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Versions: 00                                                            
Internet Engineering Task Force             L. Salgarelli, Editor / A. Corghi
INTERNET-DRAFT                                  CEFRIEL/Politecnico di Milano
draft-salgarelli-issll-mis-00.txt       M. Smirnow / H. Sanneck / D. Witaszek
10 November 1997                                                    GMD-FOKUS
Expires:  15 May 1998


       Supporting IP Multicast Integrated Services in ATM Networks



Status of this memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   To view the entire list of current Internet-Drafts, please check the
   "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa), ftp.nordu.net (Europe),
   munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
   ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).


Abstract

   This memo presents an integrated, server-based mechanism for the
   efficient support of the IP Integrated Services (IIS) model in ATM
   networks, namely the Multicast Integration Server (MIS) architecture.
   Instead of viewing IP-ATM multicast address resolution and QoS
   support separately, the approach in this memo is to consider such
   issues in an integrated manner.  In particular, the MIS architecture
   defines how a layer-3 setup protocol as RSVP can be mapped to and
   integrated with a layer-2 multicast address resolution protocol as
   EARTH - EAsy Multicast Routing THrough ATM clouds.  With the use of
   EARTH, several ATM point-to-multipoint connections with different QoS
   parameters can be associated to a single IP multicast address.  An
   RSVP server (RSVP-S) within the MIS is used to distribute RSVP
   messages inside the ATM cloud and to set the corresponding QoS state
   in the address resolution table of EARTH (setup protocol mapping).
   In addition, this memo defines a quantized heterogeneity model which
   supports, together with the MIS, advanced IIS features as QoS
   heterogeneity and dynamic QoS changes in IP-ATM networks.


Editor's note

   The postscript version of this memo contains figures that are not
   included in the text version, so it would be best to use the
   postscript version.  Figures will be converted to ASCII in a future
   version.

INTERNET-DRAFT      draft-salgarelli-issll-mis-00.txt     10 November 1997



Contents


1   Introduction                                                        3
    1.1  Motivation ..................................................  3
    1.2  Scope .......................................................  3
    1.3  Architectural Overview ......................................  4
    1.4  Operational Overview ........................................  4


2   Multicast Integration Server                                        6
    2.1  Relation of layer-2/layer-3 protocols .......................  6
    2.2  Functional description:  setup protocol mappings ............  8
    2.3  Internetworking ............................................. 11
    2.4  Example ..................................................... 12


3   Service model:  Quantized Heterogeneity                            14


4   Specification                                                      15
    4.1  Interfaces .................................................. 15
         4.1.1  QSSI and eRSRR........................................ 15
         4.1.2  User Interface........................................ 15
         4.1.3  Traffic Control Interface............................. 16
         4.1.4  Routing Support Interface............................. 16
    4.2  MARP Table .................................................. 17
         4.2.1  MARPTable manipulation................................ 18


5   Discussion                                                         18


6   Security considerations                                            21


A   Glossary                                                           21
















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1  Introduction

1.1   Motivation

   The main problem of existing architectures for the support of IP in
   ATM networks is that they lack a solution for the integration of IIS
   with ATM and IP Multicast with ATM. Instead of trying to focus on the
   two problems separately, a generalized, integrated approach for
   providing mapping of IP multicast flows to ATM pt-to-mpt connections
   for both best effort and QoS multicast flows as well as RSVP control
   traffic should be designed.  Main advantages of the integrated
   approach over existing architectures should include, but not be
   limited to, increased efficiency, reduced layer-3 processing,
   reduction of the amount of identical data passing the switch several
   times, reduced VC consumption, reduced reservation establishment
   delay, and finally layer-2 vs.  layer-3 protocol independence.

   In this memo we consider such an integrated solution, trying to merge
   RSVP [1] with the EARTH protocol [2].  We call this solution
   Multicast Integration Server (MIS). In particular, this memo focuses
   on the definition of how a layer-3 setup protocol like RSVP can be
   mapped on a layer-2 protocol as EARTH (setup protocol mappings), in
   order to design an integrated architecture.  This memo bases on [3]
   for what is related to service mapping issues.

   We are considering EARTH, not MARS [4], not because of differences in
   address resolution between the two (the multicast ARP support in
   EARTH mainly follows perfectly specified parts of that in MARS ), but
   because of architectural advantages of EARTH - support for source
   specific and quality of service specific groups, support for
   multicast shortcuts (bypassing IP routers) over the entire ATM cloud
   which is in this case considered to be a Multicast LIS (MLIS).
   Benefits of EARTH are becoming even more clear when one starts
   considering IP multicast together with the resource reservation over
   ATM.



1.2   Scope

   The architecture presented in this memo is open (i) to any resource
   reservation protocol based on receiver initiated reservations and
   soft state approach, and also (ii) to any IP multicast over ATM
   address resolution protocol based on Multicast ARP (MARP) server,
   supporting QoS in its MARP cache, transporting QoS objects to hosts
   within ATM network, and finally providing shortcuts.

   However, in order to keep this memo readable and short we base the
   specification on RSVP and EARTH coexistence within the ATM network.
   Additional publications referenced below cover more details.  The



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   paper [5] describes all design alternatives for the proposed
   architecture, while this memo concentrates on a chosen one.  Further
   details on the solution presented here could be found in [6], while
   details on EARTH could be found in [2].

   We assume ATM as defined by UNI 3.1.



