ECRIT Working Group                                          James Polk
Internet-Draft                                            Cisco Systems
Expires: Sept 6th, 2006                                   Andrew Newton
                                                        March 6th, 2006

           Emergency Context Routing of Internet Technologies
                      Architecture Considerations

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).


   This document discusses architectural considerations for emergency
   context routing of Internet technologies.  The purpose of this
   document is to provide a systemic view of emergency context routing,
   discuss unresolved issues, and explain the relationship of some of
   the proposals to these issues, while discussing potential directions
   that might be still be necessary for the working group to

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
     1.1   Division of Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.2   Terminology, Acronyms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Conversion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  LCMS Mapping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Conveyance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1   Location Conveyance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2   Identity Conveyance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  Universal Emergency Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     7.1   Security of the LCMS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     7.2   Security of Location Conveyance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.3   Security of Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.4   Security of Conversion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Data distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   10. Conflation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   11. Rerouting/Transfer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     13.1  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     13.2  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   A.  Appendix A.  Additional stuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements  . . . . . . . 15

1.  Introduction

   The solution to proper emergency call identification, management and
   routing over the Internet involves many components and coordination
   between them.  This document describes the necessary interaction
   between these components.  The information given in this document
   may not be complete, and some of the issues presented in this
   document may not be resolved by the community.  The intent of this
   document is to describe a "big picture" view of the process,
   describe prevailing thoughts on this subject and describe unresolved
   issues in hopes of bringing about consensus within the community on
   these topics.

   The current architecture of Emergency Context Routing of Internet
   Technologies is composed of the following:

   Bootstrapping: delivery of configuration and location information to
      the client at or near power-up time.

   Conversion: conversion of location information into forms usable in
      mapping and conveyance, if necessary.

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   LCMS Mapping: conversion of endsystem location information into
      addresses usable to initiate or progress communication towards an
      emergency call center (a PSAP).

   Conveyance: delivery of endsystem location information to an
      emergency call center during the emergency call (used for
      first responder dispatch).

   There are many unresolved issues regarding these steps and related
   matters.  The following list is not exhaustive, but includes most of
   the issues brought grouping discussions to date (and a few new

   Universal emergency identifier: there needs to be a universal
      emergency identifier to prevent highly localized usage and
      confusion by users and systems of what applies to a certain
      region, and what does not.

   Security: the security properties necessary for the proper
      protection of LCMS data are not well understood.

   Data distribution: the distribution of LCMS data closer to the
      points of queries within the Internet.

   Extensibility: the methods for extensibility in all components of
      the system must be well understood.

   Conflation: many of the components proposed for use in the routing
      of emergency calls have other uses and most have not been
      primarily designed for the emergency call routing case.

1.1 Division of Labor

   As stated above, not all of the components used in the process of
   routing an emergency call to the correct emergency call center over
   the Internet have been defined for the exclusive use of this case,
   and therefore not all of the specification work is being conducted
   within the scope of the charter of the ECRIT working group.

   Bootstrapping of location information, both geospatial and civic,
   via DHCP is work in progress in the GEOPRIV working group.
   Bootstrapping of URI references via DHCP is work in progress in the
   DHC working group.

   The definition of location objects and the use of schemas to
   describe location is work in progress in the GEOPRIV working group.
   The specification of conveyance of location objects via SIP is work
   in progress in the SIP working group.

   The mapping of location information to URIs is the primary function
   of the ECRIT working group.  The set of mechanisms and services

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   working in conjunction with each other to conduct this mapping is
   referred to as the Location Context Mapping System, or LCMS by this
   document for the purposes of clarity.

1.2 Terminology, Acronyms and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119].

   The following terms and definitions will be used throughout this

   Application (Layer) Provider (ALP) - provider of application level
      services such as a voice over IP service that is completely
      divorced from the Link provider, and may be divorced from the
      Internet Attachment Provider of an endsystem that is merely
      providing a layer 3 connectivity service.

