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Versions: 00                                                            
Network Working Group                                   T.G.Smith
INTERNET-DRAFT                                     Gecko Software
Expire in six months                             20 November 1996

                Orbit Shadow TM - Data Transport Protocol
                                  for
                     Java Thin Client Applications
                               to access
                      Network Management Platforms

                     <draft-smith-java-appl-00.txt>

   _1.  _S_t_a_t_u_s _o_f _t_h_i_s _M_e_m_o

   This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working docu-
   ments of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
   its working groups. Note the other groups may also distribute working
   documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite the other than as "work in progress".

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   "lid-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ftp.is.oc.za (Africa), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
   munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
   ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

   _2.  _A_b_s_t_r_a_c_t

   _2._1.  _I_n_t_e_r_e_s_t

   This document is of interest to vendors of network management platforms
   and network management applications, for the management of intranets,
   private internetworks and the public Internet.

   _2._2.  _S_t_a_t_u_s _R_e_p_o_r_t

   This is the first submission of this RFC.

   _2._3.  _P_r_o_t_o_c_o_l

   This protocol is an application layer protocol for the interchange of
   data between a network management server and a network management
   client application. The protocol is intended to be used in operating
   system independant implementations of "thin" client applications.
   This protocol is currently implemented by one manufacturer - Gecko



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   Software, but is being placed in the public domain as it is of
   interest to other manufacturers dealing with network management
   issues.

   _3.  _I_n_t_r_o_d_u_c_t_i_o_n _t_o _O_R_B_I_T

                  A GeckoWare product from Gecko Software

   ORBIT is an architecture that integrates information technology
   management platforms, the World Wide Web, HTML browser applications
   and Java  to provide operating system independant access to mission
   critical management information.  Designed to be used with enterprise
   systems and network management platforms such as


                  SPECTRUM         from Cabletron Systems
                  HP OpenView      from Hewlett Packard
                  SunNET Manager   from Sun Microsystems


   ORBIT  Planet provides a public domain Java API to access information
   on a remote management platform, using the ORBIT  Star server. The
   ORBIT  Star and Satellite are Java powered, and communicate using
   ORBIT  Shadow an application layer protocol that is implemented using
   TCP/IP sockets.  Any Java compatabile application, specifically HTML
   browsers, can implement Java applets that access management applica-
   tion information through ORBIT Planet, Shadow and Star.

   _3._1.  _O_R_B_I_T  _S_t_a_r

   A server application (daemon) that co-exists with the management
   application, or remote from the management application where sup-
   ported by the API or CLI. ORBIT Star accepts API or CLI calls from
   one or more ORBIT Satellites vi a ORBIT  Shadow. These calls are
   passed to the management application by ORBIT Star and the results
   passed back to the relevant ORBIT Planet.

   _3._2.  _O_R_B_I_T  _P_l_a_n_e_t

   A public domain Java package, consisting of class, method and inter-
   face definitions that implement the Application Program Interfaces or
   Command Line Interfaces of a management application. Communication
   with a management application is through ORBIT  Shadow to an ORBIT
   Star.

   _3._3.  _O_R_B_I_T  _S_h_a_d_o_w

   An application layer protocol, implemented uding TCP/IP sockets, that



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   controls data requests and responses between ORBIT  Stars and ORBIT
   Planets.


   _4.  _U_s_e _C_a_s_e _f_o_r _O_r_b_i_t _S_h_a_d_o_w

   An example of the application of Orbit Shadow is given as a use case.
   In this use case, the Orbit implementation is Orbit for SPECTRUM8r9,
   Cabletron Systems, Inc, enterprise management system.  Fred, a net-
   work Manager, wishes to be able to view the state of all Cisco
   routers in his company's network using the Netscape browser that he
   has installed on his Apple Macintosh.  Fred asks Cathy, an applica-
   tion programmer, to build him an application to perform this func-
   tion.