1.3   Architectural Overview

   The Multicast Integration Server is a specialized node in an ATM
   cloud (MLIS in EARTH terminology).  A MIS is composed by an EARTH
   server (EARTH-S), for IP class-D to ATM NSAP address resolution and
   layer-2 QoS management, and of an RSVP server (RSVP-S), for layer-3
   QoS management.  The ATM NSAP address of the MIS is a well-known
   address to each IP node on MLIS. Each participant to an IP Multicast
   session within MLIS, either sender or receiver, opens a control VC to
   the MIS. The control VCs are used to exchange EARTH and RSVP protocol
   messages between IP nodes and the MIS.
   On one hand, EARTH protocol messages are exchanged between EARTH
   clients (IP end-systems) and the EARTH-S on the MIS for dynamically
   resolving IP Class-D addresses to ATM NSAP addresses.
   On the other hand, RSVP protocol messages are exchanged between RSVP
   entities(1) (IP end-systems) and the RSVP-S on the MIS, for
   distributing information about the requested QoS.
   In particular, PATH messages are sent from sender(s) to the MIS,
   where the RSVP-S processes, replicates and forwards them to
   receivers, while all reservations within the MLIS are sent to the
   RSVP-S, merged and forwarded to the sender(s).  This server-based
   model contrasts to the usual RSVP distributed processing (see
   also [7] for a server-based approach to enforce reservations on
   shared/switched Ethernet).  More details about the RSVP server
   approach followed in this memo can be found later in section 2.1.
   However RSVP as well as EARTH protocol semantics remain unchanged
   from their original specifications [1, 2].  The MIS is the only point
   where the layer-3 protocol (RSVP) is mapped on the layer-2 technology
   (controlled by EARTH).



1.4   Operational Overview

   In IP over ATM networks, we argue that capacity-based admission
   control is a layer-2 issue.  For ATM that means:  trying to setup a
   new VC or adding a leaf to an existing VC. Success or failure are
________________________________
 (1)We call "RSVP entities" the standard implementations of RSVP residing
on each IP node of MLIS, excluding the MIS, e.g. the RSVP daemons on UNIX
workstations.



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Figure 1: "Layered" view on QoS setup message distribution and setup
protocol mappings in the MIS architecture.


   beyond the control of the layer-3 setup protocol (RSVP). Therefore
   the MIS implements a mechanism for remote capacity admission control
   and actual setup of layer-2 data paths triggered by EARTH.
   Figure 1 gives a generic overview about the layer-3 and layer-2
   signalling involved for the setup of a QoS VC. In brief, the sender,
   using layer-3 signalling (RSVP), informs the MIS (1) about its
   traffic profile, while the MIS (2) forwards this information to
   receiver(s).  Receivers request resource reservation (3).  These
   requests are mapped from layer-3 to layer-2 within the MIS (4), and
   forwarded to the sender (5) as layer-2 signalling (EARTH). Sender (6)
   sets-up point-to-multipoint VC(s) according to the requested
   reservation, and (7) acknowledge layer-2 reservation(s) to the MIS.
   Within the MIS (8), layer-2 acknowledgment is mapped to layer-3, and
   finally (9) layer-3 acknowledgment is forwarded to the sender.
   The shown interface between RSVP-S and EARTH-S at the MIS is the only
   point where QoS-relevant information passes from layer-3 to layer-2
   and back, i.e.  the MIS is the only location where layer-3 to layer-2
   setup protocol mapping and QoS translation take place.  This design
   feature is essential for the protocol independence and avoidance of
   un-coordinated operation in the MIS architecture.  It should also be
   noted that on failure of a QoS VC setup, no reservation merging takes
   place and the sender needs not to be notified about the rejected QoS
   setup.  Reservation rejection can already take place at the MIS
   before passing QoS information to layer-2, e.g.  because of policy
   reasons.
   The detailed functional description of the mechanism briefly
   introduced in this section will be presented in section 2.2.



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Figure 2: Distribution of PATH and RESV messages using MIS: a server-
based approach to RSVP.


2  Multicast Integration Server

2.1   Relation of layer-2/layer-3 protocols

   The architecture presented in this memo is server-based, and
   integrates the EARTH protocol [2] (layer-2) and the RSVP protocol [1]
   (layer-3).

   The core of the architecture is its server, the Multicast Integration
   Server.  The MIS is composed by an EARTH server (EARTH-S) plus an
   RSVP server (RSVP-S). The EARTH-S implements the whole set of
   functionalities foreseen by the EARTH specifications [2].  On the
   other side, the RSVP-S is a slightly modified implementation of a
   normal RSVP protocol instance.  RSVP-S differs from a standard RSVP
   implementation for the characteristics described in the following.



   Server-based approach.    All RSVP protocol messages related to MLIS
       have to pass through RSVP-S, which process and eventually modifies
       them before redistributing them to end-stations or Mrouters, as
       shown in figure 2.


   Processing of PATH messages.    RSVP-S collects all PATH messages coming
       from end-stations or Mrouters on MLIS, processes and replicates
       them, and redistributes them to all participants in a given RSVP
       session.  Before redistribution, RSVP-S can enforce administrative
       or security policies on PATH messages.



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   Processing of RESV messages.    RSVP-S collects all RESV messages coming
       from end-stations or Mrouters on MLIS, processes and merges them,
       and forwards them to the proper sender(s) of the session.  Before
       redistribution, RSVP-S can enforce administrative or security
       policies on RESV messages.


