Industrial Internet of Things                                    C. Tang
Internet-Draft                                                    H. Wen
Intended status: Informational                                   S. Ruan
Expires: 6 May 2021                                             B. Huang
                                                                 X. Feng
                                                    Chongqing University
                                                         2 November 2020

                IPv6 and 5G based Architecture for IIoT


   As the foundation of the current new round of industrial revolution,
   the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) based on Cyber-Physical
   Systems (CPS) [smart-factory] has become the focus of research in
   various countries.  In the entire development stage of IIoT, one of
   the key issues is the standardization of the IIoT architecture.  With
   the development of intelligent manufacturing technology, the number
   of the IIoT devices will increase sharply, and a large amount of data
   will be generated in the industrial manufacturing process.  However,
   traditional industrial networks cannot meet the IIoT requirements for
   high data rates, low latency, massive connections, interconnection
   and interoperability.  The current IIoT architectures also have
   various limitations: mobility, security, scalability, and
   communication reliability.  These limitations hinder the development
   and implementation of IIoT.  As a network layer protocol, IPv6 can
   solve the problem of IPv4 address exhaustion.  As a high-speed, low-
   latency wireless communication technology, 5G has great potential in
   promoting IIoT.  In order to solve the above problems, this draft
   proposes an IIoT architecture based on IPv6 and 5G.  It can provide
   high-speed, low-latency communication services, provide massive
   connectivity, mobility, scalability, security and other features for
   industrial device.  And the architecture can provide generalized,
   refined, and flexible network services for devices outside the
   factory.  And an information model is defined to standardize the
   representation of information in IIoT.  Finally, the draft discusses
   security challenges and recommendations in IIoT.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  IIoT Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  The Factory Internal Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Status and Development Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Functional View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  Network View  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.4.  Way of Communication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   4.  The Factory External Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.1.  Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.2.  Development Trend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.3.  Enterprise Dedicated Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.4.  Mobile Communication Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.  Information Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.  Security Challenges and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     6.1.  Sensing Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.2.  Transport Layer Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.3.  Appliacation Layer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     6.4.  IIoT Security Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   7.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27

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1.  Introduction

   IIoT is an industry and application ecology formed by the
   comprehensive and deep integration of the Internet, information
   technology and industrial systems, and IIoT is a key information
   infrastructure for the development of industrial intelligence.  Its
   essence is based on the network interconnection between machines, raw
   materials, control systems, information systems, products, and
   people.  Intelligent control, operation optimization and production
   organization reform will be achieved through comprehensive in-depth
   perception of industrial data, real-time transmission and exchange,
   fast calculation processing and advanced modeling analysis.  The IIoT
   foundation is the system architecture, this is the interconnection
   and intercommunication of the entire industrial system through
   technologies such as the Internet of Things and the Internet to
   promote the full circulation and seamless integration of industrial

   The communication technology in the industrial network
   interconnection architecture needs to meet the following major

   *  High communication rate.  More and more manufacturing activities,
      such as real-time monitoring of all production factors and the
      entire production process, and the application of cloud computing,
      edge computing, virtual reality and augmented reality in the
      manufacturing industry, will generate a large amount of
      manufacturing data, which needs to be stable and uninterrupted
      data rate exceeding 25 Mbps [iiot-5g] .

   *  High coverage.  The goal of the IIoT is to establish "ubiquitous
      communication."  In other words, any area of the manufacturing
      plant should achieve 100% networking coverage.  However, in actual
      factories, due to the complex production environment, such as
      electromagnetic interference and obstacles, the current
      communication technology cannot meet the requirements of high

   *  Low latency.  Advanced manufacturing activities, such as human-
      machine cooperation, machine-machine cooperation, and remote real-
      time control, have higher requirements on communication delays,
      and generally require lower delays (about 1 ms).  Although the
      current wireless communication technology has made great progress,
      and the end-to-end delay is about 20-100 ms [iiot-5g] , it still
      cannot meet the urgent need for low delay in IIoT communication.

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   *  Massive connections.  Compared with traditional manufacturing,
      because of the interconnection of all things in IIoT, data
      collection in the entire process and will inevitably lead to an
      exponential increase in the number of communication nodes.  Taking
      into account the current communication technology, wired
      communication cannot meet the requirements of massive node
      connections due to its difficult to arrange lines, and wireless
      communication cannot meet the requirements due to the limitation
      of the number of access nodes.

   *  Interconnection.  In the development of industrial networks, there
      are many different communication protocols.  Such as fieldbus
      protocols: PROFIBUS, Modbus, HART, etc.  Industrial Ethernet
      protocols: Ethernet/IP, PROFINET, Modbus TCP, etc.  Industrial
      wireless protocols: WLAN, Bluetooth, WirelessHART, etc.  Because
      these protocols use different technologies at the physical layer,
      link layer, and application layer, the interconnection and
      interoperability are not ideal, which affects the expansion of the
      IIoT to some extent.

   The main work of this architecture is introduced as follows:

   Combining the actual scenarios of factory intelligent manufacturing
   and the requirements of IIoT for communication technology, an
   industrial network interconnection architecture based on IPv6 and 5G
   communication technology is designed, which can provide high-speed,
   high-reliability, and low-latency communication services, including
   inside the factory The network provides functions such as massive
   connection, mobility, equipment registration and discovery, and
   security for industrial production-related equipment; the factory
   external network provides generalized, refined, and flexible network
   services for equipment outside the factory.  In order to standardize
   the representation of information in IIoT, an information model is
   defined.  Summarized the current security challenges in IIoT, and put
   forward some security recommendations.

