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Versions: 00 01 02                                                      
        Provider Provisioned VPN WG                      Hamid Ould-Brahim
        Internet Draft                                     Nortel Networks
        Expiration Date: January 2002
                                                             Yakov Rekhter
                                                          Juniper Networks
     
                                                                 - Editors
     
     
                                                                 Don Fedyk
                                                       Peter Ashwood-Smith
                                                           Nortel Networks
     
                                                             Eric C. Rosen
                                                             Cisco Systems
     
                                                               Eric Mannie
                                                                     Ebone
     
                                                               Luyuan Fang
                                                                      AT&T
     
                                                                John Drake
                                                          Calient Networks
     
                                                                  Yong Xue
                                                            UUNET/WorldCom
     
                                                              Riad Hartani
                                                          Caspian Networks
     
                                                                 July 2001
     
     
                           BGP/GMPLS Optical VPNs
     
                     draft-ouldbrahim-bgpgmpls-ovpn-01.txt
     
     
     
     
     
     Status of this Memo
     
        This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
        with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [RFC-2026], except
        that the right to produce derivative works is not granted.
     
        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet
        Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working
        groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working
        documents as Internet-Drafts.
     
     
     Ould-Brahim, et. al                                                  1
                     draft-ouldbrahim-bgpgmpls-ovpn-01.txt        July 2001
     
     
        Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
        months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
        documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-
        Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
        "work in progress."
     
        The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
        http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
        The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed
        at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
     
     
     Abstract
     
        Consider a service provider network that offers Optical Virtual
        Private Network (OVPN) service. An important goal in the OVPN
        service is the ability to support what is known as "single end
        provisioning", where addition of a new port to a given OVPN
        would involve configuration/provisioning changes only on the
        devices connected to that port. Another important goal in the
        OVPN service is the ability to establish/terminate an optical
        connection between a pair of (existing) ports within an OVPN
        without involving configuration/provisioning changes in any of
        the provider devices.
     
        In this document we describe a set of mechanisms that
        accomplishes these goals.
     
     Obsoletes draft-fedyk-bgpvpon-auto-00.txt
     
     1. Sub-IP Summary ID
     
        This ID targets the PPVPN working group as it deals with a VPN
        solution similar to port-based VPNs. It describes an approach
        to allow service providers to offer optical VPN service. A pair
        of client devices (a router, a SONET/SDH cross-connect, or an
        Ethernet switch) could be connected through the service
        provider network via an optical connection. It is this optical
        connection that forms the basic unit of service that the
        service provider network offers.
     
        RELATED DOCUMENTS
     
        draft-ouldbrahim-ovpn-requirements-00.txt. Others can be found
        in the "references" section.
     
        WHERE DOES IT FIT IN THE PICTURE OF THE SUB-IP WORK
     
        Fits the PPVPN box.
     
        WHY IS IT TARGETED AT THIS WG
     
     
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        This WG is looking at port based VPN over an IP/MPLS
        infrastructure. This work is exactly a port-based optical VPN
        using IP related building blocks.
     
        JUSTIFICATION
     
        The current PPVPN chairs have already discussed this work and
        are considering expanding the PPVPN charter to include OVPN as
        part of PPVPN mandate.
     
     
     2. Optical VPN Reference Model
     
     
        Consider a service provider network that consists of devices
        such as Optical Network Element (ONE) which may be Optical
        Cross Connects (OXCs). We partition these devices into P
        (provider) ONEs and PE (provider edge) ONEs. The P ONEs are
        connected only to the ONEs within the provider's network. The
        PE ONEs are connected to the ONEs within the provider network,
        as well as to the devices outside of the provider network.
        We'll refer to such other devices as Client Edge Devices (CEs).
        An example of a CE would be a router, or a SONET/SDH cross-
        connect, or an Ethernet switch.
     
