Internet-Draft                                                 M. Toomim
Expires: Jul 10, 2020                                  Invisible College
Intended status: Proposed Standard                             G. Little
                                                       Invisible College
                                                               R. Walker
                                                            Bard College
                                                              B. Bellomy
                                                       Invisible College
                                                             Mar 9, 2020

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      =\=\==/=/   ==|    |\=  ||=     /==  ===/=|=\===  |==\===//

                  Braid-HTTP: Synchronization for HTTP


   Braid is a set of extensions that generalize HTTP from a state
   *transfer* protocol into a state *synchronization* protocol.  Braid
   puts the power of Operational Transform and CRDTs on the web,
   improving network performance and enabling natively peer-to-peer,
   collaboratively-editable, offline-first web applications.

   Braid is composed of four extensions to HTTP:

     1. VERSIONING on resources
     2. SUBSCRIPTIONS on GET requests
     3. PATCHES created from Range Requests
     4. MERGE-TYPES that specify OT or CRDT behavior

   These extensions are independent; each provides a distinct value for
   a stand-alone use-case.  However, when used together, they enable a
   web resource to synchronize automatically across multiple clients,
   servers and proxies, and support arbitrary simultaneous edits by
   multiple writers, under arbitrary network delays and partitions,
   while guaranteeing consistency using a OT, CRDT, or other algorithm.

   These synchronization features provide a step towards a standard for
   the dynamic internal state of websites.  Web programmers currently
   synchronize state across clients and servers with layers of
   non-standard Javascript frameworks.  A synchronization standard built
   upon REST can enable programmers to read and write the internal state
   of any website as easily as a local variable on their own site.  This
   could enable a separation of UI from state, and allow any user to
   edit or choose their own UI for any website's state.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as
   Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-Drafts is at

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction ..................................................4
   2.  Versioning for Resources ......................................5
   2.1.  Comparison with ETag ........................................5
   2.2.  PUT a new version ...........................................6
   2.3.  PUT a new version as a patch ................................6
   2.4.  GET a specific version ......................................8
   3.  Subscriptions for GET .........................................9
   3.1.  Creating a Subscription ....................................11
   3.2.  Sending multiple updates per GET ...........................11
   3.3.  Continuing a Subscription ..................................12
   3.4.  Ending a Subscription ......................................12
   3.5.  Errors .....................................................12
   4.  Design Goals..................................................13
   5.  Use Cases ....................................................13
   5.1.  Dynamic Resources ..........................................13
   5.2.  Dynamic Proxies and Caches .................................14
   5.3.  A Serverless Chat Example ..................................14
   6.  Related Work .................................................15
   6.1.  Web Frameworks .............................................15
   6.2.  Existing IETF Standards ....................................16
   7.  IANA Considerations ..........................................16
   7.1.  Header Field Registration ..................................16
   8.  Security Considerations ......................................16
   9.  Conventions ..................................................16
   10. Copyright Notice .............................................17
   11. References ...................................................17
   11.1. Normative References .......................................17
   11.2. Informative References .....................................18
   12. Acknowledgements .............................................19
   13. Authors' Addresses ...........................................20

1.  Introduction

   HTTP transfers a static version of state within a single request and
   response.  If the state changes, HTTP does not automatically update
   clients with the new versions.  This design satisficed when webpages
   were mostly static and written by hand; however today's websites are
   dynamic, generated from layers of state in databases, and provide
   realtime updates across multiple clients and servers.  Programmers
   today need to *synchronize*, not just *transfer* state, and to do
   this, they must work around HTTP.

   The web has a long history of these workarounds.  The original web
   required users to click reload when a page changed.  XMLHTTPRequest
   [XHR] made it possible to update just part of a page, running a GET
   request behind the scenes.  However, a GET request still could not
   push updates.  To work around this, web programmers would poll the
   resource, which was inefficient.  Long-polling was invented to
   overcome the inefficiencies, which was standardized as Server-Sent
   Events [SSE].  Yet, SSE provides semantics of an event-stream, not an
   update-stream, and although a programmer can encode a protocol within
   the event stream for updating a resource, there is still no standard
   way to express the update of a resource.

