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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
Mobility Extensions (MEXT)                                      B. Patil
Internet-Draft                                                     Nokia
Intended status: Experimental                                 C. Perkins
Expires: April 13, 2012                                          Tellabs
                                                           H. Tschofenig
                                                  Nokia Siemens Networks
                                                               D. Premec
                                                            Unaffiliated
                                                        October 11, 2011


Problems with the use of IPsec as the security protocol for Mobile IPv6
              draft-patil-mext-mip6issueswithipsec-04.txt

Abstract

   Mobile IPv6 as specified in RFC3775 relies on IPsec for securing the
   signaling messages and user plane traffic between the mobile node and
   home agent.  An IPsec SA between the mobile node and the home agent
   provides security for the mobility signaling.  Use of IPsec for
   securing the data traffic between the mobile node and home agent is
   optional.  This document analyses the implications of the design
   decision to mandate IPsec as the default security protocol for Mobile
   IPv6 and consequently Dual-stack Mobile IPv6 and recommends
   revisiting this decision in view of the experience gained from
   implementation and adoption in other standards bodies.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 13, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.



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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology and Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Problem statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1.  Problem Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.2.  General issues with the use of IPsec for MIP6 security . .  7
     4.3.  Security Association Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.4.  Bootstrapping of Additional Mobile IPv6 Parameters . . . . 11
     4.5.  Protecting Traffic Between Mobile Node and Home Agent  . . 12
   5.  Mobile Node to Home Agent Controller Communication . . . . . . 12
     5.1.  Request-response Message Framing over TLS-tunnel . . . . . 12
     5.2.  Request-response Message Content Encoding  . . . . . . . . 13
     5.3.  Request-Response Message Exchange  . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.4.  Home Agent Controller Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.5.  Generic Request-Response Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       5.5.1.  Mobile Node Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       5.5.2.  Authentication Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       5.5.3.  Extensible Authentication Protocol Payload . . . . . . 15
       5.5.4.  Status Code  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       5.5.5.  Message Authenticator  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       5.5.6.  Retry After  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.5.7.  End of Message Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.5.8.  Random Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.6.  Security Association Configuration Parameters  . . . . . . 16
       5.6.1.  Security Parameter Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.6.2.  MN-HA Shared Keys  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       5.6.3.  Security Association Validity Time . . . . . . . . . . 17
       5.6.4.  Security association scope (SAS) . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       5.6.5.  CipherSuites and Ciphersuite-to-Algorithm Mapping  . . 18
     5.7.  Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       5.7.1.  Home Agent Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       5.7.2.  Home Addresses and Home Network Prefix . . . . . . . . 19
     5.8.  Authentication of the Mobile Node  . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.9.  Extensible Authentication Protocol Methods . . . . . . . . 22
   6.  Mobile Node to Home Agent communication  . . . . . . . . . . . 23



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     6.1.  General  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     6.2.  Security Parameter Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     6.3.  Binding Management Message Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     6.4.  Reverse Tunneled User Data Packet Formats  . . . . . . . . 26
   7.  Route Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.1.  New Registry: Packet Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.2.  HTTP Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     8.3.  Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     8.4.  Port Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     9.1.  Discovery of the HAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     9.2.  Authentication and Key Exchange executed between the
           MN and the HAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     9.3.  Protection of MN and HA Communication  . . . . . . . . . . 31
     9.4.  AAA Interworking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35






























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1.  Introduction

   Mobile IPv6 as specified in [RFC3775] requires an IPsec security
   association between the mobile node (MN) and home agent (HA).  The
   IPsec SA protects the mobility signaling messages between the MN and
   HA.  The user data may be optionally protected by the IPsec SA but is
   not required.  The use of IPsec by most hosts today is primarily as a
   solution for enterprise connectivity through VPN applications.  IPsec
   has not evolved into a generic security protocol.

   The use of IPsec and IKE (v1 and v2) with Mobile IPv6 are specified
   in RFCs 3776 [RFC3776] and 4877 [RFC4877].  The Mobile IP and MIP6
   working groups in the IETF chose to mandate IPsec as the default
   security protocol for Mobile IPv6 based on various criteria and
   lengthy discussions that occured between the years 2000 and 2004.
   Implementation experience with Mobile IPv6 and the security variants
   with which it has been specified in some SDOs indicates a need to
   revisit the design choice for MIP6 signaling security.  The analysis
   and recommendation to revisit the security protocol architecture for
   MIP6 should not be interpreted as a recommendation for Authentication
   Protocol for Mobile IPv6 [RFC4285].  The objective is to highlight
   the misfit of IPsec and IKEv2 as the security protocol for MIP6 and
   hence the need for considering alternatives.  A simpler security
   architecture for securing the signaling and traffic between the MN
   and HA can co-exist with the IPsec based solution as well.

   The objective of Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775] is to enable IP mobility for
   IPv6 hosts.  The security aspect of the protocol is a critical
   component for consideration in terms of deployment and operation on
   large scales.  If complexity of implementation were a consideration
   then the current specification dealing with Mobile IPv6, i.e RFC3775
   [RFC3775] and RFC5555 [RFC5555] would win high accolades.  An
   implementer spends 20% of his time on implementing the Mobile IPv6
   protocol and 80% of the time integrating it with IPsec and IKEv2.
   And even after that interoperability of the client with home agents
   is not guaranteed.  The IPsec/IKEv2 security architecture may work in
   implementations wherein the OS, the IPsec/IKEv2 stack and mobile ipv6
   client software are all implemented by a single entity.  It just does
   not work on open systems.


2.  Terminology and Abbreviations

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document refers to [RFC3775][RFC4877] for terminology.



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3.  Background

   IP mobility support in IPv6 was considered to be an integral feature
   of the IPv6 stack based on the experience gained from developing
   mobility support for IPv4.  The design of Mobile IPv6 was worked on
   by the Mobile IP WG in the late 90s and by the MIP6 WG until its
   publication as [RFC3775] in 2004.

   IPsec [RFC4301] was also intended to be a default component of the
   IPv6 stack and was the preferred protocol choice for use by any other
   IPv6 protocol that needed security.  Rather than design security into
   every protocol feature, the intent was to reuse a well-defined
   security protocol to meet the security needs.  Hence Mobile IPv6 has
   been designed with a security architecture that relies on reusing
   IPsec.

   The Mobile IPv6 specification [RFC3775] was published along with the
   companion specification "Using IPsec to Protect Mobile IPv6 Signaling
   Between Mobile Nodes and Home Agents", [RFC3776].  The establishment
   of the IPsec SA between the MN and HA as per RFC 3776 is based on the
   use of IKE.  The use of IKE in the context of Mobile IPv6 for IPsec
   SA establishment did not gain traction because of factors such as
   complexity of IKE and the IETF transitioning to IKEv2.  The MIP6 WG
   completed the specification, Mobile IPv6 Operation with IKEv2 and the
   Revised IPsec Architecture [RFC4877] in April 2007.  This [RFC4877]
   is considered as the default security protocol solution for MIP6 and
   updates [RFC3776].


4.  Problem statement

4.1.  Problem Statement

   Mobile IPv6 is encumbered by its reliance on IPsec [RFC4301] from an
   implementation and deployment perspective.  As a protocol solution
   for host based mobility, MIP6 can be simpler without the IPsec
   baggage.  The issues with IPsec are even more exacerbated in the case
   of dual-stack MIP6 [RFC5555].

   IPsec SAs between the MN and HA are established either manually or
   via the use of IKEv2 [RFC4306].  Manual SA configuration is not a
   scalable solution and hence MIP6 hosts and Home agents rely on IKEv2
   for establishing dynamically IPsec SAs.  As a result MIP6 depends on
   the existence of IPsec and IKEv2 for successful operation.

   IPsec is unable to provide security protection for MIP6 in a
   transparent way, and numerous interactions between the host's
   security subsystems and the MIP6 application are needed in the course



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   of the regular operation of the MIP6 application.  Besides requiring
   an extensive communications channel between the security subsystems
   and the MIP6 application, those interactions often also require
   modification of the MNs security subsystems code.  The situation
   today is such that the communications channel between the IPsec
   subsystems and the MIP6 application is non existent and this is
   generally true for most of the commercially available platforms.
   Even if such a channel were to be available, there does not exist a
   standardized protocol over that channel which would enable the MIP6
   application to communicate with the security modules in a non-
   implementation specific way.