     
     
     
                               +---+    +---+
                               | P |....| P |
                               +---+    +---+
                          PE  /              \  PE
                       +-----+               +-----+    +--+
                       |     |               |     |----|  |
               +--+    |     |               |     |    |CE|
               |CE|----+-----+               |     |----|  |
               +--+\      |                  |     |    +--+
                    \  +-----+               |     |
                     \ |     |               |     |    +--+
                      \|     |               |     |----|CE|
                       +-----+               +-----+    +--+
                              \              /
                                +---+    +---+
                                | P |....| P |
                                +---+    +---+
     
        Figure 1 Optical VPN Reference Model
     
        A CE is connected to a PE ONE via one or more links, where each
        link may consists of one or more channels or sub-channels
        (e.g.,  wavelength or wavelength and timeslot respectively).
        For purpose of this discussion we assume that all the channels
     
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        within a given link have shared similar characteristics (e.g.,
        bandwidth, encoding, etc_), and can be interchanged from the
        CEs point of view. Channels on different links of a CE need not
        have the same characteristics.
     
        There may be more than one link between a given CE PE ONE pair.
        A CE may be connected to more than one PE ONE (with at least
        one port per each PE ONE). And, of course, a PE ONE may have
        more than one CE connected to it.
     
        If a CE is connected to a PE ONE via multiple links and all
        these links belong to the same VPN, then for the purpose of
        OVPN these links could be treated as a single link using the
        link bundling constructs [LINK-BUNDLING].
     
        In general a link may have only data bearing channels, or only
        control bearing channels, or both.  For the purpose of this
        discussion we assume that for a given CE - PE ONE pair at least
        one of the links between them has at least one control bearing
        channel and at least one data bearing channel.
     
        A link has two end-points - one on CE and one on PE ONE. In the
        context of this document we'll refer to the former as "CE
        port", and to the latter as "PE ONE port". From the above it
        follows that a CE is connected to a PE ONE via one or more
        ports, where each port may consists of one or more channels or
        sub-channels (e.g., wavelength or wavelength and timeslot
        respectively), and all the channels within a given port have
        shared similar characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, encoding,
        etc_), and can be interchanged from the CEs point of view.
        Channels on different ports of a CE need not have the same
        characteristics.
     
        Note that in the context of this document both ports and links
        are logical constructs, and are used to represent grouping of
        physical resources per OVPN basis that are used to connect a CE
        to a PE ONE. At any given point in time, a given port on a PE
        ONE is associated with at most one OVPN. This association is
        established and maintained by the service provider provisioning
        system.
     
     
        A pair of CEs could be connected through the service provider
        network via an optical connection. It is precisely this optical
        connection that forms the basic unit of service that the
        service provider network offers. If a port by which a CE is
        connected to a PE ONE consists of multiple channels (e.g.,
        multiple wavelengths), the CE could establish optical
        connection to multiple other CEs over this single port.
     
        An important goal in the OVPN service is the ability to support
        what is known as "single end provisioning", where addition of a
     
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        new port to a given OVPN would involve
        configuration/provisioning changes only on the PE ONE that has
        this port and on the CE that is connected to the PE ONE via
        this port. Another important goal in the OVPN service is the
        ability to establish/terminate an optical connection between a
        pair of (existing) ports within an OVPN without involving
        configuration/provisioning changes in any of the provider's
        ONEs. The mechanisms outlined in this document aim at achieving
        these goals. Specifically, as part of the Optical VPN service
        offering, these mechanisms (1) enable the service provider to
        restrict the set of ports that a given port could be connected
        to, (2) enable the service provider to provide a CE with the
        information about the ports that the CE could be connected, (3)
        enable a CE to establish the actual connections to a subset of
        ports provided by (2). Finally, the mechanisms allow different
        OVPN topologies to be supported ranging from hub-and-spoke to
        complete mesh.
     
     
        The service provider does not initiate the creation of an
        optical circuit between a pair of PE ONE ports. This is done
        rather by the CEs, which attach to the ports. However, the SP,
        by using the mechanisms outlined in this document, restricts
        the set of other PE ONE ports which may be the remote endpoints
        of optical circuits that have the given port as the local
        endpoint. Subject to these restrictions, the CE-to-CE
        connectivity is under the control of the CEs themselves. In
        other words, SP allows an OVPN to have a certain set of
        topologies, and CE-initiated signaling is used to choose a
        particular topology from that set.
     
     
        Since this model involves minimal provisioning changes when
        changing the connectivity among the ports within a OVPN on the
        providers network and the OVPNs themselves are controlled by
        the CEs, the tariff structure may be on a port basis or
        alternatively tariffs could be triggered on the basis of
        signaling mechanisms.
     