2.  IIoT Architecture

   In the IIoT architecture, the network is the foundation, providing
   infrastructure for the comprehensive interconnection of people,
   machines, and things, and promoting the full flow and seamless
   integration of various industrial data.  The industrial Internet
   network connection involves different technical fields with multiple
   elements and multiple subjects inside and outside the factory, with a
   large scope of influence and many optional technologies.  There are
   various network connection technologies in the industrial field.
   These technologies are designed for specific scenarios in the
   industrial field, and have played a huge role and performance

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   advantages in specific scenarios.  However, in terms of data
   interoperability and seamless integration, they often cannot meet the
   growing demands of IIoT.

   The overall goal of IIoT network connection is to promote the
   interconnection and intercommunication between systems, unlock data
   from isolated systems and networks, and make data play a greater
   value for applications within and across industries.

   This chapter proposes an industrial network system architecture based
   on the transformation of factory IP network, including two major
   networks, the factory internal network and the factory external
   network, as shown in Figure 1.

   The factory internal network is used to connect various elements in
   the factory, including people (such as production people, designers,
   external people), machines (such as equipment, office equipment),
   materials (such as raw materials, work in progress, finished
   products), Environment (such as instruments, monitoring equipment),
   etc.  Through the factory internal network, it is interconnected with
   enterprise data centers and application servers to support business
   applications in the factory.

   The factory external network is used to connect smart factories,
   branches, upstream and downstream collaborative enterprises,
   industrial cloud data centers, smart products, and users.  The data
   center/application server in the smart factory is interconnected with
   the industrial cloud data center outside the factory, through the
   factory external network.  Branches/collaborative enterprises, users,
   and smart products are also connected to the industrial cloud data
   center or enterprise data center through the factory external
   network.  The data intercommunication in IIoT realizes the seamless
   transfer of data and information among various elements and systems,
   so that heterogeneous systems can "understand" each other at the data
   level, thereby realizing data interoperability and information
   integration.  IIoT requires breaking information islands, realizing
   cross-system intercommunication of data, and fusion analysis.
   Therefore, the data interoperability connection layer supports the
   convergence of the underlying data generated by various factory
   elements and factory products to the data center on the one hand; on
   the other hand, it provides access interfaces to the data of the
   multi-source heterogeneous system for the upper-layer applications to
   support industrial applications.  And the factory external network
   also should support the rapid development and deployment of
   industrial application.

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          _______________________   __________________   ________
         |Upstream and           | |Industrial        | |        |
         |downstream companies   | |Cloud Platform    | |  User  |
         |_______________________| |__________________| |________|
              \                              |               /
               \                             |              /
                \ ___________________________|_____________/_____
                 {                                               }
                 {            Factory external network           }
                 {    (Internet/mobile network/private network)  }
                 {                                               }
                           /           |         \
                          /            |          \
               {  _______   _______   _______   _______   _______  }
               { |  MES  | |  SCM  | |  ERP  | |  CRM  | |  APP  | }
               { |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| }
               {                                                   }
               {         Factory internal cloud platform           }
                             /                      \
                            /                        \
                    _______/_____               ______\______
                   |   Monitor   |             |   Controll  |
                   |   System    |             |    System   |
                   |_____________|             |_____________|
                     |          |               |             |
                  ___|__     ___|__          ___|__        ___|__
                 |Device|   |Device|        |Device|      |Device|
                 |______|   |______|        |______|      |______|

                        Figure 1: IIoT Architecture

   Architecture advantages:

   *  High communication rate.  The factory network adopts industrial
      PON and 5G technology, which can realize high-speed data

   *  Low communication delay.  The Ethernet-based TSN network [tsn] and
      5G wireless network can realize low-latency communication and
      ensure real-time industrial production.

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   *  Massive connections.  IPv6 [I-D.ietf-6lowpan-usecases] can assign
      an IP address to each industrial IoT device, and the 5G network
      supports the wireless access of a large number of IIoT devices.

   *  Scalability.  When new industrial equipment joins the network, it
      can register with the edge server.  When other industrial
      equipment has data and service requirements for the new industrial
      equipment, the new industrial equipment can be found on the edge
      server to access data or services.

   *  Mobility.  After the device moves in multiple networks, it will
      register with the edge server again, and the device will obtain a
      new address from the edge server to perform subsequent

   *  Localization of computing and storage.  Use edge computing
      technology to perform computing or data storage services in edge
      servers close to industrial sites [edge-computing].

   *  Support multiple communication protocols.  Use OPC UA protocol,
      support TCP, WebSocket, HTTP and other transmission protocols,
      which can realize device-to-device communication; support UDP
      broadcast, MQTT, AMQP and other protocols, and realize Sub/Pub
      communication [I-D.ietf-core-coap-pubsub].

   *  Cloudization of network services outside the factory.  Based on
      cloud computing and enterprise dedicated line technology, the
      enterprise business system will be deployed to the cloud to
      facilitate external services.  It can also provide segmented
      services for different scenarios such as public cloud and private
      cloud.  Use network virtualization technology to improve the
      flexibility of network services, so that The factory external
      network will be able to quickly open services and quickly adjust
      services according to enterprise requirements.

3.  The Factory Internal Network

3.1.  Status and Development Trends

   In the IIoT factory, on the one hand, the digitization of the factory
   requires that the digitization of many existing business processes be
   carried by the corresponding network.  On the other hand, a large
   number of new networked devices have been introduced, such as AGVs,
   robots, mobile handheld devices, etc.; a large number of new business
   processes have been introduced, such as asset performance management,
   predictive maintenance, and personnel/material positioning.  The
   introduction of new equipment and business processes creates new
   demands on the network.  As a result, the traditional two networks

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   (production network and office network) in the factory will become
   multiple networks, which will correspondingly cause changes in the
   network architecture in the factory.