   In practice, web programmers today often give up on using standards
   for "data that changes", and instead send custom messages over a
   WebSocket -- a hand-rolled synchronization protocol.  Unfortunately,
   this forfeits the benefits of HTTP and ReST, such as caching, and a
   uniform interface [REST].  As the web becomes increasingly dynamic,
   web applications are forced to implement additional layers of
   non-standard Javascript frameworks to synchronize changes to state.

   Braid generalizes HTTP into a synchronization protocol, and ReST into
   a synchronization architecture.  It adds these features:

     1. Versioning (Section 2)

        Each resource has a history of changes, ordered in time.

     2. Subscriptions (Section 3)

        A Subscribe header can be added to GET requests, which promises
        to push all future versions to the client, until the client says

     3. Range Patches [RANGE-PATCH]

        Express changes to versions in patches, with a uniform format
        based on Range Requests.

     4. Merge Types [MERGE-TYPES]

        If multiple clients and servers simultaneously edit the same
        resource, they can guarantee a consistent resulting state by
        implementing the same Merge Type.  Resources specify their Merge
        Type with a header.

   Taken together, these features allow an arbitrary set of clients and
   servers to make arbitrary edits to resources, under arbitrary network
   delays and paritions, and merge all edits consistently, receiving
   updates as soon as they reconnect.  This enables caches to support
   dynamic content, web applications to feature an offline mode, and
   textareas to support collaborative editing.

2.  Versioning for Resources

   Each Braid resource has a current version, and a version history.
   Versions are specified as a string in the [STRUCTURED-HEADERS]
   format.  Each version string must be unique, to differentiate any two
   points in time.  To specify the version of content in a request or
   response body, a Version header MAY be included in a request for a
   PUT, PATCH or POST, or in the response to a GET:

           Version: "dkn7ov2vwg"

   Every version has a set of Parents that denote the most recent parent
   version(s) that were known at the time the version was created.  The
   full graph of parents forms a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG),
   representing the known partial order of all versions.  A version A is
   known to have occurred before a version B if and only if A is an
   ancestor of B in the partial order.

   Parents are also specified with a header in a PUT request or GET

           Parents: "ajtva12kid", "cmdpvkpll2"

   The Parents header is a List of Strings, in the syntax of HTTP's
   [STRUCTURED-HEADERS].  Each string is a version.  For any two parent
   versions A and B that are specified in a Parents header, A cannot be
   a descendent of B or vice versa.  The ordering of versions in the
   list carries no meaning, and SHOULD be softed lexicographically.

   If a client or server does not specify a Version for a resource it
   transfers, the recipient MAY generate a new version ID of its own
   choosing.  If a client or server does not specify a Parents header
   when transferring a new version, the recipient MAY presume that the
   most recent versions it has seen are the parents of the new version.

2.1.  Comparison with ETag

   The Version header is similar to an ETag, but has two differences:

   1. ETags are sensitive to Content-Encoding.  If you send the same
      version with a GZip Content-Encoding, it will have a different
      ETag, but the same Version.

   2. A Version marks a unique point in time -- not unique content.  If
      a resource is changed from version A to B, and then to C, such
      that the contents at A are the same as the contents at C, then it
      is possible versions A and C to have the same ETag, even though
      they have different Versions.

2.2.  PUT a new version

   When a PUT request changes the state of a resource, it can specify
   the new version of the resource, the parent versions that existed
   when it was created, and the way multiple simultaneous changes should
   be merged (the "Merge-Type"):


         PUT /chat
         Version: "ej4lhb9z78"                                 | Version
         Parents: "oakwn5b8qh", "uc9zwhw7mf"                   |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Content-Length: 73                                    |
         [{text: "Hi, everyone!",                              | | Body
           author: {type: "link", value: "/user/tommy"}}]      | |


         HTTP/1.1 200 OK
         Patches: OK

   Merge-Types are specified in [MERGE-TYPES].  The Version and Parents
   headers are optional.  If Version is omitted, the recipient may
   invent a version ID.  If Parents is omitted, the recipient may assume
   that the current set of leaf versions on its machine is the version's

   This example includes the entire new value of the state, but one can
   also send updates as patches.

2.3.  PUT a new version as a patch

   Not only are patches smaller, and thus more efficient; they also
   provide useful information for merging two simultaneous edits, for
   instance in collaborative editing.

