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          13                                                            
Network Working Group                                           J. Snell
Internet-Draft
Intended status: Informational                             July 10, 2013
Expires: January 11, 2014


              HTTP/2.0 Discussion: Stored Header Encoding
                      draft-snell-httpbis-bohe-11

Abstract

   This memo describes a proposed alternative encoding for headers that
   combines the best concepts from the proposed Delta and HeaderDiff
   options with the typed value codecs introduced by previous versions
   of this draft.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 11, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.




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Table of Contents

   1.  Stored Header Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Header Encoding and Decoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Literal (name,value) Representation . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Indexed Representation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Non-Indexed Literal Representation  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.4.  Indexed Literal Representation  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.5.  Indexed Literal Replacement Representation  . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Unsigned Variable Length Integer Syntax . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.2.  Informational References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Appendix A.  Initial Header Table Entries . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Appendix B.  Updated Standard Header Definitions  . . . . . . . .  11
   Appendix C.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     C.1.  First Header Set: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     C.2.  Second Header Set:  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     C.3.  Third Header Set: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Stored Header Encoding

   The Stored Header Encoding is an alternative "binary header encoding"
   for HTTP/2.0 that combines the best elements from three other
   proposed encodings, including:

   o  The "Header Delta Compression" scheme proposed by Roberto Peon in
      http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-rpeon-httpbis-header-
      compression-03

   o  The "Header Diff" encoding proposed by Herve Reullan, Jun
      Fujisawa, Romain Bellessort, and Youenn Fablet in http://
      tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ruellan-headerdiff-00

   o  The "Binary Optimized Header Encoding" proposed by James Snell
      (me) in http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-snell-httpbis-bohe-03

   The Stored Header Encoding seeks to find an elegant, efficient and
   simple marriage of the best concepts from each of these separate
   proposals.

2.  Model






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   A "header" is a (name,value) pair.  The name is a sequence of lower-
   case ASCII characters.  The value is either a UTF-8 string, an
   integer, a Date-Time, or an arbitrary sequence of binary octets.

   The compressor and decompressor each maintain a synchronized cache of
   up to 256 headers.  Every header in the cache is referenced by an
   8-bit identifier.  Note that the Nil byte (0x00) is a valid
   identifier.

   The cache is managed in a "least recently written" style, that is, as
   the cache fills to capacity in both number of entries and maximum
   stored byte size, the least recently written items are cleared and
   their index positions are reused.

   Index positions from the cache are assigned in "encounter order",
   beginning from 0x00 and increasing monotonically to 0xFF.  That is to
   say, the positions are assigned in precisely the same order that they
   are serialized, and thereby encountered by the decompressor upon
   reading and processing the block.

   The available size of the stored compression state can be capped by
   the decompressor using the SETTINGS_MAX_BUFFER_SIZE setting.  Each
   stored header contributes to the accumulated size of the storage
   state.  As new haeder pairs are assigned positions in the cache, the
   least-recently assigned items must be cleared, if necessary, to free
   up the required space.  Clearing existing items does not change the
   index positions of the other items in the cache.

   The size of a header is calculated as: The number of ASCII octets
   required for the name plus the number of octets required for the
   value plus 32-bytes to account for any internal storage overhead.
   The number of octets required for the value depends on the value
   type:

   o  String values are measured by the number of UTF-8 encoded octets
      required to represent the character sequence.

   o  Number and Date-Time values are measured by the number of unsigned
      variable length integer (uvarint) encoded bytes required to
      represent the value using a 5-bit prefix.

   o  Binary values are measured by the number of octets contained by
      the sequence.

3.  Header Encoding and Decoding

   The set of headers is encoded for transmission using the following
   process:



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   1.  For each header, determine if the (name,value) pair already
       exists in the table.

       *  If an exact match is found in the header table, encode the
          indexed position of the header as an Indexed Reference and
          advance to the next header (name,value) pair.

       *  Otherwise, move to the step #2.

   2.  Determine if a header (name,value) pair with the same name
       already exists in the table.  If a matching name is found, make
       note of the indexed position of the matching name and continue to
       step #3.

   3.  Determine whether the new header (name,value) pair ought to be
       added to the header table or not.

       *  If the header is not to be added to the header table, encode
          the header as a Non-Indexed Literal Representation and
          continue to the next header (name,value) pair.

