OPSA Working Group                                            M. Palmero
Internet-Draft                                              F. Brockners
Intended status: Standards Track                           Cisco Systems
Expires: 23 September 2022                                      S. Kumar
                                                     NC State University
                                                             S. Bhandari
                                                              C. Cardona
                                                                D. Lopez
                                                          Telefonica I+D
                                                           22 March 2022

           Data Model for Lifecycle Management and Operations


   This document motivates and specifies a data model for lifecycle
   management and operations.  It describes the motivation and
   requirements to collect asset-centric metrics including but not
   limited to asset adoption and usability, licensing, supported
   features and capabilities, enabled features and capabilities, etc.;
   with the primary objective to measure and improve the overall user
   experience along the lifecycle journey, from technical requirements
   and technology selection through advocacy and renewal, including the
   end of life of an asset.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 23 September 2022.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  License Inventory and Activation  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Features in Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  Assets in Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.4.  Risk Mitigation Check (RMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.5.  Errata  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.6.  Security Advisory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.7.  Optimal Software Version (OSV)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.7.1.  Software Conformance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.7.2.  Risk Trend Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.7.3.  What-if Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.8.  Asset Retirement - End of Life (EOL)  . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Information Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Data Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.1.  Tree Diagrams of the modules that form LMO  . . . . . . .  12
       6.1.1.  Aggregated Asset Inventory  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       6.1.2.  Licenses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       6.1.3.  Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       6.1.4.  Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       6.1.5.  Incident Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       6.1.6.  Organization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       6.1.7.  User  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     6.2.  LMO Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       6.2.1.  LMO Common Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   7.  Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     9.1.  The IETF XML Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30

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     9.2.  The YANG Module Names Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   Change log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35

1.  Introduction

   The virtualization of hardware assets and the development of
   applications using microservice architecture for cloud-native
   infrastructure created new consumption and licensing models.  Any
   service can be deployed by composing multiple assets together where
   an asset refers to hardware, software, application, system or
   service.  For example, cloud-native infrastructure from one vendor
   may be hosted on the physical server from another vendor or a
   combination of multiple cloud-native functions from one or more
   vendors can be combined to execute any service.

   This introduces challenges for both lifecycle and adoption management
   of the assets.  For example, a user may need to identify the
   capability availability of different assets or measure the usage of
   each capability (or the combination) from any specific asset to
   measure its optimal potential.  Moreover, the user could pinpoint the
   reason: the software application could not be optimally deployed, or
   is not simple to use, or is not well documented, etc.  The user may
   use feed such measurements and analysis metrics back to the support
   engineers and the developers, so they can focus their work effort
   only on features that users are adopting, or even determine when the
   lifecycle of the development could end.

   This creates the need to collect and analyze asset-centric lifecycle
   management and operations data.  From now on this data will be
   referred as Lifecycle Management and Operations (LMO); where LMO is
   not limited to virtualized or cloud environments, it covers all types
   of networking environments in which technology assets are deployed.

   LMO data constitutes data needed to measure asset-centric lifecycle
   metrics including but not limited to asset adoption and usability,
   licensing, supported features and capabilities, enabled features and
   capabilities, etc.  The primary objective is to facilitate the asset
   lifecycle management from the initial asset selection and
   positioning, licensing, feature enablement and usage, and beyond
   renewal to improve the overall user experience.

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   The main challenge in collecting LMO-related data, especially in a
   multi-vendor environment, relies on the ability to produce and
   consume such data in a vendor-agnostic, consistent and synchronized
   manner.  APIs or telemetry are meant to collect and relay this data
   to receiving equipment for storing, analysis and/or visualization.

   This document describes the motivation behind LMO, lists use cases,
   followed by the information model and data model of LMO.  The list of
   use cases describes the need for new functional blocks and their
   interactions.  The current version of this draft is focused on asset
   inventory, licenses information, feature usage and incident
   management.  This draft specifies four YANG modules [RFC7950] focused
   on LMO, including:

   * Licenses,
   * Assets,
   * Usage level of Asset features, and
   * Incident Management.

   This document is organized as follows.  Section 2 establishes the
   terminology and abbreviations.  In Section 3, the goals and
   motivation of LMO are discussed.  In Section 4, use cases are
   introduced.  Section 5 specifies the information model and the data
   models for LMO.

1.1.  Requirements language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Terminology

   Terminology and abbreviations used in this document:

   *  Asset: refers to hardware, software, applications, or services.
      An asset can be physical or virtual.

   *  Consumer: refers to an entity that utilizes the outcomes of LMO.
      A consumer can be a user, a developer or some other interested
      third party.

   *  Developer: refers to the entity that creates or develops the
      entire asset or the part of the asset.