   Cathy designs a series of Java applets that Fred will access from an
   page on their corporate WWW server. One of the applets that she
   writes needs to be able to query the state of a specific router (a
   managed object).Cathy uses Orbit Planet as the interface to interro-
   gate a SPECTRUM system, installed on their network, as to the state
   of the required router.

   Orbit Planet (a public domain Java package) provides Cathy with
   object classes, methods and interfaces to interrogate and update her
   SPECTRUM server, using an Orbit Star application on the SpectroSERVER
   host[1]. Cathy includes the Orbit Planet Java packages in her applet
   that needs to be able to query the state of a specific router. When
   the relevant method is invoked[2] Orbit Shadow packages the request
   into an Orbit Shadow protocol frame and communicates the request to
   the relevant Orbit Star.  From the above, you can see that Orbit Sha-
   dow is embedded in Orbit Planet. There is also a corresponding Orbit
   Shadow embedded in Orbit Star. When this Orbit Shadow receives the
   request from Cathy's applet, it executes the request and returns the
   data to the applet. To execute the request, Orbit Star calls the
   relevant SPECTRUM interface[3], parses and formats the resulting out-
   put before handing the data to Orbit Shadow. Orbit Shadow packages
   the data into an Orbit Shadow protocol frame and communicates the
   response to the relevant Orbit Planet.


   END-NOTES
   ---------
   1       Orbit Star - SPECTRUM does not necessarily have to co-
   reside with a SpectroSERVER. V1.x of Orbit Star - SPECTRUM
   uses the SPECTRUM Command Line Interface and can reside on a
   separate host to the SpectroSERVER, provided that the
   SPECTRUM CLI is installed on the same host as Orbit Star -
    SPECTRUM. Compatabile versions of SpectroSERVER and



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   SPECTRUM CLI can be on different Operating System platforms,
   which implies that Orbit Star -  SPECTRUM can be deployed on
   a different host operating system to that of the
   SpectroSRVER.
   2       The method that corresponds to the SPECTRUM Command Line
   Interface (CLI) show attributes [mh=<model handle>]
   attr=<attribute id>
   3       This would be the same interface as invoked by the Orbit
   Planet method in footnote 2.

   _5.  _P_r_o_t_o_c_o_l _D_e_f_i_n_i_t_i_o_n

   _5._1.  _F_r_a_m_e _S_t_r_u_c_t_u_r_e

   An Orbit Shadow protocol frame contains the fields set out in "Table
   1 - Orbit Shadow Protocol Frame".

                      Field number   Field descriptor
8                      ______________________________________________________________
                           0         version
                           1         sequence
                           2         command
                           3         final
                           4         platform
                           5         interface
                           6         database
                           7         object
                           8         attribute
                           9         attribute type
                           10        value

                   Table 1 - Orbit Shadow Protocol Frame

   Each of the fields in the protocol frame are described below.

   _5._1._1.  _V_e_r_s_i_o_n

   The field version identifies the revision of Orbit Shadow that is in
   use. The field is an signed integer value with a length of eight (8)
   bits.

   _5._1._2.  _S_e_q_u_e_n_c_e

   The field sequence is used ensure that information sent between the
   Orbit Star and the Orbit Planet remains in sequence. The field is a
   signed integer value with a length of thiry-two (32) bits.


9


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   _5._1._3.  _C_o_m_m_a_n_d

   The command field identifies the protocol action to be carried out by
   the receipient of the protocol frame. The defined commands are


            Command                Abbreviation   Integer Value
8            ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
            authorise                  AUTH             0
            request                    REQ              1
            response                   RES              2
            positive acknowledge       ACK              3
            negative acknowledge       NACK             4
            wait                       WAIT             5
            terminate                  TERM             6


               Table 2 -  Defined values for field: command


   These commands are implemented in the protocol frame as a signed
   integer value with a length of eight (8) bits.  Detailed examples of
   the use of these commands is given in section "Protocol State Model".


