Internet Engineering Task Force
Internet Draft                                            H. Schulzrinne
                                                             Columbia U.
December 5, 2002
Expires: March 2003

                     DHCP Option for Civil Location


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H. Schulzrinne                                                [Page 1]

Internet Draft      DHCP Option for Civil Addresses     December 5, 2002


   This document specifies a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol option
   for the civil (country, street and community) location of the client.

1 Terminology

   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1] and
   indicate requirement levels for compliant implementations.

2 Introduction

   Many end system services can benefit by knowing the approximate
   location of the end device. In particular, IP telephony devices need
   to know their location to contact the appropriate emergency response
   agency and to be found by emergency responders.

   There are two common ways to identify the location of an object,
   either through geospatial coordinates or by so-called civil
   coordinates.  Geospatial coordinates indicate longitude, latitude and
   altitude, while civil coordinates indicate a street address.

        This is commonly, but not necessearily, closely related to
        the postal address, used by the local postal service to
        deliver mail.  However, not all postal addresses correspond
        to street addresses. For example, the author's address is a
        postal address that does not appear on any street or
        building sign. Naturally, post office boxes would be
        unsuitable for the purposes described here.

   A related draft [7] describes a DHCP [2] option for conveying
   geospatial information to a device. This draft describes how DHCP can
   be used to convey the civil location to devices. Both can be used
   simultaneously, increasing the chance to deliver accurate and timely
   location information to emergency responders.

   End systems that obtain location information via the mechanism
   described here then use other protocol mechanisms to communicate this
   information to the emergency call center.

   Civil information is useful since it often provides additional,
   human-usable information particularly within buildings. Also,
   compared to geospatial information, it is readily obtained for most
   occupied structures and can often be interpreted even if incomplete.

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Internet Draft      DHCP Option for Civil Addresses     December 5, 2002

   For example, for many large university or corporate campuses,
   geocoding information to building and room granularity may not be
   readily available.

   Unlike geospatial information, the format for civil information
   differs from country to country. Thus, this draft establishes an IANA
   registry for civil location data fields. The initial set of data
   fields is derived from standards published by the United States
   National Emergency Numbering Association (NENA) [3]. It is
   anticipated that other countries can reuse many of the data elements.

3 Format of the DHCP Civil Location Option

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
         |   Code TBD    |       N       |          Countrycode          |
         |    What       |        civil address elements                ...

   Each civil address element has the following format:

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
         |   CAtype      |   CAlength    |      CAvalue                 ...

        Code TBD: The code for this DHCP option is TBD by IANA.

        N: The length of this option is variable.

        Countrycode: The two-letter ISO country code in capital ASCII
             letter, e.g., DE or US.

        What: The 'what' element describes which location the DHCP
             refers to. Currently, three options are defined: the
             location of the DHCP server (0), the location of the
             network element believed to be closest to the client (1) or
             the location of the client (2). Option (2) SHOULD be used,
             but may not be known. Options (1) and (2) SHOULD NOT be

H. Schulzrinne                                                [Page 3]

Internet Draft      DHCP Option for Civil Addresses     December 5, 2002

             used unless it is known that the DHCP client is in close
             physical proximity to the server or network element.

             In some cases, the local wiring plant makes it
             difficult to ascertain the device location with
             certainty. In that case, it is still preferable to
             indicate the DHCP server, Ethernet switch or router,
             but indicate the uncertainty. This avoids that the
             emergency responders try to break into the LAN closet.

        CAtype: A one-octet descriptor of the data civil address value.

        CAlength: The length, in octets, of the CAvalue, not including
             the CAlength field itself. Data SHOULD be encoded in

        CAvalue: The civil address value, encoded as UTF-8, and written
             in uppercase letters where applicable.

4 Civil Address Components

   We define the following initial CA types. They correspond to items
   from the NENA "Recommended Formats & Protocols For ALI Data Exchange,
   ALI Response & GIS Mapping" [3], but are applicable to most

   CAtype  NENA  country  description                           examples
   1        CNA  some     county name                           BERGEN
   2        HNO  all      house number                          123
   3        HNS  all      house number suffix                   A, 1/2
   4        LMK  all      landmark or vanity address            SHADELAND CRESCENT APTS
   5        LOC  all      additional location information       APT 17
   6        MCN  all      civil community name                  FAIRVIEW HEIGHTS
   7        NAM  all      name (residence and office occupant)  JOE'S BARBERSHOP
   8        PCN  all      postal community name                 BELLEVILLE
   9        POD  all      trailing street suffix                SW
   10       PRD  all      leading street direction              N
   11       STN  all      street name                           MAIN
   12       STA  some     state, province or region             TX, ON
   13       STS  all      street suffix                         AVE
   14       ZIP  all      postal/zip code                       10027-1234
   15            some     district

   Not all elements are applicable in all countries. In particular,
   elements marked as "some" are not commonly used across countries.

