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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06                                          
Internet Engineering Task Force                             T. Tsou, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                 Huawei Technologies (USA)
Intended status: Informational                                     B. Li
Expires: August 5, 2013                                          C. Zhou
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                        J. Schoenwaelder
                                                Jacobs University Bremen
                                                                R. Penno
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                            M. Boucadair
                                                          France Telecom
                                                        February 1, 2013

                 DS-Lite Failure Detection and Failover


   In DS-Lite, the tunnel is stateless, not associated with any state
   information, and no failure detection and failover mechanism is
   available.  This makes it difficult to manage and diagnose if there
   is a problem.  This draft analyzes the applicability of some of the
   possible solutions.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 5, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal

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   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3.  Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.1.  Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)  . . . . . . . . . 4
       3.1.1.  DS-Lite Scenario  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
       3.1.2.  Parameters for BFD  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
       3.1.3.  Elements of Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
       3.1.4.  Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     3.2.  Port Control Protocol (PCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     3.3.  Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)  . . . . . . . . . 6
   4.  Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   5.  Failover  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

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1.  Introduction

   In DS-Lite [RFC6333], the IPv4-in-IPv6 DS-Lite tunnel is stateless,
   no status information about the tunnel is available, and no keep-
   alive mechanism is available.  It is difficult to know whether the
   tunnel is up or down; and if there is a link problem, the Basic
   Bridging BroadBand (B4) element can not automatically switch to
   another Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) so as to continue the
   network service automatically, without the involvement of operators.
   This lack of failure detection and failover creates problems for
   network operation and maintenance.

   Possible solutions for failure detection include the usage of
   Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD), the Port Control Protocol
   (PCP), and the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).  The
   properties of these solutions are discussed in this document and
   guidelines are provided how to implement failure detection and
   automatic failover.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Terminology

   AFTR:     Address Family Transition Router.

   B4:       Basic Bridging BroadBand.

   BBF:      BroadBand Forum.

   BFD:      Bidirectional Forwarding Detection.

   CPE:      Customer Premise Equipment (i.e., the DS-Lite B4).

   FQDN:     Fully Qualified Domain Name.

   PCP:      Port Control Protocol.

   ICMP:     Internet Control Message Protocol.

3.  Solutions

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3.1.  Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)

   Bidirectional Forwarding Detection [RFC5880] (BFD) is a mechanism
   intended to detect faults in a bidirectional path.  It is usually
   used in conjunction with applications like OSPF, IS-IS, for fast
   fault recovery and fast re-route [RFC5882].  BFD is being made
   mandatory for keep-alive for subscriber sessions, including DS-Lite,
   by the BroadBand Forum (BBF) [WT-146].

   BFD can be used in DS-Lite, by creating a BFD session between the B4
   element and the AFTR to provide tunnel status information.  If a
   fault is detected, the B4 element can try to create a DS-Lite tunnel
   with another AFTR and terminate the existing one, so as to continue
   network service.

   [I-D.vinokour-bfd-dhcp] proposes using a DHCP option to distribute
   BFD parameters to B4 elements.  But in case of DS-Lite, some of the
   key BFD parameters are already available (e.g., peer IP address), and
   other parameters can be negotiated by BFD signaling or statically
   configured, so that no extra DHCP option(s) need to be defined.

3.1.1.  DS-Lite Scenario

   In DS-Lite [RFC6333], the BFD packet SHOULD be sent through an IPv4-
   in-IPv6 tunnel, as shown in Figure 1.  The IPv4 addresses of the B4
   element and the AFTR SHOULD be the endpoints of a BFD session.