   _5._1._4.  _F_i_n_a_l

   The final field is a boolean flag, implemented as a single bit. This
   flag is set to true (1) if the protocol frame is the last frame for
   the specified command and is set to false (0) if the frame is not the
   last frame in an exchange for a specified command. This flag is used
   when sending bulk data in a request or a response.


   _5._1._5.  _P_l_a_t_f_o_r_m

   The platform field defines the network or systems management platform
   that Orbit Star interfaces with and is implemented as an signed
   integer of length eight (8) bits. Currently defined values for plat-
   form are


  Value   Application              Platform                 Abbreviation
8  ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  -128    Reserved                 -                        -
   ..
    -1    Reserved                 -                        -
     0    Cabletron SPECTRUM       Command Line Interface   csiCLI
     1    Cabletron SPECTRUM       SSAPI ver 4.0            csiSSAPI



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  Value   Application              Platform                 Abbreviation
8  ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
     2    SunNET Manager           -                        sunNET
     3    Sun Solstice             -                        sunENT
              Enterprise Manager
     4    HP Network Node          -                        hpNNM3
             Manager ver 3.x
     5    HP Network Node          -                        hpNNM4
             Manager ver 4.x

               Table 3 - Defined values for field: platform

   _5._1._6.  _I_n_t_e_r_f_a_c_e

   The field interface defines the specific interface on the specified
   platform that this protocol frame refers to and is implemented as a
   signed integer eight (8) bits in length.  Interface values are unique
   when used in conjunction with a specific platform value. Currently
   defined values for the field "interface" are set out in Table 4. The
   "interface" values for platform "csiCLI" use the typographical con-
   ventions from the SPECTRUM "Command Line Interface User Guide".


        Platform   Interface   Interface
                     Value     Description
8        ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
        csiCLI        000      reserved
        csiCLI        001      connect [hostname]
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        002      disconnect
        csiCLI        003      ack alarm aid=alarm_id
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        004      create alarm
                                  cond=alarm_condition
                                  cause=alarm_cause
                                  mh=model_handle
        csiCLI        005      create association
                                  rel=relation
                                  lmh=left_model_handle
                                  rmh=right_model_handle.
        csiCLI        006      create event
                                  type=event_type
                                  text=event_text
                                  [mh=model_handle |
                                  lh=landscape_handle ]
        csiCLI        007      create model
                                  mth=model_type_handle
                                  [attr=attribute_id,
                                  val=value ...]



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        Platform   Interface   Interface
                     Value     Description
8        ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        008      current [mh=model_handle |
                                  lh=landscape_handle ]
        csiCLI        009      destroy alarm [-n]
                                  aid=alarm_id
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        010      destroy association [-n]
                                  rel=relation
                                  lmh=left_model_handle
                                  rmh=right_model_handle.
        csiCLI        011      destroy model [-n]
                                  mh=model_handle
        csiCLI        012      jump [text_string]
        csiCLI        013      seek attr=attribute_id,
                                  val=value
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        014      setjump [-n] text_string
        csiCLI        015      show alarms [-x]
                                  [mh=model_handle |
                                  lh=landscape_handle ]
        csiCLI        016      show associations
                                  [mh=model_handle]
        csiCLI        017      show attributes
                                  [attr=attribute_id
                                  [,iid=instance_id][,next]]
                                  [attr=attribute_id
                                  [,iid=instance_id][,next]...]
                                  [mh=model_handle]
        csiCLI        018      show attributes
                                  mth=model_type_handle
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        019      show children [rel=relation]
                                  [mh=model_handle]
        csiCLI        020      show events  [-x]
                                  [mh=model_handle |
                                  lh=landscape_handle ]
        csiCLI        021      show inheritance
                                  mth=model_type_handle
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        022      show models [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        023      show parents [rel=relation]
                                  [mh=model_handle]
        csiCLI        024      show relations [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        025      show rules rel=relation
        csiCLI        026      show types [lh=landscape_handle]
        csiCLI        027      show landscapes