   Considering a third party application developer who would like to
   provide a MIP6 application for a particular platform, the need for
   numerous interactions with the IPsec subsystem and the unavailability
   of the standardized communications channel through which such
   interactions could take place is a major obstacle to the
   implementation of the mobility protocol.  Without such a
   communication channel being available it is not possible to implement
   a MIP6 application as a third party developer.

   Even if the platform would provide such a communication interface for
   the MIP6 daemon, this is still insufficient as the MIP6 protocol
   standardized today [RFC3775] requires numerous changes to the host's
   IPsec and IKEv2 implementation.  This document enumerates various
   implementation issues related to the interactions between the MIP6
   application and the host's security subsystems.

   An argument can be made that the MIP6 application itself should
   provide the required changes to the IPsec subsystems of the platform
   (maybe in the form of patches).  While this is possible at least for
   some open source platforms to provide modifications to the host's
   IPsec implementation as well as the key management application(s),
   this is still an issue for several reasons:

      Target platform could be a commercial platform for which no source
      code for the security modules (IPsec and IKEv2) is available.
      If the MIP6 application were to patch the IPsec subsystems, then
      multiple MIP6 applications from different developers would
      implement it in different ways, which would inevitably lead to
      variations and problems with interoperability at a minimum, for
      instance when the user tries to install several MIP6 applications
      it is difficult to determine which one is the best suited for his/
      her needs.
      Key management daemons are usually provided as third party
      software for which no source code may be available, even if the
      platform itself is available as open source.




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      Even if the MIP6 application developer would be willing to provide
      patches for the key management daemon to make it work with his
      MIP6 application, how would the MIP6 application developer know
      which of the several available key management daemons the user is
      running?
      Each application would be able to work only with a single key
      management daemon, namely the one for which the MIP6 application
      provides the patches.  The user may be running another key
      management daemon and may be unwilling to change its daemon to the
      one that comes as part of the MIP6 application.
      Patches for the IPsec part in the kernel and the key management
      daemon would typically be valid only for the particular version of
      the kernel and the key management daemon for which they were
      written.  This might prevent the user from upgrading the platform
      or applying OS security patches that are provided as part of the
      regular platform maintenance since this would in all probability
      make the MIP6 application defunct.
      Modifying the security subsystems by a third party is a security
      issue and users are generally advised to refrain from allowing the
      security subsystems to be modified in any way.
      he developer may not have the knowledge or the time to modify the
      platform's IKEv2 and IPsec subsystems, although it might be
      perfectly capable to deliver the MIP6 application itself.
      There could be copyright issues as well that would prevent
      modifications of the platform's security subsystems or the
      delivery of the modifications by the third party.
      Even if the MIP6 application developer is able to come up with the
      necessary patches for the security subsystem, it is not realistic
      to expect the prospective user of MIPv6 to first patch the kernel
      and the key management daemons before using the MIPv6 service.

   The above discussion shows why it is unrealistic to expect that the
   MIP6 application could provide the needed modifications to the IKEv2
   and IPsec subsystems of the host.  Section 6 presents a more
   technical discussion of various implementation issues related to the
   interworking between the MIP6 application and the IPsec/key
   management modules.

   The problem in a nutshell for MIP6 is the dependence on IPsec and
   IKEv2 for successful operation.

4.2.  General issues with the use of IPsec for MIP6 security

   This section captures several issues with the use of IPsec by MIP6.

   1.   The design of Mobile IPv6 emphasized the reuse of IPv6 features
        such as IPsec.  IPsec for IPv4 was a bolt-on solution.  With the
        increasing need for security, IPv6 designers chose to



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        incorporate IPsec as a default feature.  There existed an
        assumption in the MIP6 working group that every IPv6 host would
        have IPsec capability as a standard feature.  While this is true
        in many host implementations today, the existence of IPsec in
        every IPv6 stack is not a given.  Hence a host which needs to
        implement Mobile IPv6 must ensure that IPsec and IKEv2 are also
        available.  As a result of this dependence, MIP6 is no longer a
        standalone host-based mobility protocol.  A good example of a
        host based mobility protocol that works as a self-sufficient
        module is Mobile IPv4 [RFC3344].  The security associated with
        MIP4 signaling is integrated into the protocol itself.  MIP4 has
        been successfully deployed on a large scale in several networks.
   2.   IPsec use in most hosts is generally for the purpose of VPN
        connectivity to enterprises.  It has not evolved into a generic
        security protocol that can be used by Mobile IPv6 easily.  While
        [RFC4877] does specify the details which enable only the MIP6
        signaling to be encapsulated with IPsec, the general method of
        IPsec usage has been such that all traffic between a host and
        the IPsec gateway is carried via the tunnel.  Selective
        application of IPsec to protocols is not the norm.  Use of IPsec
        with Mobile IPv6 requires configuration which in many cases is
        not easily achievable because of reasons such as enterprise
        environments preventing changes to IPsec policies.
   3.   A MIP6 home agent is one end of the IPsec SA in a many-to-one
        relationship.  A MIP6 HA may support a very large number of
        mobile nodes which could be in the hundreds of thousands to
        millions.  The ability to terminate a large number of IPsec SAs
        (millions) requires signifiant hardware and platform capability.
        The cost issues of such an HA are detrimental and hence act as a
        barrier to deployment.
   4.   The implementation complexity of Mobile IPv6 is greatly
        increased because of the interaction with IKEv2.  The complexity
        of the protocol implementation is even more so in the case of
        Dual stack MIP6 [RFC5555] wherein NAT traversal scenarios are
        considered.
   5.   IPsec and IKEv2 are not implemented or available by default in
        every IPv6 or dual stack host.  Mobile IPv6 support on such
        devices is not an option.  Many low-end cellular hosts have IP
        stacks.  The need for IPsec and IKEv2 in these devices is not
        important whereas mobility support is needed in many cases.  A
        simpler security protocol than the use of IPsec/IKEv2 would make
        MIP6 much more attractive to implement and deploy.
   6.   [RFC4877] which specifies the use of IKEv2 and IPsec with Mobile
        IPv6 essentially results in a variant of IPsec which is specific
        to Mobile IP.  Hence this results in added complexity to
        implementations.





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   7.   Mobile IPv6 needs to be capable of being deployed in situations
        where alternative security mechanisms are already well-
        understood by the network administration.  It should be possible
        to enable Mobile IPv6 to work in situations where alternative
        security mechanisms already supply the necessary authentication
        and privacy.
   8.   IPsec has been successfully applied to VPN and other
        infrastructure operations, but not for general end-to-end
        applications.  Thus, the granularity for selectors was
        originally not at all sufficient for Mobile IPv6.
   9.   The way that the IPsec code sits in the usual kernel, and the
        access mechanisms for the SA database, are not very convenient
        for use by straightforward implementations of Mobile IPv6.
        Unusual calling sequences and parameter passing seems to be
        required on many platforms.
   10.  In certain environments the use of IPsec and IKEv2 for
        establishing the SA is considered as an overhead.  Bandwidth
        constrained links such as cellular networks and air interfaces
        which are in the licensed spectrum tend to be optimized for user
        traffic.  MIP6 signaling with the IPsec overhead and the IKEv2
        messages are viewed negatively.  It is more acceptable to have
        signaling without IPsec encapsulation.

   The issues listed above can be speculatively attributed as some of
   the causes for MIP6 not being implemented widely.

4.3.  Security Association Management

   Once the MN has contacted the HAC and mutual authentication has taken
   place between the MN and the HAC inside the TLS protected tunnel, the
   HAC provisions the MN with all security related information inside
   the TLS protected tunnel.  This security related information
   constitutes a security association (SA) between the MN and the HA.
   The created SA MUST NOT be tied to the Care-of Address (CoA) of the
   MN.