   *  EOL: End of Life.

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   *  Features: are options or functional capabilities available in an

   *  License: is issued by an entity such as the developer or the Open
      Source community and allows the user to operate the asset.
      Licenses determine how the asset can be leveraged and what is
      required in cases the asset is changed.

   *  LMO: Lifecycle Management and Operations.

   *  Optimal Software Version(OSV): refers to the elected software
      version considered optimal in the user environment.

   *  PID: Product Identifier.

   *  Usage: refers to how features of the asset are used.

   *  User: refers to the organization that owns or consumes the asset.
      Within the organization there are entities that: a) use the assets
      in their operations, b) manage the assets.

   *  User Experience: how a user interacts with and experiences a
      particular asset.  It includes a user's perceptions of ease of
      use, efficiency, and utility of an asset.

3.  Motivation

   The user experience with a specific asset can be organized into four

   1.  Asset characteristic class, covering anything related to asset,
       license, features, etc.

   2.  Utilization class, to measure how the assets and features are
       used, duration of usage, uptime, etc.

   3.  Notification class, covering any security advisory, retirement,

   4.  Incident class, to record and report any problem the user has
       faced with the asset.

   The ability to measure, produce and consume LMO could benefit the
   user organization in addressing issues such as:

   *  Licenses may not have been obtained at the optimum level for a
      given feature, where a user might have bought licenses that are
      not activated.

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   *  Features of an asset might not be used as needed in all
      deployments within the organization.

   *  Resolution of incidents involving the asset and the developer of
      the technology used within the asset.

   In addition to the resolution of incidents, LMO could allow developer
   organizations to optimize the features they offer.  For example, they
   could consider deprecating features that are used infrequently or
   focus on introducing more features for the assets that are widely
   deployed in various infrastructures.

   LMO also covers the need of communication between users and the
   developer.  LMO can provide the capability for users to provide
   feedback about any asset (e.g., potential deficiency of a feature,
   feature enhancement request).  An administrator in the user
   organization may include specific metrics that identify a potential
   problem of that specific feature or a capability of the asset.  An
   engineer in the developer organization can determine the impact of
   the potential deficiency from the number of users providing feedback.
   Note that this channel is different from a "call to a Technical
   Assistance Center" in which the user may request help in resolving
   operational issues with the asset.

4.  Use Cases

4.1.  License Inventory and Activation

   An operations engineer would like to understand which licenses are
   activated and which are used and/or consumed.  It is also important
   for asset users to understand which features within their assets
   might need a license and how to activate them.

   It is relatively straightforward to have an inventory of existing
   licenses when there is only one asset developer (providing the asset)
   and one asset family.

   But complexity grows when there are many different developers,
   systems and processes involved.  New service offerings have
   introduced new attributes and datasets and require alignment with new
   business models (pay-per-product, subscription model, pay-as-you-go
   model, etc.).  They might support different license types and models:
   asset activation keys, trust-based model, systems that act as proxy
   from the back end owned by the asset developer to support the control
   of licenses, etc.

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   Sometimes it is a challenge to report which licenses have been bought
   by the asset user, or who in the user organization owns that license
   because that information might rely on different asset developers;
   even within the same asset developer, licenses may correspond to
   different types or groups of assets.  Asset users often need to
   interact with different license systems and processes.

   Information on how assets are licensed could be delivered from a
   combination of attributes such as: sales order, purchase order, asset
   activation key, serial number, etc.

   If there is no consistency on how to deal with those data points,
   complexity increases for the consumer, potentially requiring manual
   steps.  Automating those manual steps or exceptions becomes time-
   consuming, eventually leading to higher costs for the asset consumer.

   Having a common data model for LMO eases the integration between
   different data sources, processes, and consolidation of the
   information under a common reference.

4.2.  Features in Use

   Feature logic is required to identify the configured features from
   the running configuration and determine how they might be used.
   There is often a lack of an easy method to list any configured
   features available in the current asset.

   This information is extracted from the running configuration many
   times, implemented by a rule system without having an easy method to
   list any configured features available in the current asset.

   Some of these use cases need to be built on top of others, and from
   them, other more complex use cases could be created.  For instance,
   Software Compliance use cases can be automated, based on use cases
   like security advisory, errata, End of Life(EOL), etc.

   All this brings a complete set of use cases that fulfills Lifecycle
   Management of assets, complementing and providing metrics on how
   asset users are using assets and how their experience from using
   those assets can be improved.

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4.3.  Assets in Use

   Current approach to quantify how an asset is used, requires volume or
   aggregated usage/consumption metrics related to deployed assets,
   functions, features, integrations, etc.  Also the need to quantify
   which metrics might be associated to a user, an organization, to
   specific services and how often are used; while others may be based
   on pre agreed profile (contractural or usage) of intented use.
   Examples include:

   *  Number of search/queries sent by the user.