       *  Otherwise, continue to step #4.

   4.  If an existing indexed header using the same name was found in
       the header table in step #2, determine if the new header
       (name,value) pair ought to replace that existing entry or if it
       ought to be added as a new entry.

       *  If the header is to replace the existing entry, encode the
          header as an Indexed Literal Replacement Representation.

       *  Otherwise encode the header as an Indexed Literal
          Representation.

   Following these steps, headers are serialized into one of four
   representation types, each represented by a two-bit prefix code.  The
   types and their codes are:

   o  Indexed - 10

   o  Non-Indexed Literal - 00

   o  Indexed Literal Replacement - 01

   o  Indexed Literal - 10

   Each representation type is encoded into groups of up to 64
   instances.  Each group is prefixed by a single octet prefix.  The two



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   most significant bits identify the representation type, the six least
   significant bits specify the number of instances in the group, with
   000000 indicating a single instance and 111111 indicating 64.

   If a particular serialization block requires more than 64 intances of
   a given type, then multiple instances of the group type can be
   encoded.  For instance, if a given message contains 65 Indexed
   Representations, the encoded block would contain two separate Indexed
   Representation groups.

   Decoding simply reverses the encoding steps:

   1.  First initialize an empty working set of headers.

   2.  Begin iterating through each representation group:

       *  If it is an Indexed group, iterate through each index included
          in the group, look up the corresponding (name,value) pair in
          the header table and add that to the working set.  If no
          matching (name,value) is found, terminate and report an error.

       *  If it's a Non-Indexed Literal group, iterate through each
          (name,value) pair included in the group and add that to the
          working set.

       *  If it's an Indexed Literal group, iterate through each
          (name,value) pair included in the group and add that to both
          the header table and the working set.

       *  If it's an Indexed Literal Replacement group, iterate through
          each (name,value) pair included in the group, replace the
          existing entry in the header table at the identified index,
          and add the new (name,value) to the working set.  If no
          matching (name,value) is found, terminate and report an error.

   3.  Continue with each representation group until the complete block
       has been decoded.

3.1.  Literal (name,value) Representation

   The structure of an encoded (name,value) pair consists of:

   o  A 3-bit value type identifier,

   o  The name, encoded either as a literal string or as the header
      table index position of another existing header sharing the same
      name, and




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   o  The encoded value.

   The three most-sigificant bits of the first octet identify the value
   type.

   This design allows for a maximum of 7 value types, only four of which
   are defined by this specification.  The three remaining value types
   are reserved for future use.  The currently defined value types are:

      UTF-8 Text (000)

      Integer (001)

      Timestamp (010)

      Raw Binary (111)

   If the name is encoded using an index reference to another existing
   (name,value) pair in the header table, the remaining five least
   significant bits of the first octet are set to zero and the next byte
   identifies the referenced header table index position.

   If the name is encoded as a literal string, the number of ASCII bytes
   required to represent the name is encoded as a unsigned variable
   length integer with a five-bit prefix, filling the 5-remaining least
   significant bits of the first octet.

   The encoding of the value depends on the value type.

   UTF-8 Text:
      First, the number of UTF-8 encoded bytes required to represent the
      value is encoded as an unsigned variable length integer with a
      0-bit prefix, followed by the full sequence of UTF-8 bytes.

   Integer
      The integer's value is encoded as an unsigned variable length
      integer with a 0-bit prefix.  Negative or fractional numbers
      cannot be represented.

   Timestamp
      The timestamp is represented as the number of milliseconds
      ellapsed since the standard Epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00 GMT),
      encoded as an unsigned variable length integer with a 0-bit
      prefix.  Timestamps that predate the Epoch cannot be represented.

   Raw Binary





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      The number of octets in the sequence is encoded as an unsigned
      variable length integer with a 0-bit prefix, followed by the full
      sequence of octets.

3.2.  Indexed Representation

   The serialization of an Indexed Representation group consists of the
   one-octet header group prefix followed by up to 64 single-octet
   header table index references.

   +--------+--------+--------+--------+---+
   |10xxxxxx| Index positions (1...64)  ...|
   +--------+--------------------------+---+


   For instance:

   0x80 0x00
      References item #0 from the header table.

   0x81 0x00 0x01
      References items #0 and #1 from the header table.

