ETT-R&D Publications                                        E. Terrell
IT Professional, Author / Researcher                     December 2001
Internet Draft
Category: Informational
Document: draft-terrell-visual-change-redefining-role-ipv6-01.txt
Expires June 17, 2002

       Visualizing Change; Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6
                      Protocol Specification

Status of this Memo

    This document is an Internet-Draft, and is in full conformance
    with all provisions of Section 10 of  RFC2026. Internet-Drafts
    are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
    (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
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    Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a
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E Terrell                                                      [Page 1]

Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002

                          TABLE  OF  CONTENTS


    Introduction: Impact of the IPv6 Protocol Specification

    Chapter I: Examining the Task and the Comparison of The Binary,
                      The Integer, and The HEX Numbers

    Chapter II: Viewing the Structure of the Formats for the IP Headers,
                   and Questioning What's Really On

    Chapter III: Defining Exactly What is Really Needed

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    This paper attempts an exploration of the reasons that supports
    or offers a viable justification for an IP Addressing Protocol
    which must be Manually Configured using HEX Notation. I mean, why
    use HEX Numbers, and why not use an Integer?

    "Progress and Growth is often met with a resistance comparable to
    a revolution, or civil war. In fact, it is my belief that the
    resistance to Change is brought about by an inherent fear of the
    Loss of the Social and Behavioral Structures, which are inherently
    linked with the Survival of the Tribe or Community being effected by
    Change. Notwithstanding their voice of concern, these Primitive
    notions can not sustain any viable bases, or argument in opposition.
    However, because Primitive is the current, and only mindset, Change
    has not resulted in Progress, nor become beneficial for all mankind.
    In other words, if Change results in a Progressive Growth, which is
    not superfluous or ersatz, and can benefit the survival for all
    humanity, then all of humanity should benefit. (E.T.)"

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Introduction: Impact of the IPv6 Protocol Specification

    There is an extensive learning curve when it comes to the
    adjustment that is necessary for using HEX Notation. No. I am
    not referring just to the IT professionals, but to the consumer
    as well. In other words, the logical justification for using a
    natural name for a naming convention, which represents the
    Decimal Notation specifying a 32 Bit IP Address, instead of
    numbers, was based upon the rationalization that familiar was
    better, and it was easier to remember. Hence, easier to deal with!
    Now there is a new challenge, because the consumer as well as the
    IT Professional will need a Calculator and Conversion Table, just
    to work with HEX Numbers. And this says nothing of the where's and
    How's, which are the key issues when there is a problem,
    specifically a problem involving communication, or where
    maintaining the Network Connection is a high priority.

    Sure, without any doubts, hindsight reveals, know one anticipated
    the growth that the Computer Industry and the use of the Internet,
    has made over the past few decades. However, the question is whether
    or not this growth was instantaneous, or gradual.? Because only then
    could one begin some analysis using a Time Scaling, to determine
    whether or not the appropriate methods and decisions were made to
    either prevent or circumvent the onslaught of this 'Flooding of Use
    Problem'. And while this might appear as unwarranted criticism, one
    need only a moment to reflect upon the financial budget and the size
    of my research staff vs. that of any of the Governments or
    Corporations who now command the Industry and the Standards by which
    we are forced to adhere. In other words, why can't everyone
    participate in the Change, which imposes a profound effect upon our
    daily lives. Or why must any individual be forced to suffer, because
    they are in disagreement with the status quo. Needless to say, this
    is not about pretending to be or become some person noted in
    history, nor exclaiming some foolish right to be better than
    someone, because whether you are right or wrong it will eventually
    show in the work and accomplishments that command the attention of
    the public.

    Nevertheless, I believe there is a better approach to this dilemma,
    in which we do not have to suffer from the loss of simplicity. And
    this solution does necessarily not mean the elimination of the IPv6
    Protocol either.

