Network Working Group                                        B. Sarikaya
Internet-Draft                                                Huawei USA
Intended status: Informational                              M. Boucadair
Expires: April 1, 2017                                            Orange
                                                      September 28, 2016

 Source Address Dependent Routing and Source Address Selection for IPv6
                     Hosts: Problem Space Overview


   This document presents the source address dependent routing (SADR)
   problem space from the host perspective.  Both multihomed hosts and
   hosts with multiple interfaces are considered.  Several network
   architectures are presented to illustrate why source address
   selection and next hop resolution in view of source address dependent
   routing is needed.

   The document is scoped on identifying a set of scenarios for source
   address dependent routing from the host perspective and analyze a set
   of solutions to mitigate encountered issues.  The document does not
   make any solution recommendations.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 1, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Overall Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.2.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Source Address Dependent Routing (SADR) Scenarios . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Multi-Prefix Multihoming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Multi-Prefix Multi-Interface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3.  Home Network (Homenet)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.4.  Service-specific Egress Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  Analysis of Source Address Dependent Routing  . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1.  Scenarios Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Provisioning Domains and SADR . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Discussion on Alternate Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  Router Advertisement Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Router Advertisement Option Set . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.3.  Source Address Selection Rule 5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Overall Context

   BCP 38 recommends ingress traffic routing to prohibit Denial-of-
   Service (DoS) attacks.  As such, datagrams which have source
   addresses that do not match with the network where the host is
   attached are discarded [RFC2827].  Avoiding packets to be dropped
   because of ingress filtering is difficult especially in multihomed
   networks where the host receives more than one prefix from the
   networks it is connected to, and consequently may have more than one
   source addresses.  Based on BCP 38, BCP 84 introduced recommendations
   on the routing system for multihomed networks [RFC3704].

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   Recommendations on the routing system for ingress filtering such as
   in BCP 84 inevitably involve source address checks.  This leads to
   the source address dependent routing (SADR).  Source address
   dependent routing is an issue especially when the host is connected
   to a multihomed network and is communicating with another host in
   another multihomed network.  In such a case, the communication can be
   broken in both directions if Network Providers apply ingress
   filtering and the datagrams contain wrong source addresses (see for
   more details [I-D.huitema-multi6-ingress-filtering]).

   Hosts with simultaneously active interfaces receive multiple prefixes
   and have multiple source addresses.  Datagrams originating from such
   hosts are likely to be dropped due to ingress filtering policies.
   Source address selection algorithm needs to be careful to try to
   avoid ingress filtering on the next-hop router [RFC6724].

   Many use cases have been reported for source/destination routing, for
   example [I-D.baker-rtgwg-src-dst-routing-use-cases].  These use cases
   clearly indicate that the multihomed host or Customer Premises
   Equipment (CPE) router needs to be configured with correct source
   prefixes/addresses so that it can forward packets upstream correctly
   to avoid ingress filtering applied by an upstream Network Provider to
   drop the packets.

   In multihomed networks there is a need to enforce source address
   based routing if some providers are performing the ingress filtering.
   This requires the routers to consider the source addresses as well as
   the destination addresses in determining the next hop to send the
   packet to.

1.2.  Scope

   Based on the use cases defined in
   [I-D.baker-rtgwg-src-dst-routing-use-cases], the routers may be
   informed about the source addresses to use for forwarding using
   extensions to the routing protocols like IS-IS [ISO.10589.1992]
   [I-D.baker-ipv6-isis-dst-src-routing] or OSPF [RFC5340]

   In this document, we describe the scenarios for source address
   dependent routing from the host perspective.  Two flavors can be

   1.  A host may have a single interface with multiple addresses (from
       different prefixes or /64s).  Each prefix is delegated from
       different exit routers, and this case can be called multi-prefix
       multihoming (MPMH).  In such case, source address selection is

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       performed by the host while source-depending routing is to be
       enforced by an upstream router.

   2.  A host may have simultaneously connected multiple interfaces
       where each interface is connected to a different exit router and
       this case can be called multi-prefix multiple interface (MPMI).
       For this case, the host requires to support both source address
       selection and source-depending routing to avoid the need to
       rewrite the IPv6 prefix by an upstream router.