   Indexed Representations do not modify the header table state in any
   way.  If an Indexed References specifies a header index that has not
   yet been allocated or whose value has been cleared, decoding MUST
   terminate with an error.

3.3.  Non-Indexed Literal Representation

   The serialization of a group of Non-Indexed Literal representations
   consists of the one-octet header prefix followed by up to 64 Literal
   (name,value) Representations.

   +--------+--------+--------+--------+---+
   |00xxxxxx| (name,value)'s (1...64)    ...
   +--------+--------------------------+---+


   For instance:

   0x00 0x01 0x61 0x01 0x62
      Specifies a single header with name "a" and a UTF-8 String value
      of "b" is to be handled as a Non-Indexed header (it is not added
      to the header table).

3.4.  Indexed Literal Representation




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   The serialization of a group of Indexed Literal representations
   consists of the one-octet header prefix followed by up to 64 Literal
   (name,value) Representations.

   +--------+--------+--------+--------+---+
   |01xxxxxx| (name,value)'s (1...64)    ...
   +--------+--------------------------+---+


   For instance:

   0x40 0x01 0x61 0x01 0x62
      Specifies a single header with name "a" and a UTF-8 String value
      of "b" is to be handled as an Indexed header (it will be added to
      the header table).

   0x40 0x21 0x61 0x03
      Specifies a single header with name "a" and Integer value of 3 is
      to be handled as an Indexed header (it will be added to the header
      table).

3.5.  Indexed Literal Replacement Representation

   The serialization of a group of Indexed Literal representations
   consists of the one-octet header prefix followed by up to 64 single
   octet index references identifying an existing header table entry
   followed by the new Literal (name,value) representation meant to
   replace it.

   +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
   |11xxxxxx| (INDEX | (name,value)(1...64))  ...
   +--------+--------------------------+--------+


   For instance:

   0xC0 0x03 0x01 0x61 0x01 0x62
      Specifies that a single header with name "a" and a UTF-8 String
      value of "b" is to replace the existing (name,value) entry in the
      header table located at index position #3.

   0xC0 0x03 0x21 0x61 0x03
      Specifies that a single header with name "a" and Integer value of
      3 is to replace the existing (name,value) entry in the header
      table located at index position #3.

4.  Unsigned Variable Length Integer Syntax




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   Unsigned integers are encoded as defined in
   [I-D.ietf-httpbis-header-compression].

5.  Security Considerations

   TBD

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-httpbis-header-compression]
              Peon, R. and H. Ruellan, "HTTP/2.0 Header Compression",
              draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-01 (work in
              progress), July 2013.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

6.2.  Informational References

   [RFC6265]  Barth, A., "HTTP State Management Mechanism", RFC 6265,
              April 2011.

Appendix A.  Initial Header Table Entries

         +-------+-----------------------------+-------+---------+
         | Index | Name                        | Value | Type    |
         +-------+-----------------------------+-------+---------+
         | 0     | :scheme                     | http  | Text    |
         | 1     | :scheme                     | https | Text    |
         | 2     | :host                       |       |         |
         | 3     | :path                       | /     |         |
         | 4     | :method                     | GET   | Text    |
         | 5     | accept                      |       |         |
         | 6     | accept-charset              |       |         |
         | 7     | accept-encoding             |       |         |
         | 8     | accept-language             |       |         |
         | 9     | cookie                      |       |         |
         | 10    | if-modified-since           |       |         |
         | 11    | keep-alive                  |       |         |
         | 12    | user-agent                  |       |         |
         | 13    | proxy-connection            |       |         |
         | 14    | referer                     |       |         |
         | 15    | accept-datetime             |       |         |
         | 16    | authorization               |       |         |
         | 17    | allow                       |       |         |
         | 18    | cache-control               |       |         |