   In order to break information islands and improve operational
   efficiency, companies will deploy business systems that were
   originally deployed on various servers, such as MES, PLM, ERP, SCM,
   CRM, etc., to the data center/cloud platform in the factory.  The
   data generated by each networked device and business process must be
   able to be aggregated in the data center/cloud platform in real time
   for joint analysis and rapid decision-making.  Changes in business
   system deployment will also cause changes in network architecture.

   The IIoT demand for flexible manufacturing and personalized
   customization requires the production domain to be flexibly
   reconfigured according to requirements, and intelligent machines may
   be adjusted and migrated between different production domains.  This
   requires the network architecture in the factory to be able to adapt
   to the needs of fast networking and flexible adjustment.

   The factory internal network proposed in this chapter can be
   understood from two aspects: functional view and network view.

3.2.  Functional View

   Functional view: According to the specific functions of the system
   and devices, and the location of the network, the factory internal
   network can be divided into device layer, control layer, and factory
   management layer, as shown in Figure 2.

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                _______       _____________________________________
               |       |<--->|      Factory management device      |
               |       |     |_____________________________________|
               |       |             ^                ^
               |       |             |                |
               |       |      _______v________        |
               |       |<--->| Monitor device |<---+  |
               |       |     |________________|    |  |
               |       |             ^             |  |
               |  Edge |             |             |  |
               | server|             |             |  |
               |       |      _______v_________    |  |
               |       |<--->| Controll device |<--+--+
               |       |     |_________________|   |
               |       |             ^             |
               |       |             |             |
               |       |             |             |
               |       |      _______v_______      |
               |       |<--->| Manufacturing |<----+
               |       |     |    device     |
               |_______|     |_______________|

                         Figure 2: Functional View

   (1) Device layer: realize the sensing and execution of the
   manufacturing process, and define the activities involved in the
   perception and execution of the manufacturing process.  The time
   resolution granularity can be seconds, milliseconds, and
   microseconds.  Various sensors, transmitters, actuators, RTUs,
   barcode scanners, RFID readers, and intelligent manufacturing
   equipment such as CNC machine tools, industrial robots, AGVs,
   conveyor lines, etc. run on this layer.  These devices are
   collectively referred to as field devices.

   (2) Control layer: Realize the monitoring and control of the
   manufacturing process, and define the activities of monitoring and
   controlling the manufacturing process.  The time resolution
   granularity can be hours, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds.
   According to different functions, this level can be further
   subdivided into:

   *  Monitoring and control layer: With operation monitoring as the
      main task, it also has some management functions such as advanced
      control strategies and fault diagnosis.  Visual data acquisition
      and monitoring system (SCADA), HMI (human-machine interface), DCS
      operator station, real-time database server, etc. run on this

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   *  On-site control layer: measure and control the production process,
      collect process data, perform data conversion and processing,
      output control signals, and realize logic control, continuous
      control and batch control functions.  Various programmable control
      equipment, such as PLC, DCS controller, industrial computer (IPC),
      other special controllers, etc. run on this layer.

   (3) Factory management: realize the production management of the
   factory and define the workflow/recipe control activities for the
   production of expected products, including: maintenance records,
   detailed production scheduling, reliability assurance, etc.  The time
   resolution granularity can be day, shift, hour, minute, second.
   Manufacturing execution system (MES), warehouse management system
   (WMS), quality management system (QMS), energy management system
   (EMS), etc. operate at this layer.

   In order to achieve the scalability of the IIoT (after a new device
   joins the network, other devices can access data or call related
   services), this architecture designs device registration and device
   discovery functions.

   Device registration: When a new device is connected to the network,
   it will register its name with the edge gateway.  The format of the
   registered name is /Service-Name/Gateway-Name/Device-Name, and the IP
   address of the device is stored and bound with the name.

   Device discovery: When a device needs to access data in other devices
   or call services in other devices, it can be queried in the edge
   gateway.  It can find the IP address of a corresponding group of
   devices based on the service name and gateway name, and based on
   Service name, gateway name, device name to find the corresponding IP
   address of a certain device.  After finding the IP address, device
   can communicate with the corresponding device.

3.3.  Network View

   Network view: The factory internal network can be divided into three
   parts: edge network, backbone network, and factory cloud platform.
   They can be interconnected through industrial PON.  As shown in
   Figure 3.

   Due to the diversification of connected production factors, the edge
   network presents a variety of types: according to business needs, the
   edge network can be an industrial control network, office network,
   monitoring network, positioning network, etc.; according to real-time
   requirements, the edge network can be real-time network, non-real-
   time network; according to the transmission medium, the edge network
   can be wired network or wireless network; according to the

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   communication technology adopted, the edge network can be industrial
   Ethernet, 5G wireless network, etc.; the range of the edge network
   may be a workshop, An office building, a warehouse, etc.; each edge
   network is composed of edge servers, edge gateways, and field
   devices.  Industrial enterprises can comprehensively consider
   business requirements and costs, and select appropriate technologies
   to deploy corresponding edge networks.

   The backbone network is used to realize the interconnection between
   edge networks, cloud platforms/data centers in the factory, etc.,
   requiring high bandwidth and high speed.  Depending on the size of
   the enterprise, the backbone network can be large or small.  It can
   be a cluster of fully interconnected routers, or it can include only
   one or two backbone routers.

   For example, industrial device, control device, and monitoring device
   that need wired connections can be connected to switches that support
   industrial Ethernet protocols through optical fibers.  The specific
   physical layer protocol can use industrial PON, and the data link
   layer protocol can use TSN protocol to form TSN Ethernet edge

   Industrial device, control device, and monitoring device that need
   wireless connections can be connected to 5G base stations through 5G
   wireless connections to form a 5G wireless edge network.