        Finally, it is assumed that CE-to-CE optical connectivity is
        based on GMPLS [GMPLS].
     
     
     3. Overview of operations
     
        This document assumes that within a given OVPN each port on a
        CE that connects the CE to a PE ONE has an identifier that is
        unique within that OVPN (but need not be unique across several
        OVPNs). One way to accomplish this is to assign each port an IP
        address that is unique within a given OVPN, and use this
        address as a port identifier. Another way to accomplish this is
        to assigned each port an interface index that is unique within
     
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        a given CE, assign each CE an IP address that is unique within
        a given OVPN, and then use a tuple <interface index, CE IP
        address> as a port identifier.
     
        This document assumes that within a service provider network,
        each port on a PE ONE has an identifier that is unique within
        that network. One way to accomplish this would be to assign
        each port on a PE ONE an interface index, assign each PE ONE an
        IP address that is unique within the service provider network
        (in the case of multi-provider operations, the address has to
        be unique across all the providers involved), and then use a
        tuple <interface index, PE ONE IP address> as a port identifier
        within the provider network.
     
     
     
                       PE ONE                    PE ONE
                    +---------+             +--------------+
        +--------+  | +------+|             | +----------+ | +--------+
        |  VPN-A |  | |VPN-A ||             | |  VPN-A   | | |  VPN-A |
        |   CE1  |--| |PIT   ||  BGP route  | |    PIT   | |-|   CE2  |
        +--------+  | |      ||<----------->| |          | | +--------+
                    | +------+| Distribution| +----------+ |
                    |         |             |              |
        +--------+  | +------+|  --------   | +----------+ | +--------+
        | VPN-B  |  | |VPN-B || ( Optical ) | |   VPN-B  | | |  VPN-B |
        |  CE1   |--| |PIT   ||-(  GMPLS  )-| |    PIT   | |-|   CE2  |
        +--------+  | |      || (Backbone ) | |          | | +--------+
                    | +------+|  ---------  | +----------+ |
                    |         |             |              |
        +--------+  | +-----+ |             | +----------+ | +--------+
        | VPN-C  |  | |VPN-C| |             | |   VPN-C  | | |  VPN-C |
        |  CE1   |--| |PIT  | |             | |    PIT   | |-|   CE2  |
        +--------+  | |     | |             | |          | | +--------+
                    | +-----+ |             | +----------+ |
                    +---------+             +--------------+
     
     
        Figure 2 OVPN Components
     
     
        As a result each link connecting the CE to the PE ONE is
        associated with a CE port that has a unique identifier within a
        given OVPN, and with a PE port that has a unique identifier
        within the service provider network. We'll refer to the former
        as the customer port identifier (CPI), and to the latter as the
        provider port identifier (PPI).
     
        This document assumes that in addition to PPI, each port on PE
        ONE has also an identifier that is unique within the OVPN of
        the CE connected to that port.  One way to accomplish this is
        to assign each port an IP address that is unique within a given
     
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        OVPN, and use this address as a port identifier. Another way to
        accomplish this is to assigned each port an interface index
        that is unique within a given PE ONE, assign each PE ONE an IP
        address that is unique within a given OVPN (but need not be
        unique within the service provider network), and then use a
        tuple <interface index, PE ONE IP address> acts as a port
        identifier.  We'll refer to such port identifier as VPN-PPI.
        Note that PE ONE IP address used for VPN-PPI need not be the
        same as PE ONE IP address used for PPI, and moreover, a given
        PE ONE may have multiple PE ONE addresses used for VPN-PPI, one
        per OVPN. Subject to the constraints outlined in the next
        paragraph, PPI could be used as VPN-PPI.
     
        For a given link connecting a CE to a PE ONE, if CPI is an IP
        address, then VPN-PPI has to be an IP address as well. And if
        CPI is an <interface index, CPI IP address>, then VPN-PPI has
        to be an <interface index, PE ONE IP address>. However, for a
        given port on PE ONE, whether VPN-PPI of that port is an IP
        address or an <interface index, PE ONE IP address> is
        independent of whether PPI of that port is an IP address or an
        <interface index, PE ONE IP address>.
     