   Resource reservation policy enforcement.     In order to limit the number
       of ATM VCs needed to support every multicast session, but
       nevertheless providing a (limited) support for reservation
       heterogeneity, the RSVP server approach proposed in this memo
       provides a mechanism for supporting a limited number of QoS levels
       (i.e.  a limited number of point-to-multipoint VCs) per RSVP
       session.
       Given a traffic profile (sender's Tspec) generated by a source,
       the RSVP-S at the MIS can associate a certain number of QoS levels
       to such profile, basing on policy information, statistics, or
       other mechanisms.  As the standard PATH message arrives at the
       MIS, the RSVP-S decides which QoS levels are allowed for the
       related RSVP session, and appends an ADSPEC object containing one
       Tspec for each allowed QoS level, before re-distributing the
       message to receivers (refer to figure 2).
       In addition, RSVP-S can enforce a particular policy on RESV
       messages before forwarding them towards senders, e.g.  RSVP-S can
       reject reservations to a given set of receivers, or can refuse
       reservations of a given type.
       It is out of the scope of this document (i) the definition of the
       algorithm for the generation of multiple Tspec from a single given
       Tspec(2), and (ii) the definition of the format of the ADSPEC
       object which contains multiple Tspecs.  However the structure of
       such an object could be very simple, as a simple sequence of
       TOKEN_BUCKET objects [8], one for each allowed QoS level.



   Protocol mapping of RSVP with EARTH is realized through two local
   interfaces provided by the EARTH-S: the Quality of Service Support
   Interface (QSSI) and the earth Routing Support for Resource
   Reservation (eRSRR) interface.  QSSI provides a mean for the RSVP-S
   to communicate to the EARTH-S the desired QoS for a given (set of)
   receiver(s) and for EARTH-S to inform the RSVP-S about success or
   failure of layer-2 admission control (see section 2.2).  eRSRR is
   used by RSVP-S in order to get from EARTH-S information (i.e.
   IP/NSAP addresses) about receivers participating in a multicast
________________________________
 (2)The algorithm could be in principle even a statically defined table
mapping a set of allowed Tspecs for each "class" of possible Tspec.






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   session, e.g.  when RSVP-S has to replicate and re-distribute PATH
   messages.  QSSI and eRSRR will be described in more detail in
   section 4.1.

   EARTH and RSVP protocol messages are exchanged between clients and
   the MIS by way of point-to-point best-effort ATM VCs (control VCs)
   between each client and the MIS.

   Clients of the MIS are end-stations and Mrouters on MLIS that want to
   participate in an IP over ATM multicast session.  Each client must
   have a standard instance of the RSVP protocol running, plus an EARTH
   client.  The EARTH client implements exactly the features foreseen by
   the EARTH specifications [2].  The RSVP entity on each client
   implements all the standard functionalities foreseen by RSVP
   specifications [1], plus a particular implementation of the Traffic
   Control Interface (TCI:  [1, par.  3.11.2]).  This TCI is a
   quasi-dummy TCI, in the sense that actual resource reservation is
   performed locally on senders at layer-2 by EARTH, as described later
   in section 2.2.  On end-stations (or Mrouters) no particular
   communication between the local EARTH client and the local instance
   of RSVP is needed.

   Note that MIS operations are concerned only with the management of
   control messages (EARTH and RSVP). The MIS itself is not a MultiCast
   Server [4], and has nothing to deal with data distribution, that is
   performed by the standard ATM infrastructure by means of
   point-to-multipoint VCs.


2.2   Functional description:  setup protocol mappings

   Functionally, the MIS architecture implements the RSVP protocol for
   layer-3 resource reservation, and EARTH as a layer-2 multicast
   address resolution protocol with QoS supporting features.  In
   IP-over-ATM networks, capacity-based admission control is a layer-2
   issue, i.e.  capacity-based admission control is the operation
   concerned to the capability of setting-up a new VC or adding a leaf
   to an existing VC. Using UNI3.1 this operation takes place at the
   sender(s).  However, since is the MIS, not the sender(s), which
   implements policy admission-control, our architecture adopts a
   mechanism for remote capacity admission-control, including conversion
   of QoS information from layer-3 to layer-2 format and actual setup of
   layer-2 data paths through EARTH. All the relevant information needed
   by the admission-control procedure pass from the RSVP-S to the
   EARTH-S and back through the QSSI, as shown in the following of this
   section.

   After the preliminary phase (not completely shown in figure), where:





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         Figure 3: "Layered" view on message distribution within the MLIS.


     o receivers join the multicast session by registering their NSAP
       addresses to the EARTH server in the MIS (phase 0);


     o senders retrieve such information, querying the EARTH-S (with the
       EARTH_request message);


     o eventual PATH messages from outside MLIS reach the forwarder(s),

   operations go on as follows:



   Phase 1, layer-3: PATH message(s) are forwarded to the MIS.
       The RSVP daemon in the sender, or re-sender (MRouter), sends PATH
       messages towards the MIS.


   Phase 2, layer-3: re-distribution of PATH messages.
       At the MIS, PATH state is established and an ADSPEC with
       pre-configured ATM QoS levels is appended.  RSVP-S obtains from
       EARTH-S the addresses of registered receivers through the eRSRR
       interface, then the PATH message is replicated and forwarded to
       registered receivers through each point-to-point control VC.


   Phase 3, layer-3: RESV messages sent to the MIS.
       Receivers send RESV messages upstream(3) to the MIS. The RSVP-S
       performs policy admission control and RESV state is established,
       but no RESV message is yet forwarded upstream (pending admission
       control).


   Phase 4, layer-3 to layer-2: notification about requested QoS.
       The translation of layer-3- to layer-2-QoS takes place in the
       RSVP-S and the EARTH-S is notified about the QoS requested by
________________________________
 (3)upstream - from receiver to sender.


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       receivers through the QSSI.


   Phase 5, layer-2: notification of QoS to sender(s).
       Upon receipt of the next request (EARTH_request message) by the
       sender, a message containing address resolution information
       (EARTH_multi) including the new requested ATM QoS parameters is
       sent upstream by the EARTH server at the MIS.