   One can send an update in a patch by setting the "Patches" header to
   a number, and then set the Message body to a sequence of that many
   patches, separated by blank lines:


         PUT /chat
         Version: "g09ur8z74r"                                 | Version
         Parents: "ej4lhb9z78"                                 |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Patches: 2                                            |
         Content-Length: 62                                    | | Patch
         Content-Range: json .messages[1:1]                    | |
                                                               | |
         [{text: "Yo!",                                        | |
           author: {type: "link", value: "/user/yobot"}]       | |
         Content-Length: 40                                    | | Patch
         Content-Range: json .latest_change                    | |
                                                               | |
         {"type": "date", "value": 1573952202370}              | |


         HTTP/1.1 200 OK
         Patches: OK

   In order to distinguish each patch within a Version, we need to know
   the length of the patch.  To know the length of the patch, each patch
   must include one of the following headers:

         Content-Length: N
         Transfer-Encoding: chunked

   Either of these provide a way to determine when the next message

   The previous example uses the Range Patch format, which is defined in
   [RANGE-PATCH].  However, one can use any patch format, by sending a
   patch with a Content-Type: set to a patch format with a defined
   behavior, such as application/json-patch+json (as specified in


         PUT /chat
         Version: "up12vyc5ib"                                 | Version
         Parents: "2bcbi84nsp"                                 |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Patches: 1                                            |
         Content-Length: 326                                   | | Patch
         Content-Type: application/json-patch+json             | |
                                                               | |
         [                                                     | |
           { "op": "test", "path": "/a/b/c", "value": "foo" }, | |
           { "op": "remove", "path": "/a/b/c" },               | |
           { "op": "add", "path": "/a/b/c", "value": [] },     | |
           { "op": "replace", "path": "/a/b/c", "value": 42 }, | |
           { "op": "move", "from": "/a/b", "path": "/a/d },    | |
           { "op": "copy", "from": "/a/d/d", "path": "/a/d/e" }| |
         ]                                                     | |


         HTTP/1.1 200 OK
         Patches: OK

2.4.  GET a specific version

   A server can optionally allow clients to request historical versions
   of a resource in GET requests.  To request a historical version, a
   client includes a Version and/or Parents header in the request.


         GET /chat
         Version: "ej4lhb9z78"


         HTTP/1.1 209 Subscription
         Subscribe: keep-alive

         Version: "ej4lhb9z78"                                 | Version
         Parents: "oakwn5b8qh", "uc9zwhw7mf"                   |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Content-Length: 73                                    |
         [{text: "Hi, everyone!",                              | | Body
           author: {type: "link", value: "/user/tommy"}}]      | |

   If a GET request contains a Version header:

     - The Subscribe header (Section 3) MUST be absent.

     - The server SHOULD return a single response, containing that
       version of the resource in its body, with the Version header set
       to the version requested by the client.

     - If the server does not support historical versions, it MAY ignore
       the Version header and respond as usual, but MUST NOT include the
       Version header in its response.

   If a GET request contains a Parents header:

     - If the request does not also contain a Version, then the request
       MUST also contain a Subscribe header, and the server SHOULD send
       a set of versions connecting the Parents to the current Version,
       and then subscribe the client to future updates.

     - If the request also contains a Version, then the server SHOULD
       respond with a set of versions that connect the specified Parents
       with the specified Version, and then close the connection.

     - If the server does not support historical versions, then it MAY
       ignore the Parents header, but MUST NOT include the Parents
       header in its response.

   A server MAY refactor or rebase the version history that it provides
   to a client, so long as it does not affect the resulting state, or
   the result of the patch-type's merges.

3.  Subscriptions for GET

   If a GET request includes the Subscribe header, it will return a
   stream of versions; a new version pushed with each change.  Each
   version can contain either the new contents in its body, or a set of


         GET /chat
         Subscribe: keep-alive


         HTTP/1.1 209 Subscription
         Subscribe: keep-alive

         Version: "ej4lhb9z78"                                 | Version
         Parents: "oakwn5b8qh", "uc9zwhw7mf"                   |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Content-Length: 73                                    |
         [{text: "Hi, everyone!",                              | | Body
           author: {type: "link", value: "/user/tommy"}}]      | |

         Version: "g09ur8z74r"                                 | Version
         Parents: "ej4lhb9z78"                                 |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Patches: 1                                            |
         Content-Length: 62                                    | | Patch
         Content-Range: json .messages[1:1]                    | |
                                                               | |
         [{text: "Yo!",                                        | |
           author: {type: "link", value: "/user/yobot"}]       | |

