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Versions: 00                                                            
INTERNET DRAFT                                                  B.Quinn
File: draft-quinn-multicast-apps-00.txt         IP Multicast Initiative
Expiration: May 1999                                      November 1998

                     IP Multicast Applications:
                      Challenges and Solutions

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
   areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
   distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
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   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
   "work in progress."

   To view the entire list of current Internet-Drafts, please check
   the "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts
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   (Northern Europe), ftp.nis.garr.it (Southern Europe), munnari.oz.au
   (Pacific Rim), ftp.ietf.org (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu
   (US West Coast).


   This document highlights the challenges of creating multicast
   applications, and describes the solutions available or under
   development.  It provides a taxonomy of multicast applications in
   terms of their requirements, and discusses some existing multicast-
   based protocols.  Many of the solutions--especially in the areas of
   reliable multicast data delivery, congestion control, and security--
   have not yet emerged from the research realms.  We describe the
   general state of on-going research in these areas, highlighting the
   strategies under investigation.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction....................................................2
     1.1 Motivation...................................................3
     1.2 Focus........................................................3
   2. IP Multicast-enabled Network....................................4
   3. IP Multicast Application Taxonomy...............................4
     3.1 One-to-Many Applications.....................................5
     3.2 Many-to-One Applications.....................................6
     3.3 Many-to-Many Applications....................................7
     3.4 Bandwidth and Delay Requirements Summary.....................8
   4. Multicast Service Requirements..................................9
     4.1 Heterogeneous Receivers.....................................10
     4.2 Reliable Data Delivery......................................12
     4.3 Security....................................................13
   5. Other Considerations...........................................15
     5.1 Session Management..........................................15
     5.2 Join and Leave Latency......................................15
     5.3 Service APIs................................................16
   6. Security Considerations........................................16
   7. References.....................................................17
   8. Author's Address...............................................18

1. Introduction

   IP Multicast will play a prominent role on the Internet in the
   coming years.  It is a requirement, not an option, if the Internet
   is going to scale.  Multicast allows application developers "to add
   more functionality without significantly impacting the network"

   Developing multicast-enabled applications is ostensibly simple.
   Having datagram access allows any application to send to a multicast
   address. A multicast application need only increase the Internet
   Protocol (IP) time-to-live (TTL) value to more than 1 (the default
   value) to allow outgoing datagrams to traverse routers.  To receive
   a multicast datagram, applications join the multicast group, which
   transparently generates an IGMP [IGMPV2] group membership report.

   This apparent simplicity is deceptive, however.  Enabling multicast
   support in applications and protocols that can scale well on a
   heterogeneous network is a significant challenge.  Specifically,
   sending constant bit rate datastreams, reliable data delivery,
   security, and managing many-to-many communications all require
   special consideration.  Some solutions are available, but many of
   these services are still active research areas.

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1.1 Motivation

   The purpose of this document is to provide an orientation for
   application developers to the types of services multicast
   applications need, and the current state-of-the-art of their

   Multicast-based applications and services will play an important
   role in the future of the Internet as continued multicast deployment
   encourages their use and development.  It is important that
   developers be aware of the issues and solutions available--and
   especially of their limitations--in order to avoid protocols that
   negatively impact networks (thereby counter-acting the benefits of
   multicast) or wasting their efforts "re-inventing the wheel."

   The hope is that by raising developers' awareness, we can adjust
   their expectations of finding solutions and lead them to successful,
   scalable, and "network-friendly" development efforts.

1.2 Focus

   Our initial premise is that the multicast infrastructure is
   transparent to applications, so it is not directly relevant to this
   discussion.  Our focus here is on multicast application protocol
   services, so this document explicitly avoids any discussion of
   multicast address management and routing issues.  We identify and
   describe the multicast-specific issues involved with developing

   We assume the reader has a general understanding of the mechanics of
   multicast, and in this respect we intend to compliment other
   introductory documents [Maufer].  Since this is an introductory
   survey rather than a comprehensive examination, we refer readers to
   other multicast application requirements descriptions [LSMA] for
   more detail.

