INTERNET-DRAFT                                      Sarantis Paskalis
File: draft-paskalis-rsvpmp-00.txt               Alexandros Kaloxylos
                                                      Lazaros Merakos
                                                 University of Athens
                                                     Evangelos Zervas
                                                        TEI of Athens
                                                     15 December 2001

                          RSVP Mobility Proxy

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of Section 10 of RFC2026.

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   Mobility management and QoS provision have been research topics in
   the past years.  Mobile IP is the dominant protocol for mobility
   management, whereas RSVP is a well established protocol for QoS
   provision.  These protocols when deployed separately can work quite
   efficiently.  However, their interworking has been widely recognized
   to be problematic.  We propose a new approach that limits mobility
   and QoS related network modifications inside the domain in which a
   user moves.

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1. Introduction

   The wireless communication devices industry sector is experiencing an
   enormous growth in terms of units as well as capabilities for the
   embedded systems.  People are getting accustomed to be productive
   while on the move, utilizing the capabilities those devices offer.
   The connectivity support, one of the most essential requirements, is
   likely to rely on the Internet Protocol architecture.  It provides a
   simple, scalable and robust framework for building data communication
   applications.  However, IP still lacks some of the necessary
   qualities for the full deployment of applications suitable for those
   small, yet so powerful devices.  Two major factors were not taken
   into account when designing this model some decades ago: mobility and
   guaranteed QoS.

   Efforts have been underway worldwide to provide support for the
   missing links of mobility and QoS guarantee.  Mobile IP [1] is the
   dominant protocol for mobility management support developed for IP.
   Mobile hosts (MHs) are uniquely identified by their Home Address,
   which corresponds to the address used when located in their home
   networks.  When roaming in foreign networks, MHs request and acquire
   a new address, the Care-of Address (CoA).  This new address is
   registered  with their Home Agent (their mobility enhanced home
   router) and the MHs become accessible to other hosts through their
   home network.  When route optimization [2] is used, or IPv6 and
   Mobile IPv6 [3] is deployed, then any host wishing to communicate
   with the MH uses the CoA for direct communication instead of going
   through the Home Agent.

   Concerning QoS provision, two schools of thought have gained ground
   in the Internet community: the Integrated Services architecture [4]
   and the Differentiated Services architecture [5].  RSVP [6] is the
   signaling  protocol for Integrated Services architecture support.  It
   provides a well defined means to specify data flows and to reserve
   resources in the communication path of the flow.  It is designed to
   deal with end-to-end unidirectional flows, facilitating QoS requests
   throughout the communication route.  In this paper we  assume the use
   of the Fixed Filter reservation style (defined in [6]), suitable for
   unicast applications.

   It is argued that the Integrated Services architecture is best
   applied to access networks due to its fine-grained classification,
   whereas core networks can scale better when the Differentiated
   Services architecture is applied.  In our study, we assume that QoS
   reservations are performed with RSVP in the access network.  The core
   network can support either kind of QoS architecture.  If it only
   supports Differentiated Services, then some interworking scheme can
   be employed [7].

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   The aforementioned efforts to provide mobility support and QoS
   guarantees in the Internet began--and mostly
   continued--independently, leading to inefficiencies and/or
   incompatibilities between the approaches.  Only recently, was the
   need for their integration identified.  Our proposal builds on the
   already established schemes for mobility and QoS guarantees and
   provides the necessary functionality for their seamless integration.

   The rest of this draft is organized as follows: Section 2 presents an
   overview of the problematic interaction of RSVP and Mobile IP.
   Section 3 introduces the concept of RSVP-MP, i.e. the modifications
   that are needed to RSVP, and the modified message flows after the
   functionality change.  Section 4 concludes this draft and points to
   possible further study.  Section 5 deals with security considerations
   of the proposed approach.

2. Problem Formulation

   A MH changing points of attachment to the network during an active
   call is performing a handoff.  Two different types of handoffs can be
   identified: Handoffs between access points that are linked to the
   same access router and handoffs between access points that are linked
   to different routers.  In the former case, the handoff is handled
   exclusively at the link layer and no modification in the IP address
   of the MH is performed.  In the latter case, however, a new IP
   address (CoA) is assigned to the mobile.  For our study, we assume an
   access network large enough to accommodate network layer handoffs,
   where special Mobile IP-RSVP interworking is required.  The topology
   of such a  network is illustrated in Fig. 1.  The existence of Mobile
   IPv4 with route optimization [2] or Mobile IPv6 [3] is also assumed.