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               {  _______   _______   _______   _______   _______  }
               { |  MES  | |  SCM  | |  ERP  | |  CRM  | |  APP  | }
               { |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| }
               {                                                   }
               {         Factory internal cloud platform           }
                             |                        |
                             |    Backbone network    |
                             /                      \
                            /                        \
                    _______/_____               ______\_________
                   |  Wired edge |             | Wireless edge  |
                   |   gateway   |             |    gateway     |
                   |_____________|             |________________|
             |            |                     |            |
          ___|___    _____|_________        ____|___      ___|_____
         |       |  | Manufacturing |      |Controll|    | Monitor |
         |Product|  |    device     |      | device |    | device  |
         |_______|  |_______________|      |________|    |_________|

                           Figure 3: Network View

   In order to realize the communication between edge networks of
   different protocols and the IP of industrial device, control device,
   and monitoring device, the IPv6 protocol can be used at the network
   layer.  However, there are still a large number of devices and
   applications of the IPv4 protocol.  In the transition phase to the
   IPv6 protocol, if the number of IPv4 devices and applications is
   large, the GI DS LITE tunnel technology solution can be used.  If the
   number of IPv4 devices and applications is small, IPv4/IPv6 dual-
   stack technology solutions can be used

   The backbone network is used to realize the interconnection between
   edge networks and cloud platforms in the factory, and requires high
   bandwidth and high speed.  Depending on the size of the enterprise,
   the backbone network can be large or small.  It can be a cluster of
   fully interconnected routers, or it may contain only one or two
   backbone routers.

   The factory cloud platform can be upgraded to a TSN network on the
   basis of the original standard Ethernet, which can meet the
   requirements of industrial cloud platforms for high bandwidth and low

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   latency.  TSN also has excellent upper-layer support compatibility
   and can support a variety of upper-layer communication protocols.
   For example, TSN and OPC UA can solve data intercommunication
   problems in the factory, and extend OPC UA data collection and cloud
   services to the field level.  Our architecture will realize all-round
   real-time data collection and real-time operation in the production

3.4.  Way of Communication

   The relationship between the functional view and the network view:
   the communication between the device layer and the control layer can
   be realized in the edge network; the functions of the factory
   management layer can be deployed in the factory cloud platform; the
   backbone network is responsible for the communication between the
   device layer, the control layer and the factory management layer.

   (1) Communication between device and device: The one-to-one
   communication between devices can adopt the C/S architecture in OPC
   UA, and support the transmission protocols of TCP, WebSocket, and
   HTTP.  OPC UA server and client are separately deployed in the two
   devices.  When device need to access data or send instructions, it
   can use its own client to initiate communication with the other's OPC
   UA server.  As shown in Figure 4.

                   ____________     Return data    ____________
                  |  _______   | Operation result |  _______   |
                  | |OPC UA |--|------------------|>|OPC UA |  |
                  | |Server |<-|------------------|-|Client |  |
                  | |_______|  |    Query data    | |_______|  |
                  |            |   Send operation |            |
                  |  Device A  |                  |  Device B  |
                  |            |    Return data   |            |
                  |  _______   | Operation result |  _______   |
                  | |OPC UA |<-|------------------|-|OPC UA |  |
                  | |Client |--|------------------|>|Server |  |
                  | |_______|  |    Query data    | |_______|  |
                  |____________| Send operation   |____________|

                  Figure 4: The C/S Architecture in OPC UA

   The communication between one-to-many devices can use the Pub/Sub
   mechanism in OPC UA, and supports multiple mechanisms such as UDP
   broadcast, MQTT, AMQP, etc.  If multiple devices have requirements
   for the data in one device, multiple devices can subscribe to this
   device.  This device will publish this data to multiple devices when
   it collects or detects data changes.  As shown in Figure 5.

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                       _____________  message _____________
                      |             |<-------|   OPC UA    |
                      |             |------->| Subscriber  |
                      |             |publish |_____________|
                      |   OPC UA    |message
                      |  Publisher  |
                      |             |subscribe
                      |             | message _____________
                      |             |<-------|   OPC UA    |
                      |             |------->| Subscriber  |
                      |_____________|publish |_____________|

                   Figure 5: Pub/Sub mechanism in OPC UA

   (2) Communication between device and edge server.

   Use the server/client mode in OPC UA, which is suitable for
   application scenarios such as larger data volume and industrial
   automation control.  For example, in the scene of machine vision
   product quality inspection, device uses a camera to collect machine
   vision pictures of the product after the product is manufactured or
   assembled, and the picture is sent to the edge server's intelligent
   detection algorithm for analysis and processing through the OPC UA
   protocol.  Then the edge server returns the detection result to the
   industrial equipment, and the industrial equipment performs the next
   step according to the detection result.

   Use the subscription/push mode in MQTT, which is suitable for
   communication between devices with small data volume, low bandwidth,
   and low hardware resources and edge servers.  For example, in the
   scenario of factory temperature intelligent adjustment, the energy-
   saving management program in the edge server needs to automatically
   turn on or control the adjustment device according to the change of
   temperature and humidity.  The energy-saving management program in
   the edge server can first subscribe to the edge gateway with the
   theme of temperature and humidity.  After the sensor device in the
   factory periodically collects the temperature and humidity data, it
   publishes relevant messages to the edge gateway with the theme of
   temperature and humidity.  Then the edge gateway pushes this message
   to the energy saving management program in the edge server, and then
   realizes the automatic adjustment function.

   (3) Communication between device and cloud server: A variety of
   production management applications are running on the factory cloud
   platform, which realizes data collection, process monitoring,
   industrial device management, quality management, production

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   scheduling, and data statistical analysis for the entire production
   process, so as to realize the informatization, intelligence and
   flexibility of the smart manufacturing management.  In order to
   realize the communication between device and cloud server, you can
   use OPC UA protocol to deploy OPC UA server on device and deploy
   client on cloud server, so that cloud server can read real-time
   production data on device and send it control instruction.  Or the
   cloud server first subscribes to the device for data, and when the
   data is ready, the device sends the data to the cloud server, and the
   cloud server sends instructions or data to the device.