   The HAC may proactively distribute the SA information to HAs under
   its management, or the HA may query the SA information from the HAC
   once the MN contacts the HA.  If the HA queries for the SA
   information from the HAC, then the HA MUST be able to query/index the
   SA information from the HAC based on the Security Parameter Index
   (SPI).

   In certain situations, the HA may want the MN to re-establish the SA
   even if the existing SA is still valid.  The HA can indicate this to
   the MN using a dedicated Status Code in a BA (value set to
   REINIT_SA_WITH_HAC).  As a result, the MN would contact the HAC prior
   the SA times out, and the HAC would provision the MN and HAs with a



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   new SA information.

   The SA contains at least the following information:

   Mobility SPI:

      This parameter is an SPI used by the MN and the HA to index the SA
      between the MN and the HA.  The HAC is responsible for assigning
      SPIs to MNs.  There is only one SPI for both binding management
      messaging and possible user data protection.  The same SPI is used
      for both directions between the MN and the HA.  The SPI values are
      assigned by the HAC.  The HAC MUST ensure uniqueness of the SPI
      values across all MNs controlled by the HAC.

   MN-HA shared key for ciphering:

      This parameter is a key used for ciphering Mobile IPv6 traffic
      between the MN and the HA.  The HAC is responsible for generating
      this key.  The key generation algorithm is specific to the HAC
      implementation.

   MN-HA shared key for integrity protection:

      This parameter is a key used for integrity protecting Mobile IPv6
      traffic between the MN and the HA.  This includes both binding
      management messages and reverse tunneled user data traffic between
      the MN and the HA.  The HAC is responsible for generating this
      key.  The key generation algorithm is specific to the HAC
      implementation.  In case of combined algorithms a separate
      integrity protection key is not needed and may be omitted.

   Security association validity time:

      This parameter represents the validity time for the security
      association.  The HAC is responsible for defining the lifetime
      value based on its policies.  The lifetime may be in the order of
      hours or weeks.  The MN MUST re-contact the HAC before the SA
      validity time ends.

   Security Association Scope:

      This parameter defines whether the security association is applied
      to Mobile IPv6 signaling messages only, or to both Mobile IPv6
      signaling messages and data traffic.







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   Selected ciphersuite:

      This parameter is the ciphersuite used to protect the traffic
      between the MN and the HA.  This includes both binding management
      messages and reverse tunneled user data traffic between the MN and
      the HA.  The selected algorithms SHOULD be one of the mutually
      supported ciphersuites of the negotiated TLS version between the
      MN and the HAC.  The HAC is responsible for choosing the mutually
      supported ciphersuite that complies with the policy of the HAC.
      Obviously, the HAs under HAC's management must have at least one
      ciphersuite with the HAC in common and need to be aware of the
      implemented ciphersuites.

   Sequence number:

      This parameter represents a monotonically increasing unsigned
      sequence number used in all protected packets exchanged between
      the MN and the HA.  The initial sequence number MUST always be set
      to 0 (zero).  The sequence number may cycle to 0 (zero) when it
      increases beyond its maximum defined value.

4.4.  Bootstrapping of Additional Mobile IPv6 Parameters

   When the MN contacts the HAC to distribute of the security related
   information, the HAC may also provision the MN with various Mobile
   IPv6 related bootstrapping information.  Bootstrapping of the
   following information SHOULD at least be possible:

   Home Agent IP Address:

      Concerns both IPv6 and IPv4 home agent addresses.

   Home Address:

      Concerns both IPv6 and IPv4 Home Addresses.

   Home Link Prefix:

      Concerns the IPv6 Home link prefix and the associated prefix
      length.

   The Mobile IPv6 related bootstrapping information is delivered from
   the HAC to the MN over the same TLS protected tunnel as the security
   related information.







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4.5.  Protecting Traffic Between Mobile Node and Home Agent

   The same integrity and confidentiality algorithms MUST be used to
   protect both binding management messages and reverse tunneled user
   data traffic between the MN and the HA.  Generally, all binding
   management messages (BUs, BAs and so on) MUST be both integrity and
   SHOULD be confidentially protected.  The reverse tunneled user data
   traffic SHOULD be equivalently protected.  Generally, the rules
   stated in [RFC3775] concerning the protection of the traffic between
   the MN and the HA apply also in this specification.


5.  Mobile Node to Home Agent Controller Communication

5.1.  Request-response Message Framing over TLS-tunnel

   The MN and the HAC communicate with each other using a simple lock-
   step request-response protocol that is run directly on top of the
   TLS-tunnel.  We define only one message container framing for the
   request messages and for the response messages.  The message
   containers are only meant to be exchanged on top of connection
   oriented TLS-layer.  Therefore, the end of message exchange is
   determined by the other end closing the transport connection
   (assuming the "application layer" has also indicated the completion
   of the message exchange).  The peer initiating the TLS-connection is
   always sending "Requests" and the peer accepting the TLS-connection
   is always sending "Responses".  The format of the message container
   is shown in Figure 1.

   All data inside the Content portion of the message container MUST be
   encoded using octets.  Fragmentation of message containers is not
   supported, which means one request or response at the "application
   layer" MUST NOT exceed the maximum size allowed by the message
   container format.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Ver |  Rsrvd  | Identifier    | Length                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Content portion..                                             ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

               Figure 1: Request-Response Message Container

   The three bit Ver field identifies the protocol version.  The current
   version is 0 i.e. all bits are set to value 0 (zero).




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   The Rsrvd field MUST be set to value 0 (zero),

   The Identifier field is meant for matching requests and responses.
   The valid Identifier values are between 1-255.  The value 0 MUST NOT
   be used.  The first request for each communication session between
   the MN and the HAC MUST have the Identifier values set to 1.

   The Length field tells the length of the Content portion of the
   container (i.e.  Reserved octet, Identifier octet and Length field
   are excluded).  The Content portion length MUST always be at least
   one octet up to 65535 octets.  The value is in network order.

5.2.  Request-response Message Content Encoding

   The encoding of the message content is similar to HTTP header
   encoding, and complies to the augmented Backus-Naur Form (BNF)
   defined in Section 2.1 of [RFC2616].  All presented hexadecimal
   numbers are in network byte order.  From now on, we use TypeValue
   header (TV-header) term to refer request-response message content
   HTTP-like headers.

5.3.  Request-Response Message Exchange

   The message exchange between the MN and the HAC is a simple lock-step
   request-response type as stated in Section 5.1.  A request message
   includes monotonically increasing Identifier value that is copied to
   the corresponding response message.  Each request MUST have a
   different Identifier value and due the assumption of a reliable
   connection oriented transport below the message container framing.
   The number of request-response message exchanges MUST NOT exceed 255.

   Each new communication session between the MN and the HAC MUST reset
   the Identifier value to 1.  The MN is also the peer that always sends
   only request messages and the HAC only sends response messages.  Once
   the request-response message exchange completes, the HAC and the MN
   MUST close the transport connection and the corresponding TLS-tunnel.

   In a case of a HAC side error, the HAC MUST send a response back to a
   MN with an appropriate status code and then close the transport
   connection.

   The first request message - MHAuth-Init - (i.e. the Identifier is 1)
   MUST always contain at least the following parameters:

      MN-Identity - See Section 5.5.1.
      Authentication Method - See Section 5.5.2.

   The first response message - MHAuth-Init - (i.e. the Identifier is 1)



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   MUST contain at minimum the following parameters:

      Selected authentication Method - See Section 5.5.2.

   The last request message from the MN side - MHAuth-Done - MUST
   contain the following parameters:

      Security Association Scope - See Section 5.6.4.
      Proposed ciphersuites - See Section 5.6.5.
      Message Authenticator - See Section 5.5.5.

   The last response message - MHAuth-Done - that ends the request-
   response message exchange MUST contain the following parameters:

      Status Code - See Section 5.5.4.
      Message Authenticator - See Section 5.5.5.

   And in a case of successful authentication the following additional
   parameters:

      Selected ciphersuite - See Section 5.6.5.
      Security Association Scope - See Section 5.6.4.
      The rest of the security association data - See Section 5.6.