   If a MH, with established RSVP data flows, performs a network layer
   handoff, its IP address changes, and a new round of RSVP signaling
   exchanges must be triggered.  RSVP creates soft session states in
   every intermediate router of the traffic flow.  Each session is
   uniquely identified by the Session object, which is constructed by
   the triplet <DestAddress, DestPort, [ProtocolId]>.  Thus, the
   downlink reservation (the packet flow toward the mobile) becomes
   invalid, since the DestAddress parameter has been changed.  The new
   uplink re-establishment is also affected, since the Path messages
   sent from the MH contain its new IP address.  These messages are
   considered to correspond to a new session and generate a new Path
   state, according to [8].

   With the existing RSVP functionality, independent RSVP sessions are
   established between the correspondent host and the MH, after the
   execution of a network layer handoff.  The RSVP message exchange is

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                                 | CN  |
                                 |     |
                                 | core |
                                $/     \$
                               $/       \$
                              $/         \$
                          +-----+       +-----+
                          | OAR |       | NAR |
                          |     |       |     |
                          +-----+       +-----+
                             /             /
                             -             -
                             /             /
                          +-----+       +-----+
                          | MT  |  -->  | MT  |
                          |     |       |     |
                          +-----+       +-----+

                        Figure 1: Network Topology

   illustrated in Fig. 2.  In this signaling exchange, it is assumed
   that the MH is handed off to the "new" access router, whereas the
   "old" access router has no way to be informed about the MH's
   migration.  The MH has already acquired a new CoA and has informed
   its correspondent host (and its Home Agent) about its new location.
   The MH and the correspondent host begin independently a re-
   establishment of the resources necessary for a QoS supported session
   by exchanging Path and Resv messages.  These messages contain the new
   CoA of the mobile and act as new reservation requests.

   This scheme is obviously slow, inefficient, and bandwidth consuming.
   Some of the major problems identified with this approach are the

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   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+    +------+     +-----+     +-----+
   | MT  |     | OAR |     | NAR |    |domain|     | core|     | CN  |
   |     |     |     |     |     |    |      |     |     |     |     |
   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+    +------+     +-----+     +-----+
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |           |      RSVP | Session   |           |           |
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |           |   Binding | Update    |           |           |
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |      Path |           |           |           |    Path   |
      |-----------|---------->|   Path    |   Path    |<----------|
      |           |           |---------->|<----------|           |
      |      Path |           |<--------- |---------->|    Path   |
      |<----------|-----------|           |           |---------->|
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |      Resv |           |           |           |    Resv   |
      |-----------|---------->|   Resv    |   Resv    |<----------|
      |           |           |---------->|<----------|           |
      |      Resv |           |<--------- |---------->|    Resv   |
      |<----------|-----------|           |           |---------->|
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |           |  2nd RSVP | Session   |           |           |
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |           |           |           |           |  PathTear |
      |           |           |           |  PathTear |<----------|
      |           |           |PathTear   |<----------|  ResvTear |
      |           |<----------|-----------|  ResvTear |           |
      |           |           |ResvTear   |           |           |
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |           |(timeout)  |           |           |           |
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |           |           |           |           |           |
      |           >soft state |           >soft state >soft state |
      |           |expiration |           |expiration |expiration |
      |           |           |           |           |           |

                 Figure 2: RSVP signaling after a handoff

     o Long delay for reservation re-establishment: RSVP messages must
       traverse twice the network end-to-end to re-establish a session,
       resulting in a major deterioration in the quality of active

     o Duplicate reservation of resources for a non-negligible time
       period:  After the execution of a handoff, network resources are

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       allocated twice for the same session, toward the old and the new
       location of the MH.  This duplication exists until resources on
       the old path are explicitly released or timed out.

     o Increased blocking probability of new session requests: The
       duplication of resource requirements in high mobility
       environments or in networks that support a large number of MHs,
       can affect the overall efficiency of the network.  In such
       environments a new reservation request will experience a higher
       probability of getting rejected.