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         | 19    | connection                  |       |         |
         | 20    | content-length              |       |         |
         | 21    | content-md5                 |       |         |
         | 22    | content-type                |       |         |
         | 23    | date                        |       |         |
         | 24    | expect                      |       |         |
         | 25    | from                        |       |         |
         | 26    | if-match                    |       |         |
         | 27    | if-none-match               |       |         |
         | 28    | if-range                    |       |         |
         | 29    | if-unmodified-since         |       |         |
         | 30    | max-forwards                |       |         |
         | 31    | pragma                      |       |         |
         | 32    | proxy-authorization         |       |         |
         | 33    | range                       |       |         |
         | 34    | te                          |       |         |
         | 35    | upgrade                     |       |         |
         | 36    | via                         |       |         |
         | 37    | warning                     |       |         |
         | 38    | :status                     | 200   | Integer |
         | 39    | age                         |       |         |
         | 40    | cache-control               |       |         |
         | 41    | content-length              |       |         |
         | 42    | content-type                |       |         |
         | 43    | date                        |       |         |
         | 44    | etag                        |       |         |
         | 45    | expires                     |       |         |
         | 46    | last-modified               |       |         |
         | 47    | server                      |       |         |
         | 48    | set-cookie                  |       |         |
         | 49    | vary                        |       |         |
         | 50    | via                         |       |         |
         | 51    | access-control-allow-origin |       |         |
         | 52    | accept-ranges               |       |         |
         | 53    | allow                       |       |         |
         | 54    | connection                  |       |         |
         | 55    | content-disposition         |       |         |
         | 56    | content-encoding            |       |         |
         | 57    | content-language            |       |         |
         | 58    | content-location            |       |         |
         | 59    | content-md5                 |       |         |
         | 60    | content-range               |       |         |
         | 61    | link                        |       |         |
         | 62    | location                    |       |         |
         | 63    | p3p                         |       |         |
         | 64    | pragma                      |       |         |
         | 65    | proxy-authenticate          |       |         |
         | 66    | refresh                     |       |         |



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         | 67    | retry-after                 |       |         |
         | 68    | strict-transport-security   |       |         |
         | 69    | trailer                     |       |         |
         | 70    | transfer-encoding           |       |         |
         | 71    | warning                     |       |         |
         | 72    | www-authenticate            |       |         |
         | 73    | user-agent                  |       |         |
         +-------+-----------------------------+-------+---------+


Appendix B.  Updated Standard Header Definitions

   In order to properly deal with the backwards compatibility concerns
   for HTTP/1, there are several important rules for use of Typed Codecs
   in HTTP headers:

   o  All header fields MUST be explicitly defined to use the new header
      types.  All existing HTTP/1 header fields, then, will continue to
      be represented as ISO-8859-1 Text unless their standard
      definitions are updated.  The HTTP/2 specification would update
      the definition of specific known header fields (e.g. content-
      length, date, if-modified-since, etc).

   o  Extension header fields that use the typed codecs will have
      specific normative transformations to ISO-8859-1 defined.

      *  UTF-8 Text will be converted to ISO-8859-1 with extended
         characters pct-encoded

      *  Numbers will be converted to their ASCII equivalent values.

      *  Date Times will be converted to their HTTP-Date equivalent
         values.

      *  Binary fields will be Base64-encoded.

   o  There will be no normative transformation from ISO-8859-1 values
      into the typed codecs.  Implementations are free to apply
      transformation where those impls determine it is appropriate, but
      it will be perfectly legal for an implementation to pass a text
      value through even if it is known that a given header type has a
      typed codec equivalent (for instance, Content-Length may come
      through as a number or a text value, either will be valid).  This
      means that when translating from HTTP/1 -> HTTP/2, receiving
      implementations need to be prepared to handle either value form.

   A Note of warning: Individual header fields MAY be defined such that
   they can be represented using multiple types.  Numeric fields, for



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   instance, can be represented using either the uvarint encoding or
   using the equivalent sequence of ASCII numbers.  Implementers will
   need to be capable of supporting each of the possible variations.
   Designers of header field definitions need to be aware of the
   additional complexity and possible issues that allowing for such
   alternatives can introduce for implementers.

   Based on an initial survey of header fields currently defined by the
   HTTPbis specification documents, the following header field
   definitions can be updated to make use of the new types