         Version: "2bcbi84nsp"                                 | Version
         Parents: "g09ur8z74r"                                 |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Patches: 1                                            |
         Content-Length: 68                                    | | Patch
         Content-Range: json .messages[2:2]                    | |
                                                               | |
         [{text: "Hi, Tommy!",                                 | |
           author: {type: "link", value: "/user/sal"}}]        | |

         Version: "up12vyc5ib"                                 | Version
         Parents: "2bcbi84nsp"                                 |
         Content-Type: application/json                        |
         Merge-Type: sync9                                     |
         Patches: 1                                            |
         Content-Length: 326                                   | | Patch
         Content-Type: application/json-patch+json             | |
                                                               | |
         [                                                     | |
           { "op": "test", "path": "/a/b/c", "value": "foo" }, | |
           { "op": "remove", "path": "/a/b/c" },               | |
           { "op": "add", "path": "/a/b/c", "value": [] },     | |
           { "op": "replace", "path": "/a/b/c", "value": 42 }, | |
           { "op": "move", "from": "/a/b", "path": "/a/d },    | |
           { "op": "copy", "from": "/a/d/d", "path": "/a/d/e" }| |
         ]                                                     | |

3.1.  Creating a Subscription

   The "Subscribe" header on a GET request modifies the method semantics
   to request a subscription to future updates to the data, rather than
   only the current version of the representation data.

   A client requests a subscription by issuing a GET request with a
   Subscribe header:

      or   Subscribe: keep-alive
      or   Subscribe: keep-alive=<seconds>

   If a server implements Subscribe, it MUST include a Subscribe header
   in its response.  The server then SHOULD keep the connection open,
   and send updates over it.

   In general, a server that implements subscriptions promises to keep
   its subscribed clients up-to-date by sending changes until the client
   closes the subscription.  A subscription is different from a GET
   connection (e.g. a TCP connection, or HTTP/2 stream).  If a client
   requests "Subscribe: keep-alive", then the subscription will be
   remembered even after the GET connection closes.  A subscription can
   be resumed by the client issuing another GET with a Subscribe header.

3.2.  Sending multiple updates per GET

   To send multiple updates, a server concatenates multiple
   sub-responses into a single response body.  Each sub-response must
   contain its own headers and body.  Each sub-response must have a
   known length, which means it must contain one of the following

      - Content-Length: N
      - Transfer-Encoding: chunked
      - Patches: N

   Each sub-response must have both headers and a body.  The body may be

3.3.  Continuing a Subscription

   Even if a connection closes, a subscription might still be active.
   If a server's response headers for a connection contained:

           Subscribe: keep-alive
      or   Subscribe: keep-alive=<seconds>

   Then the server SHOULD keep the subscription open even after the
   connection closes.  This means that the server promises to keep
   enough history to merge with the client when the client comes back

   When the client reconnects, it may specify the most recent versions
   it saw from the server using the Parents header.  This tells the
   server which versions of state to catch it up from.

   The server can suggest how long it will wait for the client by
   responding with Subscribe: keep-alive=<seconds>.  A server should
   wait at least <seconds> after a connection closes before dropping the
   subscription, and clearing its history.

3.4.  Ending a Subscription

   Servers and clients MAY drop a subscription at any time, no matter
   the value of keep-alive.  A client may reconnect by issuing a new GET
   request with a new Subscribe header.

   If a subscription is set to keep-alive, then closing the TCP/QUIC
   connection won't end the subscription.  Thus a client needs a way to
   explicitly end the subscription.  In HTTP/1, this is by sending the
   text "forGET\n" over the TCP connection.  In HTTP/2, this is by
   issuing a CLOSE event to the GET request's stream.  Alternatively,
   since today's web browsers do not support sending extra text after a
   request body, the client can issue a fresh request specified as a
   FORGET method.

3.5.  Errors

   If a server has dropped the history that a client requests, the
   server can return a 410 GONE response, to tell the client "sorry, I
   don't have the history necessary to synchronize with you."

4.  Design Goals

   This spec is designed to be:

   1. Backwards-compatible with existing HTTP

   2. Easy to implement simple synchronizers with.  For instance, it
      should be easy to write a read-only synchronizer for an
      append-only log.