     o Increased cost for providing QoS enabled services: It is safe to
       assume that the service provider of the access network will have
       a prearranged Service Level Agreement (SLA) with an upstream
       Internet Service Provider (ISP, core network provider).
       Duplication of reserved resources  on the access-core link would
       lead to lower average resource utilization levels for the same

2.1 Previous Work

   The interworking problems of Mobile IP and RSVP have been widely
   recognized and several methods have been proposed to deal with this

   Much work has been done both in the IETF and in the research
   literature to address the RSVP-Mobile IP problematic interaction.  An
   analysis of the current situation is presented in [9] along with
   guidelines for future refinements.  The obvious modification would be
   to change the RSVP semantics to include a different unique identifier
   in the Session object (possibly a unique integer) instead of the IP
   Destination Address [10].  Other proposed approaches include
   multicast trees, path extension, movement prediction, etc.

   The common point in most proposal is that they modify heavily the
   RSVP functionality and semantics in order to solve the interaction
   problems between RSVP and Mobile IP.  Some other propose the
   introduction of entirely different protocols which also increase the
   network resource usage.  In the following section we describe a new
   approach that requires modifications only in the RSVP router at the
   edge of the access network.  Our proposal also minimizes the delay in
   re-establishing data flows, does not waste network resources, and is
   compatible with other QoS related protocols

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3. RSVP Mobility Proxy

3.1 Reasoning and necessary infrastructure

   As [9] and [10] proposed, using a unique and permanent identifier for
   every RSVP flow should be the basic concept to achieve efficient
   interworking between RSVP and Mobile IP.  Our goal however is to
   affect as less as possible the existing infrastructure and protocols.
   The key idea of our proposal is to minimize any modifications (i.e.,
   RSVP flows re-establishments) inside the access network where a MH
   moves.  To achieve this, we propose that a MH may acquire different
   CoAs (Local Care-of Addresses, LCoAs) while moving inside an access
   domain, but it would always be reachable by a ``global'' CoA
   (Regional Care-of Address, RCoA) through tunneling, address
   translation, host routing or any other routing variety, as suggested
   in various hierarchical mobility management schemes [17] [18].

   In the rest of the paper the existence of such a mobility management
   functionality is assumed, i.e. the use of a unique RCoA.  Note that
   it is only mandatory to keep the same RCoA for as long as there are
   on-going connections to/from the MH.  The MH may change RCoA when no
   active connections are in place as proposed in [13].  This could be a
   useful flexibility when designing the routing functionality.

   Furthermore, we assume a mobility management authority component such
   as the Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) [11] or the Gateway Foreign Agent
   (GFA) [12], which can supply authoritative answers about the MH's
   Home Address, location or current CoA.

3.2 Basic Functionality

   Based on the aforementioned assumptions, we propose the introduction
   of the RSVP-MP (RSVP Mobility Proxy).  RSVP-MP is actually the router
   responsible for the RSVP message handling at the edge of the access
   network and in addition is capable of:

       o keeping track of the correspondence between the RCoAs and the
         LCoAs and recording any modification of it, by communicating
         with the mobility controlling authority of the access network
         (e.g. MAP or GFA).

       o performing dynamic address translation of DCOA to LCOA and vice
         versa, for packets entering/leaving the access network.

   RSVP reservations are made based on the (unique for each MH) RCoA.
   This means that the IP address of the MH is always represented in the
   RSVP internal State Blocks (Path State Block PSB, Resv State Block

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                                 | CN  |
                                 |     |
                                 | core |
                                 |       |
                                $/      \$
                               $/        \$
                              $/          \$
                          +-----+        +-----+
                          | OAR |        | NAR |
                          |     |        |     |
                          +-----+        +-----+
                             /              /
                             -              -
                             /              /
                          +-----+        +-----+
                          | MT  |  --->  | MT  |
                          |     |        |     |
                          +-----+        +-----+

                Figure 3: RSVP Mobility Proxy Introduction

   RSB, etc.) in its RCoA format.  The address translation is performed
   only at the packet header level at the edge of the network, usually
   by means of en- or de-capsulation.  RSVP messages contain the
   communicating addresses in their bodies, which must also be replaced
   by the respective LCoAs or RCoAs (depending whether the packet is
   forwarded inward or outward of the mobile access network).

