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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
Network Working Group                                          N. Sopher
Internet-Draft                                                     Qwilt
Updates: 8006, 8008 (if approved)                              S. Mishra
Intended status: Standards Track                                 Verizon
Expires: 29 January 2022                                    28 July 2021


                    CDNI Request Routing Extensions
            draft-sopher-cdni-footprint-types-extensions-04

Abstract

   Open Caching architecture is a use case of Content Delivery Networks
   Interconnection (CDNI) in which the commercial Content Delivery
   Network (CDN) is the upstream CDN (uCDN) and the ISP caching layer
   serves as the downstream CDN (dCDN).  This document supplements to
   the CDNI Metadata Footprint Types defined in RFC 8006.  The Footprint
   Types defined in this document can be used for Footprint objects as
   part of the Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement interface (FCI)
   defined in RFC 8008.  The defined Footprint Types are derived from
   requirements raised by Open Caching but are also applicable to CDNI
   use cases in general.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 29 January 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.



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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  CDNI Metadata Additonal Footprint Types . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Footprint Type  . . . . . . .   4
       2.1.1.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Data Type . . . . . . . .   4
         2.1.1.1.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Data Type
                 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       2.1.2.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Footprint Type
               Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  CDNI Metadata FootprintUnion Footprint Type . . . . . . .   5
       2.2.1.  CDNI Metadata FootprintUnion Data Type  . . . . . . .   6
       2.2.2.  CDNI Metadata FootprintUnion Footprint Type
               Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1.  CDNI Metadata Footprint Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

1.  Introduction

   The Streaming Video Alliance [SVA] is a global association that works
   to solve streaming video challenges in an effort to improve end-user
   experience and adoption.  The Open Caching Working Group [OCWG] of
   the Streaming Video Alliance [SVA] is focused on the delegation of
   video delivery requests from commerical CDNs to a caching layer at
   the ISP's network.  Open Caching architecture is a specific use case
   of CDNI where the commercial CDN is the upstream CDN (uCDN) and the
   ISP caching layer is the downstream CDN (dCDN).  The Open Caching
   Request Routing Specification [OC-RR] defines the Request Routing
   process and the interfaces that are required for its provisioning.
   This document defines and registers CDNI Footprint and Capabilities
   objects[RFC8008] that are required for Open Caching Request Routing.






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   For consistency with other CDNI documents this document follows the
   CDNI convention of uCDN (upstream CDN) and dCDN (downstream CDN) to
   represent the commercial CDN and ISP caching layer respectively.

   This document registers two CDNI Metadata Footprint Types (section
   7.2 of [RFC8006]) for the defined objects:

   *  ISO3166-2Code Footprint Type (e.g. for dCDN advertising a
      footprint that is specific to a State in the USA)

   *  Collection Footprint Type (for dCDN advertising a footprint that
      consists of a group built from multiple Footprints Types.  E.g.
      both IPv4 and IPv6 client addresses)

1.1.  Terminology

   The following terms are used throughout this document:

   *  CDN - Content Delivery Network

   Additionally, this document reuses the terminology defined in
   [RFC6707], [RFC7336], [RFC8006], [RFC8007], [RFC8008], and [RFC8804].
   Specifically, we use the following CDNI acronyms:

   *  uCDN, dCDN - Upstream CDN and Downstream CDN respectively (see
      [RFC7336] )

1.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  CDNI Metadata Additonal Footprint Types

   Section 5 of [RFC8008] describes the FCI Capability Advertisement
   Object, which includes an array of CDNI Footprint Objects.  Each such
   object has a footprint-type and a footprint-value, as described in
   section 4.2.2.2 of [RFC8006].  This document defines additional
   footprint types, beyond those mentioned in CDNI metadata [RFC8006].
   For consistency, this document follows the CDNI notation of uCDN for
   (the commercial CDN) and dCDN (the ISP caching layer).







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2.1.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Footprint Type

   Section 4.3.8 of [RFC8006] specifies the "Country Code" footprint
   type for listing [ISO3166-1] alpha-2 codes.  Using Footprint Objects
   of this type, one can define an FCI Capability Advertisement Object
   footprint constraints that match a specific country.  Here we define
   the iso3166-2code simple data type, as well as a footprint type
   allowing the dCDN to define constraints matching geographic areas
   with better granularity, specifically using the [ISO3166-2] Country
   Subdivision codes.

2.1.1.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Data Type

   The "ISO3166-2Code" data type specified in Section 2.1.1.1, describes
   a country specific subdivision using an [ISO3166-2] code.  The data
   type is added to the list of data types described in section 4.3 of
   [RFC8006] that are used as properties of CDNI Metadata objects.

