or the session might
   be transmitted over a secure channel such as IPsec or SSH.  Bandwidth saving and User experience improvement

   As described before, the display side of RFB protocol is based around
   a single graphics primitive: "put a rectangle of pixel data at a
   given x,y position".  This might seem an inefficient way of drawing
   many user interface components.  However, allowing various different
   encodings for the pixel data gives us a large degree of flexibility
   in how to trade off various parameters such as network bandwidth,
   client drawing speed, and server processing speed.

   Current encoding algorithms defined in the standard includes:
   CopyRect Encoding, RRE Encoding, Hextile Encoding, TRLE and ZRLE.
   The core idea of these encodings is to combine different compression
   techniques, like palettization/run-length encoding/zlib, to compress
   the pixel data.

4.  Conclusion

   Through the survey of several VDI products, we found the common key
   components of VDI architecture:

   1.  Desktop client: The software installed on client devices.  It
       connects to virtual desktop over protocols such as RDP, ICA and

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   2.  Virtual desktop agent: The agent is installed on virtual machine
       for accepting the client's connection.  Not all solutions have
       same architecture.  For instance, in Redhat's VDI solution, SPICE
       server , which runs on host machine, plays this role and is
       shared by all virtual machines on the server;

   3.  Virtual machine pool: Virtual machine pool provides computing
       resource for virtual desktops.  It launches new virtual machine
       when new client connects to it.  Virtual machine pool could
       contain huge numbers of virtual desktops,so the pool should be
       highly scalable and reliable;

   4.  Desktop connection broker.  The broker manages desktop
       connections.  It chooses the best virtual machine for the user
       according to some policy (such as load balance) and directs the
       connection to virtual machine;

   5.  Access Gateway.  Responsible for external client's access.  It
       authenticates external users and provides secure connections
       between client and virtual desktop;

   6.  Authentication Server: Provides authentication for users.  It can
       be directory server or others.

   To optimize user experience, all solutions adopt a set of
   technologies, such as multimedia compress, image cache, device
   redirection, client rending and adaptive bandwidth management.  These
   technologies ensure that virtual desktop users feel the desktop is
   running locally.

   There are two modes about how the client connects to virtual desktop:

   1.The client connects to agent which is running on virtual machine.
   In Citrix, Microsoft and VMware's solutions, there is a virtual
   desktop agent on each virtual machine.  The agent opens protocol
   ports to wait for client's connection, and exchange information with
   the client.  This modes is shown in Figure 7:

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    | +-----------------------+ |
    | | +------------------+  | | VDI protocol  +------------+
    | | |  Virtual Desktop |--+-+---------------| VDI Client |
    | | |       Agent      |  | |               +------------+
    | | +------------------+  | |
    | |      Guest OS         | |
    | +-----------------------+ |
    |   Virtual Machine         |

                     Figure 7 Agent on virtual machine

   2.The client connects to agent which is running on host.  In Redhat's
   solution, for each virtual machineGBP[not]there is a SPICE server
   playing the role of virtual desktop agent, which is installed on
   host, instead of being installed in every virtual machine.  The SPICE
   server captures the virtual machine's screen information, and
   transfers it to the client.  This mode is shown in Figure 8

    |      +-------+      |
    |      |Virtual|      |
    |      |Machine|      |
    |      +---+---+      |
    |          |          |
    | +---+---------+---+ | SPICE protocol +-------------+
    | |   SPICE Server  |-+----------------| SPICE Client|
    | +-----------------+ |                +-------------+
    |               Host  |

                          Figure 8 Agent on host

   For different VDI protocols, they have similarities from perspective
   of functionality:

   1.  Support experience of operating local-computer when accessing
       remote server, through defining multi-channels and each channel
       is for one specific data type, like display/audio/input;

   2.  Enhance user experience through bandwidth saving techniques and
       more value-added services like Plug-n-Play: 1) define framework
       to support client and server negotiation of compression method
       and cache management; 2) define different protocol extensions to
       support different services, like device redirection; 3) define
       framework for graphic command transmission for 2D and 3D

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       applications instead of large-size image.

   Looking inside each protocol, they are different with each other,
   especially for:

   1.  Since they are proposed by different vendors and targeted for
       different purpose at initial time, detailed message and procedure
       are totally different, even for the architecture.  For example,
       RDP is based on T.120, while SPICE is self-contained and ICA is

   2.  Compression codec definition in each framework is incompatible.
       For example, NSCodec and RemoteFX codec are defined in RDP
       framework for image compression, while SPICE uses GLZ/LZ/QUIC/
       JPEG to compress the image;

   3.  Service definition completeness of each protocol is different.
       RDP protocol currently contains rich extension for some services,
       like file-system and device redirection, Plug-n-Play and etc.
       For SPICE, the community is working hard on that to catch it up.

5.  Acknowledgements

6.  Security Considerations

   Related security issues will be addressed in subsequent draft.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [ITUT120]  ITU, "ITU T.120", 2009,

   [MCPP]     Microsoft, "Windows Communication Protocols webpage",
              2011, <http://msdn.microsoft.com/zh-cn/library/cc216513>.

   [MSRDS]    Microsoft, "Microsoft RDS webpage", 2011, <http://

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [SPICE]    Redhat, Spice project., "Spice remote computing protocol

Ma, et al.              Expires November 14, 2011              [Page 29]

Internet-Draft            survey of VDI System                  May 2011

              definition v1.0", 2009.

   [VMWARE]   VMware, "VMware View webpage", 2011,

              Citrix, "Citrix XenDesktop webpage", 2011,

7.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

Authors' Addresses

   Suan Ma (editor)
   ZTE Corporation
   No.68 Zijinghua Road

   Phone: +86 15950586953
   Email: ma.suan@zte.com.cn

   Liang Liang
   ZTE Corporation
   No.68 Zijinghua Road

   Phone: +86 18913825360
   Email: liang.liang12@zte.com.cn

   Jun Wang
   ZTE Corporation
   No.68 Zijinghua Road

   Phone: +86 13770604455
   Email: wang.jun17@zte.com.cn

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