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        Platform   Interface   Interface
                     Value     Description
8        ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
        csiCLI        028      update  [mh=model_handle]
                                  attr=attribute_id
                                  [,iid=instance_id],val=value
                                  [attr=attribute_id
                                  [,iid=instance_id],val=value...]
        csiCLI        029      update [-n]
                                  mth=model_type_handle
                                  attr=attribute_id,val=value
                                  [attr=attribute_id,val=value...]
                                  [lh=landscape_handle]


               Table 4 - Defined values for field: interface



   _5._1._7.  _D_a_t_a_b_a_s_e

   The field database defines the target database on the platform for
   which the interface is to be invoked, and is implemented as a signed
   integer thirty two (32) bits in length.  This field is used when the
   target platform supports distributed databases or has multiple data
   sources. The usage of this field is dependant on the value of plat-
   form.  The semantic definitions for database that are currently
   defined are


       Platform                        Semantic value of database
8       __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
       csiCLI                          SPECTRUM VNM Landscape Handle
       csiSSAPI                        SPECTRUM VNM Landscape Handle


               Table 5 'Defined Values for field: database'


   _5._1._8.  _O_b_j_e_c_t

   The field object defines an object in the "database" on the "plat-
   form", and is implemented as an signed integer thirty two (32) bits
   in length. The semantic value of object is specific for each plat-
   form. The semantic definitions for object that are currently defined
   are


           Platform                    Semantic value of object



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8           __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
           csiCLI                      SPECTRUM VNM model handle
           csiSSAPI                    SPECTRUM VNM model handle


                Table 6 'Defined values for field: object'


   _5._1._9.  _A_t_t_r_i_b_u_t_e

   The field attribute defines an attribute of an object, and is imple-
   mented as a signed integer thirty two (32) bits in length. The seman-
   tic value of attribute is specific for each platform. The semantic
   definitions for object that are currently defined are


       Platform                        Semantic value of attribute
8       __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
       csiCLI                          SPECTRUM VNM attribute handle
       csiSSAPI                        SPECTRUM VNM attribute handle


               Table 7 'Defined values for field: attribute'


   _5._1._1_0.  _A_t_t_r_i_b_u_t_e _T_y_p_e


   The field "attribute type" describes the data type implemented by the
   "attribute". This field is implemented as a signed integer eight (8)
   bits in length.  The Orbit Shadow protocol uses primitive data types
   as defined by Sun Microsystem's Java TM programming language. The
   definition of these primitive data types can be found at

                          http://www.javasoft.com


                         Field Value   Data type
8                         __________________________________________________
                              0        Boolean
                              1        Char
                              2        Integer
                              3        Long
                              4        Float
                              5        Double
                              6        String


            Table 8 'Defined values for field: attribute type'
9


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   _5._1._1_1.  _V_a_l_u_e

   The field value contains the data which is the value of the attribute
   specified in the Orbit Shadow protocol frame, and is implemented as a
   variable length sequence of bytes.


   _5._2.  _P_r_o_t_o_c_o_l _S_t_a_t_e _M_o_d_e_l

   _5._2._1.  _O_v_e_r_v_i_e_w

   The exchange of Orbit Shadow frames between an Orbit Star and an
   Orbit Planet is described by a series of data flow diagrams. Data
   exchange between the Orbit Planet and Orbit Star is asynchronous and
   bi-directional, and is always initiated by an Orbit Planet. For every
   exchange that is initiated by an Orbit Planet, an Orbit Star will
   reply with either a positive or negative acknowledgement. A session
   between an Orbit Planet and an Orbit Star is initiated with a user
   authentication exchange, followed by a sequence of requests and
   responses. The session is not necessarily explicitly terminated, but
   can be terminated by the Orbit Planet, or the Orbit Star.


   _5._2._2.  _S_e_s_s_i_o_n _I_n_i_t_i_a_t_i_o_n

   A session between an Orbit Planet and an Orbit Star requires that
   user authentication take place at least once, before any other
   requests are serviced. If no authentication has occured, then the
   Orbit Star will deny service to the Orbit Planet. Table 9 "Initial
   state - no authorisation", shows the protocol exchange where an Orbit
   Star denies service when no authentication has taken place.