5.4.  Home Agent Controller Discovery

   All bootstrapping information, whether for setting up the SA or for
   bootstrapping Mobile IPv6 specific information, is exchanged between
   the MN and the HAC using the framing protocol defined in Section 5.1.
   The IP address of the HAC MAY be statically configured to the MN or
   dynamically discovered using for example DNS.  In a case of DNS-based
   HAC discovery, the MN either queries an A/AAAA or a SRV record for
   the HAC IP address.  The actual domain name used in queries is up to
   the deployment to decide and out of scope of this specification.

5.5.  Generic Request-Response Parameters

5.5.1.  Mobile Node Identifier

   An identifier that identifies a MN.  The Mobile Node Identifier is in
   form of a Network Access Identifier (NAI) [RFC4282].

      mn-id = "mn-id" ":" nai CRLF
      nai = username
          | "@" realm
          | username "@" realm
      ...




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5.5.2.  Authentication Method

   The HAC is the peer that mandates the used authentication method.
   The MN sends its proposal to the HAC but eventually the used
   authentication method returned from the HAC defines the one to be
   used.  The MN MUST propose at least one authentication method and it
   SHOULD propose more than one.  The HAC MUST select exactly one
   authentication method, or return an error and then close the
   connection.

      auth-method = "auth-method" ":" a-method *("," a-method) CRLF
      a-method =
           "psk" ; Pre-sharer key based authentication
         | "eap" ; EAP-based authentication

5.5.3.  Extensible Authentication Protocol Payload

   Each Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) [RFC3748] message is
   encoded string of hexadecimal numbers.  The "eap-payload" is
   completely transparent what EAP-method or EAP message is carried
   inside it.  The "eap-payload" can appear in both request and response
   messages:

      eap-payload = "eap-payload" ":" 1*(HEX HEX) CRLF

5.5.4.  Status Code

   The "status-code" MUST only be present in the response message that
   ends the request-response message exchange.  The "status-code"
   follows the principles of HTTP and the definitions found in Section
   10 of RFC 2616 also apply for these status codes listed below:

      status-code = "status-code" ":" status-value CRLF
      status-value =
           "100" ; Continue
         | "200" ; OK
         | "400" ; Bad Request
         | "401" ; Unauthorized
         | "500" ; Internal Server Error
         | "501" ; Not Implemented
         | "503" ; Service Unavailable
         | "504" ; Gateway Time-out

5.5.5.  Message Authenticator

   The "auth" header contains data used for authentication purposes.  It
   MUST be the last TV-header in the message and calculated over the
   whole message till the start of the "msg-header":



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      msg-auth = "auth" ":" 1*(HEX HEX) CRLF

5.5.6.  Retry After

      reply-after = "retry-after" ":" rfc1123-date CRLF

5.5.7.  End of Message Content

      end-of-message = 2CRLF

5.5.8.  Random Values

   Random number generated by the MN or the HAC.  The length of the
   random number MUST be 32 octets (before TV-header encoding):

      mn-rand = "mn-rand" ":" 32(HEX HEX) CRLF
      hac-rand = "hac-rand" ":" 32(HEX HEX) CRLF

5.6.  Security Association Configuration Parameters

   During the Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping, the MN and the HAC negotiate a
   single ciphersuite for protecting the traffic between the MN and the
   HA.  The allowed ciphersuites for this specification are a subset of
   those in TLS v1.2 (see Annex A.5 of [RFC5246]) as per Section 5.6.5.
   This might appear as a constraint as the HA and the HAC may have
   implemented different ciphersuites.  These two nodes are, however,
   assumed to belong to the same administrative domain.  In order to
   avoid exchanging supported MN-HA ciphersuites in the MN-HAC protocol
   and to reuse the TLS ciphersuite negotiation procedure we make this
   simplifying assumption.  The selected ciphersuite MUST provide
   integrity and confidentially protection.

   Section 5.6.5 provides the mapping from the TLS ciphersuites to the
   integrity and encryption algorithms allowed for MN-HA protection.
   This mapping mainly ignores the authentication algorithm part that is
   not required within the context of this specification.  For example,
   [RFC3268] defines a number of AES based ciphersuites for TLS
   including 'TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA'.  For this specification the
   relevant part is 'AES_128_CBC_SHA'.

   All the parameters described in the following sections apply only to
   a request-response protocol response message to the MN.  The MN has
   no way affecting to the provisioning decision of the HAC.

5.6.1.  Security Parameter Index

   The 28-bit unsigned SPI number identifies the SA used between the MN
   and the HA.  The value 0 (zero) is reserved and MUST NOT be used.



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   Therefore, values ranging from 1 to 268435455 are valid.

   The TV-header corresponding to the SPI number is:

      mip6-spi = "mip6-spi" ":" 1*DIGIT CRLF

5.6.2.  MN-HA Shared Keys

   The MN-HA shared integrity (ikey) and encryption (ekey) keys are used
   to protect the traffic between the MN and the HA.  The length of
   these keys depend on the selected ciphersuite.

   The TV-headers that carry these two parameters are:

      mip6-mn-to-ha-ikey = "mip6-mn-to-ha-ikey" ":" 1*(HEX HEX) CRLF
      mip6-ha-to-mn-ikey = "mip6-ha-to-mn-ikey" ":" 1*(HEX HEX) CRLF
      mip6-mn-to-ha-ekey = "mip6-mn-to-ha-ekey" ":" 1*(HEX HEX) CRLF
      mip6-ha-to-mn-ekey = "mip6-ha-to-mn-ekey" ":" 1*(HEX HEX) CRLF

5.6.3.  Security Association Validity Time

   The end of the SA validity time is encoded using the "rfc1123-date"
   format, as defined in Section 3.3.1 of [RFC2616].

   The TV-header corresponding to the SA validity time value is:

      mip6-sa-validity-end = "mip6-sa-validity-end" ":" rfc1123-date
      CRLF

5.6.4.  Security association scope (SAS)

   The SA is applied either to Mobile IPv6 signaling messages only, or
   to both Mobile IPv6 signaling messages and data traffic.  This
   parameter MUST be agreed between the MN and HA prior to using the SA.
   Otherwise the receiving side would not be aware of whether the SA
   applies to data traffic and could not decide how to act when
   receiving unprotected packets of PType 1 (see Section 6.4).

      mip6-sas = "mip6-sas" ":" 1DIGIT CRLF

   where a value of "0" indicates that the SA does not protect data
   traffic and a value of "1" indicates that all data traffic MUST be
   protected by the SA.  If the mip6-sas value of an SA is set to 1, any
   packet with PType = 0 MUST be silently discarded when received.

   The HAC is the peer that mandates the used security association
   scope.  The MN sends its proposal to the HAC but eventually the
   security association scope returned from the HAC defines the used



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   scope.

5.6.5.  CipherSuites and Ciphersuite-to-Algorithm Mapping

   The ciphersuite negotiation between HAC and MN uses a subset of the
   TLS 1.2 ciphersuites and follows the TLS 1.2 numeric representation
   defined in Annex A.5 of [RFC5246].  The TV-headers corresponding to
   the selected ciphersuite and ciphersuite list are:

      mip6-ciphersuite = "mip6-ciphersuite" ":" csuite CRLF
      csuite = "{" suite "}"
      suite =
           "00" "," "02" ; CipherSuite NULL_SHA           = {0x00,0x02}
         | "00" "," "3B" ; CipherSuite NULL_SHA256        = {0x00,0x3B}
         | "00" "," "0A" ; CipherSuite 3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA   = {0x00,0x0A}
         | "00" "," "2F" ; CipherSuite AES_128_CBC_SHA    = {0x00,0x2F}
         | "00" "," "3C" ; CipherSuite AES_128_CBC_SHA256 = {0x00,0x3C}
      mip6-suitelist = "mip6-suitelist" ":" csuite *("," csuite) CRLF

   All other Ciphersuite values are reserved and subject to future
   specifications.

   The following integrity algorithms MUST be supported by all
   implementations:
    HMAC-SHA1-96                    [RFC2404]   AES-XCBC-MAC-96                 [RFC3566]

   The binding management messages between the MN and HA MUST be
   integrity protected.  Implementations MUST NOT use a NULL integrity
   algorithm.