   Phase 6A, layer-2: remote capacity admission control (on sender(s)).
       The EARTH client at the sender triggers ATM signalling in order to
       establish a (leaf to a) QoS VC. It sets the received state and
       gets a call-back about the success/failure in the establishment of
       the (leaf to) QoS VC from the ATM layer.  Note that, supposing
       successful admission control, at this point, data might begin to
       flow on the QoS VC.


   Phase 6B, layer-2 to Layer-3: remote capacity admission control
   (on MIS).
       The success/failure report of the establishment of the (leaf to)
       QoS VC is sent back to the EARTH server (EARTH_qos_notify).  On
       receipt of the EARTH_qos_notify, the EARTH server at MIS informs
       the RSVP server (through the QSSI) about success or failure of the
       layer-2 admission procedure.


   Phase 7, layer-3: RESV message to sender(s).
       Supposing successful policy and remote capacity admission
       procedures, the RESV message is forwarded (with next hop object
       set to the MIS' address) to the upstream sender/MRouter, and
       pending admission control is resolved.  If other reservations for
       this sender arrive, they have to be admitted as described above,
       but only one RESV message is forwarded within the usual RSVP timer
       intervals (i.e.  [session, sender, QoS-level]-merging takes place
       as defined by the usual RSVP merging procedure).  The RSVP server
       regards the reservation as 'installed' on his 'virtual interface'
       (vif) towards the receiver, which is actually its control VC to
       this receiver.  Through this vif, RSVP messages are sent and
       received, however the real reservation takes place at layer-2 in
       the (re-)sender.


   Phase 8, layer-3: re-distribution of RESV messages outside MLIS.
       After receipt of the RESV message at the sender, the usual state
       consistency check is performed.  Capacity admission control is
       always successful (as it has already been performed at layer-2)
       and the RESV message is forwarded upstream, if needed, outside
       MLIS(4).



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   Phase 4/6/8, layer-3: handling of reservation errors.
       On failure of the policy admission (phase 4) or capacity admission
       (phase 6) control, a RESV_ERROR message is sent downstream to the
       requesting receiver only.  The sender is never notified that a
       RESV message of this receiver has arrived.  Thus, it is not
       necessary to convey RSVP messages over two hops to finally be
       notified about a reservation failure, as it would be when capacity
       admission control is managed by RSVP at the sender.
       Some RSVP protocol processing failure results in an RESV_ERROR
       message sent back to the MIS (phase 8), which in turn leads to
       deleting the EARTH server QoS state for this sender for all
       receivers and, after the next EARTH refresh, to teardown of the
       entire QoS-VC. This occurs only if the PATH state of sender and
       MIS somehow differ, e.g.  when a new PATH and a RESV referring to
       an older PATH state are concurrently transmitted.



2.3   Internetworking

   Internetworking between each MLIS and the rest of the Internet is
   concerned with two aspects:  the layer-3 setup protocol and the
   layer-2 multicast address resolution protocol.

   On one hand, the MIS architecture adopts standard RSVP protocol
   messages.  PATH messages incoming in MLIS are treated by RSVP-S as
   PATH messages generated by a node on MLIS. Also PATH messages
   outgoing from MLIS are standard RSVP PATH messages.  In this case,
   additional ADSPEC objects defining allowed (policed) QoS levels for a
   given session that are used within MLIS are converted by Mrouters to
   single-Tspec PATH messages before forwarding them outside MLIS. The
   single-Tspec object could be generated using the highest Tspec of the
   ones contained in the multi-Tspec PATH message.

   At the same time, reservation incoming from outside MLIS are bounded
   by Mrouters to the nearest QoS-level available for that session,
   before forwarding them to the MIS. RESV messages forwarded by
   Mrouters outside MLIS are standard RSVP reservation messages.  The
   MIS architecture foresees the use of all the other RSVP protocol
   messages without modifications.

   On the other hand, internetworking issues related to the multicast
   address resolution protocol are efficiently addressed by the EARTH
________________________________
 (4)This is needed if the sender is actually a MRouter/re-sender, and thus
the session has senders outside MLIS.




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                       Figure 4: Internetworking: example.


   protocol, which specifies interworking with non-ATM clouds via DVMRP
   and via SCSP in case of multiple EARTH servers in large ATM clouds.



2.4   Example

   In order to describe how the MIS architecture works, in this
   paragraph a complete and accurate description of an extensive
   case-of-study is presented.  Let's consider the example that is shown
   in figure 4.  For a given multicast session there are two senders and
   four receivers distributed on different networks.  One of the two
   senders is on the external LAN L1 (we assume that both the LAN L1 and
   the LAN L2 are Ethernets), while the other one is inside the ATM
   cloud.  The receivers are distributed on all the three networks:  R1
   and R2 are on the ATM cloud, while R3 and R4 are on the external
   LANs.  Multicast router M1 is the ingress router for the flow
   generated by S1 and the egress router for the flow generated by S2.
   Multicast router M2 acts like egress router for both these data
   flows.  All the receivers join a determined multicast session, namely
   MS1, using IGMP, on the LANs, and EARTH inside the MLIS. The
   inter-operation between these two protocol works according to the
   EARTH specification [2].  Once all the receivers have joint the
   multicast session and the senders have solved the multicast IP
   address in the proper set of NSAP addresses two point-to-multipoint
   best effort connections are opened inside the ATM cloud:  the former



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   originating from the sender S2 to the set <R1,R2,M1,M2> and the
   latter from M1 to <R1,R2,M2>.  Moreover, M1 forwards the data
   packets from S to the LAN L1 and M2 forwards all the data packets
   (both from S and from M1(5)) to the LAN L2.  No reservations have
   been still requested, so the QoS functionalities of the EARTH
   protocol have not yet been employed.