   Several limitations arise in such NAT- and NPTv6-based ([RFC6296])
   multihoming contexts (see for example [RFC4116]).  NPTv6 is left out
   of scope of this document.

   This document was initially written to inform the community about the
   SADR problem space.  It was updated to record the various set of
   alternate solutions to address that problem space.  The 6man
   consensus is documented in [I-D.ietf-6man-multi-homed-host].

2.  Source Address Dependent Routing (SADR) Scenarios

   This section describes a set of scenarios to illustrate the SADR
   problem.  Scenarios are listed following a complexity order.

2.1.  Multi-Prefix Multihoming

   The scenario shown in Figure 1 is a multi-prefix multihoming use
   case. "rtr" is a CPE router which is connected to two Network
   Providers, each advertising their own prefixes.  In this case, the
   host may have a single interface but it receives multiple prefixes
   from the upstream Network Providers.  Assuming that providers apply
   ingress filtering policy the packets for any external communication
   from the host should follow source address dependent routing in order
   to avoid getting dropped.

   In this scenario, the host does not need to perform source-depending
   routing; it does only need to perform source address selection.

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      +------+                  |
      |      |                  |        (Network)
      |      |                  |=====|(Provider 1)|=====
      |      |     +------+     |
      |      |     |      |     |
      |      |=====| rtr  |=====|
      | host |     |      |     |
      |      |     +------+     |
      |      |                  |
      |      |                  |        (Network)
      |      |                  |=====|(Provider 2)|=====
      |      |                  |
      +------+                  |

            Figure 1: Multihomed Host with Multiple CPE Routers

2.2.  Multi-Prefix Multi-Interface

   The scenario shown in Figure 2 is multi-prefix multi interface, where
   "rtr1" and "rtr2" represent CPE routers and there are exit routers in
   both "network 1" and "network 2".  If the packets from the host
   communicating with a remote destination are routed to the wrong exit
   router, i.e., carry wrong source address, they will get dropped due
   to ingress filtering.

   In order to avoid complications to send packets and avoid a need to
   rewrite the source IPv6 prefix, the host requires to perform both
   source address selection and source-depending routing so that
   appropriate next-hop is selected taking into account the source

      +------+     +------+       ___________
      |      |     |      |      /           \
      |      |-----| rtr1 |=====/   network   \
      |      |     |      |     \      1      /
      |      |     +------+      \___________/
      |      |
      | host |
      |      |
      |      |     +------+       ___________
      |      |     |      |      /           \
      |      |=====| rtr2 |=====/   network   \
      |      |     |      |     \      2      /
      +------+     +------+      \___________/

          Figure 2: Multiple Interfaced Host with Two CPE Routers

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   There is a variant of Figure 2 that is often referred to as a
   corporate VPN, i.e., a secure tunnel from the host to a router
   attached to a corporate network.  In this case "rtr2" gives access
   directly to the corporate network, and the link from the host to
   "rtr2" is a secure tunnel (for example an IPsec tunnel).  The
   interface is therefore a virtual interface, with its own IP address/
   prefix assigned by the corporate network.

         +------+     +------+       ___________
         |      |-----| rtr1 |      /           \
         |     ==========\\  |=====/   network   \
         |      |-----|  ||  |     \      1      /
         |      |     +--||--+      \___________/
         |      |        ||
         | host |        ||
         |      |        ||
         |      |     +--||--+       ___________
         |      |     |      |      / corporate \
         |      |     | rtr2 |=====/   network   \
         |      |     |      |     \      2      /
         +------+     +------+      \___________/

                            Figure 3: VPN case

   There are at least two sub-cases:

   a.  Dedicated forwarding entries are created in the host such that
       only traffic directed to the corporate network is sent to "rtr2";
       everything else is sent to "rtr1".

   b.  All traffic is sent to "rtr2" and then routed to the Internet if
       necessary.  This case doesn't need host routes but leads to
       unnecessary traffic and latency because of the path stretch via

2.3.  Home Network (Homenet)

   In the homenet scenario depicted in Figure 4, representing a simple
   home network, there is a host connected to a local network that is
   serviced with two CPEs which are connected to providers 1 and 2,
   respectively.  Each network delegates a different prefix.  Also each
   router provides a different prefix to the host.  The issue in this
   scenario is also ingress filtering used by each provider.  This
   scenario can be considered as a variation of the scenario described
   in Section 2.2.