   The following encryption algorithms MUST be supported:
    NULL                            [RFC2410]   TripleDES-CBC                   [RFC2451]   AES-CBC with 128-bit keys       [RFC3602]

   Traffic between MN and HA MAY be encrypted.  Any integrity-only
   CipherSuite makes use of the NULL encryption algorithm.

   Note: In the present version, this document does not consider
   combined algorithms.  The following table provides the mapping of
   each ciphersuite to a combination of integrity and encryption
   algorithms that are part of the negotiated SA between MN and HA.

+-------------------+-----------------+--------------------------+|Ciphersuite        |Integ. Algorithm |Encr. Algorithm           |
+-------------------+-----------------+--------------------------+|NULL_SHA           |HMAC-SHA1-96     |NULL                      ||NULL_SHA256        |AES-XCBC-MAC-96  |NULL                      ||3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA   |HMAC-SHA1-96     |TripleDES-CBC             ||AES_128_CBC_SHA    |HMAC-SHA1-96     |AES-CBC with 128-bit keys ||AES_128_CBC_SHA256 |AES-XCBC-MAC-96  |AES-CBC with 128-bit keys |
+-------------------+----------------+---------------------------+

                     Ciphersuite-to-Algorithm Mapping





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5.7.  Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping Parameters

   In parallel with the SA bootstrapping, the HAC SHOULD provision the
   MN with relevant Mobile IPv6 related bootstrapping information.

   The following generic BNFs are used to form IP addresses and
   prefixes.  They are used in subsequent sections.

      ip6-addr   = 7( word ":" ) word CRLF
      word       = 1*4HEX
      ip6-prefix = ip6-addr "/" 1*2DIGIT
      ip4-addr   = 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT

5.7.1.  Home Agent Address

   The HAC MAY provision the MN with an IPv4 or an IPv6 address of a HA,
   or both.

      mip6-haa-ip6 = "mip6-haa-ip6" ":" ip6-addr CRLF
      mip6-haa-ip4 = "mip6-haa-ip4" ":" ip4-addr CRLF

5.7.2.  Home Addresses and Home Network Prefix

   The HAC MAY provision the MN with an IPv4 or an IPv6 home address, or
   both.  The HAC MAY also provision the MN with its home network
   prefix.

      mip6-ip6-hoa = "mip6-ip6-hoa" ":" ip6-addr CRLF
      mip6-ip4-hoa = "mip6-ip4-hoa" ":" ip4-addr CRLF
      mip6-hnp-ip6 = "mip6-ip6-hnp" ":" ip6-prefix CRLF

5.8.  Authentication of the Mobile Node

   This section describes the basic operation required for the MN-HAC
   mutual authentication and the channel binding.  The authentication
   protocol described as part of this section is a simple exchange that
   follows the GPSK exchange used by EAP-GPSK [RFC5433].  It is secured
   by the TLS tunnel and is cryptographically bound to the TLS tunnel
   through channel binding based on [RFC5056] and on the channel binding
   type 'tls-server-endpoint' described in
   [I-D.altman-tls-channel-bindings].  As a result of the channel
   binding type, this method can only be used with TLS ciphersuites that
   use server certificates and the Certificate handshake message.  For
   example, TLS ciphersuites based on PSK or anonymous authentication
   cannot be used.

   The authentication exchange MUST be performed through the encrypted
   TLS tunnel.  It performs mutual authentication between the MN and the



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   HAC based on a pre-shared key (PSK) or based on an EAP-method (see
   Section 5.9).  The PSK protocol is described in this section.  It
   consists of the message exchanges (MHAuth-Init, MHAuth-Mid, MHAuth-
   Done) in which both sides exchange nonces and their identities, and
   compute and exchange a message authenticator 'auth' over the
   previously exchanged values, keyed with the pre-shared key.  The
   MHAuth-Done messages are used to deal with error situations.  Key
   binding with the TLS tunnel is ensured by channel binding of the type
   "tls-server-endpoint" as described by
   [I-D.altman-tls-channel-bindings] where the hash of the TLS server
   certificate serves as input to the 'auth' calculation of the MHAuth
   messages.

   Note: The authentication exchange is based on the GPSK exchange used
   by EAP-GPSK.  In comparison to GPSK, it does not support exchanging
   an encrypted container (it always runs through an already protected
   TLS tunnel).  Furthermore, the initial request of the authentication
   exchange (MHAuth-Init) is sent by the MN (client side) and is
   comparable to EAP-Response/Identity, which reverses the roles of
   request and response messages compared to EAP-GPSK.  Figure 2 shows a
   successful protocol exchange.


   MN                                                      HAC
    |                                                       |
    | Request/MHAuth-Init (...)                             |
    |------------------------------------------------------>|
    |                                                       |
    |                            Response/MHAuth-Init (...) |
    |<------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                       |
    | Request/MHAuth-Done (...)                             |
    |------------------------------------------------------>|
    |                                                       |
    |                            Response/MHAuth-Done (...) |
    |<------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                       |

     Figure 2: Authentication of the Mobile Node Using Shared Secrets

   1)  Request/MHAuth-Init: (MN -> HAC)
          mn-id, mn-rand, auth-method=psk

   2)  Response/MHAuth-Init: (MN <- HAC)
          [mn-rand, hac-rand, auth-method=psk, [status],] auth






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   3)  Request/MHAuth-Done: (MN -> HAC)
          mn-rand, hac-rand, sa-scope, ciphersuite-list, auth

   4)  Response/MHAuth-Done: (MN <- HAC)
          [sa-scope, sa-data, ciphersuite, bootstrapping-data,] mn-rand,
          hac-rand, status, auth

   Where:

      auth = HMAC-SHA256(PSK, msg-octets | CB-octets)

   The length "mn-rand", "hac-rand" is 32 octets.  Note that "|"
   indicates concatenation and optional parameters are shown in square
   brackets [..].  The square brackets can be nested.

   The shared secret PSK can be variable length. 'msg-octets' includes
   all payload parameters of the respective message to be signed except
   the 'auth' payload.  CB-octets is the channel binding input to the
   auth calculation that is the "TLS-server-endpoint" channel binding
   type.  The content and algorithm (only required for the "TLS-server-
   endpoint" type) are the same as described in
   [I-D.altman-tls-channel-bindings].

   The MN starts by selecting a random number 'mn-rand' and choosing a
   list of supported authentication methods coded in 'auth-method'.  The
   MN sends its identity 'mn-id', 'mn-rand' and 'auth-method' to the HAC
   in MHAuth-Init.  The decision of which authentication method to offer
   and which to pick is policy- and implementation-dependent and,
   therefore, outside the scope of this document.

   In MHAuth-Done, the HAC sends a random number 'hac-rand' and the
   selected ciphersuite.  The selection MUST be one of the MN-supported
   ciphersuites as received in 'ciphersuite-list'.  Furthermore, it
   repeats the received parameters of the MHAuth-Init message 'mn-rand'.
   It computes a message authenticator 'auth' over all the transmitted
   parameters except 'auth' itself.  The HAC calculates 'auth' over all
   parameters and appends it to the message.

   The MN verifies the received MAC and the consistency of the
   identities, nonces, and ciphersuite parameters transmitted in MHAuth-
   Auth.  In case of successful verification, the MN computes a MAC over
   the session parameter and returns it to the HAC in MHAuth-Done.  The
   HAC verifies the received MAC and the consistency of the identities,
   nonces, and ciphersuite parameters transmitted in MHAuth-Init.  If
   the verification is successful, MHAuth-Done is prepared and sent by
   the HAC to confirm successful completion of the exchange.





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5.9.  Extensible Authentication Protocol Methods

   Basic operation required for the MN-HAC mutual authentication using
   EAP-based methods.