   The EARTH table (MARPTable) of the MIS contains the information on
   all the receivers as best-effort receivers for the multicast session
   MS1.  The senders, following the standard RSVP specifications [1],
   transmit the RSVP PATH messages to the multicast group.  The PATH
   messages originated at S1 are received by R3 and M1.  The receiver R3
   receives directly the PATH message and it requests the desired
   reservation by sending a RESV message up to the sender.  Since M1 is
   a Mrouter, it has to forward the PATH message to the ATM end-points
   that have joint the session and it will ask for a reservation
   according to the requests of the ATM receiver.  According to the
   model described in the paragraph 2.2, the PATH message is sent to the
   MIS, where the RSVP server takes care of replicating and properly
   forwarding the messages to the joined receivers.  The egress Mrouter
   M2 in turn forwards the message to the external LAN L2.  The PATH
   messages originated at S2 are delivered following the same rules; in
   this case, both M1 and M2 acts like egress routers toward the
   external LANs.

   Outside the ATM cloud the reservation of resources takes place as
   defined in [1, 9].  On the contrary, inside the ATM cloud, the MIS
   approach is applied.  As a consequence, the external receivers (i.e.
   R3 and R4) send their reservation requests to the corresponding
   previous hops (respectively M1 and M2) and the reservation takes
   place between the Mrouter (it acts like a re-sender) and the
   receiver.  On the contrary the reservation inside the MLIS follows
   the rules that have been presented in the paragraph 2.2.  All the ATM
   receivers send the RESV message to the MIS(6), where both the RSVP
   tables and the EARTH tables are updated and the pending reservation
   state is set.  The senders in the MLIS will be informed about the
   pending reservations through the EARTH_multi message and then try to
   set up the corresponding QoS point-to-multipoint VCs directly to
   receivers.
________________________________
 (5)M1 acts like a sender with respect to the ATM cloud; it is actually a
re-sender of the data flow originated at S1.
 (6)Note that the MIS is actually the previous hop for each ATM receiver;
but no reservations take place between the MIS and receiver, as the QoS
connections are directly opened from the sender to the receiver.








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                     Figure 5: Quantized heterogeneity model.


3  Service model:  Quantized Heterogeneity

   Although any service model for IIS over ATM can be efficiently
   supported by the MIS architecture, in this paper the quantized
   heterogeneity (QH) model is proposed as the advanced service model
   offered by the MIS.
   The QH model represents a compromise between the ``full'' and the
   ``limited heterogeneity'' models specified in [10], by supporting a
   limited number of QoS levels, included the best-effort class, for
   each multicast session.  Since each ATM point-to-multipoint VC
   provides a single QoS level, a limited number of ATM
   point-to-multipoint VCs per session are allowed.  As shown in
   figure 5, each sender of a multicast session can open one best-effort
   point-to-multipoint connection and a limited number of QoS
   point-to-multipoint connections with different QoS levels.  As a
   consequence, each receiver can choose the desired QoS level only
   among the allowed ones.  The best-effort point-to-multipoint
   connection guarantees that each receiver can always join a multicast
   group even if no resources for a QoS connection are available, as
   required in [10].
   The QH model does not define any guidelines about how to manage
   information about the allowed QoS levels in a multicast session.
   Moreover, it does not pose any constraint about the strategy that
   must be followed in the allocation of a given data stream on the ATM
   VCs.



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   The QH model can be efficiently integrated in the MIS architecture
   using the Multicast Integration Server in order to manage (i.e.  to
   define and distribute) information about the allowed QoS levels,
   using multi-Tspec PATH messages.  In this case, senders may generate
   single-Tspec PATH messages, while information about the
   pre-configured allowed QoS levels are appended to outgoing PATH
   messages by RSVP-S at the MIS, enforcing resource reservation policy
   on the ATM cloud, as described in section 2.1.


4  Specification

4.1   Interfaces

   EARTH, being an ATM protocol supporting IP multicast with embedded
   support for the QoS settings, should work even without any
   reservation protocol to enable QoS settings.  In any case, it would
   provide an address resolution for best effort flows, supporting
   minimal QoS functionality in order to allow setup of QoS VCs by
   manual configuration (UI) or management protocols.



4.1.1  QSSI and eRSRR

   The EARTH-S in the MIS architecture supports resource reservation
   with two local interfaces:  QSSI (Quality of Service Support
   Interface) and eRSRR (earth Routing Support for Resource
   Reservations).  These interfaces define specific messages in order to
   pass information to/from the EARTH-S.

   The QSSI provides the EARTH_QoS_notify message, used to set the
   requested QoS information in the EARTH-S. For example, RSVP-S sends
   this message to the EARTH-S when accepting a reservation.  With the
   same message, sent on QSSI in the opposite direction (from EARTH-S to
   e.g.  RSVP-S), the EARTH-S reports a success or a failure of
   connection establishment at the sender side.

   The routing support interface (eRSRR) gives the possibility to get
   locally from the EARTH-S information about receivers participating in
   a multicast session (needed e.g.  for the RSVP-S) with two messages:
   EARTH_query, to request an address resolution, and EARTH_response
   returning to the requester addresses of receivers which joined the
   group.


4.1.2  User Interface

   The operation of the MIS can be customized through the User Interface
   (UI). The UI allows the customization of both the EARTH-S and the
   RSVP-S.