4.  The Factory External Network

   The factory external network is designed to support various
   activities in the entire life cycle of the industry and is used to
   connect the upstream and downstream of the enterprise, the network
   between the enterprise and the product, and the enterprise and the

4.1.  Situation

   Due to the different levels of informatization development in
   different industries and fields of industry, the breadth and depth of
   the development and utilization of industrialized data and
   information are not the same, so there is an uneven network
   construction and development outside the factory, and some industrial
   enterprises only apply for ordinary Internet access.  There are still
   islands of information between different areas of some industrial

4.2.  Development Trend

   With the development of industrial networking and intelligence, the
   systems and applications in the factory are gradually expanding
   outward, and the industrial Internet services outside the factory are
   showing a trend of generalization, refinement and flexibility.

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   Network services outside the factory are universal.  The traditional
   network outside the factory mainly provides the communication of
   commercial information, and the information systems of the enterprise
   are also deployed on the network inside the factory.  The network
   outside the factory has few connection objects and single service.
   With the development of cloud platform technology, some enterprise
   information systems (such as ERP, CRM, etc.) are being externalized,
   and more and more IT software is also based on the Internet to
   provide services on the cloud.  With the development of the remote
   service business of industrial products and device, the remote
   monitoring, maintenance, management, and optimization of massive
   device will be carried out based on the network outside the factory
   in the future.

   Refined network services outside the factory.  The factory external
   network will realize the ubiquitous interconnection of the entire
   industrial chain and value chain.  The complex and diverse connection
   scenarios promote the refined development of services.  On the one
   hand, the connection demand of massive device has promoted the
   construction of mobile networks outside the factory and the rapid
   development of wide-coverage services; on the other hand, the shift
   in enterprise Internet demand to cloud demand has promoted the
   refinement of private line services.  Provide segmented services for
   different scenarios such as enterprise Internet access, business
   system cloud access, public cloud and private cloud interoperability.

   Flexible network services outside the factory.  The development of
   network virtualization and softwareization has improved the
   flexibility of network services, so that the network outside the
   factory will be able to quickly open services and adjust services
   according to enterprise requirements; the application of a large
   number of mobile communication network technologies has improved the
   convenience and convenience of network access.  The speed of
   deployment provides a more flexible way for enterprises to achieve
   extensive interconnection.

4.3.  Enterprise Dedicated Line

   The wide-area Internet business requirements of industrial entities
   mainly include the following aspects:

   The Internet access requirements of industrial entities, the
   interconnection and isolation requirements between industrial
   entities across regions, the interconnection requirements of
   industrial networks and hybrid clouds, and the differentiated
   requirements (QoS, security/protection, etc.) of the industrial
   Internet for wide-area bearer networks.

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   At present, to meet the above requirements, the widely used carrier
   private line services mainly include: MPLS VPN dedicated line, and
   OTN-based optical network dedicated line.

   MPLS VPN virtual private network builds enterprise virtual private
   network on the public MPLS network, to meet the needs of safe, fast
   and reliable industrialized communication between branches in
   different cities (international and domestic), and can support
   multimedia services that require high-quality and high reliability,
   such as office, data, voice, and images.

   The MPLS VPN dedicated line is based on IP and high-speed label
   forwarding technology.  Through the setting of QoS bits, the
   distinction of service levels and quality service guarantee can be

   The intelligent optical network based on OTN (Optical Transport
   Network) is an ideal solution for large-particle broadband service
   transmission.  If the main dispatching particle of the external
   private network of an enterprise reaches the Gb/s level, the OTN
   technology can be considered as a priority for network construction.

   With the increase in enterprise network application requirements,
   large enterprises also have large-particle circuit scheduling
   requirements.  The introduction of OTN technology can realize the
   flexibility of large-particle circuit scheduling.  Compared with MPLS
   VPN, OTN technology can realize an end-to-end physical private
   network, which is more attractive for specific enterprises that
   require large bandwidth (above Gbps) and require higher data and
   service reliability and security.

   In addition, emerging technologies such as SD-WAN and CloudVPN can
   complement existing technologies, integrate various dedicated line
   resources, and open the call platform through a unified capability to
   form a transparent, integrated, and shielded part of the technical
   complexity for users.  The factory's extranet solution can more
   economically meet the rapidly changing needs of enterprises for
   private line services.

   (1) The CloudVPN cloud dedicated line is new generation enterprise
   private line network solution redefines enterprise interconnection
   centered on cloud services, simplifying business deployment to the
   greatest extent.  CloudVPN can reduce the time of opening and
   adjusting VPNs traditionally on a weekly or monthly basis to the
   minute level, thereby providing convenient and flexible business
   options and realizing enterprise interconnection on demand.

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   The CloudVPN cloud private line solution includes the basic network
   equipment layer, management control layer, collaboration layer, and
   user interface.  The operator's private line access capability is
   encapsulated as a simple OpenAPI interface, which supports
   developers' applications to quickly order, activate, and adjust on-
   demand services such as enterprise private line services and Internet
   access private lines by directly calling the interface.  CloudVPN
   dedicated line network can be opened on demand in real time and
   elastically expanded: it supports real-time adjustment of dedicated
   line network bandwidth in industrial environments such as distance
   education, data intercommunication, and video conferencing.

   SD-WAN is an extranet interconnection service formed by applying new
   SDN technology to WAN scenarios.  This kind of service is used to
   connect enterprise networks, data centers, Internet applications and
   cloud services in a wide geographical area.