   MN                                                      HAC
    |                                                       |
    | Request/MHAuth-Init (...)                             |
    |------------------------------------------------------>|
    |                                                       |
    |                            Response/MHAuth-Init (..., |
    |                     eap-payload=EAP-Request/Identity) |
    |<------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                       |
    | Request/MHAuth-Mid (eap-payload=                      |
    |              EAP-Response/Identity)                   |
    |------------------------------------------------------>|
    |                                                       |
    |     Response/MHAuth-Mid (eap-payload=EAP-Request/...) |
    |<------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                       |
    :                                                       :
    :        ..EAP-method specific exchanges..              :
    :                                                       :
    |                                                       |
    | Request/MHAuth-Done (eap-payload=EAP-Response/...,    |
    |                      ..., auth)                       |
    |------------------------------------------------------>|
    |                                                       |
    |        Response/MHAuth-Done (eap-payload=EAP-Success, |
    |                              ..., auth)               |
    |<------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                       |

           Figure 3: Authentication of the Mobile Node Using EAP

   1)  Request/MHAuth-Init: (MN -> HAC)
          mn-id, mn-rand, auth-method=eap

   2)  Response/MHAuth-Init: (MN <- HAC)
          [auth-method=eap, eap, [status,]] auth

   3)  Request/MHAuth-Mid: (MN -> HAC)
          eap, auth







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   4)  Response/MHAuth-Mid: (MN <- HAC)
          eap, auth

       MHAuth-Mid exchange is repeated as many times as needed by the
       used EAP-method.

   5)  Request/MHAuth-Done: (MN -> HAC)
          sa-scope, ciphersuite-list, eap, auth

   6)  Response/MHAuth-Done: (MN <- HAC)
          [sa-scope, sa-data, ciphersuite, bootstrapping-data,] eap,
          status, auth

   Where:

      auth = HMAC-SHA256(shared-key, msg-octets | CB-octets)

   In MHAuth-Init and MHAuth-Mid messages, shared-key is set to "1".  If
   the EAP-method is key-deriving and creates a shared MSK key as a side
   effect of Authentication shared-key MUST be the MSK in all MHAuth-
   Done messages.  This MSK MUST NOT be used for any other purpose.  In
   case the EAP method does not generate an MSK key, shared-key is set
   to "1".

   'msg-octets' includes all payload parameters of the respective
   message to be signed except the 'auth' payload.  CB-octets is the
   channel binding input to the AUTH calculation that is the "TLS-
   server-endpoint" channel binding type.  The content and algorithm
   (only required for the "TLS-server-endpoint" type) are the same as
   described in [I-D.altman-tls-channel-bindings].


6.  Mobile Node to Home Agent communication

6.1.  General

   The following sections describe the packet formats used for the
   traffic between the MN and the HA.  This traffic includes binding
   management messages (for example, BU and BA messages), reverse
   tunneled and encrypted user data, and reverse tunneled plain text
   user data.  This specification defines a generic packet format, where
   everything is encapsulated inside UDP.  See Section 6.3 and
   Section 6.4 for detailed illustrations of the corresponding packet
   formats.

   The Mobile IPv6 service port number (HALTSEC), where the HA expects
   to receive UDP packets, is reserved by IANA.  The same port number is
   used for both binding management messages and user data packets.  The



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   reason for multiplexing data and control messages over the same port
   number is due to the possibility of Network Address and Port
   Translators located along the path between the MN and the HA.  The
   Mobile IPv6 service MAY use any ephemeral port number as the UDP
   source port, and MUST use the Mobile IPv6 service port number
   (HALTSEC) as the UDP destination port.

   The encapsulating UDP header is immediately followed by a 4-bit
   Packet Type (PType) field that defines whether the packet contains an
   encrypted mobility management message or a, an encrypted user data
   packet, or a plain text user data packet.

   The Packet Type field is followed by a 28-bit SPI value, which
   identifies the correct SA concerning the encrypted packet.  For any
   packet that is neither integrity protected nor encrypted (i.e. no SA
   is applied by the originator) the SPI MUST be set to 0 (zero). ).
   Mobility management messages MUST always be at least integrity
   protected.  Hence, mobility management messages MUST NOT be sent with
   a SPI value of 0 (zero).

   There is always only one SPI per MN-HA mobility session and the same
   SPI is used for all types of protected packets independent of the
   direction.

   The SPI value is followed by a 32-bit Sequence Number value that is
   used to identify retransmissions of encrypted messages.  Each
   endpoint in the security association maintains two "current" Sequence
   Numbers: the next one to be used for a packet it initiates and the
   next one it expects to see in a packet from the other end.  If the MN
   and the HA ends initiate very different numbers of messages, the
   Sequence Numbers in the two directions can be very different.  In a
   case encryption is not used, the Sequence Number MUST be set to 0
   (zero).  Note that the HA SHOULD initiate a re-establishement of the
   SA before any of the Sequence Number cycle.

   Finally, the Sequence Number field is followed by the data portion,
   whose content is identified by the Packet Type.  The data portion may
   be protected.

6.2.  Security Parameter Index

   The SPI is a 32-bit field, where the first 4 bits indicate the Packet
   Type (PType) of the UDP encapsulated packet.  The SPI value itself
   consists of the remaining 28-bit of the SPI field.  The SPI field is
   treated as one 32-bit field during the integrity protection
   calculation.





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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | PType |                        SPI                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 4: Security Parameter Index with Packet Type

   A SPI value of 0 (zero) indicates a plaintext packet.  If the packet
   is integrity protected or both integrity protected and encrypted, the
   SPI value MUST be different from 0.

6.3.  Binding Management Message Formats

   The binding management messages that are only meant to be exchanged
   between the MN and the HA MUST be integrity protected and MAY be
   encrypted.  They MUST use the packet format shown in Figure 5.  All
   packets that are specific to the Mobile IPv6 protocol and contain a
   Mobility Header (as defined in Section 6.1.1. of RFC 3775) SHOULD use
   the packet format shown in Figure 5.  (This means that some Mobile
   IPv6 mobility management messages, such as the HoTI message, as
   treated as data packets and using encapsulation described in
   Section 6.4).


 0                   1                   2                   3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|                                                               |:         IPv4 or IPv6 header (src-addr=Xa, dst-addr=Ya)        :|                                                               |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|                                                               |:            UDP header (src-port=Xp,dst-port=Yp)               :|                                                               |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ------|PType=8|                    SPI                                | ^Int.+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Cov-|                      Sequence Number                          | |ered+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ----|                    Payload Data* (variable)                   | |   ^:                                                               : |   ||                                                               | |Conf.+               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Cov-|               |     Padding (0-255 bytes)                     | |ered*+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |   ||                               |  Pad Length   | Next Header   | v   v+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ------|         Integrity Check Value-ICV   (variable)                |:                                                               :|                                                               |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

       Figure 5: UDP Encapsulated Binding Management Message Format

   The PType value 8 (eight) identifies that the UDP encapsulated packet
   contains a RFC 3775 defined Mobility Header and other relevant IPv6
   extension headers.  Note, there is no additional IP header inside the
   encapsulated part.  The Next Header field MUST be set to value of the
   first encapsulated header.  The encapsulated headers follow the
   natural IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 extension header alignment and
   formatting rules.

   The Padding, Pad Length, Next Header and ICV fields follow the rules
   of Section 2.4 to 2.8 of [RFC4303] unless otherwise stated in this
   document.  For a SPI value of 0 (zero) that indicates an unprotected
   packet, the Padding, Pad Length, Next Header and ICV fields MUST NOT
   be present.

   The source and destination IP addresses of the outer IP header (i.e.
   the src-addr and the dst-addr in Figure 5) use the current care-of
   address of the MN and the HA address.





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6.4.  Reverse Tunneled User Data Packet Formats

   There are two types of reverse tunneled user data packets between the
   MN and the HA.  Those that are integrity protected and encrypted and
   those that are plaintext.  The MN or the HA decide whether to apply
   integrity protection and encryption to a packet or to send it in
   plaintext based on the mip6-sas value in the SA.  If the mip6-sas is
   set to 1 the originator MUST NOT send any plaintext packet, and the
   receiver MUST silently discard any packet with the PType set to 0
   (unprotected).  It is RECOMMENDED to apply confidentiality and
   integrity protection of user data traffic.  The reverse tunneled IPv4
   or IPv6 user data packets are encapsulated as-is inside the 'Payload
   Data' shown in Figure 6. and Figure 7.