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      |      |     +------+
      |      |     |      |      (Network)
      |      |==+==| rtr1 |====|(Provider 1)|=====
      |      |  |  |      |
      |      |  |  +------+
      | host |  |
      |      |  |
      |      |  |  +------+
      |      |  |  |      |      (Network)
      |      |  +==| rtr2 |====|(Provider 2)|=====
      |      |     |      |
      +------+     +------+

            Figure 4: Simple Home Network with Two CPE Routers

   The host has to select the source address from the prefixes of
   Providers 1 or 2 when communicating with other hosts in Provider 1 or
   2.  The next issue is to select the correct next hop router, rtr1 or
   rtr2 that can reach the correct provider, "Network Provider 1" or
   "Network Provider 2".

2.4.  Service-specific Egress Routing

   A variation of the scenario in Section 2.1 is: specialized egress
   routing.  Upstream networks offer different services with specific
   requirements, e.g., VoIP or IPTV.  The hosts using this service need
   to use the service's source and destination addresses.  No other
   service will accept this source address, i.e., those packets will be
   dropped [I-D.baker-rtgwg-src-dst-routing-use-cases].

   Both source address selection and source-dependent routing are
   required to be performed by the host.

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    ___________                +------+
   /           \   +------+    |      |
  /   network   \  |      |    |      |
  \      1      /--| rtr1 |----|      |
   \___________/   |      |    |      |     +------+       ___________
                   +------+    | host |     |      |      /           \
                               |      |=====| rtr3 |=====/   network   \
    ___________                |      |     |      |     \      3      /
   /           \   +------+    |      |     +------+      \___________/
  /   network   \  |      |    |      |
  \      2      /--| rtr2 |----|      |
   \___________/   |      |    |      |
                   +------+    |      |

         Figure 5: Multiple Interfaced Host with Three CPE Routers

   The scenario shown in Figure 5 s a variation of multi-prefix multi
   interface scenario (Section 2.2).  "rtr1", "rtr2" and "rtr3" are CPE
   routers.  The networks apply ingress routing.  Source address
   dependent routing should be used to avoid any external communications
   be dropped.

3.  Analysis of Source Address Dependent Routing

   SADR can be facilitated at the host with proper source address and
   next-hop selection.  For this, each router connected to different
   interfaces of the host uses Router Advertisements (RAs, [RFC4861]) to
   distribute a default route, next hop as well as source address/prefix
   information to the host.  As a reminder, while Prefix Information
   Option (PIO) is defined in [RFC4861], Route Information Option (RIO)
   is defined in [RFC4191].

   Section 3.1 presents an analysis of the scenarios of Section 2 and
   then Section 3.2discusses the relevance of SADR to the provisioning

3.1.  Scenarios Analysis

   As in [RFC7157] we assume that the routers in Section 2 use Router
   Advertisements (RAs) to distribute default route and source address
   prefixes supported in each next hop to the hosts or the gateway/CPE
   router relays this information to the hosts.

   Referring to Section 2.1, source address selection is undertaken by
   the host while source-dependent routing must be followed by "rtr" to
   avoid packets drop.  No particular modification is required for next-
   hop selection at the host.

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   Referring to the scenario in Figure 2, source address dependent
   routing can present a solution to the problem of the host wishes to
   reach a destination in network 2 and the host may choose rtr1 as the
   default router.  The solution assumes the host is correctly
   configured.  The host should be configured with the prefixes
   supported in these next hops.  This way the host having received many
   prefixes will have the correct knowledge in selecting the right
   source address and next hop when sending packets to remote

   Note that similar considerations apply to the scenario in Figure 5.

   In the configuration of the scenario (Figure 1) it is also useful to
   configure the host with the prefixes and source address prefixes they
   support.  This will enable the host to select the right prefix when
   sending packets to the right next hop and avoid any ingress filtering

   Let us analyze the scenario in Section 2.3.  If a source address
   dependent routing protocol is used, the two routers (rtr1 and rtr2)
   are both able to route traffic correctly, no matter which next-hop
   router and source address the host selects.  In case the host chooses
   the wrong next hop router, e.g., for provider 2 rtr1 is selected,
   rtr1 will forward the traffic to rtr2 to be sent to network provider
   2 and no ingress filtering will happen.