   The technical features of SD-WAN include:

   SD-WAN cloudizes the control capabilities of hardware networks
   through software, thereby supporting the opening of user-perceivable
   network capabilities;

   The introduction of SD-WAN technology reduces the complexity and
   technical threshold of user-side WAN operation and maintenance;

   SD-WAN technology has a high degree of self-service capabilities, and
   users can open, modify, and adjust private network interconnection
   parameters.  The core concept of SD-WAN is the user's networking
   requirements and networking intentions, which can be translated and
   managed through the centralized control orchestrator provided by the
   communication service provider, shielding the complexity of the
   underlying network technology;

   SD-WAN supports heterogeneous network (access can be done in many
   different ways including the Internet, other access methods such as
   OTN, other dedicated lines, etc.), the access equipment is generally
   on the user side, and the service differentiation point is on the
   user side; Support users to make flexible business adjustments
   through the self-service interface.

   SD-WAN has the advantages of heterogeneous network and flexible
   operation, but because its virtual private network may be implemented
   based on Internet access, it may cause some hidden dangers in network
   attacks and data security, and end-to-end encryption needs to be
   implemented through encryption protocols.

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4.4.  Mobile Communication Network

   With the development of the IIoT, the industrial production process
   is no longer limited to the factory, and gradually integrates
   industrial production with Internet business models, factories and
   products, and customers through the factory external network.  In
   some production processes, the communication demand between the
   factory and the devices outside the factory has also increased

   In these scenarios, mobile communication networks have been
   increasingly used in industrial production due to the characteristics
   of wide coverage, high speed, high network reliability and mature
   industrial chain, which greatly expands the connotation and extension
   of traditional industrial networks.  Mobile communication network has
   provided a good foundation for the development of IIoT.

   3GPP's 5G defines three types of application scenarios: enhanced
   mobile broadband (eMBB), large-scale machine communication (mMTC),
   and high-reliability and low-latency communication (uRLLC).  Among
   them, the eMBB scenario can support the gradual emergence of high-
   traffic services on IIoT, such as virtual factories and high-
   definition video remote maintenance.  Large-scale machine
   communication scenarios are mainly aimed at massive field device

   The 5G network is a network that separates control and forwarding.
   The forwarding plane focuses more on the efficient routing and
   forwarding of business data.  It has the characteristics of
   simplicity, stability and high performance to meet the forwarding
   needs of massive mobile traffic in the future.  The control plane
   uses a logically centralized approach to achieve unified policy
   control, ensure flexible traffic scheduling and connection
   management.  The centralized control plane realizes the programmable
   control of the forwarding plane through the mobile flow control

   The 5G core network supports various services with low latency, large
   capacity, and high speed.  The core network forwarding plane further
   simplifies the sinking, and at the same time moves the business
   storage and computing capabilities from the network center down to
   the network edge to support high traffic and low time delay business
   requirements, and realize flexible and balanced traffic load
   scheduling function.

   Main features and advantages:

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   The 5G network is a new type of network based on the separation of
   control and forwarding.  It improves the overall access performance
   of the access network in complex 5G-oriented scenarios, simplifies
   the core network structure, provides flexible and efficient control
   forwarding functions, supports high intelligence operation, opens
   network capabilities, and improves the overall service level of the
   entire network.

   The separation of the control plane and the forwarding plane makes
   the network architecture flatter, and the gateway device can be
   deployed in a distributed manner, thereby effectively reducing the
   service transmission delay.

   Diversified business scenarios have diverse performance requirements
   and functional requirements for 5G networks.  The 5G network has the
   ability to adapt to business scenarios, and provides appropriate
   network control functions and performance guarantees for each 5G
   business scenario to achieve the goal of on-demand networking.

   Applicable scene: 5G provides a more reliable, more open, and on-
   demand network for IIoT.  The 5G network will better support the
   large-traffic services that are gradually emerging in the industrial
   Internet, such as virtual factories and high-definition video remote
   maintenance.  The 5G network also supports a large number of
   equipment monitoring inside and outside the factory, such as remote
   monitoring and control of various device, remote control of wireless
   video surveillance, remote monitoring and reporting of environmental
   parameters and control machinery data, to meet the needs of the IIoT

5.  Information Model

   Information model is a method used to define information
   representation, standardize data generated in industrial production,
   and facilitate communication between different devices and different
   applications.  The information model should clarify three levels of
   content: (1) define which objects and the data contained in the
   objects; (2) how to organize these objects and data; (3) how to
   define the data format.  The information of each device in the
   digital factory includes various parameters of the device itself,
   runtime data and data composition of the components in the device.
   This information is the object to be modeled.

   The device information model can be divided into: static attribute
   set, dynamic attribute set and component assembly set.  The data in a
   device is defined by attributes, and the collection of all
   information data contained in the device is called its attribute set.
   In the information model, information data is divided into static and

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   dynamic.  Static information represents information data that does
   not change or changes slowly after definition.  In the device, it is
   mainly manifested as asset identification, order data, etc., such as
   material coding, processing device number, etc.; and dynamic
   information represents data that is generated, disappeared or changed
   in real time with the production process, generally device status
   data, part production process record data, such as working status,
   part processing size, logistics information, start and completion
   time and many more.  According to the static and dynamic nature of
   information data, attributes are divided into static attributes and
   process attributes.  Static attributes form a static attribute set,
   and process attributes form a process attribute set.

   Each attribute set contains attribute data of several information
   objects.  Information objects are described by attributes, and
   attributes are composed of attribute elements.  This defines the
   hierarchical structure of the information model as shown in Figure 6.
   The elements of information model are explained from small to large
   as follows in Figure 6.

   Attribute elements: the basic elements that make up attributes, the
   basic units of attributes, such as attribute identification, name,
   data type, etc.

   Attribute: the data describing the nature and characteristics of an
   object.  Each attribute consists of multiple attribute elements, but
   not every attribute contains all attribute elements.