   *  Amount of data returned to the user.

   *  Amount of active time spent using the asset/feature.

   *  Number of concurrent users accessing the asset/feature.

   *  Number of features in use.

   *  Number of users or sites using those features, etc.

   The information models and data models for LMO include data fields to
   support metrics that might be required by consumption-based charging
   and licensing of asset usage.

4.4.  Risk Mitigation Check (RMC)

   Network, software and cloud engineers would like to be aware of known
   issues that are causing assets to crash so that they can act to
   remediate the issue quickly, or even prevent the crash if alerts are
   triggered on time.  There are analytics tools that can process memory
   core dumps and crash-related files, providing the ability to the
   asset developers to determine the root cause.

   Accordingly, asset users can remediate the problem, automate the
   remedy to enable incident deflection, allowing the support staff to
   focus on new problems.  The goal of introducing normalization is not
   to define attributes for each of the elements being part of the crash
   information, but the results of RMC should be normalized and

   Risk Mitigation Check could also include the possibility to be aware
   of current and historical restarts allowing network and software
   engineers to enhance the service quality to asset users.

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4.5.  Errata

   Both hardware and software critical issues or Errata need development
   to automate asset user matching:

   *  Hardware Errata match on product identifiers (PIDs) + serial
      numbers along with additional hardware attributes.

   *  Software Errata match on software type and software version along
      with some additional device attributes.

   Engineering might develop the logic to check whether any critical
   issue applies to a single serial number or a specific software

   The information to be correlated includes customer identification,
   license, and asset information that the asset user might own.  All
   this information needs to be correlated with hardware and software
   Errata, and EOL information to show which part of the asset inventory
   might be affected.

4.6.  Security Advisory

   The Security Advisory use case automates the matching of asset user
   data to security bulletins published by asset developers.
   Security Advisory logic implemented by developers could apply to a
   specific software release.

4.7.  Optimal Software Version (OSV)

   The objective of the Optimal Software Version (OSV) use case is that
   consumers can mark software images as OSV for their assets; based on
   this, it is easier for them to control and align their hardware and
   software assets to the set of OSVs.

   Based on the logic of OSV, use cases like software compliance, risk
   trend analysis, acknowledge bugs, security advisories, errata, what-
   if analysis, etc., could be realized.

4.7.1.  Software Conformance

   All the assets should be at their latest recommended software version
   in case a security update is required to address a security issue of
   a specific feature.

   The Software Conformance use case provides a view to the asset users
   and informs the users whether the assets that belong to a specific
   group conforms to the OSV or not.  It can provide the users with a

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   report, including a representation of software compliance for the
   entire network and software applications.  This report could include
   the current software version running on the asset and the recommended
   software version.  The report could enable users to quickly highlight
   which group of assets might need the most attention to inspire
   appropriate actions.

   The Software Conformance use case uses data that might not be
   provided by the asset itself.  Data needs to be provided and
   maintained also by the asset developers, through e.g., asset catalog
   information.  Similar logic applies to a feature catalog, where the
   asset developer maintains the data and updates it adequately based on
   existing bugs, security advisories, etc.

   The Software Conformance process needs to correlate the Software
   catalog information with the software version running on the asset.

4.7.2.  Risk Trend Analysis

   The Risk Trend Analysis use case provides customers with a risk trend
   analysis, summarizing what might change before applying changes,
   including registered bugs, security advisories and errata.

4.7.3.  What-if Analysis

   The What-if Analysis use case allows asset users to plan for new
   hardware or software, giving them the possibility to change the
   config parameters or model how new hardware or software might change
   the software suggestions generated by OSV.

   OSV and the associated use cases involve dependencies on attributes
   that might need to be collected from assets directly, including
   related inventory information (serial numbers, asset identifiers,
   software versions, etc.), but also dynamic information could be
   required, like:

   *  Information on features that might be enabled on the particular

   *  Catalogs, that might include information related to release notes.
      For example, consider a feature catalog.  This catalog could
      include software versions that support a specific feature; the
      software releases that a feature is supported in; or the latest
      version that a feature is supported in, in case the feature is

   *  Data sources to correlate information coming from reports on
      critical issues or errata, security advisory, End of Life, etc.

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   Those catalogs and data sources with errata information, EOL, etc.
   need to be maintained and updated by asset developers, making sure,
   that the software running on the assets is safe to run and up to

4.8.  Asset Retirement - End of Life (EOL)

   Hardware EOL reports need to map Hardware EOL PIDs, focusing on base
   PIDs so that bundles, spares, non-base PIDs, etc., do not provide
   false EOL reporting to asset users.  Software EOL reports are used to
   automate the matching of user software type and software version to
   software EOL bulletins.