   ALP - Application (Layer) Provider

   Emergency Services Gateway (ESGW) - The special IP to circuit-
      switched gateway that front-ends an emergency services Selective
      Router (SR) (which directs all TDM based 911/112 type calls to
      the appropriate PSAP within a given physical region)

   Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP) - a special instance of a
      SIP Proxy that understands emergency routing of messages
      identified as emergency messages to a PSAP based on
      the location of the caller that is included in the message

   ESGW - Emergency Services Gateway

   ESRP - Emergency Services Routing Proxy

   IAP - Internet Attachment Provider

   Internet Attachment Provider (IAP) - typically the organization that
      provides Internet or IP access to the client (i.e. assigns the
      client an IP address and/or provides the client with IP transit.

   Location Context Mapping System – A set of coordinated mechanisms
      and services that map a physical location (geospatial or civic)
      to a network address.

   LCMS – Location Context Mapping System

   LIS - Location Information Server

   PSAP - Public Safety Answering Point

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   Location Information Server (LIS) – Provides a mapping function to
      relate unique identifiers for IP devices at physical network
      access points and the geographic descriptions of their location
      (e.g., civic location/street addresses or geographic
      coordinates).  Responds to queries for location information.

   Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) - the emergency response call
      center talking the local emergency calls from people in distress.
      This facility can be logical, and can transfer (reroute) any
      request sent to it to another facility deemed more appropriate to
      receive the request.

2.  Bootstrapping

   Bootstrapping delivers configuration information to the
   client.  The most obvious use of bootstrapping is for an endsystem
   to ask for and receive its IP address, Subnet Mask and Default
   Gateway addresses.  This could also be used to deliver the
   geospatial or civic address of the client to it for future use.
   This is typically done at device or individual application
   boot times.  Unlike other parts of the architecture, bootstrapping
   is the only phase of the emergency call routing process that does
   not have a single solution.  This is due to the many network
   configuration techniques used by access networks.

   There are three well-known methods of bootstrapping:

   1. Using the DHCP protocol
   2. Using the PPP protocol
   3. Using IEEE 802.1 LLDP-MED

   For location information, there are two types: location information
   regarding a civic address (e.g. 123 Main St ) and geospatial
   information (e.g. x, y, z coordinates).

   The set of configuration data types has not been discussed or
   resolved.  But the following types of configuration information have
   been noted: 1) references to LCMS servers, 2) references to PSAPs,
   and 3) references to location information servers.

   References to LCMS servers obviate the need for global hierarchies
   of LCMS data directories (which have proven politically difficult in
   other voice over IP matters) and reduce the coordination to only the
   necessary jurisdictional boundaries.

   References to PSAPs obviate the need for the mapping steps in cases
   where location is not likely to be a determining factor in emergency
   call routing (e.g. location is fixed and the emergency call center
   is known).

   References to location information servers enable better separation

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   for knowledge of location from the access network.

3.  Conversion

   Conversion of location information from one format to the other
   format is conducted for the benefit of the LCMS servers and
   conveyance of the location information.  There are two aspects to
   this conversion: syntactic conversion of the location information
   from the binary formats used in bootstrapping to the XML format used
   in PIDF-LO, and conversion of the civic location information to
   geospatial location information or vice versa.

   Syntactic conversion is a necessary function, and it can take two
   different forms: conversion from the binary DHCP format to the
   PIDF-LO conveyance format and conversion to a LCMS format if the
   LCMS interface does not use PIDF-LO.

   Conversion of location information from a civic address to
   geospatial coordinates or from geospatial coordinates to a civic
   address is much more controversial.  There is no doubt that civic
   addresses are much easier to consume by humans than geospatial
   coordinates, however conversion from geospatial coordinates to a
   civic address can be error prone and in cases involving large areas
   (e.g. a farm, an outdoor park, etc…) the resulting civic address can
   be of limited utility.  Further, civic coordinates only address
   a fraction of the land of this planet, as civic addresses are to a
   great degree tied to the existence of a nearby street, which are
   prevalent in cities, but are scarce to non-existent in rural areas.
   Therefore, a combination of the two formats will be required
   regardless of mankind's consumption preference.

4.  LCMS Mapping

   The creation of an LCMS, which will convert location information
   into references (i.e. URIs) to emergency call centers, is the
   primary area of work for the ECRIT working group.  There are two
   times in which this LCMS function can occur successfully:

   1. before the device attempts contact with a PSAP, and

   2. after the device initiates contact with the PSAP, but before the
      correct PSAP is determined by the ESRP making the LCMS query.