   Information object: A body of information in the factory domain that
   describes a general, real, or abstract entity that can be
   conceptualized as a whole.  Examples of information objects are the
   spindle of a machine tool, the processing route of a certain part,
   and the receipt of a certain material.  The information object
   completes its digital definition and digital description through its

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       |Device information |
       |       model       |
                 |     ______________________     ____________________     __________
                 +----| Static attribute set |---| Information object |---| Attribute|
                 |    |______________________|   |____________________|   |__________|
                 |     ______________________     ____________________     __________
                 +----|Process attribute set |---| Information object |---| Attribute|
                 |    |______________________|   |____________________|   |__________|
                 |     ______________________     ____________________     ______________________
                 +----|    Component set     |---|      Component     |-+-| Static attribute set |
                      |______________________|   |____________________| | |______________________|
                                                                        |  ______________________
                                                                        +-| Process attribute set|
                                                                        | |______________________|
                                                                        |  ______________________
                                                                        +-|     Component set    |

                     Figure 6: Information Model

   Attribute set: A collection of a series of attributes.  The attribute
   set can be composed of sub-attribute sets or the attributes of
   several information objects.  According to the static and dynamic
   nature of information, the attribute set is divided into static
   attribute set and process attribute set.

   Component: a physical object or logical object, which is a physical
   or logical part of the upper-level object, and its characteristics
   are described by the attribute set.  Components can be nested,
   components can have their own subcomponents, and all subcomponents of
   the same object form a component set.

   The device information model is an expandable tree structure that
   allows nesting between attribute sets and components.  In the above
   definition, the attribute set and the component set are abstract
   structural elements that constitute the description of the factory
   information model.  They are not a mapping of an actual object and do
   not contain actual content.  They are only used for the framework and
   level of the organization model.

   The device information model defined above is only an abstract
   framework.  When modeling the information in the actual device and
   developing functions based on the information model, the actual
   device and function need to be based on the category and semantics of
   the frame.  Various information model elements are filled to form an
   information model object with practical meaning.  This process is

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   called the instantiation of the information model.  When the
   information model is implemented, it needs to be based on the
   specific description method and communication mechanism to realize
   the organization and storage of the instantiated information model.
   This section provides an information model implementation scheme
   based on the OPC UA protocol, as shown in Figure 7.

   According to various information in the actual device, use the device
   information model to model, and use the OPC UA model generator to
   generate the corresponding XML file according to the established
   information model, and put it in the process model of the OPC UA
   server.  The process model can obtain real-time data of the physical
   device through the data access module, save and update the value of
   the corresponding attribute in the information model.

   The information model can be displayed through the address space of
   the OPC UA server, and the OPC UA client accesses the address space
   of the server to obtain the data and information defined by the
   information model.  When the OPC UA client accesses or modifies the
   attribute information defined in the information model to the server,
   the UA service will access or modify the corresponding attribute
   information in the process model and return the result to the OPC UA

                                |                                                                    |
        ___________________     |     _____________        _______________       ______________      |      _________________
       |    OPC UA Client  |    |    |  UA Server  |      | Process Model |     | Data Access  |     |     | Physical Device |
       |                   |<---|--->|             |<---->|               |<--->|    Module    |<----|---->|                 |
       |___________________|    |    |_____________|      |_______________|     |______________|     |     |_________________|
                                |                                                                    |
                                |                           OPC UA Server                            |

    Figure 7: Information model realization scheme based on OPC UA

6.  Security Challenges and Recommendations

   With the rapid development of sensor networks, cloud computing,
   artificial intelligence, and 5g technologies, the number of network
   devices in the future will rise sharply, and the corresponding market
   scale will also become larger, which will also cause corresponding
   security problems.  Information leakage, virus proliferation, and
   even the destruction of public infrastructure, such as the impact of
   the national grid, communication equipment, servers, etc., before
   that, the security of IIoT has not attracted much attention, and the
   leakage of data collected by medical device has aroused widespread

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   discussion in today's Internet era.  People are becoming more aware
   of the importance of data security.  With the recent extensive
   national-level management and control, more attention has been paid
   to the security of IIoT.  It has also received attention from
   relevant agencies and enterprises in various countries.  Regardless
   of life or technology, IIoT security will become a problem that must
   be solved for future development.

   The current IIoT architecture is roughly based on the classic three-
   tier model, which is essentially logically divided into: sensing,
   transport, and application.

6.1.  Sensing Security

   The sensing layer is to realize the sense and collection of data in
   the physical world, use sensors, cameras, RFID and other smart
   devices to realize data collection, and realize the secure
   transmission of data through limited networks and wireless networks.
   Its key technologies are RFID technology and sensor networks.  The
   IIoT sense front-end is responsible for real-time detection and
   collection of data, and uploads it to the cloud data center for
   processing through the transmission network, while the presenter of
   the sense terminal is vulnerable to various security issues such as
   virus intrusion, information leakage, tampering, etc.  Therefore, for
   weak terminals with limited cost and performance, two-way
   authentication, encrypted transmission, and remote upgrade
   capabilities should be met.  Terminals with strong resource
   performance should meet stronger security capabilities, such as
   security certificate management, antivirus, and intrusion detection.
   For smart factory application scenarios, there are low latency
   requirements and fast response to services.  Therefore, it is
   necessary to design efficient and lightweight security algorithms to
   deal with security threats, such as PRESENT block ciphers [PRESENT],
   DES lightweight ciphers, KATAN/KTANTAN lightweight ciphers [KATAN],
   and LBlock [Lblock] have all provided Different solutions.