   3. Possible to implement arbitrary synchronization algorithms.  For
      instance, these extensions support any Operational Transform or
      CRDT algorithm.

5.  Use Cases

5.1.  Dynamic Resources: Animating a GIF

   Braid allows resources to become inherently dynamic -- able to change
   over time.  You can use this to make a resource animate.

   In this example, a server streams changes to a GIF file in a sequence
   of patches.  When the client renders the new state of the GIF after
   each patch, a new frame of animation is displayed.

       GET /animated-braid.gif

       HTTP/1.1 209 Subscribe
       Content-Type: image/gif         | Version
       Patches: 2                      |
       Content-Length: 1239            | | Patch
       Content-Range: bytes 100-200    | |
                                       | |
       <binary data>                   | |
       Content-Length: 62638           | | Patch
       Content-Range: bytes 348-887    | |
                                       | |
       <binary data>                   | |

5.2.  Dynamic Proxies and Caches

   Since updates aren't pushed, today's web often uses timeouts to
   trigger a cache becoming stale.  Unfortunately, sometimes the timeout
   is wrong, and caches become out-of-date, and we have to wait for an
   unknown cache to timeout before we can see the new version of
   something.  As a result, programmers have learned to force-reload
   pages habitually, and caches become less efficient than necessary.

   A cache supporting the Braid extensions, however, will automatically
   update whenever a change occurs.  If a client starts a GET
   Subscription with a proxy, the proxy will then start and maintain a
   GET Subscription with the origin server.  The origin server will
   promise to send the proxy updates over its GET Subscription, and the
   proxy will then relay these changes to all connected clients.  If a
   set of clients and servers all support Braid, they will never need to
   force-reload caches for any data amongst them.

5.3.  A Serverless Chat Example

   A Braid web application can operate offline.  A user can use the app
   from an airplane, and their edits can synchronize when they regain
   internet connections.  Additionally, the Braid protocol can be
   expressed over peer-to-peer transports (e.g. Braid-WebRTC) to support
   a peer-to-peer synchronization without a server.  Braid-HTTP clients
   will be able to interoperate with Braid-WebRTC peers.  For example, a
   chat application might be served and synchronized on Braid-HTTP,
   while also establishing redundant peer-to-peer connections on
   Braid-WebRTC.  The server could then be shut down, and users of the
   chat app could continue to send messages to one another.

   Imagine the server serves the current set of trusted clients' IP
   addresses at the /peers state.  Each client then subscribes to the
   /peers state with:

      GET /peers
      Subscribe: keep-alive
      [ {ip: '', pubkey: 'x371...8382'},
        {ip: '', pubkey: 'o2u8...2s73'},

   Each peer can then choose a set of those peers with whom to establish
   a WebRTC connection.  It will then exchange Braid messages with those
   peers over that connection.

6.  Related Work

6.1.  Web Frameworks

   Web applications typically synchronize the state of a client and
   server with layers of models, views, and controllers in web
   frameworks.  By automating synchronization within HTTP, programmers
   have to write fewer layers of code on top of it.

      ====== Legacy Websites ======      ====== Braid Websites ======

      Today's webpages are               Braid generalizes HTTP
      generated from multiple            into a standard for
      layers of state.  Each layer       synchronizing state within
      has a different API.               and between websites.

        x Non-standard state API          o Standard state API

       /         \
      :  o o o o  :   Webpage DOM          o o o o       State
      :   \|  \|  :                         \|  \|
      :    x   x  :   HTML Templates         o   o       State
      :   /|  /|  :                         /|  /|
      :  x x x x  :   JS Models            o o o o       State
       \ | | | | /                         | | | |
         | | | |                           | | | |
         o o o o    - http:// -            o o o o     - http:// -
       / | | | | \                         | | | |
      :  x x x x  :   Views                o o o o       State
      :  |  \| |  :                        |  \| |
      :  x   x x  :   Controllers          o   o o       State
      :   \ / \|  :                         \ / \|
      :    x   x  :   Models                 o   o       State
      :     \ /   :                           \ /
       \.... x ../    Database                 o         State

      Today's programmers have to        Each piece of Braid state (o)
      learn each API, and wire them      has a URL; whether public or
      together, making sure that         internal.  State can be a
      changes to shared state            function of other state, and
      synchronize across all             and automatically recompute
      layers and computers.              when its dependencies change.
                                         Braid guarantees network

6.2.  Existing IETF Standards

   A number of IETF specifications already standardize aspects of
   synchronization for specific domains.  IMAP [RFC3501] provides
   synchronization of email.  WebDAV provides the synchronization of
   "collections" [RFC6578], and has been extended specifically for
   calendar data in CalDAV [RFC4791], and vCards in [RFC6350].  More
   recently, JMAP [RFC8620] provides an updated method of
   synchronization, supporting mail, calendars, and contacts.