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   Through the User Interface the EARTH-S could be customized to
   support:

     o Best effort service only (zero QoS), or also non-zero values for
       QoS.

     o Additional interfaces, like QSSI or routing support interface for
       interworking with RSVP or with other means for resource
       reservation.

     o Manual configuration of the MARPTable (with the use of the
       primitives described in 4.2.1).

   The RSVP server can be customized with the use of UI for the
   following topics:

     o Support for hierarchically encoded traffic flows or other.

     o QoS-levels Generation Algorithm.

     o Local policies to handle non-conformant (with regard to traffic
       description) reservation requests.

     o Mapping of QoS levels to ATM QoS parameters used by UNI
       signalling.



4.1.3  Traffic Control Interface

   The generic Traffic Control Interface (TCI) is defined in RSVP
   specifications [1].  In the MIS architecture, TCI is implemented as
   follows:


     o TCI at sender or forwarder (Mrouter):  only a 'dummy' admission
       control has to be present as the VC setup has been already
       successful (of course local policies could be enforced, however an
       admission rejection at this points has a high message/latency
       overhead).

     o TCI at MIS: a link-layer dependent adaptation module (LLDAL) has
       to be added (as for any other link-layer) which interfaces to the
       EARTH server's QoS Support Interface (QSSI).



4.1.4  Routing Support Interface

   The Routing Support for Resource Reservation interface (RSRR) defined
   in [11], is implemented in the MIS architecture by simply mapping


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   control VC endpoints to RSVP virtual interfaces [1].



4.2   MARP Table

   The Multicast Address Resolution (Protocol) Table (MARPTable), hold
   by the EARTH-S and EARTH-clients, stores membership information,
   including multicast address resolution as well as QoS information.

   MARPTable codes source-specific and QoS-specific information as shown
   below.



   MARPTable = null _ MARPTableEntry [, MARPTableEntry [, ... ]]
   MARPTableEntry = <MultIPAddr, SourceSpecEntryList>
   SourceSpecEntryList =  SourceSpecEntry [, SourceSpecEntry [...]]
   SourceSpecEntry = <SourceIPAddr, QoSSpecMembers>
   QoSSpecMembers =  QoSMembers [, QoSMembers [...]]
   QoSMembers = <QoSLevel, MemberList>
   MemberList = null _ RecId [, RecId [...]]
   RecId: = <RecNSAPA, RecIPAdd>


   where:

   null - represents an empty (e.g.  zeroed) data structure[s];
   a _ b _ ...  - mutually excluding alternatives a, b, ...;
   a [, a [, ...]]  - one or any number of instances of entity of type
   a;
   <a, b , ...  > - a set of elements a, b, ...
   Terms used in the description of MARPTable are:

   MultIPAddr  :  Multicast IP Address (i.e IP Class D Address).


   SourceIPAddr   :  is either IP Address of a source of multicast traffic
       or must be zero, when multicast group has only registered
       receivers but no specified source.


   QoSLevel  :  a value representing a quality of service level - to be
       mapped into a quality of service supported by ATM signalling (QoS
       levels defined in the table QoSMap).  The value zero means best
       effort service.


   RecNSAPA, RecIPAdd   :  NSAP and IP Addresses of a receiver registered
       with EARTH.



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4.2.1  MARPTable manipulation


   The messages defined by the EARTH specification, as well as the ones
   used in QSSI, eRSRR and UI are mapped in a set of primitives which
   manipulate the MARPTable:  p_join, p_leave, p_get_req, p_get_resp,
   p_set_qos and p_qos_ack.
   For example the primitives p_get_req(flag, MultIPAddr, SenderIPAddr [,
   SourceIPAddr]) and p_get_resp(flag, MultIPAddr, SourceIPAddr,
   QoSSpecMembers) describe request for the entry for a given group
   (MultIPAddr) and the corresponding answer.  The flag indicates
   whether all the QoS subgroups should be returned or the best effort
   only.  The answer (p_get_resp) depends on the address of the sender
   (SenderIPAddr) in the request; i.e.  only sender relevant (and only
   for allowed sender) information will be made available.  They are
   mapped into EARTH protocol messages EARTH_request, EARTH_multi as well
   as defined for eRSRR EARTH_query and EARTH_response.
   The primitive concerning QoS, p_set_qos(MultIPAddr, SourceIPAddr,
   prevQoSLevel, newQoSLevel, RecId) allows to set a QoS level of a
   receiver.  The receiver (RecId) is removed from one QoS specific
   subgroup (prevQoSLevel) and added to another (newQoSLevel) subgroup.
   The acknowledgment of this primitive is the primitive
   p_qos_ack(MultIPAddr, SourceIPAddr, prevQoSLevel, newQoSLevel, RecId),
   with the same parameter list.
   The EARTH protocol message EARTH_QoS_notify which arrives from the
   EARTH client (sender) to acknowledge a success or failure of QoS
   connection setup is mapped into p_set_qos.
   The messages provided on the QSSI Interface for the QoS support (used
   by RSVP or by other means for resource reservations),
   EARTH_RESV(MultIPAddr,SourceIPAddr, prevQoSLevel, newQoSLevel, RecId)
   and EARTH_RESV_ACK(MultIPAddr,SourceIPAddr, prevQoSLevel, newQoSLevel,
   RecId), can be mapped into two of above mentioned primitives:
   p_set_qos for the messages received on QSSI interface, and p_qos_ack
   for the message sent on the QSSI interface.



5  Discussion

   We argue that the proposed architecture for the Multicast Integration
   Server should result in increased efficiency, reduced layer-3
   processing, reduction of the amount of identical data passing the
   switch several times, reduced VC consumption, and finally reduced
   reservation establishment delay, when compared to existing
   architectures.  All these achievements are facilitated by major key
   design issues collected below from the above text and commented from
   a more generalized perspective.