6.2.  Transport Layer Security

   Consistent with the security requirements of the sensing layer, the
   task implemented by the transport layer is to re-responsibly transfer
   the data of the sensing layer to the application layer for
   processing.  It also requires the transmission network and
   communication protocol, and the network node has been attacked by the
   network (such as man-in-the-middle, and counterfeit attacks), causing
   node paralysis, which may further cause the leakage of communication
   keys and affect the security of the entire network.  At the same
   time, a large number of nodes and data can easily cause network
   congestion and cause denial of service attacks, which will also

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   affect the transmission layer.  Security puts forward higher
   requirements.  Due to the need for communication between networks
   with different architectures in the transport layer, it is necessary
   to face security issues such as cross-network authentication, key
   negotiation, data confidentiality and integrity protection of
   heterogeneous networks.  There are some confrontational security
   technologies, homomorphic encryption technology, secure multi-party
   technology, and anonymization technology.

6.3.  Appliacation Layer Security

   The application layer is the logical highest layer of the
   architecture.  The tasks implemented in it are very many and complex,
   and the number of application categories is also different, such as
   monitoring services, smart grid, industrial control, green
   agriculture, etc.  The application layer needs to process effectively
   the data from transport layer.  Taking into account the huge data and
   network node calculations of IIoT, huge storage and computing
   capabilities are required, and the use of cloud computing technology
   can carry these tasks at a significant cost-effectiveness.  The
   current architecture is based on cloud computing, and cloud platforms
   realize applications.  The processing response of business logic
   emphasizes the combination of IIoT and cloud computing.  Therefore,
   there are also cloud computing and cloud platform security issues,
   including platform data storage, exchange, processing and other
   security issues, as well as data security and interaction issues
   arising from the integration of different platforms.  At present, the
   cloud platform uses WAF, firewall, and HIDS.  To a certain extent, it
   has played a role in data protection, but further security technical
   support is still needed.  The distributed structure based on edge
   computing can share the computing pressure, decrease response time,
   and to a certain extent limit security risks to a certain area.
   Reduce the security risk of the core network, so the application of
   edge computing will be a good opportunity.  The cloud intelligent
   platform can deal with huge data.  It is easy to have many abnormal
   data and abnormal behaviors.  It is not easy to detect and exclude.
   Security has a strong impact, and the use of various emerging
   technologies such as data mining, machine learning, AI, etc. to
   analyze data can further detect data anomalies and improve data
   security.  At the application level, it is relevant in many large
   enterprises those applications all collect a large amount of private
   data, such as health status, purchase behavior, travel routes, group
   contact, value orientation, etc., which also generate data privacy
   protection problems.  Therefore, scholars have proposed homomorphic
   encryption algorithms.  Blockchain also provides a new solution for
   this.  For example, blockchain can realize an anonymous sharing
   method of IIoT devices [permissioned-blockchains].  Blockchain is
   widely used in the field of IIoT, which can effectively improve the

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   lack of the traditional centralized data storage mode of IIoT.  The
   full nodes of the blockchain network record complete data information
   to jointly maintain the data security of the IIoT device and reduce
   the traditional cost of maintaining a centralized database for the
   application of IIoT.  The tamper-proof modification of the
   blockchain, the timing guarantee the security and traceability of the
   data of the entire network node, the use of block chain technology
   can ensure data privacy and security.

6.4.  IIoT Security Solutions

   Combining the security issues of the IIoT architecture, summarize the
   existing security issues and corresponding solutions, mainly
   including device protection, device identification, authentication
   mechanisms, secure communication mechanisms, data privacy protection,
   anomaly detection and intrusion detection security status, the
   corresponding solutions are as follows As shown in the Figure 8.

      | Security problem                | Solutions                                   |
      | Device protection               | Lightweight data encryption algorithm       |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Device identification and       | RFID, blockchain                            |
      | authentication mechanism        |                                             |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Secure communication mechanism  | Edge computing, converged gateways, routing |
      |                                 | protocols, Homomorphic encryption algorithm |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Data privacy protection         | Blockchain, encryption algorithm, cloud     |
      |                                 | computing                                   |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Anomaly detection and           | Machine learning, data mining               |
      | intrusion prevention            |                                             |

              Figure 8: Security problems and solutions

7.  Informative References

              Chen, B., Wan, J., and S. Lei, "Smart factory of industry
              4.0: key technologies, application case, and challenges",

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   [iiot-5g]  Cheng, J., Li, D., and W. Chen, "Industrial IoT in 5G
              environment towards smart manufacturing", 2018.

   [tsn]      DetNet Data Plane: IP over IEEE 802.1 Time Sensitive
              Networking, detnet., "
              ietf-detnet-ip-over-tsn-03", 2020.

              Design and Application Spaces for 6LoWPANs, ipv6.,
              10", 2012.

              Mach, P. and Z. Becvar, "Mobile edge computing: a survey
              on architecture and computation offloading", 2017.

              Publish-Subscribe Broker for the Constrained Application
              Protocol, pubsub., "
              ietf-core-coap-pubsub-09", 2020.

   [PRESENT]  Bogdanov, A., Knudsen, L., and G. Leander, "PRESENT: An
              Ultra-Lightweight Block Cipher. Cryptographic Hardware and
              Embedded Systems", 2007.

   [KATAN]    Canniere, C. and O. Dunkelman, "KATAN and KTANTAN -- A
              Family of Small and Efficient Hardware-Oriented Block
              Ciphers", 2009.

   [Lblock]   Wu, W. and Lei. Zhang, "Lblock: a lightweight block
              cipher", 2011.

              Hardjono, T., "Cloud-Based Commissioning of Constrained
              Devices using Permissioned Blockchains", 2016.

Authors' Addresses

   Chaowei Tang
   Chongqing University
   No.174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


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   Haotian Wen
   Chongqing University
   No.174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


   Shuai Ruan
   Chongqing University
   No.174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


   Baojin Huang
   Chongqing University
   No.174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


   Xinxin Feng
   Chongqing University
   No.174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


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