   Accomplishing mapping of a device's location with the proper PSAP
   can be done statically or dynamically, or in a layered - combination
   - approach.

   Statically - If a site is small enough, for example residential or
      Small or single building business scale, all devices in either of
      these types of locations can be configured to download, or have

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      downloaded to them, their location information and the SIP or
      SIPS URI for contacting the appropriate PSAP for that location.

   Dynamically - for the above types of locations, or for larger
      locations, the client's location can be used to "look up" the
      appropriate PSAP SIP or SIPS URI, and have this configuration
      information downloaded to each client requesting it.  This can
      also be pushed to all clients regardless of whether they asked
      for the information or not.  This pushing of the PSAP URI(s) can
      be at some interval to maintain freshness of the URI(s), as stale
      URI(s) are a concern to some.

   For the static configuration, for each given endpoint or section of
   a network, a known PSAP SIP or SIPS URI is downloaded to the
   client(s) without the clients providing their individual location to
   perform the LCMS function.  In the case of dynamic configuration of
   a URI, the client provides their location to an LCMS server to do
   this look-up, with the answer sent to the client for future use by
   any application on that client, including for emergency services.

   In a layered approach, there does not need to be a one-size-fits-all
   solution, but a combination of ways in which the mapping resolution
   is accomplished towards the goal of having the emergency call set-up
   reach the appropriate PSAP.  For example, a solution with the most
   risk can be used last, but in a way it does not rely on any other
   steps to have occurred to function properly.  In this scenario, the
   simplest means of mapping with the least risk can be performed
   initially, before the device ever knows it will generate an
   emergency call set-up message.  In this way, this first mechanism is
   done at boot-time, and the mapping during the actual emergency call
   can still happen whether or not the bootstrapping took place or not.
   This layered approach would be with a goal of solving the function
   of mapping one of the independent steps towards entering the
   appropriate PSAP SIP or SIPS URI into the INVITE message.  When this
   URI is learned should not matter, as long as it is the appropriate

   Another combined approach can be attained in the following scenario:
   if the endsystem knows of an authoritative LCMS server regardless of
   which network or domain the client is connected to, the endsystem
   can contact this server to get its PSAP SIP/SIPS URI based on its
   location provided by the local access network.  In this scenario, an
   endsystem can have a trust association established with a particular
   server (or server service) that it contacts as soon as it either
   learns its location from a local network/domain or somehow
   determines it has moved while remaining "connected" to that

   For the device configuration of a PSAP SIP or SIPS URI, currently
   only DHCP is being proposed as a solution [ID-DHCP-URI].  This
   proposal is not an LCMS function because it does not send location
   to a server and receive the mapping answer containing a URI.  DHCP

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   is used here to only deliver the URI to be used as the Request-URI
   of the emergency SIP INVITE.

   To date there are three protocol proposals for LCMS: LUMP, ECON, and
   DNS SOS.  LUMP is an XML-based, SOAP solution with emphasis on data
   distribution.  ECON is an XML-based, IRIS solution with emphasis on
   lightweight data exchange, and DNS SOS is a DNS-based solution with
   emphasis on re-using DNS semantics.

   Finally, some jurisdictions may find it necessary to withdraw the
   LCMS protocol from public view and place its function within an
   ESRP. At the option of the jurisdiction, more than one ESRP function
   may be implemented in series, to provide increasingly precise
   routing to the appropriate PSAP.

5.  Conveyance

5.1 Location Conveyance

   Once the address of the PSAP is known, either through bootstrapping
   or through LCMS mapping, a call can be initiated with the PSAP.
   Location information is sent to the PSAP as meta-data of the call
   using PIDF-LO.  This facet is not part of the ECRIT WG, but cannot
   be overlooked.  Even if the caller contacts the appropriate PSAP,
   that PSAP will still require knowledge of where the caller is in
   order to dispatch emergency responders (i.e. help).  Issues
   regarding the acquisition of this knowledge are discussed in Section

   Passing location information within the voice application protocol
   is commonly referred to as "location-by-value".  There exists
   another concept where a reference to a location server is passed
   within the voice application protocol instead of the actual location
   information.  This is known a "location-by-reference".  Location-by-
   reference is not without controversy, and its plusses and minuses
   will be discussed in a future version of this document.