H. Schulzrinne                                                [Page 4]

Internet Draft      DHCP Option for Civil Addresses     December 5, 2002

   All elements are OPTIONAL and can appear in any order. Abbreviations
   do not need a trailing period. The "NENA" column refers to the data
   dictionary name in Exhibit 18 of [3].

   Some additional remarks on specific items:

        CNA: CNA refers to a group of towns, cities or villages. In the
             United States, these are called counties or parishes, in
             India, these are called districts, in Portugal 'territorial
             sub-division', in Germany

        MCN: The civil community name reflects the political boundaries.
             These may differ from postal delivery assignments, captured
             in PCN, for historical or practical reasons.

        NAM: The NAM object is used to aid user location ("Joe Miller"
             "Alice's Dry Cleaning"). It does not identify the caller,
             but rather the person or organization associated with the

        POD, PRD: In English-speaking countries, the abbreviations N, E,
             S, W, and NE, NW, SE, SW should be used.

        STA: In the United States (US), the two-letter state and
             possession abbreviations recommended by the United States
             Postal Service Publication 28 [4], Appendix B, SHOULD be
             used. In China (CN), STA is used for the five autonomous
             regions. In Portugal (PT), STA identifies the territorial

        STS: In the United States (US), the abbreviations recommended by
             the United States Postal Service Publication 28 [4],
             Appendix C, SHOULD be used.

        15 (District): This is a sub-unit of a community or city and is
             used, for example, in China (CN) and India (IN) ("locality"
             or "neighborhood").

   The mechanism described in RFC 3396 [5] can be used if the civil
   address option exceeds the maximum DHCP option size of 255 octets.

5 Security Considerations

   The information in this option may be used for a variety of tasks. In
   some cases, integrity of the information may be of great importance.
   In such cases, DHCP authentication in [6] SHOULD be used to protect
   the integrity of the DHCP options.

H. Schulzrinne                                                [Page 5]

Internet Draft      DHCP Option for Civil Addresses     December 5, 2002

6 Acknowledgments

   Your name here.

7 Authors' Addresses

   Henning Schulzrinne
   Dept. of Computer Science
   Columbia University
   1214 Amsterdam Avenue
   New York, NY 10027
   electronic mail:

8 Normative References

   [1] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to indicate requirement
   levels," RFC 2119, Internet Engineering Task Force, Mar. 1997.

   [2] R. Droms, "Dynamic host configuration protocol," RFC 2131,
   Internet Engineering Task Force, Mar. 1997.

   [3] National Emergency Number Association, "Nena recommended formats
   & protocols for ali data exchange, ali response & gis mapping,"
   Standard NENA-02-010, NENA, Washington, DC, 2002 Jan.

   [4] United States Postal Service, "Postal addressing standards,"
   Publication 28, USPS, Washington, DC, Nov. 2000.

   [5] T. Lemon and S. Cheshire, "Encoding long options in the dynamic
   host configuration protocol (DHCPv4)," RFC 3396, Internet Engineering
   Task Force, Nov. 2002.

   [6] R. Droms and W. Arbaugh, eds., "Authentication for DHCP
   messages," RFC 3118, Internet Engineering Task Force, June 2001.

9 Informative References

   [7] J. Polk et al., "DHCP option for geographic location," Internet
   Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, Oct. 2002.  Work in progress.

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H. Schulzrinne                                                [Page 6]

Internet Draft      DHCP Option for Civil Addresses     December 5, 2002

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H. Schulzrinne                                                [Page 7]

                           Table of Contents

   1          Terminology .........................................    2
   2          Introduction ........................................    2
   3          Format of the DHCP Civil Location Option ............    3
   4          Civil Address Components ............................    4
   5          Security Considerations .............................    5
   6          Acknowledgments .....................................    6
   7          Authors' Addresses ..................................    6
   8          Normative References ................................    6
   9          Informative References ..............................    6

H. Schulzrinne                                                [Page 1]