        Each PE ONE maintains a Port Information Table (PIT) for each
        OVPN that has at least one port on that PE ONE. A PIT contains
        a list of <CPI, PPI> tuples for all the ports within its OVPN.
     
        A PIT on a given PE ONE is populated from two sources: the
        information related to the CEs (optionally received from the
        CEs) attached to the ports on that PE ONEs, and the information
        received from other PE ONEs. We'll refer to the former as the
        "local" information, and to the latter as the "remote"
        information.
     
        The local information is propagated to other PE ONEs by using
        BGP with multi-protocol extensions. To restrict the flow of
        this information to only the PITs within a given OVPN, we use
        BGP route filtering based on the Route Target Extended
        Community [BGP-COMM], as follows.
     
        Each PIT on a PE ONE is configured with one or more Route
        Target Communities, called "export Route Targets", that are
        used for tagging the local information when it is exported into
        provider's BGP. The granularity of such tagging could be as
        fine as a single <PPI, CPI> pair. In addition, each PIT on a PE
        ONE is configured with one or more Route Target Communities,
        called "import Route Targets", that restrict the set of routes
        that could be imported from provider's BGP into the PIT to only
        the routes that have at least of these Communities.
     
        When a service provider adds a new OVPN port to a particular PE
        ONE, this port is associated at provisioning time with a PIT on
     
     
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        that PE ONE, and this PIT is associated (again at provisioning
        time) with that OVPN.
     
        Once a port is configured on the PE ONE, the CE that is
        attached via this port to the PE ONE MAY pass to the PE ONE the
        CPI information of that port. This document assumes that this
        is accomplished by using BGP  (however, the document doesn't
        preclude the use of other mechanisms).
     
        This information, combined with the PPI information available
        to the PE ONE, enables the PE ONE to create a tuple <CPI, PPI>
        for such port, and then use this tuple to populate the PIT of
        the OVPN associated with that port.
     
        In order to establish an optical connection, a CE needs to
        identify all other CEs in the CE's OVPN it wants to connect to.
        A CE may already have obtained the CE list through
        configuration or through some other schemes (such schemes are
        outside the scope of this draft).
     
        It is also desirable, that the service provider, as a value
        added service, may provide a CE with a list of all other CEs in
        the CE's OVPN. This is accomplished by passing the information
        stored in the PE ONE PITs to the attached CE. This document
        assumes that this is accomplished by using BGP Multi-protocol
        extensions (however this draft doesn't preclude other
        mechanisms to be used). Although optional, this draft
        recommends the PE to signal to the attached CEs the remote CPIs
        it learnt from the remote CEs part of the same OVPN. A CE may
        decide to initiate an optical connection request to a remote CE
        only when it learn the CPI of the remote CE from the PE. This
        has the benefit to avoid rejecting connection request while the
        PE is populating the PITs.
     
        Once a CE obtains the information about the CPIs of other ports
        within the same OVPN, which we'll refer to as "target ports",
        the CE uses a (subset of) GMPLS signaling to request the
        provider network to establish an optical connection to a target
        port. Note that this draft assumes that GMPLS is only used to
        establish optical connections between client devices.
     
        The request originated by the CE contains the CPI of the port
        on the CE that CE wants to use for the optical connection, and
        the CPI of the target port. When the PE ONE attached to the CE
        that originated the request receives the request, the PE ONE
        identifies the appropriate PIT, and then uses the information
        in that PIT to find out the PPI associated with the CPI of the
        target port carried in the request. The PPI should be
        sufficient for the PE ONE to establish an optical connection.
        Ultimately the request reaches the CE associated with the
        target CPI (note that the request still carries the CPI of the
        CE that originated the request). If the CE associated with the
     
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        target CPI accepts the request, the optical connection is
        established.
     
        Note that a CE need not establish an optical connection to
        every target port that CE knows about - it is a local to the CE
        matter to select a subset of target ports to which the CE will
        try to establish optical connections.
     