2.1.1.1.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Data Type Description

   A [ISO3166-2] code in lower case.  Each code consists of two parts,
   separated by a hyphen.  The first part is the [ISO3166-1] code of the
   country.  The second part is a string of up to three alphanumeric
   characters.

      Type: String

      Example ISO3166-2Codes:

      "ca-ns"

      "us-ny"

2.1.2.  CDNI Metadata ISO3166-2Code Footprint Type Description

   The "ISO3166-2Code" simple data type specified in Section 2.1.1 , is
   added to the data types listed as footprint types in section 4.2.2.2
   of [RFC8006] .

   Below is an adjustment for the example in Section 2.1.1, now
   embedding a footprint object of type "ISO3166-2Code".  The Footprint
   Object in this example creates a constraints matching clients both in
   Nova-Scotia province of Canada (ISO [ISO3166-2] code "CA-NS"), as
   well as in the state of New-York In the US (ISO [ISO3166-2] code "US-
   NY").






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   {
     "capabilities": [
       {
         "capability-type": <CDNI capability object type>,
         "capability-value": <CDNI capability object>,
         "footprints": [
             {
                 "footprint-type": "iso3166-2code",
                 "footprint-value": ["ca-ns", "us-ny"]
             }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }


2.2.  CDNI Metadata FootprintUnion Footprint Type

   As described in section 5 of [RFC8008], the FCI Capability
   Advertisement Object includes an array of CDNI Footprint Objects.
   Appendix B of [RFC8008] specifies the semantics of a Footprint
   Objects array as a multiple, additive, footprint constraints.
   Meaning, the advertisement of different footprint types narrows the
   dCDN's candidacy cumulatively.

   Sections 4.3.5 and 4.3.6 of [RFC8006] specify the "IPv4CIDR" and
   "IPv6CIDR" footprint types, respectively, for listing IP addresses
   blocks.  Using Footprint Objects of these types, one can define an
   FCI Capability Advertisement Object footprint constraints that match
   IPv4 or IPv6 clients.  However, the described "narrowing" semantic of
   the Footprint Objects array prevents the usage of these objects
   together in order to create a footprint constraint that matches IPv4
   clients together with IPv6 clients.

   Below is an example for an attempt at creating an object matching
   IPv4 clients of subnet "192.0.2.0/24", as well as IPv6 clients of
   subnet "2001:db8::/32".  Such a definition results with an empty list
   of clients, as the constraints are additives and a client address
   cannot be both IPv4 and IPv6.












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   {
     "capabilities": [
       {
         "capability-type": <CDNI capability object type>,
         "capability-value": <CDNI capability object>,
         "footprints": [
             {
                 "footprint-type": "ipv4cidr",
                 "footprint-value": ["192.0.2.0/24"]
             },
             {
                 "footprint-type": "ipv6cidr",
                 "footprint-value": ["2001:db8::/32"]
             }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }


   To overcome the described limitation, and allow a list of footprint
   constraints that matches both IPv4 and IPv6 client addresses, we
   introduce below the "FootprintUnion" footprint type.  This footprint
   type allows the collection of multiple footprint-objects into a
   unified object.  It is useful for resolving the above limitaion, as
   well as for unifying footprints of additional types such as
   countrycode and iso3166-2code.

2.2.1.  CDNI Metadata FootprintUnion Data Type

   The "FootprintUnion" data type is based on the Footprint Object
   already defined in section 4.2.2.2 of [RFC8006].  It includes a
   footprint-type property and a footprint-value array values.

2.2.2.  CDNI Metadata FootprintUnion Footprint Type Description

   The "footprintunion" data type specified in Section 2.2.1, is added
   to the data types listed as footprint types in section 4.2.2.2 of
   [RFC8006].

   Below is an adjustment for the example in Section 2.2.1, now
   embedding a footprint object of type "footprintunion".









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   {
     "capabilities": [
       {
         "capability-type": <CDNI capability object type>,
         "capability-value": <CDNI capability object>,
         "footprints": [
           {
             "footprint-type": "footprintunion",
             "footprint-value": [
               {
                 "footprint-type": "ipv4cidr",
                 "footprint-value": ["192.0.2.0/24"]
               },
               {
                 "footprint-type": "ipv6cidr",
                 "footprint-value": ["2001:db8::/32"]
               }
             ]
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }


   An additional example is the collection of countrycode and
   iso3166-2code based footprint objects.  In the example below we
   create a constraint covering autonomous system 64496 within the US
   (ISO [ISO3166-1] alpha-2 code "US"), as well as Nova-Scotia province
   of Canada (ISO [ISO3166-2] code "CA-NS").





