5.  Information Model

   The broad metric classes defined in section 3 that quantify user
   experience can be modeled as shown in Figure 1.  There is an
   inventory of all assets that the user possesses.  Each asset in the
   inventory may be entitled to one or more licenses; a license may
   contain one or more sub-licenses.  The level of usage for each
   feature and license associated with the asset is measured.  For every
   asset, a list of incidents could be created.

   For example, a user needs to measure the utilization of a specific
   license for a specific type of asset.  The information about the
   license may reside in a license server.  The state (activated or not)
   of the license may reside with the asset itself or a proxy.  They can
   be aggregated/correlated as per the information model shown in
   Figure 1 to give information to the user regarding the utilization of
   the licenses.  The user experience is thus enhanced by having
   accurate knowledge about the utility of the given license.

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    may_be_part_of                                    may_be_part_of
      +------+                                            +-------+
      |      |                                            |       |
      |      v                                            v       |
   +------------+  entitled_by            tracked_by   +------------+
   |  Licenses  |<------------+          +-------------|   Usage    |
   +------------+-----------+ | may_be_  | +---------->+------------+
   |  License   | entitles  | | part_of  | | tracks    |   Asset    |
   | attributes |           | | +------+ | |           |  Features  |
   +------------+           | | |      | | |           | and usage  |
                            v | |      v v |           | attributes |
                           +----------------+          +------------+
                           |     Asset      |
             future_       +----------------+    generated_by
             association   |     Asset      |<----------------+
               +---------->|   attributes   |---------------+ |
               |           +----------------+    generates  | |
               v                                            v |
         +-----------+                                 +------------+
         |  Future   |                                 |  Incident  |
         | Expansion |                                 +------------+
         +-----------+                                 |  Incident  |
                                                       | attributes |

                    Figure 1: Information Model

   The model allows for future expansion by new metrics that will
   quantify user experience.  Notice that future asociation relationship
   and future expansion might be linked to asset or to one of the other
   datasets: incident, feature usage or licenses.

6.  Data Models

6.1.  Tree Diagrams of the modules that form LMO

6.1.1.  Aggregated Asset Inventory

   This specification uses [I-D.draft-ietf-netmod-geo-location-11],

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   module: ietf-lmo-assets-inventory

     augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
       +--rw vendor?                   ietf-lmo-common:vendor-id
       +--rw name?                     string
       +--rw description?              string
       +--rw pid?                      string
       +--rw serial-number?            string
       +--rw vid?                      string
       +--rw mac-address?              yang:mac-address
       +--rw ip-address*               inet:ip-address
       +--rw entity-name?              string
       +--rw product-description?      string
       +--rw udi?                      string
       +--rw transparency-info?        inet:uri
       +--rw role?                     identityref
       +--rw aggregation?              boolean
       +--rw number-of-instances?      uint32
       +--rw platform-dependency-os?   identityref
       +--rw install-location
       +--rw deployment-mode?          identityref
       +--rw activation-date?          yang:date-and-time
       +--rw software-version?         string
       +--ro hotfixes
       |  +--ro hostfix* []
       |     +--ro version?   identityref
       |     +--ro order?     uint8
       +--rw software-type?            string
       +--rw sign-of-life-timestamp?   yang:date-and-time
       +--rw tags?                     string

6.1.2.  Licenses

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 module: ietf-lmo-licenses

   augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
     +--rw virtual-account?     string
     +--rw model?               ietf-lmo-common:license-model-t
     +--rw buying-program?      identityref
     +--rw offer-type?          identityref
     +--rw external-store?      boolean
     +--rw pid?                 string
     +--rw purchase-order-id?   ietf-lmo-common:purchase-order-t
     +--rw account-id?          string
     +--rw assets
     |  +--rw asset* [lmo-class id]
     |     +--rw lmo-class    -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
     |     +--rw id           -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
     +--rw features
     |  +--rw feature* [lmo-class id]
     |     +--rw lmo-class    -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
     |     +--rw id           -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
     +--rw state?               ietf-lmo-common:license-state-t
     +--rw renewal-profile
        +--rw purchase-date?     yang:date-and-time
        +--rw claim-date?        yang:date-and-time
        +--rw activation-date?   yang:date-and-time
        +--rw expiration-date?   yang:date-and-time
   augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
     +--rw licenses
        +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
        +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id