        A port, in addition to its CPI and PPI may also have other
        information associated with it that describes characteristics
        of the channels within that port, such as encoding supported by
        the channels, bandwidth of a channel, total unreserved
        bandwidth within the port, etc. This information could be
        further augmented with the information about certain
        capabilities of the Service Provider network (e.g., support
        RSOH DCC transparency, arbitrary concatenation, etc_). This
        information is used to ensure that ports at each end of an
        optical connection have compatible characteristics, and that
        there are sufficient unallocated resources to establish an
        optical connection. Distribution of this information (including
        the mechanisms for distributing this information) is identical
        to the distribution of the <CPI, PPI> information. Distributing
        changes to this information due to establishing/terminating of
        optical connections is identical to the distribution of the
        <CPI, PPI> information, except that thresholds should be used
        to contain the volume of control traffic caused by such
        distribution.
     
        It may happen that for a given pair of ports within an OVPN,
        each of the CEs connected to these ports would concurrently try
        to establish an optical connection to the other CE. If having a
        pair of optical connections between a pair of ports is viewed
        as undesirable, the a way to resolve this is have CE with the
        lower value of CPI is required to terminate the optical
        connection originated by the CE. This option could be
        controlled by configuration on the CE devices.
     
     
     4. Encoding
     
        This section specifies encoding of various information defined
        in this document.
     
     4.1 Encoding of CPI and channel characteristics in GMPLS Signaling
     
        [TBD]
     
     4.2 Encoding of CPI, PPI, and channel characteristics in BGP
     
     4.2.1 Encoding of CPI and PPI information in BGP
     
     
     
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        The <CPI, PPI> mapping is carried using the Multiprotocol
        Extensions BGP [RFC2858]. [RFC2858] defines the format of two
        BGP attributes, MP_REACH_NLRI and MP_UNREACH_NLRI that can be
        used to announce and withdraw the announcement of reachability
        information. We introduce a new address family identifier (AFI)
        for OVPN (to be assigned by the IANA), a new subsequent address
        family identifier (to be assigned by the IANA), and also a new
        NLRI format for carrying the CPI and PPI information.
     
        One or more <PPI, CPI> tuples could be carried in the above
        mentioned BGP attributes.
     
        The format of encoding a single <PPI, CPI> tuple is shown in
        Figure 3 below:
     
     
             +---------------------------------------+
             |     Length (1 octet)                  |
             +---------------------------------------+
             |     PPI AFI (2 octets)                |
             +---------------------------------------+
             |     PPI Length (1 octet)              |
             +---------------------------------------+
             |     PPI (variable)                    |
             +---------------------------------------+
             |     CPI AFI (2 octets)                |
             +---------------------------------------+
             |     CPI (length)                      |
             +---------------------------------------+
             |     CPI (variable)                    |
             +---------------------------------------+
     
             Figure 3: NLRI BGP encoding
     
          The use and meaning of these fields are as follows:
     
              Length:
     
                 A one octet field whose value indicates the length of
             the
                 <PPI, CPI> Information tuple in octets.
     
              PPI AFI:
     
                A two octets field whose value indicates address
                family identifier of PPI
     
              PPI Length:
     
                A one octet field whose value indicates the length of
                of the PPI field
     
     
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              PPI field:
     
                A variable length field that contains the value of
                the PPI (either an address or <interface index,
                address> tuple
     
              CPI AFI field:
     
                A two octets field whose value indicates address
                family of the CPI.
     
              CPI Length:
     
                A once octet field whose value indicates the
                length of the CPI field.
     
              CPI (variable):
     
                A variable length field that contains the CPI
                value (either an address or <interface index, address>
                tuple.
     
     4.2.2 Encoding channel characteristics in BGP
     
        [TBD]
     
     5. Other issues
     
        While the above text assumes that the service provider network
        consists of ONEs and ports are connected via optical
        connections, the mechanisms described in this document could be
        applied in an environment, where the service provider network
        consists of SONET/SDH cross connects and CE ports being either
        SONET/SDH or Ethernet.
     
        Since the protocol used to populate a PIT with remote
        information is BGP, since BGP works across multiple routing
        domains, and since GMPLS signaling isn't restricted to a single
        routing domain, it follows that the mechanisms described in
        this document could support an environment that consists of
        multiple routing domains.
     
        The mechanisms described in this document allow for a wide
        range of choices with respect to addresses used for CPI, PPI,
        and VPN-PPI. For example, one could use either IPv4 addresses,
        or IPv6 addresses, or NSAPs. Different OVPN customers of a
        given service provider may use different types of addresses.
        Moreover, different OVPNs attaching to the same PE ONE may use
        different addressing schemes. The types of addresses used for
        PPIs within a given service provider network are independent
        from the type of addresses used for CPI and VPN-PPI by the OVPN
        customers of that provider.
     