   The RSVP messages are translated into their ``DCOA'' format before
   PSB, RSB updating takes place.  Some functions in the RSVP message
   processing though require knowledge of the RCoA-LCoA binding to
   operate correctly.  These functions are identified in the following
   analysis.  The states for the other State Blocks must be updated
   accordingly.  We examine the processing of the four basic message

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       +-----+      +-----+     +-------+     +-----+      +-----+ | MT  |
       | AR  |     |RSVP-MP|     | core|      | CN  | |     |      |     |
       |       |     |     |      |     | +-----+      +-----+     +-------+
       +-----+      +-----+
          |            |            |            |            |
          |            |    Session |Initiation  |            |
          |            |            |            |            |
          | Path(LCoA) |            |            | Path(RCoA) |
          |----------->| Path(LCoA) | Path(RCoA) |<-----------|
          |            |----------->|<-----------|            |
          | Path(LCoA) |<---------- |----------->| Path(RCoA) |
          |------------| Path(LCoA) | Path(RCoA) |----------->|
          |            |            |            |            |
          |            |            |            |            |
          | Resv(LCoA) |            |            | Resv(RCoA) |
          |----------->| Resv(LCoA) | Resv(RCoA) |<-----------|
          |            |----------->|<-----------|            |
          | Resv(LCoA) |<---------- |----------->| Resv(RCoA) |
          |------------| Resv(LCoA) | Resv(RCoA) |----------->|
          |            |            |            |            |

         Figure 4: Initial RSVP Session Establishment with RSVP-MP

   cases in RSVP-MP and point out the implementation differences in
   comparison to [8].  The important factors are the type of the message
   and the incoming interface.

       1. Path message from an internal interface (LCoA)

          o Swap LCoA in the source header of the packet with RCoA.

          o Swap LCoA in the Sender_Template object with RCoA.

          o Update PSB.

          o Forward Path to the respective external interface.

       2. Resv message from an external interface (RCoA)

         o Swap RCoA in the Sender_Template object with LCoA.  This
           object resides in the Resv message's Filter_Spec object,
           which is contained in the flow descriptor in the RSVP

         o Check if reservation is possible (resources, policy).

         o Update RSB.

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         o Send Resv to next (internal) hop.

       3. Path message from an external interface (RCoA)

         o Update PSB.  The update_PSB function contains a route query
           routine, which must be enhanced to return the correct
           interface that points to the LCoA; RCoA is a "virtual"

         o Swap RCoA in the destination header of the packet with LCoA.

         o Swap RCoA in the Session object with LCoA.

         o Forward Path to the respective internal interface.

       4. Resv message from an internal interface (LCoA)

         o Swap LCoA in the Session object with RCoA.

         o Determine outgoing interface; this function must be
           enhanced, since the correct interface should be the
           interface toward the LCoA.

         o Check if reservation is possible (resources, policy).

         o Update RSB.

         o Send Resv to next (external) hop.

   A message sequence chart for a bidirectional QoS reservation using
   our scheme is presented in Fig. 3.  The reservation states outside
   the access network are configured for the stable RCoA.  Only the
   reservations inside the access network are LCoA dependent.  This
   establishes the necessary infrastructure to accommodate mobility
   events inside the access network, without the need to propagate the
   topology modification outside of it (Fig. 4).

3.3 Mobility Related Functionality

   In case of a handoff, we assume that the mobility control authority
   (MAP/GFA) is either in control or immediately notified about it.  An
   asynchronous notification about the handoff must be delivered to the
   RSVP-MP by e.g. MAP.  The two entities may be co-located at the edge
   domain router.  By the reception of the handoff notification, the
   RSVP-MP examines its internal Binding Cache, which contains the MHs'
   <RCoA, LCoA> binding and finds out whether a reservation for the MH
   that changed its point of attachment was already in place.  An

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   analytical RSVP signaling exchange after a handoff is illustrated in
   Fig. 5.