5.2 Identity Conveyance

   There is a general desire on behalf of PSAP operators to have the
   identity of a caller conveyed within a call.  This identity has two
   parts: an identity asserted to be authentic and a call-back
   reference for re-establishment of communications.

   Of the two parts of this identity conveyance, the authentication of
   the identity is the most contentious and burdensome to solve.  For
   example, if a traveler with a phone purchased in London were to make
   an emergency phone call in New York, what trust relationship exists
   between the authorities of New York and a phone retailer in London?

   Making matters more complicated, conveyance of identity for

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   emergency calling is not a work item for any IETF working group.

6.  Universal Emergency Identifiers

   Throughout the world, there are many different numbers in use to
   signal emergency phone calls.  Some counts have this number as high
   as 60 unique number sequences worldwide.  This lack of uniformity
   also leads to collision.  For example, in some areas of the world,
   dialing the number 0 is used for calling for help, whereas in other
   parts of the world, this would not accomplish its intended emergency
   meaning, resulting in the caller being told to hang up and dial
   another number.

   Therefore, one of the ECRIT requirements is for a universal
   emergency identifier to signal an emergency.  The need for it to be
   universal (or well-known) is threefold: so that all the components
   in the emergency call routing process may properly operate based on
   its presence in a message, to avoid collisions with other purposes
   (as stated above), and so that clients may localize its meaning to
   end users.  The issue is that there is not just one single
   identifier related to emergency calls, but that there are many
   identifiers related to emergency calls for various specific types of

   Multiple identifiers lead to confusion and many have overlapping
   meaning.  For example, the separate identifiers "mountain" and
   "rescue" could mean the same thing to a user needing to be rescued
   from a mountainous area. Additionally, some jurisdictions have
   custom identifiers that are either unused globally or have a limited

   Each LCMS proposal takes a different approach to solving this
   problem.  ECON takes the simplest approach, specifying a simple list
   of 3 identifiers. DNS SOS specifies a list of six identifiers. LUMP
   specifies a hierarchy of identifiers.

   What is not clear, or has not been well defined, is the need for
   even the simplest of these approaches.  It is not even well
   understood if end users, in an emergency situation, will be able to
   rationalize the difference between "emergency" and a simple list of
   "police", "fire", and "medical".  While some have suggested this is
   in practice in some parts of the world today, that does not
   necessarily mean this will become universal in usage.  It appears
   that if there is a single master identifier with more than one sub-
   identifier, that this arrangement should be used where it is
   understood, and perhaps adopted elsewhere as jurisdictions decide to
   segment this capability based on education within that area.

   What appears obvious to avoid is to have different identifiers for
   help in different parts of the world moving forward.  If only
   'sos.police@...' reaches the police in a country where Alice does

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   not live when she sends a SIP INVITE to 'sos@...', ECRIT as a WG has
   not likely accomplished its goal.

   Locales that choose to have sub-identifiers for granularity must
   have an architected solution for the higher level identifier as

7.  Security Considerations

7.1 Security of the LCMS

   It is the goal of the working group to develop a dynamic LCMS
   protocol that is both secure and responsive, two features that tend
   to conflict with each other.  Security for this mapping solution has
   fallen into two broad categories: object signing and channel

   Object signing has three benefits: integrity of data during
   distribution, the potential for utilization in UDP packets, and pre-
   calculation of cryptographic data.  However, in cases where partial
   matching of the query are to be allowed (i.e. parts of a civic
   address are to be ignored in the query) or the query cannot be known
   ahead of time (i.e. the whole set of geospatial coordinates is
   known but not in practical terms), object signing will require "on-
   line" signing which negates advantages in data distribution and
   cryptographic pre-calculations.

   In addition, the use case regarding the invalidity of a signed
   object may be no different from that of a validly signed object.
   Users confronted with an emergency may not be able to appreciate the
   difference in validity, and even if they did, may not alter their
   course of action (i.e. they continue with the emergency call

   Channel security requires expensive cryptographic calculations that
   cannot be computed ahead of time and requires multiple packet
   exchanges (i.e. roundtrips) to establish.  However, this approach
   has the benefit of securing all parts of the transaction, and unlike
   object signing, is well used and well understood on the Internet.

