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Versions: 00 rfc1875                                                    
Network Working Group                                        N.Berge
Internet Draft:                           Norwegian Computing Center
Category: Informational                                  August 1995


                    UNINETT PCA Policy Statements
                  <draft-uninett-pca-policy-00.txt>

Status of this memo

This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo
does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of
this memo is unlimited.

Table of Contents

1.   Introduction.......................................1
2.   PCA Identity.......................................2
3.   UNINETT - a brief overview.........................2
4.   PCA Scope..........................................2
4.1  The certification tree.............................2
4.2  Use of Registration Authorities (RAs)..............3
5.   PCA Security & Privacy.............................3
5.1  Security requirements imposed on the PCA...........3
5.2  Security requirements imposed on CAs...............3
5.3  Security requirements imposed on RAs...............4
5.4  Measures taken to protect the privacy of any
     information collected in the course of certifying
     CAs and (for CAs) users............................4
6.   Certification Policy...............................4
6.1  Policy and procedures when certifying CAs..........4
6.2  Policy and procedures when certifying RAs..........4
6.3  Policy and procedures when certifying users........5
6.4  Validity interval for issued certificates..........5
6.5  The CAs right to a DN and procedures to resolve DN
     conflicts..........................................6
6.6  The users right to a DN and procedures to resolve
     DN conflicts.......................................6
7.   Certificate Management.............................6
8.   CRL Management.....................................6
9.   Naming Conventions.................................7
10.  Business Issues....................................7
10.1 Legal agreement concerning CAs.....................7
10.2 Legal agreement concerning RAs.....................7
10.3 Fees...............................................8
11.  Other..............................................8
11.1 Distribution of software needed by CAs, RAs and
     users..............................................8
12.  References.........................................8
13.  Author's address...................................8

1. Introduction

This Request for Comments (RFC) provides information about policy
statements submitted by the UNINETT Policy Certification Authority


Berge                                                       [Page 1]


RFC              UNINETT PCA Policy Statements        September 1995


(UNINETT PCA). It's purpose is to provide information to members of
the Internet community who wish to evaluate the trust they can place
in a certification path that includes a certificate issued by the
UNINETT PCA, or to set up a CA to be certified by the UNINETT PCA.

2. PCA Identity

Distinguished Name (DN): C=no, O=uninett, OU=pca

The UNINETT PCA will be run by:
Norwegian Computing Center
Gaustadallen 23
P.O.Box 114 Blindern,
N-0314 Oslo, Norway

Contact person:
Nils Harald Berge
Email: Nils.Harald.Berge@nr.no
Tel.: (+47) 22 85 25 00
Fax : (+47) 22 69 76 60

Duration: This policy is valid from Oct 1, 1995 to Jan 1, 1998

Info about this PCA is available at: http://www.uninett.no/pca/

3. UNINETT - a brief overview

UNINETT is a Limited Company (AS) operating the Norwegian network for
academics and research. It is incorporated under Norwegian law, and
it's company number is 968100211.

More information is available from the UNINETT web server at:
http://www.uninett.no/

4. PCA Scope

The scope of the UNINETT PCA is determined by UNINETT Policy. It will
chiefly certify CAs to run on behalf of legal entities such as schools
and companies.

4.1 The certification tree

The certification tree beneath the UNINETT PCA comprise three distinct
entities: Certification Authorities (CAs), Registration Authorities
(RAs) and users. CAs are described in the PEM documents [1]. An
explanation of RAs is given bellow.

There will be one CA, with possible sublevel CAs, per UNINETT member
organization. The CA may be run by the organization itself, or by the
organization running the PCA for organizations who do not want to take
on the responsibility themselves.


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RFC              UNINETT PCA Policy Statements        September 1995


4.2 Use of Registration Authorities (RAs)

Since the CA may be located far away from the users, local authorities
are needed for physical identification/authentication of users. For
security reasons, and to avoid an unnecessary large number of CAs,
these authorities are not allowed to issue certificates.

A registration authority (RA) is an ordinary user, appointed by an
organization or an organizational unit and trusted by a CA, serving as
a point of contact for persons who want to register as users, i.e. to
have a certificate issued. In order to avoid faked requests for
certification, users must send their prototype certificate to an
appropriate RA, and then physically visit the RA with proof of
identity. The RA will forward the prototype certificate to the CA in a
message signed by the RA, if the user is properly authenticated.

For bulk certification (see 5.3) the RA must physically verify the
identity of the user before giving out the password for access to the
users private key.