6.1.3.  Usage

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 module: ietf-lmo-feature

   augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
     +--rw features
        +--rw feature* [lmo-class id]
           +--rw lmo-class    -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
           +--rw id           -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
   augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
     +--rw name?                      string
     +--rw summary?                   string
     +--rw category?                  string
     +--rw entitlement?               string
     +--rw first-available-version?   string
     +--ro backported-versions
     |  +--ro backported-version* []
     |     +--ro version?   identityref
     +--rw scope?                     identityref
     +--rw config-options* [id]
     |  +--rw id                string
     |  +--rw name?             string
     |  +--rw summary?          string
     |  +--rw characteristic* [id]
     |     +--rw id       string
     |     +--rw name?    string
     |     +--rw value?   string
     +--rw asset
     |  +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
     |  +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
     +--rw subfeatures
        +--rw subfeature* [lmo-class id]
           +--rw lmo-class    -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
           +--rw id           -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id

6.1.4.  Usage

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   module: ietf-lmo-usage

     augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
       +--rw feature
       |  +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
       |  +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
       +--rw name?                   string
       +--rw summary?                string
       +--rw uri?                    string
       +--rw deployment-mode?        identityref
       +--rw scope?                  identityref
       +--rw activation-status?      string
       +--rw instances?              uint32
       +--rw count-type?             identityref
       +--rw timestamp?              yang:date-and-time
       +--rw count?                  uint32
       +--rw frequency* [name]
       |  +--rw name         string
       |  +--rw type-freq?   string
       |  +--rw value?       yang:counter64
       +--rw resource-consumption* [id]
          +--rw id                string
          +--rw name?             string
          +--rw summary?          string
          +--rw characteristic* [id]
             +--rw id           string
             +--rw name?        string
             +--rw unit?        string
             +--rw value?       yang:counter64
             +--rw value-max?   yang:counter64

6.1.5.  Incident Management

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   module: ietf-lmo-incident-management

     augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
       +--rw id?                 string
       +--rw title?              string
       +--rw summary?            string
       +--rw severity?           string
       +--rw status?             string
       +--rw created?            yang:date-and-time
       +--rw last_updated?       yang:date-and-time
       +--rw capability?         string
       +--rw technology?         string
       +--rw subtechnology?      string
       +--rw problem-type?       string
       +--rw resolution?         string
       +--rw owner?              string
       +--rw support-engineer?   string
       +--rw asset
       |  +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
       |  +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
       +--rw feature
       |  +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
       |  +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
       +--rw contract-number?    string

6.1.6.  Organization

   module: ietf-lmo-organization

     augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
       +--rw address?      string
       +--rw department?   boolean
     augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
       +--rw organization
          +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
          +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id

6.1.7.  User

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   module: ietf-lmo-user

     augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
       +--rw billing-account?   uint32
       +--rw represents
       |  +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
       |  +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id
       +--rw authority?         enumeration
       +--rw email?             string
     augment /ietf-lmo:lmos/ietf-lmo:lmo/ietf-lmo:inst:
       +--rw user
          +--rw lmo-class?   -> /ietf-lmo:lmos/lmo/lmo-class
          +--rw id?          -> deref(../lmo-class)/../ietf-lmo:inst/id

6.2.  LMO Modules

6.2.1.  LMO Common Module

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-lmo-common@2022-02-28.yang"
   module ietf-lmo-common {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-common";
     prefix ietf-lmo-common;
       "IETF OPSA (Operations and Management Area) Working Group";
       "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/opsawg/>
        WG List:  <mailto:opsawg@ietf.org>
        Editor:  Marisol Palmero
        Editor:  Josh Suhr
        Editor:  Sudhendu Kumar
       "This YANG module defines a collection of useful data types
        and identity for Lifecycle Management and Operations (LMO).

        Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code. All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
        the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set
        forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions

        Relating to IETF Documents

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        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX
        (https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfcXXXX); see the RFC itself
        for full legal notices.";

     revision 2022-02-28 {
         "Introduced flexible root structure";
         "RFC XXXX: LMO YANG Model";
     revision 2021-08-23 {
         "Initial revision for Common Module as part of the LMO
          YANG Model";
         "RFC XXXX: LMO YANG Model";

     typedef license-id-t {
       type string;
         "License ID Type";
     typedef license-model-t {
       type enumeration {
         enum perpetual {
             "Perpetual license";
         enum subscription {
             "Subscription license";
         enum usage-based {
             "Usage-based license";
         enum other {
             "Undefined license type";
         "License Model Type";
     identity license-buying-program-t {
         "License Buying Program that contains the plan to generate