   The security properties of each of the three LCMS proposals is as

   LUMP uses both channel security (TLS connections to the query
       server) and object signing (signed entries in the database).

   DNS SOS uses both channel security (TLS in connections to fetching
       polygons and other information) and object signing (in DNSSEC
       for the protection of NAPTR records).

   ECON uses channel security (TLS connections to the query server) as

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       an option setup by the operator of the service and a lightweight
       UDP transfer protocol for scenarios where security is not

7.2 Security of Location Conveyance

   There is a general desire to protect PSAPs from malicious calls.
   Yet, how this is to be accomplished is not clear or well defined.

   Complicating this issue is the simple fact that many PSAPs will
   accept a call without location information related to the caller.
   Additionally, many PSAPs give priority or parity to location
   information collected by a human operator from a human caller.  Due
   to this fact, it has been observed that any security mechanism put
   into place by ECRIT can simply be routed around by directly
   contacting a PSAP.

   In cases where a PSAP would wish to disregard calls of unknown
   provenance, no guidelines have clearly been stated as to how such
   trust relationships would be erected.

7.3 Security of Bootstrapping

   Where critical decisions might be based on the value(s) of the
   bootstrapping process, such as a URI option from [ID-DHC-URI], DHCP
   authentication in [RFC3118] SHOULD be used to protect the integrity
   of the DHCP options.

   Since there is no privacy protection for DHCP messages, an
   eavesdropper who can monitor the link between the client and
   destination DHCP server to capture any URIs in transit.

   When implementing a DHC server that will serve clients across an
   uncontrolled network, one should consider the potential security

   All that said, if DNS is not secure, and bootstrapping is difficult
   to secure based on what it takes to accomplish [RFC3118], is
   securing the mapping service worth the effort and pain to achieve?

7.4 Security of Conversion

   Location is a vital part of emergency messaging.  As discussed
   earlier, an endsystem will not likely be in control of which format
   of location it receives from a roamed to network.  For more fixed
   endsystems, this should not be the case.  If an endsystem does
   receive location in a format it knows an application on that
   endsystem does not prefer, the endsystem can contact a server or
   service, if one is known, to convert this format to the other

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   As a non-emergency example, most humans understand street addresses
   much better than GPS coordinates.  If a roaming device, say using
   802.11 at a hotspot, acquires its location via DHCP Option 123 [RFC
   3825], it can determine if an application used by that device
   prefers the civic format when using an instant messaging application
   on that device.  Before the IM application is launched, or as the
   app is launched, the device can seek a conversion server to perform
   this format conversion  operation.  How does a client learn of a
   server that can do this?   [ID-DHC-URI] provides one means for a
   device to learn the URL of a server that can do this function, or
   this can be preconfigured in the device as a trusted source for this
   conversion, wherever it is - as long as there is connectivity to
   that trusted source.

   In the emergency case, perhaps the device knows it needs to convert
   to the civic format to have an ESRP perform an LCMS query, but the
   local network gave it a geospatial location only.  If the conversion
   server is preconfigured, this provides the ability to have the two
   devices, say the phone and the conversion server, establish a trust
   relationship, perhaps with pre-shared keys.  This reduces the round
   trip times, making it more efficient.  This also provides a more
   secure means of communication since both entities 'know' each other.

8.   Data distribution

   There is a desire to locate LCMS data in the LCMS close to the
   points of query in the Internet for performance reasons.  In
   addition, some jurisdictions distribute authority for this data upon
   hierarchical lines.  However, the needs for data distribution beyond
   these high-level requirements are not well known.  For instance, the
   known life expectancy of data distributed to caches is not well
   known, nor are update procedures in the distribution of this data.

   Each of the three LCMS proposals addresses this problem in a
   different way:

   DNS SOS relies upon the cache machinery of DNS.  The population of
      DNS caches with location information is accomplished through
      validation of caller locations (a process during provisioning of
      a callers location and before any emergency call).  This proposal
      does not address early cache expiration due to limited cache
      memory, by accepted practices of DNS operations, or by routine
      maintenance of DNS servers.

   LUMP defines a caching mechanism that identifies objects by hash
      value in order to accomplish a mesh of caches between nodes.  The
      population of the caches with location information is
      accomplished through validation of caller locations (a process
      conducted during provisioning of a callers location and before
      any emergency call).