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   RSVP server.    Besides the issues bulleted in section 2.1 it should be
       noted that the separation of data and control paths over ATM seems
       to be inevitable for any IP control protocol supporting multicast
       due to the unidirectional nature of ATM pt-to-mpt connections.  In
       the MIS architecture the RSVP has additional benefits arising from
       the fact that it reuses control VCs being maintained by EARTH
       clients.  To distinguish between EARTH and RSVP control messages
       we propose a simple dispatching module in the MIS (refer to [5]).


   Why EARTH not MARS.          The current IETF ION proposed standard RFC
       2022 [4] does not support QoS and retains the Classical IP over
       ATM approach to separate the ATM cloud to a number of logically
       disjoint subnets (clusters) which must consist of members of a
       single LIS only [4, chapter 8, page 54].  However, the Classical
       IP over ATM [12, 13 ] is an IP unicast protocol over ATM. Complete
       mapping of IP multicast service model to the ATM multicast service
       model requires bypassing of IP routers (shortcuts) in order to
       take the advantage of connecting of all the ATM endpoints -
       receivers (whatever LIS they belong) with a single pt-to-mpt VC.
       The reduction of VC consumption with MIS (due to shortcuts) in
       comparison with hypothetical MARS (even if supporting the QoS
       differentiation) could be estimated as O(Q*N), where Q is the
       number of QoS levels and N is the number of receivers.
       Another advantage of EARTH (however referring to implementation
       only) is that it manages the VC establishment via the UNI 3.x
       signalling in such a way that the multicast data forwarding could
       be started from the [re-]sender even on non completely established
       pt-to-mpt VC. This fact brings additional savings to the
       join/leave/reservation latency, which could be estimated again as
       O(Q*N).


   The MIS architecture is open.    The MIS architecture is server-based
       and layered:  it defines specific mapping procedures between RSVP
       and EARTH. The layer-3 RSVP is a consumer protocol with regard to
       the address resolution and data handling service provided by the
       layer-2 EARTH protocol.
       In MIS scenario only QoS assured IP multicast requires limited and
       strictly specified collaboration between RSVP and EARTH protocols
       through the two interfaces (QSSI and eRSRR) supported by the
       EARTH; IP unicast could be supported by RSVP unicast over ATM
       which is combined with the legacy atmarp.  The future development
       of MARS based IP/ATM networks can use the QSSI defined in this
       draft for both VC meshes and multicast servers.
       On the other hand, any other resource reservation protocol can use







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       EARTH's information in order to get receivers' NSAP addresses for
       an IP multicast session and to use the QSSI in order to set the
       desired QoS state for any of these receivers.
       The MIS is open also for the inclusion of any policy admission
       control, network management or security modules.


   Remote capacity admission control.     Because of the separation of IP
       data and IP control paths over ATM the question of regulating
       arises between the place where the reservations are collected and
       merged (MIS) and the place where the capacity admission control is
       applied (sender(s)).  This problem is solved via the modification
       of the original EARTH protocol (the EARTH_qos_notify message was
       added).  Therefore this solution is safe with regard to the
       "standard" operation of RSVP and provides timely updates for the
       EARTH data base, which data base could be safely used by other
       consumer protocols.


   Pre-configured ATM QoS levels.      We believe that the practically
       feasible number of QoS levels in IP/ATM internets could not be
       large.  Moreover, the QoS levels which could be used by IP/RSVP
       flows must be supported by the ATM signalling, i.e.  these
       available levels must be known in advance and the mapping from a
       particular RSVP reservation to the ATM QoS should be done with
       some robustness in mind.


   The QH model.     Due to the connection oriented nature of ATM the
       renegotiation of the QoS consumes double resources during the
       transition phase.  The quantized heterogeneity model provides
       significant savings of resources in this case.  Supporting only a
       (configurable) limited amount of QoS levels (i.e.  QoS VC) per
       session, the MIS architecture (i) prevents wasting of network
       resources unavoidable with the ``full heterogeneity model'' [10],
       and (ii) provides more flexibility than the single-QoS ``limited
       heterogeneity'' model, in full accordance with the
       receiver-initiated philosophy of RSVP.


   Scalability. Major scalability issues depend on the MIS-centric
       organization of the MIS architecture.  A single server both for
       multicast address resolution and for QoS management may become a
       bottleneck if the ATM cloud size grows.  On one hand, some
       solutions to efficiently face the scalability of the EARTH
       protocol are proposed in [2].  On the other hand, no scalability
       matters are due to the RSVP protocol, as the distribution of the
       RSVP signalling messages is organized on the base of the EARTH
       control connections.




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   Service mappings.    The MIS architecture bases on the ongoing work of
       the ISSLL IETF working-group for what is related to service
       mappings issues, in particular on what is specified in [3].


   Adaptation protocols.    By supporting the quantized heterogeneity
       model, the MIS is capable of augmenting the native capabilities of
       the ATM link-layer (single QoS per ATM multicast session), thus
       providing a set of different QoS levels to each IP Multicast
       session.


   Statement of non-applicability.   Currently, due to the inherent
       limitations of ATM signalling (no multipoint-to-point capability),
       only Fixed-Filter style reservations (explicit sender selection,
       distinct reservations) are supported.  However a mapping scheme
       within the MIS, where a Shared-Explicit or Wildcard-Filter
       reservation is mapped to several separate layer-2 reservations
       (i.e.  QoS-specific entries in the EARTH server's MARP table) can
       be realized.


   Implementation.    Two independent implementations of the MIS
       architecture are being developed at CEFRIEL/Politecnico di Milano
       and GMD-FOKUS.