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          revenue for specific asset";
     identity enterprise-agreement {
           base license-buying-program-t;
             "Enterprise Agreement";
     identity managed-service-license-agreement {
           base license-buying-program-t;
             "Managed Service License Agreement";
     identity service-provider-network-agreement {
           base license-buying-program-t;
             "Service Provider Network Agreement";
     identity collab-active-user {
           base license-buying-program-t;
             "Collaboration Active User";
     identity service-full-coverage {
           base license-buying-program-t;
             "Service Full-Coverage";
     identity offer-type-t {
         "License Offer Type, part of the plan to generate revenue
          for specific asset";
     identity perpetual-software {
         base offer-type-t;
             "Perpetual softwar gives the user the right to use the
              program indefinitely";
     identity standalone-hardware {
         base offer-type-t;
             "Standalone hardware is able to function independently
              of other hardware";
     identity on-premise-software-subscription {
         base offer-type-t;
             "On-Premise software subscription, relates to a temporary

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              on-prem licencing model, allowing users to pay a per user
     identity cloud-software-saas-subscription {
         base offer-type-t;
             "Cloud Software (SaaS) subscription is a service busines
              model where the user is entitled to use the cloud software
              for a specific time period";
     identity third-party-software {
         base offer-type-t;
             "It includes licenses, agreements, obligations or other
             commitment under which the user can use the asset not
             directly sold by the manufacturer";
     identity flex-cloud-prem-subscription {
         base offer-type-t;
             "Flex Cloud-Prem subscription allows software vendros to
             limit the number of licenses for the use of the specific
     typedef license-key-t {
       type string;
         "License Key Type";
     typedef purchase-order-t {
       type string;
         "License purchase order number";
     typedef license-state-t {
       type enumeration {
         enum inactive {
             "Inactive State";
         enum active {
             "Active State";
         enum unknown {
             "Unknown State";

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         "License State Type";

     typedef asset-id {
       type string;
         "Asset ID Type";

     typedef vendor-id {
       type enumeration {
         enum cisco {
             "Vendor-id is Cisco";
         enum other {
             "Vendor-id is not determined";
         "Vendor identifier";

     identity asset-type {
         "type of the asset: hardware, software, software cloud, ...";
     identity hw {
       base asset-type;
         "Hardware refers to any physical device";
     identity sw {
       base asset-type;
         "Software refers to a collection of code installed on a
         hardware asset";
     identity sw-cloud {
       base asset-type;
         "Cloud-based software, that allows users access to software
         application that run on a shared computing resources via

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     identity phone {
       base asset-type;
         "Mobile telephone or a handheld two-way communication device
         over a cellular network.";
     identity other {
       base asset-type;
         "Different or additional type not specified as part of another
         defined asset-type.";
     identity asset-subtype {
         "subtype of the asset: router, switch, wireless,
         controller, ...";
     identity router {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Network connecting device. It operates at layer-3 of the OSI
     identity switch {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Network connecting device. It operates at layer-2(Data Link
         Layer) of the OSI model.";
     identity wireless {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Network connecting device. It creates a wireless local area
         network. It connects to a wired router, switch, or hub via an
         Ethernet cable, and projects a Wi-Fi signal to a designated
     identity controller {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Centralized device in the network which is used in combination
         with network connection devices, when there is a need to manage
         them in large quantities.";
     identity board {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Electronic circuit board in an asset which interconnects

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         another hardware assets attached to it.";
     identity p-supply {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Power supply, as it might have independent identity.";
     identity transceiver {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Device that is both a transmitter and a receiver. Usually
         it's in a single device.
         This is commonly used as a modular network interface";
     identity others {
       base asset-subtype;
         "Different or additional type not specified as part of another
         defined asset-subtype.";
     identity version {
         "Base identity for all version types";
     identity version-sw {
     base version;
         "Version release of the operating system that runs on the
     identity platform-dependency-os {
         "Operating system that creates an environment for the asset
          to get deployed. Enum of options covering OS platform
     identity linux {
       base platform-dependency-os;
         "UNIX like operating system";
     identity windows {
       base platform-dependency-os;
         "Windows operating system";
     identity macOS {
       base platform-dependency-os;

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         "Mac operating system develop by Apple, Inc.";
     identity darwin {
       base platform-dependency-os;
         "Open-source Unix-like operating system first released by Apple
     identity ubuntu {
       base platform-dependency-os;
         "Linux distribution, used in desktop distribution";
     identity red-hat {
       base platform-dependency-os;
         "Red Hat Enterprise Linux, released in multiple server and
         desktop versions";
   // NEED to extend and include iOS, Android, etc.;

     identity role {
         "What the role of a given device/component is in the network.
         This attribute normally will be configured on the specific
         component during setup. This attribute normally will be
         configured on the specific component during setup";
     identity border-router {
       base role;
         "Router that provides connectivity between interior and
         exterior network routers or to the cloud";
     identity access {
       base role;
         "Router that provides access to a larger communication network
         of some sort.";
     identity control-plane {
       base role;
         "Network component that controls how data packets are
     identity edge {