   In the remainder of this document we first define the term "IP
   multicast enabled network," the multicast infrastructure.  Next we
   describe the types of new functionality that multicast applications
   can enable and their requirements.  We then examine the services
   that satisfy these requirements, the challenges they present, and
   provide a brief survey of the solutions available or under
   development.  We wrap up with a discussion of other application
   considerations, such as session management and application
   programming interfaces (APIs).

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2. IP Multicast Enabled Network

   An "IP multicast-enabled network" provides end-to-end services in
   the IP network infrastructure to allow any IP host to send datagrams
   to an IP multicast address that any number of other IP hosts can
   receive.  This requires two essential protocol components:

     1) An IP host-based protocol to allow a receiver application to
        notify a local router(s) that it has joined the group

     2) An IP router-based protocol to allow any routers with multicast
        group members (receivers) on their local networks to
        communicate with other routers to ensure that all datagrams
        sent to the group address are forwarded to all receivers

   Additionally, a complete IP multicast-enabled network also requires
   a global address management infrastructure designed to reasonably
   avoid "address collisions" [MASC].  An address collision occurs when
   two different applications send to the same multicast address in the
   same date/time slot for different purposes, thereby possibly
   "polluting" each other's datastream.  An address management
   infrastructure includes a host-based protocol mechanism to allow an
   application to request dynamic address allocations for "lease"
   periods [MDHCP].

   At the time of this writing some of these services are not
   standardized or deployed.  Specifically, global address management
   and intra-domain multicast routing are incomplete.  Nonetheless, in
   the remainder of this document we assume that the multicast-enabled
   network is already full-service in these respects, and ubiquitous.
   Although the global Internet is not yet fully multicast-enabled, a
   large and growing portion is and many enterprise networks
   (Intranets) are also, so this perspective is relevant today.

3. IP Multicast Application Taxonomy

   With an IP multicast-enabled network available, some unique and
   powerful applications and application services are possible.
   "Multicast enables coordination - it is well suited to loosely
   coupled distributed systems (of people, servers, databases,
   processes, devices...)" [Estrin].

   The sender and receiver relationships are primarily what
   differentiate multicast applications from unicast applications.  In
   this respect, we can characterize three very general categories of
   multicast applications:

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     One-to-Many (1toM): A single host sending to two or more (n)

     Many-to-One (Mto1): Any number of receivers sending data back to a
        (source) sender via unicast or multicast

     Many-to-Many (MtoM): Any number of hosts sending to the same
        multicast group address, as well as receiving from it

   For each of these multicast application categories, we provide a
   list of application and protocol examples.  These lists are not
   comprehensive, but include the prominent multicast application types
   in each category.  We reference the items in these lists in the
   remainder of this document as we describe their specific service
   requirements, define the challenges they present, and reference
   solutions available or under development.

   In section 3.4 we provide a summary of the bandwidth and delay
   requirements for the applications listed below.

3.1 One-to-Many Applications

   When people think of multicast, they most often think of broadcast-
   based multimedia applications: television (video) and radio (audio).
   This is a reasonable analogy and indeed these are significant
   multicast applications, but these are far from the extent of
   applications that multicast can enable.  Audio/Video distribution
   represents a fraction of the multicast application possibilities,
   and most do not have analogs in today's consumer broadcast industry.

     a) Scheduled audio/video (a/v) distribution: Lectures,
        presentations, meetings, or any other type of scheduled event
        whose multimedia coverage could benefit an audience (i.e.
        television and radio "broadcasts").  One or more constant-bit-
        rate (CBR) datastreams and relatively high-bandwidth demands
        characterize these applications.  When more than one datastream
        is present--as with an audio/video combination--the two are
        synchronized and one typically has a higher priority than the
        other(s).  For example, in an a/v combination it is more
        important to ensure a legible audio stream, than perfect video.

     b) Push media: News headlines, weather updates, sports scores, or
        other types of non-essential dynamic information.  "Drip-feed,"
        relatively low-bandwidth data characterize these applications.