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   ECON defines no preference for data distribution due to the limited
      requirements available.  However, it does describe two methods
      that could be employed: the serialization of data to files for
      distribution via standard transfer protocols and an on-line,
      incremental approach capable of distributing entries before their
      activation date.

9.  Extensibility

   Within the ECRIT working group, there appears to be rough consensus
   on the need for extensible mechanisms, and hence an extensible LCMS
   protocol capable of extensions in its query interface and resulting
   output.  This desire for extensibility is born from a general sense
   that not all the problems of emergency call routing over the
   Internet will be fully exposed until deployment of a first
   generation solution and from a more specific sense of the
   incompleteness of the civic address schema in PIDF-LO.

   As an example of the more general case, the document [ID-ECRIT-
   JAPAN] describes a numeric address code equivalent to the civic
   elements <A1> through <A5> in PIDF-LO used in conjunction with
   geospatial coordinates to conduct emergency call handling in Japan.
   As an example of the more specific case, PIDF-LO does not contain an
   element to describe street section numbers as used in Taiwan.

10.  Conflation

   As mentioned in the introduction, many of the components used in the
   process of routing emergency calls were not designed primarily for
   this task and are being developed in working groups that do not have
   emergency call routing explicitly defined in their chartered scope.

   As a general example, conveyance of location information within a
   call also has applicability to delivery businesses, such as pizza
   restaurants that need to know the location of the caller for
   delivery purposes.  In a more technical sense, much of what is known
   about civic addresses worldwide is a result of the study of postal
   delivery, and therefore schemas used as location input for emergency
   call routing may not be tuned properly.

   Within the ECRIT working group, there are no requirements regarding
   the resilience of the emergency call routing process as it relates
   to inputs that have not been designed for this specific purpose.

11. Rerouting/Transfer

   Another facet of the ECRIT WG that has not been addressed is what to
   do if a PSAP receives an emergency call and the call should not have
   been routed to that PSAP.  What does the PSAP do next, and can this

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   action be automated?  Does the PSAP have an additional screening
   capability in some ESRP at the PSAP interior edge to do a final
   check that the call set-up is to the appropriate PSAP, taking steps
   not yet defined if this PSAP is not the appropriate one for this
   particular call set-up?

   This is more a rerouting function of the call set-up, or of a call
   transfer function if the call is answered before determining this is
   an inappropriate PSAP.  For example, VPNs will likely cause some
   emergency calls to go erroneously to the city that the caller's
   corporate offices are located in rather than to where the caller is.
   This has not been considered to date, yet likely should be - as
   message reroute should be possible anytime an ESRP misdirects a
   message towards a PSAP, just not he appropriate PSAP.

12.  Acknowledgements

   Nadine Abbott provided text regarding ESRP usage and comments
   regarding the inclusion of discussion of location-by-value vs.
   location-by-reference.  Richard Statsny suggested this document
   would be a more complete introduction to the problem space if it
   included information regarding identity conveyance.

13.  References

13.1  Normative References

 [RFC2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
           Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997

 [RFC3825] J. Polk, J. Schnizlein, M. Linsner, "Dynamic Host
           Configuration Protocol Option for Coordinate-based Location
           Configuration Information", RFC 3825, July 2004

 [RFC3118] Droms, R. and W. Arbaugh, "Authentication for DHCP
           Messages", RFC 3118, June 2001.

13.2  Informative References

 [ID-DHC-URI] J. Polk, "A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Option
           for Requesting and Receiving Uniform Resource Identifiers",
           draft-polk-dhc-uri-03.txt, "work in progress", March 2006

 [ID-ECRIT-JAPAN] H. Arai, M. Kawanishi, draft-arai-ecrit-japan-req-
           01.txt, "work-in-progress", May 2005

Author's Address

   James M. Polk

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   3913 Treemont Circle
   Colleyville, Texas  76034

   Phone: +1-817-271-3552
   Fax:   none

   Andrew Newton
   21345 Ridgetop Circle
   Dulles, VA 20166

   Phone: +17039483382

Appendix A.  Additional stuff

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   This document and the information contained herein are provided on

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Copyright Statement

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