6  Security considerations

   Security and policy mechanisms can be enforced for an entire MLIS, at
   the MIS. However, specific security considerations should be
   addressed in a separate document dealing with security in IP over ATM
   networks, especially with the presence of shortcuts.  This memo does
   not imply any new security issues if compared with RSVP over ATM and
   IP Multicast over ATM, however it amplifies security concerns,
   through bypassing inter LIS routers and possibly firewalls.

   This draft recognizes that MIS (EARTH server) could be configured to
   allow or not to obtain the NSAP address of specific
   endpoints/LISs/etc.  Security management in EARTH case will mean that
   it's commonly agreed security management between all LISs delegated
   to a future security entity within the MIS architecture, e.g.  entity
   managing security of shortcuts.



A  Glossary

   In this memo the following terms are used with the following
   meanings:


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   MLIS:   a [static] association of all IP multicast gateways (Mrouters)
       and [dynamic] association of all ATM endpoints/IP hosts willing to
       participate in any IP multicast session over an ATM cloud.

   Shortcut:  an ATM shortcut is a direct ATM connection between a sender
       and a (set of) receiver(s) in an MLIS, eventually bypassing
       inter-unicast-LIS routers.

   MIS:   the acronym ``MIS'' is used in general alone to indicate the
       server of the architecture proposed in this memo.  The
       architecture itself is indicated as ``MIS architecture''.

   Mrouter:   this term is used to indicate border multicast routers
       which provide layer-3 multicast connectivity between an ATM cloud
       and the rest of the internet.

   Forwarder:   a synonym for Mrouter.

   Re-sender:   another synonym for Mrouter.

   MARP:     Multicast Address Resolution Protocol.

   IIS: Internet Integrated Services architecture [9].

   EARTH-S:     the server of the EAsy multicast Routing THrough ATM
       clouds protocol.

   RSVP-S:    the server of the RSVP protocol defined and used in the MIS
       architecture.

   QSSI:  Quality of Service Support Interface, defined in EARTH
       specifications [2], and recalled in this memo in section 4.1.

   eRSRR:    extended Routing Support for Resource Reservation Interface,
       defined in section 4.1.

   TCI:  Traffic Control Interface, defined in [1].

   LLDAL:    Link-Layer Dependent Adaptation Module, used in section 4.1.







References

 [1]  L. Zhang, R. Braden, S. Berson, S. Herzog, and S. Jamin.  Resource
      ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) - Version 1 Functional Specification.
      RFC2205, IETF, September 1997.


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 [2]  M. Smirnov.  Scalable and Efficient Multiprotocol IP Multicast over
      ATM.  In Proceedings of SPIE VV'97 - Broadband Networking
      Technologies, Dallas - Texas, Nov 1997. SPIE.

 [3]  M. Garret and M. Borden.  Interoperation of Controlled-Load and
      Guaranteed Services with ATM.  Work in progress - Internet Draft,
      IETF, July 1997.  draft-ietf-issll-atm-mapping-03.txt.

 [4]  G. Armitage.  Support for Multicast over UNI 3.0/3.1 based ATM
      Networks.  RFC2022, IETF, November 1996.

 [5]  A. Corghi, L. Salgarelli, H. Sanneck, M. Smirnov, and D. Witaszek.
      Design Experiences with IP Multicast Integrated Services over ATM.
      Unpublished, July 1997. Available at
      ftp://ftp.fokus.gmd.de/pub/step/papers/mis-alt.ps.gz.

 [6]  L. Salgarelli, A. Corghi, H. Sanneck, and D. Witaszek.  Supporting
      IP Multicast Integrated Services in ATM Networks.  In Proceedings
      of SPIE VV'97 - Broadband Networking Technologies, Dallas - Texas,
      Nov 1997. SPIE.

 [7]  R. Yavatkar, D. Hoffman, Y. Bernet, F. Baker, and R. Kennedy.  SBM
      (Subnet Bandwidth Manager):  A Proposal for Admission Control over
      Ethernet.  Work in progress - Internet Draft, IETF, February 1997.
      draft-yavatkar-sbm-ethernet-03.txt.

 [8]  J. Wroclawski.  The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services.
      RFC2210, IETF, September 1997.

 [9]  D. Clark, R. Braden, and S. Shenker.  Integrated Services in the
      Internet Architecture:  an Overview.  RFC1633, IETF, June 1994.

[10]  S. Berson and L. Berger.  IP Integrated Services with RSVP over
      ATM.  Work in progress - Internet Draft, IETF, March 1997.
      draft-ietf-issll-atm-support-03.txt, .ps.

[11]  D. Zappala.  RSRR: A routing interface for RSVP.  Internet Draft,
      IETF, November 1996.  draft-ietf-rsvp-routing-01.ps.

[12]  M. Laubach.  Classical IP and ARP over ATM.  RFC1577, IETF, January
      1994.

[13]  M. Laubach and J. Halpern.  Classical IP and ARP over ATM.  Work in
      progress - Internet Draft, IETF, October 1997.
      draft-ietf-ion-ipatm-classic2-03.txt.








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Authors' Addresses

   L. Salgarelli and A. Corghi
   CEFRIEL/Politecnico di Milano
   via Fucini 2, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
   Voice: +39-2-23.954.1
   Fax:    +39-2-23.954.254
   e-mail: -salga, corghi"@cefriel.it


   M. Smirnow, H. Sanneck and D. Witaszek
   GMD-FOKUS
   Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 31, D-10589 Berlin (Germany)
   Voice: +49-30-34.637.000
   Fax:    +49-30-34.638.000
   e-mail: -smirnov, sanneck, witaszek"@fokus.gmd.de





































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