     c) Caching: Web site content, executable binaries, and other file-
        based updates sent to distributed replication/caching sites

     d) Announcements: Network time, multicast session schedules,
        random numbers, keys, configuration updates, (scoped) network

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        locality beacons, or other types of information that are
        commonly useful.  Their bandwidth demands can vary, but
        generally they are very low bandwidth.

     e) Monitoring: Stock prices, Sensor equipment (seismic activity,
        telemetry, meteorological or oceanic readings), security
        systems, manufacturing or other types of real-time information.
        Bandwidth demands vary with sample frequency and resolution,
        and may be either constant-bit-rate or bursty (if event-

3.2 Many-to-One Applications

   Many-to-one applications are typically two-way request/response
   applications, where either end (the "many" or the "one") may
   generate the request.

   A common challenge among this type of application is dealing with
   the potential of a "response storm," also known as the "implosion
   problem."  This occurs when receivers overwhelm the sender by
   forwarding their responses simultaneously.  This problem is also
   common in reliable data delivery and adaptive applications as we
   describe later along with avoidance strategies.

     f) Resource Discovery: Service Location, for example, leverages IP
        Multicast to enable "anycast" capability: A multicast receiver
        to send a query to a group address, to elicit responses from
        the closest host(s) so they can satisfy the request.  The
        responses might also contain information that allows the
        receiver to determine the most appropriate (e.g. closest)
        service provider to use.

     g) Data Collection: This is the converse of a one-to-many
        "monitoring" application described earlier.  In this case there
        may be any number of distributed "sensors" that send data to a
        data collection host.  The sensors might send updates in
        response to a request from the data collector, or send
        continuously at regular intervals, or send spontaneously when a
        pre-defined event occurs.  Bandwidth demands can vary based on
        sample frequency and resolution.

     h) Auctions: The "auctioneer" starts the bidding by describing
        whatever it is for sale (product or service or whatever), and
        receivers send their bids privately or publicly (i.e. to a
        unicast or multicast address).

     i) Polling: The "pollster" sends out a question, and the "pollees"
        respond with answers.

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     j) Juke Box: Allows near-on-demand a/v playback.  Receivers use an
        "out-of-band" protocol mechanism (via web, email, unicast or
        multicast requests, etc.) to send their playback request into a
        scheduling queue [IMJ].

3.3 Many-to-Many Applications

   The many-to-many capabilities of IP multicast enable the most unique
   and powerful applications.  Many-to-many applications are
   characterized by two-way communications where any host may send to
   the group as well as receive from it.  Since each host may receive
   data from multiple senders while it also sends data, many-to-many
   applications often present complex coordination and management

     k) Multimedia Conferencing: Audio/Video and whiteboard comprise
        the classic conference application.  Having multiple
        datastreams with different priorities characterizes this type
        of application.  Co-ordination issues--such as determining who
        gets to talk when--complicate their development and usability.
        There are common heuristics and "rules of play", but no
        standards exist for managing conference group dynamics.

     l) Synchronized Resources: Shared distributed databases of any
        type (schedules, directories, as well as traditional
        Information System databases).

     m) Concurrent Processing: Distributed parallel processing.

     n) Collaboration: Shared document editing.

     o) Distance Learning: This is a one-to-many a/v distribution
        application with "upstream" capability that allows receivers to
        question the speaker(s).

     p) Chat Groups: These are like text-based conferences, but may
        also provide simulated representations ("avatars") for each
        "speaker" in simulated environments.

     q) Distributed Interactive Simulations [DIS]: Each object in a
        simulation multicasts descriptive information (e.g. telemetry)
        so all other objects can render the object, and interact as
        necessary.  The bandwidth demands for these can be tremendous,
        as the number of objects and the resolution of descriptive
        information increases.

     r) Multi-player Games: Many multi-player games are simply
        distributed interactive simulations, and may include chat group
        capabilities.  Bandwidth usage can vary widely, although

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        today's first-generation multi-player games attempt to minimize
        bandwidth usage to increase the target audience (many of whom
        still use dial-up modems).

     s) Jam Sessions: Shared encoded audio (e.g. music).  The bandwidth
        demands vary based on the encoding technique, sample rate,
        sample resolution, number of channels, etc.