A CA may appoint as many RAs as it wish. The only difference between
certifying an RA and an ordinary user is that the RA (a person) must
sign an agreement with the certifying CA, stating the obligation to
adhere to the agreed procedures.

5. PCA Security & Privacy

5.1 Security requirements imposed on the PCA

- The PCA will have its private key stored on a smartcard.

- The PCA will be run on a dedicated workstation with no network
  connection. The workstation will be physically secured.

- Exchanging data between the PCA workstation and the rest of the
  world will be done by using tapes or floppy discs.

- The PCA RSA key pair will have a length of 1024 bits.

- Backups from the PCA workstation must be stored in at least one off
  site location. Backups must be physically secured

5.2 Security requirements imposed on CAs that are to be certified

- A CA must be run on a dedicated workstation with no network
  connection. The workstation must be physically secured.

- Exchanging data between the CA workstation and the rest of the world
  must be done by using tapes or floppy discs.

- The CA RSA key pair must have a minimum length of 1024 bits.


Berge                                                       [Page 3]


RFC              UNINETT PCA Policy Statements        September 1995


A security requirements document concerning CAs will be made available
online, and expected to be followed.

5.3 Security requirements imposed on RAs that are to be certified

- RAs must use single user machines.

- The RA RSA key pair must have a minimum length of 512 bits.

A security requirements document concerning RAs will be made available
online, and expected to be followed.

5.4 Measures taken to protect the privacy of any information collected
in the course of certifying CAs and (for CAs) users.

CAs will not collect any security relevant information about users. In
those cases when CAs generate keys (and certificates) on behalf of
users, all information pertaining the users private key will be
securely deleted after it has been received by the user.  CAs will
always generate their own key pairs, thus no security relevant
information will be collected by the PCA.

All archived material concerning DNs for users will be stored on the
CA workstations, which are physically protected and does not have any
network connections.

6. Certification Policy

6.1 Policy and procedures when certifying CAs

In order to be certified, a CA must sign an agreement with the UNINETT
PCA stating the obligation to adhere to the agreed procedures.

The persons responsible for running the CA will be evaluated by the
UNINETT PCA, in order to determine whether they exhibit the necessary
qualifications and have access to the resources needed in order to run
the CA securely.

The CA must submit its self signed prototype certificate to the
UNINETT PCA.

6.2 Policy and procedures when certifying RAs

The organization or organizational unit is responsible for appointing
RA persons, typically 1-3 persons per organization/unit. The person
representing the RA must sign an agreement with the certifying CA,
stating the obligation to adhere to the agreed procedures in order to
be certified.

The person representing the RA will be evaluated by the certifying CA,
in order to determine whether he/she exhibits the necessary
qualifications and has access to the resources needed to run the RA


Berge                                                       [Page 4]


RFC              UNINETT PCA Policy Statements        September 1995


securely.

The RA must submit its self signed prototype certificate to the
certifying CA. In the absence of RAs, or equivalent, the validity of
the certification request (i.e. the identity of the requestor) must be
verified by "out of band" means. These means will vary from case to
case, depending on physical distance, prior knowledge etc.

6.3 Policy and procedures when certifying users

There are two ways in which a user can be certified:

- individual certification, or
- bulk certification

When applying individual certification, a user will generate his own
key pair, and his own prototype certificate. The certification
procedure follows the PEM documents [1], with the exception that the
certification request will be sent to an RA. The user must
then visit the RA with proof of identity

Bulk certification of users will typically be done when it is
desirable to certify many users belonging to the same organization. An
example could be the certification of students at the beginning of a
semester, or initial certification of all employees belonging to a
company. When bulk certifying users, the CA will generate the users'
key pairs and certificates. A user's key pair together with the
certificate will be DES-encrypted and sent electronically to the user.
The pass phrase to generate the DES-key can be collected at the local
RA, given proof of identity. The pass phrase can also be sent by
surface mail.

When bulk certifying users the CA or RA shall not access or store any
of the users' private information.

A person's identity is verified by:

- driver's licence
- passport
- bank card (Norwegian)

CA and RA need not be separate entities. A CA may verify the identity
of users directly, following the procedures described above.


6.4 Validity interval for issued certificates

Validity interval for user and RA certificates is maximum 2 years from
date of issue.

There is in principle no special requirements regarding validity
intervals for CA certificates, though it is recommended not to issue


Berge                                                       [Page 5]


RFC              UNINETT PCA Policy Statements        September 1995


certificates for more than a 10 year period.

6.5 The CAs right to a DN and procedures to resolve DN conflicts

CAs will preferably use DNs reflecting the organizational scope under
which they certify users (see also "Naming conventions"). The
certifying entity must ensure, with the aid of X.500 as disambiguation
tool, the uniqueness of a DN.