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       base role;
         "Router that provides an entry point into enterprise or service
         provider core networks";
     identity core {
       base role;
         "Component part of the high-speed backbone of the network. It
         provides fast and efficient data transport";
     identity datacenter {
       base role;
         "Component placed in the data center, mantaining and housing
         back-end IT system and data stores";
     identity branch {
       base role;
         "Router in a remote branch of an enterprise's network";

     identity deployment-mode {
         "This attribute will denote the configured deployment mode
          for the asset and features, if applicable; e.g.,
          High Availability(HA) or Faiover cluster, virtual appliance,
     identity primary {
       base deployment-mode;
         "Asset or featurs that support critical applications to
         minimize system downtime, to achieve high availabiilty or
     identity secondary {
       base deployment-mode;
         "Redundant asset or feature, that is triggered when the
         primary encounters performance issues, to achieve high
         availability or failover";
     identity cloud {
       base deployment-mode;
         "Especially it refers to remote, distributed and shared asset

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         resources (i.e. data storage, computing power, etc.), which
         are hooked together and meant to operate as a single
     identity virtual-appliance {
       base deployment-mode;
         "pre-configured virtual machine image, ready to run on a
     identity container {
       base deployment-mode;
         "Standard unit of software that packages up code and all its
         dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from
         one computing environment to another";

     identity undeployed {
       base deployment-mode;
         "it refers to an asset that is undeployed";

     identity counter-type {
         "Specify the different type of counters, i.e accumulated-count,
          average-count, last-count, high-water mark count, low-water
          mark count" ;
     identity accumulated {
       base counter-type;
         "monotonically increasing counters. They're useful for
          aggregating metric information such as the number of hits
          on a web page, how many users log into a portal, etc.";
     identity average {
       base counter-type;
         "typical value in a set of metrics, in particular the mean,
         which is calculated by dividing the sum of the values in the
         set by their number.";
     identity last {
       base counter-type;
         "Last value measured and collected for specific metric.";

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     identity high-water-mark {
       base counter-type;
         "Highest level of value in a set of metrics.";
     identity low-water-mark {
       base counter-type;
         "Lowest level of value in a set of metrics.";
     identity feature-scope {
         "Optional tag that could apply to any usage feature, so that
          if there are multiple dimensions of reporting that need to
          be accommodated (i.e., report feature usage by 'site')";
     identity site {
       base feature-scope;
         "Single location, part of the network";
     identity network {
       base feature-scope;
         "scope limited to the networking assets";
     typedef feature-usage-type {
       type enumeration {
         enum none {
             "No Usage";
         enum low {
             "Usage meeting the Low Threshold";
         enum medium {
             "Usage meeting the Medium Threshold";
         enum high {
             "Usage meeting the High Threshold";
         // NEED to elaborate more on this list, based on use case
         // validation

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         "feature usage % 0-25-50-75-100";

     identity lmo-class {
       description "Base identity for classes of LMOs";

7.  Deployment Considerations

   LMO Data Models defines the data schemas for LMO data.  LMO Data
   Models are based on YANG.  YANG data models can be used independent
   of the transport and can be converted into any encoding format
   supported by the network configuration protocol.  YANG is a protocol

   To enable the exchange of LMO data among all interested parties,
   deployment considerations that are out of the scope of this document,
   will need to include:

   *  The data structure to describe all metrics and quantify relevant
      data consistently, i.e. specific formats like XML or JSON encoded
      message would be deemed valid or invalid based on LMO models.

   *  The process to share and collect LMO data across the consumers
      consistently, including the transport mechanism.  The LMO YANG
      models can be used with network management protocols such as
      NETCONF [RFC6241], RESTCONF [RFC8040], streaming telemetry, etc.
      OpenAPI specification might also help to consume LMO metrics.

   *  How the configuration of assets should be done.

8.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations mentioned in section 17 of [RFC7950]

   LMO brings several security and privacy implications because of the
   various components and attributes of the information model.  For
   example, each functional component can be tampered with to give
   manipulated data.  LMO when used alone or with other relevant data,
   can identify an individual, revealing Personal Identifiable
   Information (PII).  Misconfigurations can lead to data being accessed
   by unauthorized entities.