   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+    +------+    +-------+      +-----+
   | MT  |     | OAR |     | NAR |    | mob. |    |RSVP-MP|      | CN  |
   |     |     |     |     |     |    | auth.|    |       |      |     |
   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+    +------+    +-------+      +-----+
      |           |           |           |           |             |
      |           |      RSVP | Session   |           |             |
      |           |           |           |           |             |
      |           |   Binding | Update    |  Binding  |             |
      |-----------|-----------|---------->|  Notify   |             |
      |           |           |           |---------->|             |
      | Path(LCoA)|           |           |           |             |
      |-----------|---------->| Path(LCoA)|           |             |
      |           |           |-----------|---------->|             |
      |           | Path(LCoA)|<--------- |-----------|  Path(RCoA) |
      |<----------|-----------|           | Path(LCoA)|- - - - - -->|
      |           |           |           |           |             |
      | Resv(LCoA)|           |           |           |             |
      |-----------|---------->| Resv(LCoA)|           |             |
      |           |           |-----------|-----------|             |
      |           | Resv(LCoA)|<--------- |---------->|  Resv(RCoA) |
      |<----------|-----------|           | Resv(LCoA)|- - - - - -->|
      |           |           |           |           |             |
      |           |(same) RSVP| Session   |           |             |
      |           |           |           |           |             |
      |           |           |           |           |             |
      |           |           |  PathTear/|ResvTear   |             |
      |           |<----------|-----------|-----------|             |
      |           |           |           |           | simult.     |
      |           |    mobile |relocation |           | with        |
      |           |<----------|-----------|           | Path and    |
      |           |           |           |           | Resv        |
      |           |  PathTear/|ResvTear   |           | transmission|
      |           |-----------|-----------|---------->|             |
      |           |           |           |           |             |

         Figure 5: RSVP signaling through RSVP-MP after a handoff

   In Fig. 5, it is assumed that a MH has acquired a new LCoA and wishes
   to re-establish the reservation for the information flow between
   itself and the correspondent host, and that resources must be
   reserved for both directions.  The MH issues a Binding Update with
   its newly acquired LCoA, which reaches the mobility control authority

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   of the mobile access network.  The mobility control authority then
   issues an asynchronous notification to RSVP-MP.

   The RSVP-MP checks for reservations in the downlink direction for
   Session objects regarding the MH's unchanged RCoA.  If such an entry
   exists, the RSVP-MP issues a Path message containing the
   correspondent host's IP address, as if it was issued by the
   correspondent host across the network.  The MH responds with a Resv
   to the correspondent host.  The Resv message is intercepted in the
   RSVP-MP and the LCoA is translated (or possibly decapsulated) into
   the RCoA both in the packet's headers and its contents.  At the same
   time the MH issues in parallel a Path message to the correspondent
   host to re-establish the uplink QoS reservation.  The RSVP-MP
   intercepts it, translates the LCoA into the RCoA before forwarding it
   to the core network and responds to it without waiting for any answer
   from the correspondent host.

   The actual RSVP signaling is purely restricted inside the access
   network, whereas any Path or Resv messages transmitted to the core
   network merely serve as state refresh messages.  No actual Path or
   Resv state modifications are performed in routers outside the area
   controlled by the RSVP-MP.

   A parallel activity, of equal importance, is the release of the
   downlink and uplink reservations corresponding to the MH's previous
   LCoA.  The release of the downlink Path and Resv state is triggered
   by the RSVP-MP that sends a PathTear/ResvTear submission toward the
   old LCoA, i.e. toward the old Access Router.  The reservation release
   from the old Access Router to the RSVP Mobility Proxy and any
   wireless reservation controlled by that Access Router is trickier.
   An asynchronous notification (either by the mobility controlling
   authority or by the RSVP-MP) is necessary so that the uplink and the
   wireless reservations are released explicitly soon after the handoff
   completed and not after the RSVP soft states expired.

5. Security Considerations

   RSVP-MP does not introduce any further security problems than the
   combination of Hierarchical Mobile IP (v4 or v6) and RSVP.  In fact,
   some of the requirements are common for the deployment of
   Hierarchical Mobile IP and RSVP and can be convoluted.  Users must be
   authenticated with their authentication keys with the RSVP-MP and the
   mobile controling authority.  The key management and distribution
   infrastructure deployment is a prerequisite for automatic
   authentication.  Manual key distribution should be done otherwise.