            Frame   Orbit Planet   Orbit Star   Frame detail
8            ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
              1     REQ                         object=<..>,
                                                attribute=<..>,
                                                value=..

              2                    NACK         object=<..>,
                                                attribute=<..>,
                                                value=..


                Table 9 "Initial state - no authorisation"


   An authorisation exchange is shown in Table 10 "Initial state -
   authorisation exchange". In this exchange, both the user name and the


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   user password are accepted by the Orbit Star as valid.


      Frame   Orbit Planet   Orbit Star   Frame detail
8      ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
        1     AUTH                        object=null,
                                          attribute=<user name>,
                                          value=user name
        2                    ACK          object=<user object>,
                                          attribute=<user name>,
                                          value=user name
        3     AUTH                        object=<user object>,
                                          attribute=<user password>,
                                          value=password
        4                    ACK          object=<user object>,
                                          attribute=<user password>,
                                          value=password


                Table 10 "Initial state - authorisation exchange"

   If either the user name or user password is invalid, the Orbit Star
   will send a negative acknowledgement of the authentication request.
   An example of this is shown in


      Frame   Orbit Planet   Orbit Star   Frame detail
8      ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
        1     AUTH                        object=null,
                                          attribute=<user name>,
                                          value=user name
        2                    ACK          object=<user object>,
                                          attribute=<user name>,
                                          value=user name
        3     AUTH                        object=<user object>,
                                          attribute=<user password>,
                                          value=password
        4                    NACK         object=<user object>,
                                          attribute=<user password>,
                                          value=password


             Table 11 "Initial state - authentication failure"


   _5._2._3.  _R_e_s_q_u_e_s_t _A_n_d _R_e_s_p_o_n_s_e

   After the Orbit Planet has successfully identified the end-user to
   the Orbit Star, requests for access to the Orbit Star platform



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   interfaces can be made. On receiving a request, the Orbit Star will
   acknowledge that the request is to be serviced, or refuse the request
   through a negative acknowledgement. Table 12 "Request - service
   refusal" shows the protocol exchange when the Orbit Star refuses to
   service an Orbit Planet request.


            Frame   Orbit Planet   Orbit Star   Frame detail
8            ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
              1     REQ                         object=<..>,
                                                attribute=<..>,
                                                value=..
              2                    NACK         object=<..>,
                                                attribute=<..>,
                                                value=..



                   Table 12 "Request - service refusal"

   Assuming that the Orbit Star is able to service the request from the
   Orbit Planet, the exchange might be as set out in Table 13 "Request -
   simple response".


          Frame     Orbit Planet   Orbit Star     Frame detail
8         ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
            1       REQ                           object=<..>,
                                                  attribute=<..>,
                                                  value=..
            2                      ACK            object=<..>,
                                                  attribute=<..>,
                                                  value=..
         3          RES            object=<..>,
                                                  attribute=<..>,
                                                  value=..
            4       ACK                           object=<..>,
                                                  attribute=<..>,
                                                  value=..


                   Table 13 "Request - simple response"


   _5._2._4.  _S_e_s_s_i_o_n _T_e_r_m_i_n_a_t_i_o_n

   To be completed.





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   _6.  _S_e_c_u_r_i_t_y _C_o_n_s_i_d_e_r_a_t_i_o_n_s

   There is a possible requirement for encryption of passwords in the
   user authentication exchange in session initiation.

   _7.  _R_e_f_e_r_e_n_c_e_s

   _8.  _A_u_t_h_o_r'_s _A_d_d_r_e_s_s


   Tony Gordon Smith
   Gecko Software
   17 Paragon Place
   Blackheath
   London
   SE3 0SP
   United Kingdom

   Phone:  +44-(0)700 0GECKO
           +44-(0)700 043256
   Fax:    +44-(0)700 740175
   EMail:  tony@geckoware.com





























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