3.4 Bandwidth and Delay Requirements Summary

   For quick reference, we've plotted the bandwidth and delay
   characteristics of the multicast applications in our lists.  Figure
   1 shows multicast applications approximate bandwidth requirements.

   We provide this summary here rather than in section 4 (Multicast
   Service Requirements) because bandwidth and delay requirements are
   common to unicast as well as multicast network applications.
   Unicast and multicast applications both need to design applications
   to adapt to the variability of network conditions.  But as we
   describe in section 4.1, it is the need to accommodate multiple
   heterogeneous multicast receivers--with their diversity of bandwidth
   capacity and delivery delays--that presents the unique challenge for
   multicast applications to satisfy these requirements.

     MtoM |       p           l, n        k, m, o, q, r, s
     Mto1 |    f, h, i        g, h               j
     1toM |     b, d          c, e               a
            Low Bandwidth                  High Bandwidth

           Figure 1: Bandwidth Requirements of applications

   Aside from those with time-sensitive data (e.g. stock prices, and
   real-time monitoring information), most one-to-many applications
   have a high tolerance for delay and delay variance (jitter).
   Constant bit-rate (CBR) data--such as streaming media (audio/video)-
   -are sensitive to delivery delay variations (jitter), but
   applications commonly counteract the effects by buffering data and
   delaying playback.

   Most many-to-one and many-to-many multicast applications are
   intolerant of delays because they are bidirectional, interactive and
   request/response dependent.  As a result, delays should be
   minimized, since they can adversely affect the application's

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   This need to minimize delays is most evident in (two-way) conference
   applications, where users cannot converse effectively if the audio
   or video is delayed more than 500 milliseconds.  For this and other
   examples see Figure 2, which plots multicast applications on a
   (coarse) scale of sensitivity to delivery delays.

     MtoM |               l, n, o, p       k, m, q, r, s
     Mto1 |      i          f, g, j              h
     1toM |     b, c         a, d                e
            Delay Tolerant                Delay Intolerant

           Figure 2: Delay tolerance of application types

   For delay-intolerant multicast (or unicast) applications, quality of
   service (QoS) is the only option.  IP networks currently provide
   only "best effort" delivery, so data are subject to variable router
   queuing delays and loss due to network congestion (router queue
   overflows).  IP QoS standards do exist now [RSVP] and efforts to
   enable end-to-end QoS support in the Internet are underway

   However, QoS support is an IP network infrastructure consideration
   and relevant to unicast as well as multicast.  Since our focus is on
   multicast-specific application services, further discussion of the
   QoS protocols and services is beyond the scope of this document.

4. Multicast Service Requirements

   The application categories described in the previous section are
   very general in nature.  Within each category and even among each of
   the application types, specific application instances have a variety
   of application requirements.  One-to-many application types are
   relatively simple to develop, but as we pointed out there are
   challenges involved with developing many-to-one and many-to-many

   The most challenging multicast application service requirements can
   be summarized into three categories:

     Heterogeneous Receivers - Sending to receivers with a wide variety
        of bandwidth capacities, latency characteristics, and network

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     Reliable Data Delivery - Ensuring that all data sent is received
        by all receivers

     Security - Ensuring content privacy among dynamic multicast group
        memberships, and limiting senders

   In the remainder of this document, we will describe the challenges
   involved with enabling each of these application services, and the
   status of standardizing possible solutions.

4.1 Heterogeneous Receivers

   The Internet is a network of networks.  IP's strength is its ability
   to enable seamless interoperability between hosts on disparate
   network media, the heterogeneous network.

   When two hosts communicate via unicast--one-to-one--across an IP
   network, it is relatively easy for senders to adapt to varying
   network conditions.  The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
   provides reliable data transport, and is the model of "network
   friendly" adaptability.