 0                   1                   2                   3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|                                                               |:         IPv4 or IPv6 header (src-addr=Xa, dst-addr=Ya)        :|                                                               |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|                                                               |:            UDP header (src-port=Xp,dst-port=Yp)               :|                                                               |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|PType=1|                    SPI                                | ^Int.+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Cov-|                      Sequence Number                          | |ered+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ----|                    Payload Data* (variable)                   | |   ^:                                                               : |   ||                                                               | |Conf.+               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Cov-|               |     Padding (0-255 bytes)                     | |ered*+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |   ||                               |  Pad Length   | Next Header   | v   v+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ------|         Integrity Check Value-ICV   (variable)                |:                                                               :|                                                               |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

       Figure 6: UDP Encapsulated Protected User Data Packet Format

   The PType value 1 (one) identifies that the UDP encapsulated packet
   contains an encrypted tunneled IPv4/IPv6 user data packet.  The Next
   Header field header MUST be set to value corresponding the tunneled
   IP packet (e.g., 41 for IPv6).

   The Padding, Pad Length, Next Header and ICV fields follow the rules
   of Section 2.4 to 2.8 of [RFC4303] unless otherwise stated in this
   document.  For a SPI value of 0 (zero) that indicates an unprotected
   packet, the Padding, Pad Length, Next Header and ICV fields MUST NOT
   be present.

   The source and destination IP addresses of the outer IP header (i.e.,
   the src-addr and the dst-addr in Figure 6) use the current care-of
   address of the MN and the HA address.  The ESP protected inner IP
   header, which is not shown in Figure 6, uses the home address of the
   MN and the correspondent node (CN) address.

















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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :         IPv4 or IPv6 header (src-addr=Xa, dst-addr=Ya)        :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :            UDP header (src-port=Xp,dst-port=Yp)               :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |PType=0|                        0                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                0                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :           Payload Data (plain IPv4 or IPv6 Packet)            :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Figure 7: UDP Encapsulated Non-Protected User Data Packet Format

   The PType value 0 (zero) identifies that the UDP encapsulated packet
   contains a plaintext tunneled IPv4/IPv6 user data packet.  Also the
   SPI and the Sequence Number fields MUST be set to 0 (zero).

   The source and destination IP addresses of the outer IP header (i.e.,
   the src-addr and the dst-addr in Figure 7) use the current care-of
   address of the MN and the HA address.  The plain text inner IP header
   uses the home address of the MN and the CN address.


7.  Route Optimization

   The treatment of MN-CN route optimization is outside the scope of
   this document.


8.  IANA Considerations

8.1.  New Registry: Packet Type

   IANA is requested to create a new registry for the Packet Type as
   described in Section 6.1.







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   Packet Type                       | Value
   ----------------------------------+----------------------------------
   non-encrypted IP packet           | 0
   encrypted IP packet               | 1
   mobility header                   | 8

   Following the allocation policies from [RFC5226] new values for the
   Packet Type AVP MUST be assigned based on the "RFC Required" policy.

8.2.  HTTP Headers

   A number of HTTP headers with their respective parameters are
   reserved.  See Section 5.6 and Section 5.7 for a list of header names
   and their parameters.

8.3.  Status Codes

   A new Status Code (to be used in BA messages) is reserved for the
   cases where the HA wants to indicate to the MN that it needs to re-
   establish the SA information with the HAC.  The Result Code is
   reserved from the 0-127 code space:

       REINIT_SA_WITH_HAC       TBD1

8.4.  Port Numbers

   A new port number (HALTSEC) for UDP packets is reserved from the PORT
   NUMBERS registry.

       HALTSEC                  TBD2


9.  Security Considerations

   This document describes and uses a number of building blocks that
   introduce security mechanisms and need to interwork in a secure
   manner.

   The following building blocks are considered from a security point of
   view:

   1.  Discovery of the HAC
   2.  Authentication and MN-HA SA establishment executed between the MN
       and the HAC (PSK or EAP-based) through a TLS tunnel
   3.  Protection of MN-HA communication
   4.  AAA Interworking





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9.1.  Discovery of the HAC

   No dynamic procedure for discovering the HAC by the MN is described
   in this document.  As such, no specific security considerations apply
   to the scope of this document.

9.2.  Authentication and Key Exchange executed between the MN and the
      HAC

   This document describes a simple authentication and MN-HA SA
   negotiation exchange over TLS.  The TLS procedures remain unchanged;
   however, channel binding is provided.

   Authentication:  Server-side certificate based authentication MUST be
      performed using TLS 1.2 [RFC5246].

      The client-side authentication may depend on the specific
      deployment and is therefore not mandated.  Note that TLS-PSK
      [RFC4279] cannot be used in conjunction with the methods described
      in section 5.8 and 5.9 of this document due to the limitations of
      the channel binding type used.

      Through the protected TLS tunnel, an additional authentication
      exchange is performed that provides client-side or mutual
      authentication and exchanges SA parameters and optional
      configuration data to be used in the subsequent protection of
      MN-HA communication.  The additional authentication exchange can
      either be PSK-based (section 5.8) or EAP-based (section 5.9).
      Both exchanges are always performed within the protected TLS
      tunnel and MUST NOT be used as standalone protocols.

      The simple PSK-based authentication exchange provides mutual
      authentication and follows the GPSK exchange used by EAP-GPSK
      [RFC5433] and has similar properties, although some features of
      GPSK like the exchange of a protected container are not supported.

      The EAP-based authentication exchange simply defines message
      containers to allow carrying the EAP packets between the MN and
      the HAC.  In principle, any EAP method can be used.  However, it
      is strongly recommended to use only EAP methods that provide
      mutual authentication and that derive keys including an MSK key in
      compliance with [RFC3748].

      Both exchanges use channel binding with the TLS tunnel.  The
      channel binding type 'TLS-server-endpoint' as per
      [I-D.altman-tls-channel-bindings] MUST be used.





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   Dictionary Attacks:  All messages of the authentication exchanges
      specified in this document are protected by TLS.  However, any
      implementation SHOULD assume that the properties of the
      authentication exchange are the same as for GPSK [RFC5433] in case
      the PSK-based method as per section 5.8. is used, and are the same
      as those of the underlying EAP method in case the EAP-based
      exchange as per section 5.9 is used.

   Replay Protection:  The underlying TLS protection provides protection
      against replays.

   Key Derivation and Key Strength:  For TLS, the TLS specific
      considerations apply unchanged.  For the authentication exchanges
      defined in this document, no key derivation step is performed as
      the MN-HA keys are generated by the HAC and are distributed to the
      MN through the secure TLS connection.

   Key Control:  No joint key control for MN-HA keys is provided by this
      version of the specification.

   Lifetime:  The TLS-protected authentication exchange between the MN
      and the HAC is only to bootstrap keys and other parameters for
      usage with MN-HA security.  The SAs that contain the keys have an
      associated lifetime.  The usage of Transport Layer Security (TLS)
      Session Resumption without Server-Side State, described in
      [RFC5077], provides the ability for the MN to minimize the latency
      of future exchanges towards the HA without having to keep state at
      the HA itself.

   Denial of Service Resistance:  The level of resistance against denial
      of service attacks SHOULD be considered the same as for common TLS
      operation, as TLS is used unchanged.  For the PSK-based
      authentication exchange, no additional factors are known.  For the
      EAP-based authentication exchange, any considerations regarding
      denial-of-service resistance specific to the chosen EAP method are
      expected to be applicable and need to be be taken into account.

   Session Independence:  Each individual TLS protocol run is
      independent from any previous exchange based on the security
      properties of the TLS handshake protocol.  However, several PSK or
      EAP-based authentication exchanges can be performed across the
      same TLS connection.

   Fragmentation:  TLS runs on top of TCP and no fragmentation specific
      considerations apply to the MN-HAC authentication exchanges.






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   Channel Binding:  Both the PSK and the EAP-based exchanges use
      channel binding with the TLS tunnel.  The channel binding type
      'TLS-server-endpoint' as per [I-D.altman-tls-channel-bindings]
      MUST be used.