   Note that home networks are expected to comply with requirements for
   source address dependent routing and the routers will be configured
   accordingly, no matter which routing protocol is used [RFC7788].

   This would work but with issues.  The host traffic to provider 2 will
   have to go over two links instead of one, i.e., the link bandwidth
   will be halved.  Another possibility is rtr1 can send an ICMPv6
   Redirect message to the host to direct the traffic to rtr2.  Host
   would redirect provider 2 traffic to rtr2.

   The problem with redirects is that ICMPv6 Redirect message can only
   convey two addresses, i.e., in this case the router address, or rtr2
   address and the destination address, or the destination host in
   provider 2.  That means the source address will not be communicated.
   As a result, the host would send packets to the same destination
   using both source addresses which causes rtr2 to send a redirect
   message to rtr1, resulting in ping-pong redirects sent by rtr1 and

   A solution to these issues is to configure the host with the source
   address prefixes that the next hop supports.  In a homenet context,
   each interface of the host can be configured by its next hop router,

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   so that all that is needed is to add the information on source
   address prefixes.  This results in the hosts to select the right
   router no matter what.

   Source address dependent routing in the use case of specialized
   egress routing (Section 2.4) may work as follows.  The specialized
   service router advertises one or more specific prefixes with
   appropriate source prefixes, e.g., to the CPE router, rtr in
   Figure 1.  The CPE router in turn advertises the specific service's
   prefixes and source prefixes to the host.  This will allow proper
   configuration at the host so that the host can use the service by
   sending the packets with the correct source and destination

3.2.  Provisioning Domains and SADR

   Consistent set of network configuration information is called
   provisioning domain (PvD).  In case of multi-prefix multihoming
   (MPMH), more than one provisioning domain is present on a single
   link.  In case of multi-prefix multiple interface (MPMI)
   environments, elements of the same domain may be present on multiple
   links.  PvD aware nodes support association of configuration
   information into PvDs and use these PvDs to serve requests for
   network connections, e.g., choosing the right source address for the
   packets.  PvDs can be constructed from one of more DHCP or Router
   Advertisement (RA) options carrying such information as PvD identity
   and PvD container [I-D.ietf-mif-mpvd-ndp-support],
   [I-D.ietf-mif-mpvd-dhcp-support].  PvDs constructed based on such
   information are called explicit PvDs [RFC7556].

   Apart from PvD identity, PvD content may be encapsulated in separate
   RA or DHCP options called PvD Container Option.  These options are
   placed in the container options of an explicit PvD.

   Explicit PvDs may be received from different interfaces.  Single PvD
   may be accessible over one interface or simultaneously accessible
   over multiple interfaces.  Explicit PvDs may be scoped to a
   configuration related to a particular interface, however in general
   this may not apply.  What matters is PvD ID provided that PvD ID is
   authenticated by the node even in cases where the node has a single
   connected interface.  The authentication of the PvD ID should meet
   the level required by the node policy.  Single PvD information may be
   received over multiple interfaces as long as PvD ID is the same.
   This applies to the router advertisements (RAs) in which case a
   multi-homed host (that is, with multiple interfaces) should trust a
   message from a router on one interface to install a route to a
   different router on another interface.

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4.  Discussion on Alternate Solutions

   We presented many topologies in which a host with multiple interfaces
   or a multihomed host is connected to various networks or Network
   Providers which in turn may apply ingress routing.  The scenario
   analysis in Section 3.1 shows that in order to avoid packets getting
   dropped due to ingress routing, source address dependent routing is
   needed.  Also, source address dependent routing should be supported
   by routers throughout a site that has multiple egress points.

   In this section, we provide some alternate solutions vis a vis the
   scenarios presented in Section 2.  We start with source address
   selection rule 5.5 ([RFC6724]) and the scenarios it solves and
   continue with solutions that state exactly what information hosts
   need in terms of new router advertisement options for correct source
   address selection in those scenarios.  No recommendation is made in
   this section.