   TCP receivers send acknowledgements back to the sender for data
   delivered.  A TCP sender detects data loss from the data sent that
   is not acknowledged.  When it detects data loss, TCP infers that
   there is network congestion or a low-bandwidth link, and adapts by
   throttling down its send rate [SlowStart].

   User Datagram Protocol (UDP) does not enable a receiver feedback
   loop the way TCP does, since UDP does not provide reliable data
   delivery service.  As a result, it also does not have a loss
   detection and adaptive congestion control mechanism as TCP does.
   However, it is possible for a unicast UDP application to enable
   similar adaptive algorithms to achieve the same result, or even
   improve on it.

   A unicast UDP application that uses a feedback mechanism to detect
   data loss and adapt the send rate, can do so better than TCP.  TCP
   automatically reduces the "congestion window" when data loss is
   detected, although the updated send rate may be slower than a CBR
   audio/video stream requires.  When a UDP application detects loss,
   it can adapt the data itself to accommodate the lower send rate.
   For example, a UDP application can:

     -  Reduce the data resolution (e.g. send lower fidelity
        audio/video by reducing sample frequency or frame rate) to
        reduce data rate.

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     -  Modify the data encoding to add redundant data (e.g. forward
        error correction) offset in time to avoid fate sharing.  This
        could also be "layered", so a percentage of data loss will
        simply reduce fidelity rather than corrupt the data.

     -  Reduce the send rate of one datastream in order to favor
        another of higher priority (e.g. sacrifice video in order to
        ensure audio delivery).

     -  Send data at a lower rate (i.e. with a different encoding) on a
        separate multicast address and/or port number for high-loss

   However, with multicast applications--one-to-many or many-to-many--
   which have multiple receivers, the feedback loop design needs
   modification.  If all receivers return data loss reports
   simultaneously, the sender is easily overwhelmed in the storm of
   replies.  This is known as the "implosion problem."

   Another problem is that heterogeneous receiver capabilities can vary
   widely due to the wide range of (static) network media bandwidth
   capabilities and dynamically due to transient traffic conditions.
   If a sender adapts its send rate and data resolution based on the
   loss rate of its worst receiver(s), then it can only service the
   lowest common denominator.  Hence, a single "crying baby" can spoil
   it for all other receivers.

   Strategies exist for dealing with these heterogeneous receiver
   problems.  Here are two examples:

     Shared Learning - When loss is detected (i.e. a sequenced packet
        isn't received), a receiver starts a random timer.  If it
        receives a data loss report sent by another receiver as it
        waits for the timer to expire, it stops the timer and does not
        send a report.  Otherwise, it sends a report when the timer
        expires.  The Real-Time Protocol and its feedback-loop
        counterpart Real-Time Control Protocol [RTP/RTCP] employ a
        strategy similar to this to keep feedback traffic to 5 percent
        or less than the overall session traffic.  This technique was
        originally utilized in IGMP.

     Local Recovery - Some receivers may be designated as local
        distribution points or "transcoders" that either re-send data
        locally (possibly via unicast) when loss is reported or they
        re-encode the data for lower bandwidth receivers before re-
        sending.  No standards exist for these strategies, although
        "local recovery" is used by several reliable multicast

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   Adaptive multicast application design for heterogeneous receivers is
   still an active area of research.  The fundamental requirements are
   to maximize application usability, while accommodating network
   conditions in a "network friendly" manner.  In other words,
   congestion detection and avoidance are (at least) as important in
   protocol design as the user experience.  The adaptive mechanisms
   must also be stable, so they do not adapt too quickly--changing
   encoding and rates based on too little information about what may be
   a transient condition--to avoid oscillation.

4.2 Reliable Data Delivery

   Many of the multicast application examples in our list--like
   audio/video distribution--have loss-tolerant data content.  In other
   words, the data content itself can remain useful even if some of it
   is lost.  For example, audio might have a short gap or lower
   fidelity but will remain legible despite some data loss.