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   {
     "capabilities": [
       {
         "capability-type": <CDNI capability object type>,
         "capability-value": <CDNI capability object>,
         "footprints": [
           {
             "footprint-type": "asn",
             "footprint-value": ["as64496"]
           },
           {
             "footprint-type": "footprintunion",
             "footprint-value": [
               {
                 "footprint-type": "countrycode",
                 "footprint-value": ["us"]
               },
               {
                 "footprint-type": "iso3166-2code",
                 "footprint-value": ["ca-ns"]
               }
             ]
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }


3.  IANA Considerations

3.1.  CDNI Metadata Footprint Types

   As described in section 7.2 of [RFC8006] , the "CDNI Metadata
   Footprint Types" subregistry was created within the "Content Delivery
   Network Interconnection (CDNI) Parameters" registry.  The created
   namespace defines the valid values for Footprint Object Types, and is
   already populated with the types described in Section 4.2.2.2 of
   [RFC8006] .

   This document requests the registration of the two additional
   footprint type as defined in Section 2.2 and Section 2.1 :









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      +====================+========================+===============+
      | Footprint Type     | Description            | Specification |
      +====================+========================+===============+
      | FCI.iso3166-2code  | ISO 3166-2 Country or  | RFCthis       |
      |                    | Subdivision Code       |               |
      +--------------------+------------------------+---------------+
      | FCI.footprintunion | Footprint Object as    | [RFC8006]     |
      |                    | specified in [RFC8006] |               |
      +--------------------+------------------------+---------------+

                                  Table 1

   [RFC Editor: Please replace RFCthis with the published RFC number for
   this document.]

4.  Security Considerations

   This specification is in accordance with the CDNI Request Routing:
   Footprint and Capabilities Semantics.  As such, it is subject to the
   security and privacy considerations as defined in Section 8 of
   [RFC8006] and in Section 7 of [RFC8008] respectively.

5.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to express their gratitude to Ori Finkelman
   and Kevin J.  Ma for their guidance and reviews throughout the
   development of this document.

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [ISO3166-1]
              ISO, "Codes for the representation of names of countries
              and their subdivisions -- Part 1: Country code",
              ISO 3166-1:2020, Edition 4, August 2020,
              <https://www.iso.org/standard/72482.html>.

   [ISO3166-2]
              ISO, "Codes for the representation of names of countries
              and their subdivisions -- Part 2: Country subdivision
              code", ISO 3166-2:2020, Edition 4, August 2020,
              <https://www.iso.org/standard/72483.html>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.



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   [RFC8006]  Niven-Jenkins, B., Murray, R., Caulfield, M., and K. Ma,
              "Content Delivery Network Interconnection (CDNI)
              Metadata", RFC 8006, DOI 10.17487/RFC8006, December 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8006>.

   [RFC8007]  Murray, R. and B. Niven-Jenkins, "Content Delivery Network
              Interconnection (CDNI) Control Interface / Triggers",
              RFC 8007, DOI 10.17487/RFC8007, December 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8007>.

   [RFC8008]  Seedorf, J., Peterson, J., Previdi, S., van Brandenburg,
              R., and K. Ma, "Content Delivery Network Interconnection
              (CDNI) Request Routing: Footprint and Capabilities
              Semantics", RFC 8008, DOI 10.17487/RFC8008, December 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8008>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8804]  Finkelman, O. and S. Mishra, "Content Delivery Network
              Interconnection (CDNI) Request Routing Extensions",
              RFC 8804, DOI 10.17487/RFC8804, September 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8804>.

6.2.  Informative References

   [OC-RR]    Finkelman, O., Ed., Hofmann, J., Klein, E., Mishra, S.,
              Ma, K., Sahar, D., and B. Zurat, "Open Caching - Request
              Routing Functional Specification", Version 1.1, 4 October
              2019, <https://www.streamingvideoalliance.org/books/open-
              cache-request-routing-functional-specification/>.

   [OCWG]     "Open Caching Home Page",
              <https://www.streamingvideoalliance.org/technical-groups/
              open-caching/>.

   [RFC6707]  Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
              Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem
              Statement", RFC 6707, DOI 10.17487/RFC6707, September
              2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6707>.

   [RFC7336]  Peterson, L., Davie, B., and R. van Brandenburg, Ed.,
              "Framework for Content Distribution Network
              Interconnection (CDNI)", RFC 7336, DOI 10.17487/RFC7336,
              August 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7336>.





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   [SVA]      "Streaming Video Alliance Home Page",
              <https://www.streamingvideoalliance.org>.

Authors' Addresses

   Nir B. Sopher
   Qwilt
   6, Ha'harash
   Hod HaSharon
                4524079
   Israel

   Email: nir@apache.org


   Sanjay Mishra
   Verizon
   13100 Columbia Pike
   Silver Spring, MD 20904
   United States of America

   Email: sanjay.mishra@verizon.com





























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