                    +--------------+                  +--------------+
       +------+     |              |     +------+     |              |
       |      |-----+--------------+-----|      |     |              |
       | CPE  |       IPv6 Tunnel        | AFTR |-----| IPv4 Network |
       | (B4) |-----+--------------+-----|      |     |              |
       +------+     | IPv6 Network |     +------+     |              |     +--------------+     +--------------+

                        Figure 1: DS-Lite Scenario

3.1.2.  Parameters for BFD

   In order to set up a BFD session, the following parameters are
   needed, as shown in Section 4.1 of [RFC5880]:

   o  Peer IP address

   o  My Discriminator

   o  Your Discriminator

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   o  Desired Min TX Interval

   o  Required Min RX Interval

   o  Required Min Echo RX Interval

   In DS-Lite [RFC6334], the B4's WAN-side IPv4 address is the well-
   known address, and the AFTR's well-known IPv4 address is, as defined in section 5.7 of [RFC6333].  The B4 element
   needs to create an IPv6 tunnel to an AFTR so as to get network
   connectivity to the AFTR, and send IPv4 BFD packets through the
   tunnel to manage it.

   The other parameters listed above can be negotiated by BFD signaling,
   and initial values can be configured on B4 elements and AFTRs.

3.1.3.  Elements of Procedure

   When a B4 element gets online, it will be assigned an IPv6 prefix or
   address, and also the FQDN of the AFTR, as defined in [RFC6334].  The
   B4 element will create an IPv6 tunnel to the AFTR with which the B4
   element can initiate a BFD session to the AFTR.  BFD packets will be
   sent through the DS-Lite tunnel.  As defined in section 4 of
   [RFC5881], BFD control packets MUST be sent in UDP packets with
   destination port 3784, and BFD echo packets MUST be sent in UDP
   packets with destination port 3785.

   When sending out the first BFD packet, the B4 element can generate a
   unique local discriminator, and set the remote discriminator to zero.
   When the AFTR receives the first BFD packet from a B4 element, the
   AFTR will also generate a corresponding local discriminator, and put
   it in the response packet to the B4 element.  This will finish the
   discriminator negotiation in the B4 to AFTR direction, without any
   manual configuration.

   When an AFTR receives the first packet from a B4 element, the AFTR
   will get the IPv6 address and discriminator of the B4 element, so
   that the AFTR can initiate the BFD session in the other direction and
   a similar discriminator negotiation can be carried out.

3.1.4.  Implementation Considerations

   BFD is usually used for quick fault detection, at a very small time
   scale, e.g. milliseconds.  But in DS-Lite, it may not be necessary to
   detect faults in such a short time.  On the other hand, an AFTR may
   need to support tens of thousands of B4 elements, which means an AFTR
   will need to support the same number of BFD sessions.  In order to
   meet performance requirements on an AFTR, it may be necessary to

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   configure the time period between BFD packet transmissions to a
   longer time, e.g., 10s or 30s.

3.2.  Port Control Protocol (PCP)

   PCP [I-D.ietf-pcp-base-29] is a NAT traversal tool.  It can also be
   used for network connectivity test if PCP is supported in the
   network.  A common use case of PCP is to create a pinhole so that
   external users can visit the servers located behind a NAT.  The
   lifetime of the pinhole mapping is usually long, e.g., hours, and the
   lifetime will be refreshed periodically by the client before it is
   expired.  For the purpose of network connectivity tests, a B4 element
   can create a mapping in the CGN via PCP, with a short life time,
   e.g., 10s of seconds, and keep on refreshing the mapping before it
   expires.  If any refresh requests fail, the B4 element knows that
   something is wrong with the link or the PCP server or the CGN.

   In order to detect the network connectivity of the DS-Lite tunnel,
   the encapsulation mode MUST be used for PCP: PCP packets are sent
   through the DS-Lite tunnel.

3.3.  Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

   The Echo (Request) and Echo Response messages of the Internet Control
   Message Protocol (ICMP) [RFC0792] [RFC4443] can be used to determine
   whether remote nodes are reachable.  In case of DS-Lite, a B4 element
   can send Echo (Request) packets to the AFTR periodically.  If the B4
   element does not receive a certain number (e.g., 3) of Echo Response
   packets in a certain timeout period, then the B4 element decides that
   a fault has been detected.

   In order to test the connectivity of DS-Lite tunnel, Echo (Request)
   packets MUST be sent using ICMPv4, rather than ICMPv6.