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Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002

Chapter I: Examining the Task and the Comparison of The Binary, The
                      Integer, and The HEX Numbers

    There is at least one assumption, which seems unquestionably clear;
    Any New application for an IP Address from Internic would result in
    the assignment of an IP Address defined by the IPv6 Protocol
    Specification. So one can conclude, that the Network Engineer must
    either convert an existing IP Address into the HEX specification
    defined by the IPv6 Protocol, or the Network Addressing Scheme using
    the Hex notation be configured without the need for conversion. In
    either case, the task, depending upon the size of the Network, can
    range from difficult to daunting, because the HEX notation is not
    familiar, and will, from time to time, require translation.  In
    other words, if you can not imagine the difficulty, then observe
    the Translation given in Table 1A.

                             TABLE 1A

           DECIMAL           BINARY          Hexadecimal

             0                0000              0X00
             1                0001              0X01
             2                0010              0X02
             3                0011              0X03
             4                0100              0X04
             5                0101              0X05
             6                0110              0X06
             7                0111              0X07
             8                1000              0X08
             9                1001              0X09
             10               1010              0X0A
             11               1011              0X0B
             12               1100              0X0C
             13               1101              0X0D
             14               1110              0X0E
             15               1111              0X0F

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Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002

    The examination of TABLE 1A, coupled with an understanding of
    Assembler Programming, Machine Language, and Electronics, would lead
    to an inquiry of the rational justification for use of HEX Notation.
    Especially since, the Decimal and HEX notations are just different
    representations for the same numerical value. Furthermore, since the
    only way to transmit information electronically is using Binary
    notation, the use of HEX seems more of a deception to disguise the
    lack of thought and preparation in the design of an adequate IP
    Addressing Scheme. Nevertheless, whatever the case may or may not be,
    the popular trend in the Computer Industry today is clearly to
    lessen the complexities and burden encompassing its use. So, why
    should we use HEX Notation, especially since this becomes an
    additional burden, which add complexities to the use of a Networked

E Terrell                                                      [Page 6]

Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002

Chapter II: Viewing the Structure of the Formats for the IP Headers,
                   and Questioning What's Really On

    First and foremost, it should be pointed out that the whole concept
    of the IPv6 Protocol and its HEX representation is confusing, to say
    the very least. And further acknowledged, that there is deep concern
    regarding the mathematics and the logical continuity of this
    Specification, because there is absolutely No Mathematical Methods
    which can be used to logically derive this HEX specification and the
    æDecimal RepresentationÆ, which is actually presented. In other words,
    while this Protocol Specification is defined in terms of HEX Notation,
    everything else, which represents its Graphical Depiction, is defining
    a æDecimal TranslationÆ similar to the IPv4 Specification, which has
    been proven mathematically, to be incorrect. The reasoning, one would
    suppose, is because its graphical representation depicts the Binary
    Notation used to transport this data Electronically. But still, this
    does explain the mathematical problems, which are an inherent part of
    this protocol.

    Nevertheless, the questions are; Which is it? Is it HEX Notation, or
    Is it Decimal Notation?  Or û Since there is absolutely difference
    between the different expressions, and what they represent. Does it
    really matter, which one is used; Decimal or HEX? Needless to say,
    even if it is, or eventually becomes HEX Notation, there would
    definitely be a variation in the Size of the Header, which would
    depend upon the value of the HEX string that represents the actual IP
    Address. That is, not unless there exist a Pre-Defined size for the
    Header, regardless of the value IP Address the HEX String Represents.
    Still, even if this were the case, I have found discrepancies here as

    Nevertheless, I quite sure, that if a vote were taken regarding the
    preferred method for IP Address representation, as given by Figures
    æ1Æ and æ2Æ, everyone would prefer the Decimal Representation, which
    is given by figure æ2Æ.

                                  Fig. 1


                                 Fig. 2


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Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002

    In other words, while there is a draft for eliminating the padding
    of the IP Address with ZeroÆs, which is written in HEX notation, there
    is not a current RFC defining this specification. Which, by the way,
    is not a problem when using the Decimal representation. However, asides
    from the inherent Mathematical and Logical problems with the IPv6
    Protocol, one canÆt help but wonder, if the excess of the IP Addresses
    provided by the 128 BIT IP Addressing format will actually solve the
    addressing problem without abuse, thus reproducing the problem it was
    intended to solve. Needless to say, any visual inspection of the IP
    Header, when compared to that of IPv4, noting Figures æ3Æ and æ4Æ,
    would cause one to question the overkill, or the current need for so
    many additional IP Addresses. Especially since, direct Appliance
    access through the Internet, without an intervening application is
    an unlikely security compromise, which means product identification
    and addressing should be no different than the specification required
    for the Network Cards in current use today.