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4. Conclusions and Future Work

   We have presented a new scheme that tackles efficiently the
   inconsistencies arising from the interworking of Mobile IP with RSVP.
   Our main goal is to achieve this while keeping the required
   modifications on existing protocols and network components to a

   In [14], we perform a performance analysis both with an analytical
   and a simulation model.  The blocking probability (in the Connection
   Admission Control entity of the RSVP router) is minimized and the
   link to the upstream ISP is fully utilized.  The network resource
   usage in the access network remains the same as in the normal RSVP
   operation.  Our scheme also reduces the period, during which, moving
   users experience QoS deterioration.   This is achieved by keeping the
   required signaling for the re-establishment of an end-to-end QoS
   supported session inside the access network.  Finally, our scheme
   works without any modifications to network components other than the
   edge RSVP router.

   In the drawbacks of our proposal we acknowledge that RSVP Mobility
   Proxy should be developed in cooperation with any advances in
   hierarchical mobility management schemes.  These schemes are still at
   a research stage, thus, major or minor modifications are expected.
   The enhanced functionality of RSVP-MP imposes also a complexity
   burden on the access network edge router.

   Our future work includes the examination of the possibility to
   introduce more RSVP-MP edge routers in an access network to minimize
   the load of a single access router.  A hierarchy of RSVP-MPs and its
   applicability to current access networks will also be researched.

6. References

   [1]   C. Perkins, "IP Mobility Support", RFC 2002, October 1996.

   [2]   C. Perkins and D. Johnson, "Route Optimization in Mobile IP",
   Internet Draft, Work in Progress, November 2000.

   [3]   D. Johnson and C. Perkins, "Mobility Support in IPv6", Internet
   Draft, Work in Progress, November 2001.

   [4]   R. Braden, D. Clark, and S. Shenker, "Integrated Services in
   the Internet Architecture: An Overview", RFC 1633, June 1994.

   [5]   S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W.
   Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated Services", RFC 2475,

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   December 1998.

   [6]   R. Braden, ed., L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog, S.  Jamin,
   "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) - Version 1  Functional
   Specification", RFC 2005, September 1997.

   [7]   Y. Bernet, "Format of the RSVP DCLASS Object", RFC 2996,
   November 2000.

   [8]   R. Braden and L. Zhang, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol -
   Version 1 Message Processing Rules", RFC 2209, September 1997.

   [9]   M. Thomas, "Analysis of Mobile IP and RSVP Interactions",
   Internet Draft, Work in Progress, February 2001.

   [10]  C. Shen, A. Lo, H. Zeng, and M. Greis, "An Interoperation
   Framework for Using RSVP in Mobile IPv6 Networks", Internet Draft,
   Work in Progress, July 2001.

   [11]  H. Soliman, C. Castellucia, K. El-Malki, and L. Bellier,
   "Hierarchical MIPv6 Mobility Management", Internet Draft, Work in
   Progress, February 2001.

   [12]  E. Gustafsson, A. Jonnson, and C. Perkins, "Mobile IP Regional
   Registration", Internet Draft, Work in Progress, February 20001.

   [13]  A. O'Neill, G. Tsirtsis, and S. Corson, "Edge Mobility
   Architecture", Internet Draft, Work in Progress, July 2000.

   [14]  S. Paskalis, A. Kaloxylos, E. Zervas, and L. Merakos, "An
   Efficient RSVP-Mobile IP Interworking Scheme", University of Athens,
   Technical Report TR01-0001, available from

7. Authors' Addresses

   Questions about this memo can be directed to:

   Sarantis Paskalis
   Department of Informatics and Telecommunications
   University of Athens
   Panepistiopolis, 15784
   Athens, GREECE
   Phone:   +30 10 7275334
   Fax:     +30 10 7275061

Paskalis, et al           Expires: 15 June 2002                [Page 14]

Internet Draft                   RSVP-MP                   December 2001

   Alexandros Kaloxylos
   Department of Informatics and Telecommunications
   University of Athens
   Panepistiopolis, 15784
   Athens, Greece
   Phone:   +30 10 7275182
   Fax:     +30 10 7275061

   Lazaros Merakos
   Department of Informatics and Telecommunications
   University of Athens
   Panepistiopolis, 15784
   Athens, Greece
   Phone:   +30 10 7275323
   Fax:     +30 10 7275061

   Evangelos Zervas
   Department of Electronics
   TEI of Athens
   Egaleo, 12210
   Athens, Greece
   Phone:   +30 10 5385305
   Fax:     +30 10 5385304

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