4.  Discussion

   The solutions can be compared based on the failure detection time,
   the overhead on the wire, and the scalability on the AFTR.  Lets
   consider an AFTR that needs to support 10000-30000 subscribers.  If
   every subscriber sends a probe packet every 30 seconds, this creates
   a load of 1-3 probe packets per millisecond and a failure detection
   delay in minutes (since multiple probe packets may need to fail in
   order to detect a failure).  Shorter detection times significantly
   increase the load on AFTRs.

   BFD has a simple and fixed packet format, which is easy to implement
   by logic devices (e.g., ASIC, FPGA).  This allows line cards to

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   process BFD packets very efficiently in hardware.

   PCP is a control protocol typically implemented in software.  As
   such, processing a large number of PCP requests in order to detect
   failures is relatively expensive.  On the other hand, PCP can detect
   the failure of more components of the DS-Lite system.  Besides
   failures of the link and the routing, it also covers certain NAT

   Since ICMP is an integral part of any IP implementation, the usage of
   ICMP messages to detect tunnel failures does not require any special
   implementation efforts on the B4 elements.  However, on AFTRs that
   process ICMP messages in software (slow path) rather than in
   hardware, the usage of ICMP messages might lead to scalability

5.  Failover

   The FQDN of the AFTR is sent to the B4 element via a DHCP option, as
   defined in [RFC6334].  Multiple IP addresses can be configured for
   the FQDN of an AFTR on the DNS server.  If a B4 element detects a
   failure on the link to the AFTR, the B4 element MUST terminate the
   current DS-Lite tunnel, choose another AFTR address in the list, and
   create a tunnel to the new AFTR.  If necessary, the B4 element SHOULD
   re-configure the connectivity test tool accordingly and restart the
   test procedures.

   Anycasts may also be used for failover.  But there is an ICMP-error-
   message problem with anycast, that is, when a packet is sent from the
   AFTR to a B4 element, if one of the routers along the path generates
   an ICMP error message, e.g., Packet Too Big (PTB), then the error
   message may not be sent back to the source AFTR but to another AFTR.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

7.  Security Considerations

   In the DS-Lite [RFC6333] application, the B4 element may not be
   directly connected to the AFTR; there may be other routers between
   them.  In such a deployment, there are potential spoofing problems,
   as described in [RFC5883].  Hence cryptographic authentication SHOULD
   be used with BFD as described in [RFC5880] if security is concerned.

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8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

              Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P.
              Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP) (work in progress)",
              Nov. 2012.

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, September 1981.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control
              Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol
              Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.

   [RFC5880]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD)", RFC 5880, June 2010.

   [RFC5881]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD) for IPv4 and IPv6 (Single Hop)", RFC 5881,
              June 2010.

   [RFC5882]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Generic Application of
              Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)", RFC 5882,
              June 2010.

   [RFC5883]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD) for Multihop Paths", RFC 5883, June 2010.

   [RFC6333]  Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual-
              Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4
              Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011.

   [RFC6334]  Hankins, D. and T. Mrugalski, "Dynamic Host Configuration
              Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) Option for Dual-Stack Lite",
              RFC 6334, August 2011.

   [WT-146]   Kavanagh, A., Klamm, F., Boucadair, W., and R. Dec, "WT-
              146 Subscriber Sessions (work in progress)", Apr 2012.

8.2.  Informative References

              Vinokour, V., "Configuring BFD with DHCP and Other

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              Musings", May 2008.

Authors' Addresses

   Tina Tsou (editor)
   Huawei Technologies (USA)
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara  CA  95050

   Phone: +1 408 330 4424
   Email: tina.tsou.zouting@huawei.com

   Brandon Li
   Huawei Technologies
   M6, No. 156, Beiqing Road, Haidian District
   Beijing  100094

   Email: brandon.lijian@huawei.com

   Cathy Zhou
   Huawei Technologies

   Email: cathy.zhou@huawei.com

   Juergen Schoenwaelder
   Jacobs University Bremen
   Campus Ring 1
   Bremen  28759

   Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de

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   Reinaldo Penno
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 West Tasman Drivee
   San Jose, California  95134

   Email: repenno@cisco.com

   Mohamed Boucadair
   France Telecom

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com

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