4.1.  Router Advertisement Option

   There is a need to configure the host not only with the prefixes but
   also with the source prefixes the next hop routers support.  Such a
   configuration may avoid the host getting ingress/egress policy error
   messages such as ICMP source address failure message.

   If host configuration is done using router advertisement messages
   then there is a need to define new router advertisement options for
   source address dependent routing.  These options include Route Prefix
   with Source Address/Prefix Option.  Other options such as Next Hop
   Address with Route Prefix option and Next Hop Address with Source
   Address and Route Prefix option will be considered in Section 4.2.

   As discussed in Section 3.1, the scenario in Figure 4 can be solved
   by defining a new router advertisement option.

   If host configuration is done using DHCP then there is a need to
   define new DHCP options for Route Prefix with Source Address/Prefix.
   As mentioned above, DHCP server configuration is interface specific.
   New DHCP options for source address dependent routing such as route
   prefix and source prefix need to be configured for each interface

   The scenario in Figure 4 can be solved by defining a new DHCP option.

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4.2.  Router Advertisement Option Set

   The source address selection rule 5.5 may possibly be a solution for
   selecting the right source addresses for each next hop but there are
   cases where the next hop routers on each interface of the host are
   not known by the host initially.  Such use cases are out of scope.
   Guidelines for use cases that require router advertisement option set
   involving third party next hop addresses are also out of scope.

4.3.  Source Address Selection Rule 5.5

   One possible solution is the default source address selection Rule
   5.5 in [RFC6724] which recommends to select source addresses
   advertised by the next hop.  Considering the above scenarios, we can
   state that this rule can solve the problem in Figure 2, Figure 1 and
   Figure 5.

   Source address selection rules can be distributed by DHCP server
   using DHCP Option OPTION_ADDRSEL_TABLE defined in [RFC7078].

   In case of DHCP based host configuration, DHCP server can configure
   only the interface of the host to which it is directly connected.  In
   order for Rule 5.5 to apply on other interfaces the option should be
   sent on those interfaces as well using [RFC7078].

   The default source address selection Rule 5.5 solves that problem
   when an application sends a packet with an unspecified source
   address.  In the presence of two default routes, one route will be
   chosen, and Rule 5.5 will make sure the right source address is used.

   When the application selects a source address, i.e., the source
   address is chosen before next-hop selection, even though the source
   address is a way for the application to select the exit point, in
   this case that purpose will not be served.  In the presence of
   multiple default routes, one will be picked, ignoring the source
   address which was selected by the application because it is known
   that IPv6 implementations are not required to remember which next-
   hops advertised which prefixes.  Therefore, the next-hop router may
   not be the correct one, and the packets may be filtered.

   This implies that the hosts should register which next-hop router
   announced each prefix.  It is required that RAs be sent by the
   routers and that they contain PIO on all links.  It is also required
   that the hosts remember the source addresses of the routers that sent
   PIOs together with the prefixes advertised.  This can be achieved by
   updating redirect rules specified in [RFC4861].
   [I-D.ietf-6man-multi-homed-host] further elaborates this to specify
   to which router a host should present its transmission.

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   Source address dependent routing solution is not complete without
   support from the edge routers.  All routers in edge networks need to
   be required to support routing based on not only the destination
   address but also the source address.  All edge routers need to be
   required to satisfy BCP 38 filters.

5.  Security Considerations

   This document describes some use cases and thus brings no additional
   security risks.  Solution documents should further elaborate on
   specific security considerations.

6.  Acknowledgements

   In writing this document, we benefited from the ideas expressed by
   the electronic mail discussion participants on 6man Working Group:
   Brian Carpenter, Ole Troan, Pierre Pfister, Alex Petrescu, Ray
   Hunter, Lorenzo Colitti and others.

   Pierre Pfister proposed the scenario in Figure 4 as well as some text
   for Rule 5.5.

   The text on corporate VPN in Section 3 was provided by Brian

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

              Marcon, J. and B. Carpenter, "First-hop router selection
              by hosts in a multi-prefix network", draft-ietf-6man-
              multi-homed-host-09 (work in progress), August 2016.

   [RFC2827]  Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
              Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
              Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, DOI 10.17487/RFC2827,
              May 2000, <>.