   Fast Reconnect:  This protocol provides session resumption as part of
      TLS and optionally the support for [RFC5077].  No fast reconnect
      is supported for the PSK-based authentication exchange.  For the
      EAP-based authentication exchange, availability of fast reconnect
      depends on the EAP method used.

   Identity Protection:  Based on the security properties of the TLS
      tunnel, passive user identity protection is provided.  An attacker
      acting as man-in-the-middle in the TLS connection would be able to
      observe the MN identity value sent in MHAuth-Init messages.

   Protected Ciphersuite Negotiation:  This protocol provides
      ciphersuite negotiation based on TLS.

   Confidentiality:  Confidentiality protection of payloads exchanged
      between the MN and the HAC are protected with the TLS Record
      Layer.  TLS ciphersuites with confidentiality and integrity
      protection MUST be negotiated and used in order to exchange
      security sensitive material inside the TLS connection.

   Cryptographic Binding:  No cryptographic bindings are provided by
      this protocol specified in this document.

   Perfect Forward Secrecy:  Perfect forward secrecy is provided with
      appropriate TLS ciphersuites.

   Key confirmation:  Key confirmation of the keys established with TLS
      is provided by the TLS Record Layer when the keys are used to
      protect the subsequent TLS exchange.


9.3.  Protection of MN and HA Communication

   Authentication:  Data origin authentication is provided for the
      communication between the MN and the HA.  The chosen level of
      security of this authentication depends on the selected
      ciphersuite.  Entity authentication is offered by the MN to HAC
      protocol exchange.








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   Dictionary Attacks:  The concept of dictionary attacks is not
      applicable to the MN-HA communication as the keying material used
      for this communication is randomly created by the HAC and its
      length depends on the chosen cryptographic algorithms.

   Replay Protection:  Replay protection for the communication between
      the MN and the HA is provided based on sequence numbers and
      follows the design of IPsec ESP.

   Key Derivation and Key Strength:  The strength of the keying material
      established for the communication between the MN and the HA is
      selected based on the negotiated ciphersuite (based on the MN-HAC
      exchange) and the key created by the HAC.  The randomness
      requirements for security described in RFC 4086 [RFC4086] are
      applicable to the key generation by the HAC.

   Key Control:  The keying material established during the MN-HAC
      protocol exchange for subsequent protection of the MN-HA
      communication is created by the HA and therefore no joint key
      control is provided for it.

   Key Naming:  For the MN-HA communication the security associations
      are indexed with the help of the SPI and additionally based on the
      direction (in-bound communication or out-bound communication).

   Lifetime:  The lifetime of the MN-HA security associations is based
      on the value in the mip6-sa-validity-end HTTP header field
      exchanged during the MN-HAC exchange.  The HAC controls the SA
      lifetime.

   Denial of Service Resistance:  For the communication between the MN
      and the HA there are no heavy cryptographic operations (such as
      public key computations).  As such, there are no DoS concerns.

   Session Independence:  Sessions are independent from each other when
      new keys are created by via the MN-HAC protocol.  A new MN-HAC
      protocol run produces fresh and unique keying material for
      protection of the MN-HA communication.

   Fragmentation:  There is no additional fragmentation support provided
      beyond what is offered by the network layer.

   Channel Binding:  Channel binding is not applicable to the MN-HA
      communication.







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   Fast Reconnect:  The concept of fast reconnect is not applicable to
      the MN-HA communication.

   Identity Protection:  User identities SHOULD NOT be exchanged between
      the MN and the HA.  In a case binding management messages contain
      the user identity, the messages SHOULD be confidentity protected.

   Protected Ciphersuite Negotiation:  The MN-HAC protocol provides
      protected ciphersuite negotiation through a secure TLS connection.

   Confidentiality:  Confidentiality protection of payloads exchanged
      between the MN and the HAC (for Mobile IPv6 signaling and
      optionally for the data traffic) is provided utilizing algorithms
      negotiated during the MN-HAC exchange.

   Cryptographic Binding:  No cryptographic bindings are provided by
      this protocol specified in this document.

   Perfect Forward Secrecy:  Perfect forward secrecy is provided when
      the MN bootstraps new keying material with the help of the MN-HAC
      protocol (assuming that a proper TLS ciphersuite is used).

   Key confirmation:  Key confirmation of the MN-HA keying material
      conveyed from the HAC to the MN is provided when the first packets
      are exchanged between the MN and the HA (in both directions as two
      different keys are used).

9.4.  AAA Interworking

   The AAA backend infrastructure interworking is not defined in this
   document and therefore out-of-scope.


10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Pasi Eronen, Domagoj Premec, and
   Christian Bauer for their comments.


11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.altman-tls-channel-bindings]
              Altman, J., Williams, N., and L. Zhu, "Channel Bindings
              for TLS", draft-altman-tls-channel-bindings-10 (work in
              progress), March 2010.




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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2404]  Madson, C. and R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-SHA-1-96 within
              ESP and AH", RFC 2404, November 1998.

   [RFC2410]  Glenn, R. and S. Kent, "The NULL Encryption Algorithm and
              Its Use With IPsec", RFC 2410, November 1998.

   [RFC2451]  Pereira, R. and R. Adams, "The ESP CBC-Mode Cipher
              Algorithms", RFC 2451, November 1998.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC3566]  Frankel, S. and H. Herbert, "The AES-XCBC-MAC-96 Algorithm
              and Its Use With IPsec", RFC 3566, September 2003.

   [RFC3602]  Frankel, S., Glenn, R., and S. Kelly, "The AES-CBC Cipher
              Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 3602,
              September 2003.

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [RFC4282]  Aboba, B., Beadles, M., Arkko, J., and P. Eronen, "The
              Network Access Identifier", RFC 4282, December 2005.

   [RFC4285]  Patel, A., Leung, K., Khalil, M., Akhtar, H., and K.
              Chowdhury, "Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPv6",
              RFC 4285, January 2006.

   [RFC5056]  Williams, N., "On the Use of Channel Bindings to Secure
              Channels", RFC 5056, November 2007.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3268]  Chown, P., "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
              Ciphersuites for Transport Layer Security (TLS)",
              RFC 3268, June 2002.



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   [RFC3344]  Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
              August 2002.

   [RFC3748]  Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
              Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)",
              RFC 3748, June 2004.

   [RFC3776]  Arkko, J., Devarapalli, V., and F. Dupont, "Using IPsec to
              Protect Mobile IPv6 Signaling Between Mobile Nodes and
              Home Agents", RFC 3776, June 2004.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness
              Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005.

   [RFC4279]  Eronen, P. and H. Tschofenig, "Pre-Shared Key Ciphersuites
              for Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 4279,
              December 2005.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, December 2005.

   [RFC4306]  Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
              RFC 4306, December 2005.

   [RFC4877]  Devarapalli, V. and F. Dupont, "Mobile IPv6 Operation with
              IKEv2 and the Revised IPsec Architecture", RFC 4877,
              April 2007.

   [RFC5077]  Salowey, J., Zhou, H., Eronen, P., and H. Tschofenig,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without
              Server-Side State", RFC 5077, January 2008.

   [RFC5433]  Clancy, T. and H. Tschofenig, "Extensible Authentication
              Protocol - Generalized Pre-Shared Key (EAP-GPSK) Method",
              RFC 5433, February 2009.

   [RFC5555]  Soliman, H., "Mobile IPv6 Support for Dual Stack Hosts and
              Routers", RFC 5555, June 2009.










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Authors' Addresses

   Basavaraj Patil
   Nokia
   6021 Connection Drive
   Irving,  TX  75039
   USA

   Email: basavaraj.patil@nokia.com


   Charles Perkins
   Tellabs
   3590 N. 1st Street, Suite 300
   San Jose,  CA 95134
   USA

   Email: charles.perkins@tellabs.com


   Hannes Tschofenig
   Nokia Siemens Networks
   Linnoitustie 6
   Espoo  02600
   Finland

   Phone: +358 (50) 4871445
   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net
   URI:   http://www.tschofenig.priv.at


   Domagoj Premec
   Unaffiliated
   Heinzelova 70a
   Zagreb  10000
   Croatia

   Email: domagoj.premec@gmail.com













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