   Other application examples--like caching and synchronized resources-
   -require reliable data delivery.  They deliver content that must be
   complete, unchanged, in sequence, and without duplicates.  The "Loss
   Intolerant" column in Figure 3 shows a list of applications with
   this requirement, while the others can tolerate varying levels of
   data loss.  The tolerance levels are typically determined by the
   nature of the data and the encoding in use.

   MtoM |             k, o, p, q, r, s       l, m, n
   Mto1 |                f, g, i, j              h
   1toM |     b             a, d               c, e
          Loss Tolerant                   Loss Intolerant

      Figure 3: Reliability Requirements of Application types

   Some of the challenges involved with enabling reliable multicast
   transport are the same as those of sending to heterogeneous
   receivers, and some solutions are similar also.  For example, many
   reliable multicast transport protocols avoid the implosion problem
   by using negative acknowledgements (NAKs) from receivers to indicate
   what was lost.  They also use "shared learning" whereby receivers
   listen to others' NAKs and then listen for the resulting
   retransmission of data, rather than requesting retransmission by
   sending a NAK themselves.

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   Although reliable delivery cannot change the data sent--except,
   perhaps, to use a loss-less data compression algorithm--they can use
   other adaptive techniques like sending redundant data, or adjusting
   the send rate.

   Although many reliable multicast protocol implementations exist
   [Obraczka], and a few are already available in commercial products,
   none of them are standardized.  Work is ongoing in the "Reliable
   Multicast" research group of the Internet Research Task Force [IRTF]
   to provide a better definition of the problem, the multicast
   transport requirements, and protocol mechanisms.

   Scalability is the paramount concern, and it implies the general
   need for "network friendly" protocols that detect and avoid
   congestion as they provide reliable delivery.  Other considerations
   are protocol robustness, support for "late joins", group management
   and security (which we discuss next).

   The current consensus is that due to the wide variety of multicast
   application requirements--some of which are at odds--no single
   multicast transport will likely be appropriate for all applications.
   As a result, most believe that we will eventually standardize a
   number of reliable multicast protocols, rather than a single one.

4.3 Security

   For any IP network application--unicast or multicast--security is
   necessary because networks comprise users with different levels of

   Network application security is challenging, even for unicast.   And
   as the need for security increases--gauged by the risks of being
   without it--the challenges increase also.  Security system
   complexity and overhead is commensurate with the protection it
   provides. "No one can guarantee 100% security. But we can work
   toward 100% risk acceptance ...Strong cryptography can withstand
   targeted attacks up to a point--the point at which it becomes easier
   to get the information some other way ...A good design starts with a
   threat model: what the system is designed to protect, from whom, and
   for how long." [Schneier]

   Multicast applications are no different than unicast applications
   with respect to their need for security, and they require the same
   basic security services: user authentication, data integrity, data
   privacy and user privacy (anonymity).  However, enabling security
   for multicast applications is even more of a challenge than for
   unicast.   Having multiple receivers makes a difference, as does
   their heterogeneity and the dynamic nature of multicast group

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   Multicast security requirements can include any combination of the
   following services:

     Limiting Senders - Controlling who can send to group addresses

     Limiting Receivers - Controlling who can receive

     Limiting Access - Controlling who can "read" multicast content

     Verifying Content - Ensuring that data originated from an
        authenticated sender and was not altered en route

     Protecting Receiver Privacy - Controlling whether sender(s) or
        other receivers know receiver identity

   This list is not comprehensive, but includes the most commonly
   needed security services.  Different multicast applications and
   different application contexts can have very different needs with
   respect to these services, and others. "Two main issues emerge,
   where the performance of current solutions leaves much to be
   desired" [Canetti]:

     Individual authentication - when, how and to whom are encryption
        keys distributed?

     Membership revocation - when, why, and how are encryption keys

   Performance is largely a factor when a user joins or leaves a group.
   For example, methods used to authenticate potential group members
   during joins or re-keying current members after a member leaves can
   involve significant processing and protocol overhead and result in
   significant delays that affect usability.