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   Methods exist to secure the communication of management information.
   The transport entity of the functional model MUST implement methods
   for secure transport.  This document also contains an Information
   model and Data-Model in which none of the objects defined are
   writable.  If the objects are deemed sensitive in a particular
   environment, access to them MUST be restricted using appropriately
   configured security and access control rights.  The information model
   contains several optional elements which can be enabled or disabled
   for the sake of privacy and security.  Proper authentication and
   audit trail MUST be included for all the users/processes that access
   the LMO.

9.  IANA Considerations

9.1.  The IETF XML Registry

   This document registers URIs in the IETF XML registry [RFC3688].
   Following the format in [RFC3688], the registrations defined below
   are requested:

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-common
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-assets-inventory
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-licenses
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-feature
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-usage
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-incident-management
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

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   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-organization
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-user
   Registrant Contact: The OPSA WG of the IETF.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

9.2.  The YANG Module Names Registry

   This document registers YANG modules in the YANG Module Names
   registry [RFC7950].  Following the format in [RFC7950], the
   registrations defined below are requested:

   name: ietf-lmo
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmocom
   reference: RFC XXXX

   name: ietf-lmo-common
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-common
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmocom
   reference: RFC XXXX

   name: ietf-lmo-asset-inventory
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-assets-inventory
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmoasset
   reference: RFC XXXX

   name: ietf-lmo-licenses
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-licenses
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmolicense
   reference: RFC XXXX

   name: ietf-lmo-feature
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-feature
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmousage
   reference: RFC XXXX

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   name: ietf-lmo-usage
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-usage
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmousage
   reference: RFC XXXX

   name: ietf-lmo-incident-management
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-incident-management
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmoscm
   reference: RFC XXXX

   name: ietf-lmo-organization
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-organization
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmoscm
   reference: RFC XXXX

   name: ietf-lmo-user
   namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-lmo-user
   maintained by IANA: N
   prefix: lmoscm
   reference: RFC XXXX

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

10.2.  Informative References

              Hopps, C., "A YANG Grouping for Geographic Locations",
              Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-netmod-geo-
              location-11, 11 February 2022,

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              Lear, E. and S. Rose, "Discovering and Retrieving Software
              Transparency and Vulnerability Information", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-opsawg-sbom-access-
              03, 24 October 2021, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,


   The ideas in this document originate from early work by Tony Colon,
   Carlos Pignataro, and Yenu Gobena originally referred to as
   Experience Telemetry.

   This document was created by meaningful contributions from Josh Suhr,
   Eric Vyncke, Yannis Viniotis, Nagendra Kumar Nainar, Yenu Gobena,
   Dhiren Tailor and Jan Lindblad.

   The authors wish to thank Gonzalo Salgueiro, Martin Beverley and many
   others for their helpful comments and suggestions.

Change log

   RFC Editor Note: This section is to be removed during the final
   publication of the document.

   version 04

   *  Remove ietf-lmo-service YANG module, as service is considered
      within the asset concept

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   *  Fix introduced to the .xml and .txt avoiding a compiling issue on
      the YANG modules.

   version 03

   *  Flexible root structure has been introduced by the ietf-lmo YANG
      module: Modules are arranged into layers, with ietf-lmo-common and
      ietf-lmo at the core.  Other modules can be added in layers on
      top.  This structure allows flexibility and the option to be
      enhanced by vendor implementation.
      The new structure allows to include other lmo classes, or exclude
      current lmo classes.

   *  Feature and Usage containers have been split in two independent
      modules.  Where Usage relates to runtime data.

   *  Organization attribute, has been enhanced to an independent YANG
      module, adding flexibility and the option to be called
      independently and enhanced.

   *  Service and User YANG modules, have been also introduced in a
      similar flexible structure, being part of new lmo classes.

   *  Information Model, has been enhanced with new modules:
      Organization, Service and User modules.  On this version the new
      lmo classes can be called independently or from the licenses
      module.  There is no restriction to be called from any of the
      other YANG odules.

   version 02

   *  "Support case" renamed to "incident".

   *  Add MAC address and IP address attributes under asset-inventory
      YANG module.

   *  Link among objects & YANG modules (notably with feature).

   *  New text about asset usage.

   version 01

   *  Fixes for YANG validator and idnits warnings.

   version 00

   *  Initial version.

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Authors' Addresses

   Marisol Palmero
   Cisco Systems
   Email: mpalmero@cisco.com

   Frank Brockners
   Cisco Systems
   Email: fbrockne@cisco.com

   Sudhendu Kumar
   NC State University
   Email: skumar23@ncsu.edu

   Shwetha Bhandari
   Email: shwetha.bhandari@thoughtspot.com

   Camilo Cardona
   Email: camilo@ntt.net

   Diego Lopez
   Telefonica I+D
   Email: diego.r.lopez@telefonica.com

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