6.6 The user's right to a DN and procedures to resolve DN conflicts

It is the certifying CA who will determine a user's DN and ensure
that no two users use the same DN. Users will preferably use DNs
reflecting the organization to which they belong, and their full name
(see also "Naming conventions"). If two users belonging to the same
organization have the same common name, the certifying CA will assign
an appropriate DN to one of them, and thereby resolve any DN
conflicts.

7. Certificate management

UNINETTs X.500 service will be used when storing certificates
belonging to users within UNINETT member organizations. Other users
may also use the X.500 service if available. All certificates issued
will be maintained in a local database by the certifying entity in
addition to the X.500 directory. If a CA does not have access to the
X.500 service, all issued certificates must be mailed to the UNINETT
PCA who will make the X.500 entries on behalf of the CA.

Certificates can be requested in two ways, either directly from the
X.500 directory, or by querying a mail-responder service maintained by
the UNINETT PCA.

Details on how certificates are mailed, and how to use the
mail-responder service can be found at the following WWW site:
http://www.uninett.no/pca/

8. CRL Management

Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) must be issued at least once a
month, on a specified date, by CAs. The UNINETT X.500 service will be
used to publish CRLs. If a CA does not have access to the X.500
service the CRL must be mailed to the UNINETT PCA who will make the
X.500 entries on behalf of the CA.

CRLs can be requested in two ways, either directly from the X.500
directory, or by querying a mail-responder service maintained by the
UNINETT PCA.

Details on how CRLs are mailed, and how to use the mail-responder
service can be found at the following WWW site:
http://www.uninett.no/pca/


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RFC              UNINETT PCA Policy Statements        September 1995



The UNINETT PCA will continually update the CRL with revoked CA
certificates.

There is no automatic distribution service of CRLs. Therefore users
will have to pull CRLs from the X.500 or the mail-responder. Black
lists are currently not supported. Appropriate news groups and
information services will be used to announce the issuance of new CRLs.

9. Naming Conventions

Naming conventions for CAs:

C=<country>, O=<organization> [, OU=<organizational-unit>]

Country is the country code, e.g. all Norwegian organizations have
C=no. Organization is the organization represented by the CA (e.g. the
scope for which the CA certify users). Organizational-unit is
optional, reflecting a unit within a large organization for cases in
which the organization has more than one CA. Example: the CA
responsible for certifying UNINETT employees will be assigned the
following DN: C=no, O=uninett

Naming conventions for users:

C=<country>, O=<organization>, [OU=<organizational-unit>,] CN=<user name>

User name will be a unique name for the user with respect to the
organization to which the user belongs. An organization's CA is
responsible for ensuring that all certified users have a distinct user
name. Usually user name will be the user's full name. Use of OU is
optional. Example if Per Olsen is an employee of UNINETT he will be
assigned the following DN: C=no, O=uninett, CN=Per Olsen.

The choise of which users to certify as belonging to the organization
is made by the CA, not by the PCA.

10. Business Issues

10.1 Legal agreements concerning CAs

If a CA wishes to be certified by the UNINETT PCA, the CA will have to
sign a legal agreement with the UNINETT PCA. The legal agreement can
be obtained by contacting the UNINETT PCA.

10.2 Legal agreements concerning RAs

If an RA wishes to be certified by a CA, a person representing the RA
will have to sign a legal agreement with the CA. The legal agreement
can be obtained from the appropriate CA, or directly from the UNINETT
PCA. Each CA will locally decide whether the RA is to be certified.


Berge                                                       [Page 7]


RFC              UNINETT PCA Policy Statements        September 1995


10.3 Fees

The UNINETT PCA reserves the right to charge fees. The fee structure will
be determined by UNINETT policy.

11. Other

11.1 Distribution of software needed by CAs, RAs and users

The software needed is based on the SecuDE-package from GMD Darmstadt,
and is available without fee for non-commercial purposes. All software
distributions should include a signature from the UNINETT PCA to
verify its integrity. Users, CAs, and RAs are expected to verify such
signatures immediately after installation.

12. References

[1] RFC 1421-1424 Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail
    (PEM) Part 1-4.

13. Author's address

Nils Harald Berge
Norwegian Computing Center
Gaustadallen 23
P.O.Box 114 Blindern,
N-0314 Oslo, Norway

Email: Nils.Harald.Berge@nr.no
Tel.: (+47) 22 85 25 00
Fax : (+47) 22 69 76 60






















Berge                                                       [Page 8]