   Like reliable multicast, secure multicast is also still under
   investigation in the Internet Research Task Force [IRTF].  Protocol
   mechanisms for many of the most important of these services--such as
   limiting senders--have not yet been defined, let alone developed and

   As is true for reliable multicast, the current consensus is that no
   single security protocol will satisfy the wide diversity of
   sometimes-contradictory requirements among multicast applications.
   Hence, multicast security will also likely require a number of
   different protocols.

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5. Other Considerations

   In the previous section we surveyed the most challenging service
   requirements of multicast applications.  There are a few other more
   generic requirements that we haven't mentioned yet that deal
   specifically with creating and managing multicast application
   instances.  Two of them--session management and join/leave latency--
   are borderline infrastructure services required as part of a
   multicast-enabled network, but requiring some application
   interaction.  The other--Service API definition--is directly related
   to application development flexibility and control.

5.1 Session Management

   Multicast applications need a "namespace" that provides session
   directory services that can be used to co-ordinate application
   schedules and resources, and describe session attributes.  These map
   multicast address and port combinations to a date and time, content
   description, and other session attributes (e.g. bandwidth and delay
   requirements, encoding, security and authorization methods, etc.).

   The session description protocol [SDP] is designed for this purpose,
   but it does not provide the transport for dissemination of these
   session descriptions, nor does it enable the address allocation and
   management.  SDP only provides the syntax for describing session

   SDP session descriptions may be conveyed publicly or privately by
   means of any number of transports including web (HTTP) and MIME
   encoded email.  The session announcement protocol [SAP] is the de
   facto standard transport and many multicast-enabled applications
   currently use it.  SAP limits distribution via multicast scoping,
   but the current protocol definition has scaling issues that need to
   be addressed.  Specifically, the initialization latency for a
   session directory can be quite long, and it increases in proportion
   to the number of session announcements.   This is largely a
   multicast infrastructure issue, however, as this level of protocol
   detail should be transparent to applications.

5.2 Join/Leave Latency

   Some applications are sensitive to the latency involved with joining
   and leaving a group.  For example, using distributed a/v as a
   multicast-based "television" must allow users to "channel surf" as
   they do now, so any delays changing channels--leaving one group and
   joining another-- will affect usability.  Distributed interactive
   simulations are sensitive to join/leave latency also, particularly
   when trying to represent fast moving objects that may quickly enter

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   and exit the scope of a simulated environment (e.g. low-flying,
   fast-moving aircraft).

   We have not considered the leave/join latency issue thus far, since
   applications cannot affect its control.   Hence, we consider it a
   feature of a multicast-enabled network [IGMPv2] and beyond the scope
   of this document.

   5.3 Service APIs

   In some cases, the protocol services mentioned in this document can
   be enabled transparently by passive configuration mechanisms and
   "middleware."  For example, it is conceivable that a UDP
   implementation could implicitly enable a reliable multicast protocol
   without the explicit interaction of the application.

   Sometimes, however, applications need explicit access to these
   services for flexibility and control.  For example, an adaptive
   application sending to a heterogeneous group of receivers using RTP
   may need to process RTCP reports from receivers in order to adapt
   accordingly (by throttling send rate or changing data encoders, for
   example) [RTP API].  Hence, there is often a need for service APIs
   that allow an application to qualify and initiate service requests,
   and receive event notifications.

   Network APIs generally reflect the protocols they support.  Their
   functionality and argument values are a (varying) subset of protocol
   message types, header fields and values.  Although some protocol
   details and actions may not be exposed in APIs--since many protocol
   mechanics need not be exposed--others are crucial to efficient and
   flexible application operation.

   A more complete examination of the application services described in
   this document might also identify the protocol features that could
   be mapped to define a (generic) API definition for that service.
   APIs are often controversial, however.  Not only are there many
   language differences, but it is also possible to create different
   APIs by exposing different levels of detail in trade-offs between
   flexibility and simplicity.