   +---------------------+---------------+-----------------------------+
   | Field               | Type          | Description                 |
   +---------------------+---------------+-----------------------------+
   | content-length      | Numeric or    | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either an unsigned,         |
   |                     |               | variable-length integer or  |
   |                     |               | a sequence of ASCII         |
   |                     |               | numbers.                    |
   | date                | Timestamp or  | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either a uvarint encoded    |
   |                     |               | timestamp or as text (HTTP- |
   |                     |               | date).                      |
   | max-forwards        | Numeric or    | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either an unsigned,         |
   |                     |               | variable-length integer or  |
   |                     |               | a sequence of ASCII         |
   |                     |               | numbers.                    |
   | retry-after         | Timestamp,    | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Numeric or    | either a uvarint encoded    |
   |                     | Text          | timestamp, an unsigned,     |
   |                     |               | variable-length integer, or |
   |                     |               | the text equivalents of     |
   |                     |               | either (HTTP-date or        |
   |                     |               | sequence of ASCII numbers)  |
   | if-modified-since   | Timestamp or  | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either a uvarint encoded    |
   |                     |               | timestamp or as text (HTTP- |
   |                     |               | date).                      |
   | if-unmodified-since | Timestamp or  | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either a uvarint encoded    |
   |                     |               | timestamp or as text (HTTP- |
   |                     |               | date).                      |
   | last-modified       | Timestamp or  | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either a uvarint encoded    |
   |                     |               | timestamp or as text (HTTP- |
   |                     |               | date).                      |
   | age                 | Numeric or    | Can be represented as       |



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   |                     | Text          | either an unsigned,         |
   |                     |               | variable-length integer or  |
   |                     |               | a sequence of ASCII         |
   |                     |               | numbers.                    |
   | expires             | Timestamp or  | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either a uvarint encoded    |
   |                     |               | timestamp or as text (HTTP- |
   |                     |               | date).                      |
   | etag                | Binary or     | Can be represented as       |
   |                     | Text          | either a sequence of binary |
   |                     |               | octets or using the         |
   |                     |               | currently defined text      |
   |                     |               | format. When represented as |
   |                     |               | binary octets, the Entity   |
   |                     |               | Tag MUST be considered to   |
   |                     |               | be a Strong Entity tag.     |
   |                     |               | Weak Entity Tags cannot be  |
   |                     |               | represented using the       |
   |                     |               | binary octet option.        |
   +---------------------+---------------+-----------------------------+


Appendix C.  Example

C.1.  First Header Set:

   The first header set to represent is the following:

   :path: /my-example/index.html
   user-agent: my-user-agent
   x-my-header: first


   The header table is prefilled as defined in Appendix A, however, none
   of the values represented in the initial set can be found in the
   header table.  All headers, then, are encoding using the Indexed
   Literal Representation:

   43 00 03 16 2f 6d 79 2d 65 78
   61 6d 70 6c 65 2f 69 6e 64 65
   78 2e 68 74 6d 6c 00 49 6d 79
   2d 75 73 65 72 2d 61 67 65 6e
   74 0b 78 2d 6d 79 2d 68 65 61
   64 65 72 05 66 69 72 73 74


   Three new entries are added to the header table:




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             +-------+-------------+------------------------+
             | Index | Name        | Value                  |
             +-------+-------------+------------------------+
             | 74    | :path       | /my-example/index.html |
             | 75    | user-agent  | my-user-agent          |
             | 76    | x-my-header | first                  |
             +-------+-------------+------------------------+


C.2.  Second Header Set:

   The second header set to represent is the following:

   :path: /my-example/resources/script.js
   user-agent: my-user-agent
   x-my-header: second


   Comparing this second header set to the first, we see that the :path
   and x-my-header headers have new values, while the user-agent value
   remains unchanged.  For the sake of the example let's encode the
   :path and x-my-header headers using Indexed Literal Replacement
   representations.  The user-agent header will be encoded as an Indexed
   Representation.

   80 4b a3 4a 00 4a 1f 2f 6d 79
   2d 65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65 2f 72
   65 73 6f 75 72 63 65 73 2f 73
   63 72 69 70 74 2e 6a 73 00 4c
   06 73 65 63 6f 6e 64


   Items #74 and #76 added by the previous header set are replaced:

         +-------+-------------+---------------------------------+
         | Index | Name        | Value                           |
         +-------+-------------+---------------------------------+
         | 74    | :path       | /my-example/resources/script.js |
         | 75    | user-agent  | my-user-agent                   |
         | 76    | x-my-header | second                          |
         +-------+-------------+---------------------------------+










Snell                   Expires January 11, 2014               [Page 14]


Internet-Draft           Stored Header Encoding                July 2013


C.3.  Third Header Set:

   Let's suppose a third header set that is identical to the second is
   sent:

   82 4b 4c 4d


Author's Address

   James M Snell

   Email: jasnell@gmail.com






































Snell                   Expires January 11, 2014               [Page 15]