                               Figure 3

                         IP Header for IPv4

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      | VER  |  IHL  | TYPE OF SERVICE |  TOTAL LENGHT              |
      |+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +|
      | IDENTIFICATION                 |FLA|    FRAGMENT OFFSET     |
      |+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +|
      |  TIME TO LIVE  |  PROTOCOL   |      CHECK SUM HEADER        |
      |+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +|
      |                          SOURCE ADDRESS                     |
      |+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +|
      |                   DESTINATION   ADDRESS                     |
      |+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +|
      |                             OPTIONS                         |
      |+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +|
      |                             DATA                            |
      |+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +|

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Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002

                               Figure 4

               1. Provider Based Unicast Addresses

   | 3 |  n bits   |  m bits   |   o bits    | p bits  | o-p bits |

                 2. Local-Use Addresses
 |   10     |
 |  bits    |        n bits           |       118-n bits           |
 |1111111010|           0             |       INTERFACE ID         |


  |   10     |
  |  bits    | n bits  |    m bits     |       118-n-m bits         |
  |1111111011|    0    |   SUBNET ID   |       INTERFACE ID         |

             3. IPv6 Addresses with Embedded IPV4 Addresses
                      "IPv4-compatible IPv6 address"

  |                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
  |0000..............................0000|0000|    IPV4 ADDRESS     |

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                      "IPv4-mapped IPv6 address"

  |                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
  |0000..............................0000|FFFF|    IPV4 ADDRESS     |

                       4. Multicast Addresses

  |   8    |  4 |  4 |                  112 bits                   |
  +------ -+----+----+---------------------------------------------+
  |11111111|FLGS|SCOP|                  GROUP ID                   |

    Notwithstanding the burden of excess, note the difference between the
    Headers, which define the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols: And they call the
    IPv6 Protocol Specification Classless. Well, I do not know exactly
    which course in Logic the author of the IPv6 specification studied.
    But, the examination figure 4, clearly reveals the Class System
    designed for the IPv6 protocol, and the associated cost for an
    additional Network Card, if Multiple IP Addresses can not be
    assigned to æ1Æ Network Controller Card.

    Needless to say, I can not be sure of the Whys, or what is really
    going on, because I fail to see any logical or mathematical
    justification regarding the use of HEX notation in an IP Addressing
    format. Especially since, it does not matter if either the Decimal of
    the HEX format is use, because they are both translated in Binary for
    Electrical or Digital Transmission.

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Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002

Chapter III: Defining Exactly What is Really Needed

    Aside from the need for continued study in Mathematics and Logic,
    the authors of the IPv6 protocol, Blundered Big Time. Because with
    the current trend in the Computer Market directed toward Simplicity,
    the use of the IPv6 Specification is similar to using an Ox drawn
    plow in a time in which the computer is supposed to operate the
    entire farm, and work, once again becomes the job for only the

    In other words, since most of the Venders have made changes necessary
    for the implementation of the IPv6 Specification, all is not lost.
    Because, since Redundancy seems the theme, we could write or adopt a
    Software specification, controlled by the Operating System, which
    would provide the Decimal to HEX Translation that would allow all of
    us to use a numbering system that we are familiar with. In essence,
    you would be giving the IT Professional, as well as the average
    consumer, the ease of use Industry has promised all of us.

E Terrell                                                     [Page 11]

Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002


Eugene Terrell
24409 Soto Road  Apt. 7
Hayward, CA.  94544-1438
Voice: 510-537-2390

E Terrell                                                     [Page 12]

Re-Defining the Role of the IPv6 Protocol             December 17, 2002