6. Security Considerations

   See section 4.4

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7. References

  [Bradner]   S. Bradner, "Internet Protocol Multicast Problem
              Statement", <draft-bradner-multicast-problem-00.txt>,
              September 1997, Work in Progress

  [Canetti]   R. Canetti, B. Pinkas, "A taxonomy of multicast security
              issues(temporary version)", <draft-canetti-secure-
              multicast-taxonomy-00.txt>, May 1998, Work in Progress

  [DiffServ]  Y. Bernet, R. Yavatkar, P. Ford, F. Baker, L. Zhang, K.
              Nichols, and M. Speer, "A Framework for Use of RSVP with
              Diff-serv Networks", Internet Draft <draft-ietf-diffserv-
              rsvp-00.txt>, June 1998

  [DIS]       J.M.Pullen, M. Mytak, C. Bouwens, "Limitations of
              Internet Protocol Suite for Distributed Simulation in the
              Large Multicast Environment", <draft-ietf-lsma-
              limitations-03.txt>, September 1998, Work in Progress

  [Estrin]    D. Estrin, "Multicast: Enabler and Challenge", Caltech
              Earthlink Seminar Series, April 22, 1998

  [IGMPv2]    B. Fenner, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              2", RFC 2236, November 1997

  [IMJ]       K. Almeroth and M. Ammar, "The Interactive Multimedia
              Jukebox (IMJ):A New Paradigm for the On-Demand Delivery
              of Audio/Video", Proceedings of the Seventh International
              World Wide Web Conference, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA, April

  [IRTF]      A Weinrib, J. Postel, "The IRTF Guidelines and
              Procedures", RFC 2014, January 1996

  [LSMA]      P. Bagnall, R. Briscoe, A. Poppitt, "Taxonomy of
              Communication Requirements, for Large-scale Multicast
              Applications," <draft-ietf-lsma-requirements-02.txt>,
              November 1998, Work in Progress

  [MASC]      D. Estrin, R. Govindan, M. Handley, S. Kumar, P.
              Radoslavov, D. Thaler, "The Multicast Address-Set Claim
              (MASC) Protocol", <draft-ietf-malloc-masc-01.txt>, August
              1998, Work in Progress

  [Maufer]    T. Maufer, C. Semeria, "Introduction to IP Multicast
              Routing," <draft-ietf-mboned-intro-multicast-03.txt>,
              July 1997, Work in Progress

  [MDHCP]     B. V. Patel, M. Shah, S. R. Hanna, " Multicast address

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              allocation based on the Dynamic Host Configuration
              protocol", <draft-ietf-malloc-mdhcp-01.txt>, August
              1998, Work in Progress

  [Obraczka]  K. Obraczka "Multicast Transport Mechanisms: A Survey and
              Taxonomy", IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 36 No. 1,
              January 1998

  [RM]        A. Mankin, A. Romanow, S. Bradner, V. Paxson, "IETF
              Criteria for Evaluating Reliable Multicast Transport and
              Application Protocols", RFC 2357, June 1998

  [RSVP]      J. Wroclawski, "The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated
              Services", RFC 2210, September 1997

  [RTP API]   J. Rosenberg, "Columbia RTP Library API Specification,"
              (Note: Does not include RTCP processing), February 1997

  [RTP/RTCP]  H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, V. Jacobson,
              "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications",
              RFC 1889, January 1996

  [SAP]       M. Handley, "SAP: Session Announcement Protocol", <draft-
              ietf-mmusic-sap-00.txt>, November 1996, Work in Progress

  [SDP]       M. Handley, V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description
              Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998

  [Schneier]  B. Schneier, _ Why Cryptography Is Harder Than It Looks",
              December 1996, http://www.counterpane.com/whycrypto.html

  [SlowStart] W. Stevens, "TCP Slow Start, Congestion Avoidance, Fast
              Retransmit, and Fast Recovery Algorithms", RFC 2001,
              January 1997

8. Author's Address

   Bob Quinn
   IP Multicast Initiative (IPMI)
   Stardust Forums, Inc.
   1901 S. Bascom Ave. #333
   Campbell, CA 95008

   +1 408 879 8080

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