   [RFC3704]  Baker, F. and P. Savola, "Ingress Filtering for Multihomed
              Networks", BCP 84, RFC 3704, DOI 10.17487/RFC3704, March
              2004, <>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,

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   [RFC5340]  Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPF
              for IPv6", RFC 5340, DOI 10.17487/RFC5340, July 2008,

   [RFC5533]  Nordmark, E. and M. Bagnulo, "Shim6: Level 3 Multihoming
              Shim Protocol for IPv6", RFC 5533, DOI 10.17487/RFC5533,
              June 2009, <>.

   [RFC6296]  Wasserman, M. and F. Baker, "IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix
              Translation", RFC 6296, DOI 10.17487/RFC6296, June 2011,

   [RFC6724]  Thaler, D., Ed., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
              "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6)", RFC 6724, DOI 10.17487/RFC6724, September 2012,

   [RFC7078]  Matsumoto, A., Fujisaki, T., and T. Chown, "Distributing
              Address Selection Policy Using DHCPv6", RFC 7078,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7078, January 2014,

7.2.  Informative References

              Baker, F., "Multiprefix IPv6 Routing for Ingress Filters",
              draft-baker-6man-multiprefix-default-route-00 (work in
              progress), November 2007.

              Baker, F. and D. Lamparter, "IPv6 Source/Destination
              Routing using IS-IS", draft-baker-ipv6-isis-dst-src-
              routing-05 (work in progress), April 2016.

              Baker, F., "IPv6 Source/Destination Routing using OSPFv3",
              draft-baker-ipv6-ospf-dst-src-routing-03 (work in
              progress), August 2013.

              Baker, F., Xu, M., Yang, S., and J. Wu, "Requirements and
              Use Cases for Source/Destination Routing", draft-baker-
              rtgwg-src-dst-routing-use-cases-02 (work in progress),
              April 2016.

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Internet-Draft                    SADR                    September 2016

              Huitema, C., "Ingress filtering compatibility for IPv6
              multihomed sites", draft-huitema-multi6-ingress-
              filtering-00 (work in progress), October 2004.

              Krishnan, S., Korhonen, J., and S. Bhandari, "Support for
              multiple provisioning domains in DHCPv6", draft-ietf-mif-
              mpvd-dhcp-support-02 (work in progress), October 2015.

              Korhonen, J., Krishnan, S., and S. Gundavelli, "Support
              for multiple provisioning domains in IPv6 Neighbor
              Discovery Protocol", draft-ietf-mif-mpvd-ndp-support-03
              (work in progress), February 2016.

              Naderi, H. and B. Carpenter, "Experience with IPv6 path
              probing", draft-naderi-ipv6-probing-01 (work in progress),
              April 2015.

              International Organization for Standardization,
              "Intermediate system to intermediate system intra-domain-
              routing routine information exchange protocol for use in
              conjunction with the protocol for providing the
              connectionless-mode Network Service (ISO 8473), ISO
              Standard 10589", ISO ISO.10589.1992, 1992.

   [RFC4116]  Abley, J., Lindqvist, K., Davies, E., Black, B., and V.
              Gill, "IPv4 Multihoming Practices and Limitations",
              RFC 4116, DOI 10.17487/RFC4116, July 2005,

   [RFC4191]  Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and
              More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, DOI 10.17487/RFC4191,
              November 2005, <>.

   [RFC7157]  Troan, O., Ed., Miles, D., Matsushima, S., Okimoto, T.,
              and D. Wing, "IPv6 Multihoming without Network Address
              Translation", RFC 7157, DOI 10.17487/RFC7157, March 2014,

   [RFC7556]  Anipko, D., Ed., "Multiple Provisioning Domain
              Architecture", RFC 7556, DOI 10.17487/RFC7556, June 2015,

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   [RFC7788]  Stenberg, M., Barth, S., and P. Pfister, "Home Networking
              Control Protocol", RFC 7788, DOI 10.17487/RFC7788, April
              2016, <>.

Authors' Addresses

   Behcet Sarikaya
   Huawei USA
   5340 Legacy Dr. Building 175
   Plano, TX  75024


   Mohamed Boucadair
   Rennes 35000


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