7. IANA Considerations

7.1.  Header Field Registration

   HTTP header fields are registered within the "Message Headers"
   registry maintained at

   This document defines the following HTTP header fields, so their
   associated registry entries have been updated according to the
   permanent registrations below (see [BCP90]):

   | Header Field Name   | Protocol | Status       | Reference   |
   | Version             | http     | experimental | Section 2   |
   | Parents             | http     | experimental | Section 2   |
   | Merge-Type          | http     | experimental | Section 2.2 |
   | Patches             | http     | experimental | Section 2.3 |
   | Subscribe           | http     | experimental | Section 4   |

   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet
   Engineering Task Force".

8. Security Considerations

   XXX Todo

9.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

10.  Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   ( in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC7230]  "HTTP/1.1 Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230.

   [RFC7231]  "HTTP/1.1 Semantics and Content", RFC 7231.

   [RFC7233]  "HTTP/1.2 Range Requests", RFC 7233.

   [RFC7234]  "HTTP/1.2 Caching", RFC 7234.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [MERGE-TYPES] draft-toomim-httpbis-merge-types-00

   [RANGE-PATCH] draft-toomim-httpbis-range-patch-00

   [STRUCTURED-HEADERS] draft-ietf-httpbis-header-structure-14

11.2.  Informative References

   [XHR]      Van Kestern, A., Aubourg, J., Song, J., and R. M.
              Steen, H.  "XMLHttpRequest", September 2019.

   [SSE]      Hickson, I.  "Server-Sent Events", W3C Recommendation,
              February 2015.

   [REST]     Fielding, R.  "Architectural Styles and the Design of
              Network-based Software Architectures"  Doctoral
              dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 2000.

   [RFC3501]  Crispin, M.,  "Internet Message Access Protocol - Version
              4rev1", RFC 3501, DOI 10.17487/RFC3501, March 2003,

   [RFC6578]  Daboo, C., Quillaud, A., "Collection Synchronization
              for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)",
              RFC 6578, DOI 10.17487/RFC6578, March 2012,

   [RFC4791]  Daboo, C., Desruisseaux, B., Dusseault, L., "Calendaring
              Extensions to WebDAV (CalDAV)", RFC 4791,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4791, March 2007,

   [RFC6350]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6350, August 2011,

   [RFC8620]  Jenkins, N., Newman, C., "The JSON Meta Application
              Protocol (JMAP)", RFC 8620, DOI 10.17487/RFC8620,
              July 2019, <>.

   [RFC6902]  Bryan, P., Nottingham, M., "Javascript Object Notation
              (JSON) Patch", RFC 6902.

   [BCP90]    Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration
              Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864,
              September 2004.

12.  Acknowledgements

   In addition to the authors, this spec contains intellectual
   contributions from the following people:

      - Seph Gentle
      - Mitar Milutinovic
      - Sarah Allen
      - Duane Johnson
      - Travis Kriplean
      - Marius Nita
      - Paul Pham
      - Morgan Dixon
      - Karthik Palaniappan

   We thank the following people for key feedback on previous drafts:

      - Austin Wright
      - Martin Thomson
      - Eric Kinnear
      - Olli Vanhoja
      - Julian Reschke

   We also thank Mark Nottingham, Fred Baker, Adam Roach, and Barry
   Leiba for facilitating a productive environment.

13.  Authors' Addresses

   For more information, the authors of this document are best contacted
   via Internet mail:

   Michael Toomim
   Invisible College, Berkeley
   2053 Berkeley Way
   Berkeley, CA 94704


   Greg Little
   Invisible College, Berkeley
   2053 Berkeley Way
   Berkeley, CA 94704


   Rafie Walker
   Bard College


   Bryn Bellomy
   Invisible College, Berkeley
   2053 Berkeley Way
   Berkeley, CA 94704