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     6. Security Considerations
     
        [TBD]
     
     7. References
     
        [BGP-COMM] Ramachandra, Tappan, "BGP Extended Communities
           Attribute", February 2000, work in progress.
     
        [Framework] Rajagopalan, B. et al., "IP over Optical Networks:
           A Framework ", November 2000, work in progress.
     
        [GMPLS] Ashwood-Smith, P., Berger, L. et al., "Generalized MPLS
           -Signaling Functional Description", November 2000, work in
           progress.
     
        [LINK-BUNDLING] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., Berger, L., "Link
           Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering", work in progress.
     
        [OVPN-REQ] Ould-Brahim, H., Rekhter, Y., et al., "Service
           Requirements for Optical Virtual Private Networks", work in
           progress, July 2001.
     
        [RFC-2858] Bates, Chandra, Katz, and Rekhter, "Multiprotocol
           Extensions for BGP4", RFC2858, June 2000.
     
        [RFC-2026] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process --
           Revision 3", RFC2026, October 1996.
     
        [RFC-2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
           Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.
     
        [VPN-BGP] Ould-Brahim H., Gleeson B., Ashwood-Smith P., Rosen
           E., Rekhter Y., Declerq J., Fang L., Hartani R., "Using BGP
           as an Auto-Discovery Mechanism for Network-based VPNs", work
           in progress, July 2001.
     
     
     
     
     
     8. Acknowledgments.
     
        The authors would like to thank Osama Aboul-Magd, Dimitri
        Papadimitriou, Penno Reinaldo, Erning Ye, and Bryan Gleeson for
        reviewing the draft and providing comments.
     
     
     
     
     
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     9. Author's Addresses
     
     
        Hamid Ould-Brahim
        Nortel Networks
        P O Box 3511 Station C
        Ottawa ON K1Y 4H7 Canada
        Phone: +1 (613) 765 3418
        Email: hbrahim@nortelnetworks.com
     
        Don Fedyk
        Nortel Networks
        600 Technology Park
        Billerica, Massachusetts
        01821 U.S.A.
        Phone: +1 (978) 288 3041
        Email: dwfedyk@nortelnetworks.com
     
     
        Peter Ashwood-Smith
        Nortel Networks
        P.O. Box 3511 Station C,
        Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7, Canada
        Phone: +1 613 763 4534
        Email: petera@nortelnetworks.com
     
        Yakov Rekhter
        Juniper Networks
        1194 N. Mathilda Avenue
        Sunnyvale, CA 94089
        Email: yakov@juniper.net
     
        Eric C. Rosen
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        250 Apollo drive
        Chelmsford, MA, 01824
        E-mail: erosen@cisco.com
     
        Eric Mannie
        Ebone (GTS)
        Terhulpsesteenweg 6A
        1560 Hoeilaart
        Belgium
        Phone: +32 2 658 56 52
        Email: eric.mannie@gts.com
     
        Luyuan Fang
        AT&T
        200 Laurel Avenue
        Middletown, NJ 07748
        Email: Luyuanfang@att.com
        Phone: +1 (732) 420 1920
     
     
     Ould-Brahim, et. al                                                 13
                     draft-ouldbrahim-bgpgmpls-ovpn-01.txt        July 2001
     
     
        John Drake
        Calient Networks
        5853 Rue Ferrari
        San Jose, CA 95138
        USA
        Phone: +1 408 972 3720
        Email: jdrake@calient.net
     
     
        Yong Xue
        UUNET/WorldCom
        Ashburn, Virginia
        (703)-886-5358
        yxue@uu.net
     
        Riad Hartani
        Caspian Networks
        170 Baytech Drive
        San Jose, CA 95143
        Phone: 408 382 5216
        Email: riad@caspiannetworks.com
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     Ould-Brahim, et al.          January 2002                    [Page 14]


                     draft-ouldbrahim-bgpgmpls-ovpn-01.txt        July 2001
     
     
     
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     Ould-Brahim, et al.          January 2002                    [Page 15]