Network Working Group                                          JM. Valin
Internet-Draft                                              Octasic Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                          P. Saint-Andre
Expires: April 29, 2010                                            Cisco
                                                              S. Borilin
                                                              SPIRIT DSP
                                                                  K. Vos
                                                                   Skype
                                                           C. Montgomery
                                                     Xiph.Org Foundation
                                                                 R. Chen
                                                    Broadcom Corporation
                                                        October 26, 2009


              Guidelines for Proposed CODEC Working Group
                    draft-valin-codec-guidelines-02

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 29, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.
















































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Abstract

   This document provides general guidelines for work on specifying
   audio codecs within the IETF.  These guidelines cover the development
   process, evaluation and requirements conformance, and intellectual
   property issues.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Development Process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Evaluation, Testing, and Characterization  . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Requirements Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Intellectual Property  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Relationship with Other SDOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     10.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     10.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22




























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1.  Introduction

   This document describes a suggested process for work at the IETF on
   standardization of high-quality audio codecs that are optimized for
   use in interactive Internet applications and that can be widely
   implemented and easily distributed among application developers,
   service operators, and end users.  Although several such codecs have
   been developed "in the wild" outside the IETF or any other standards
   development organization (SDO), there are several reasons for
   pursuing such work within the IETF:

   o  The IETF has produced a large "stack" of protocols and formats
      that (1) solve a wide variety of problems related to communication
      over the Internet and (2) can be widely implemented and easily
      distributed among application developers, service operators, and
      end users (we say that technologies meeting the second condition
      are "unencumbered", as further described under Section 5 of this
      document).  However, feedback received from application developers
      and service operators indicates that the lack of standardized,
      high quality, unencumbered audio codecs has inhibited the
      development and deployment of interoperable Internet audio
      applications.

   o  Specification of such codecs within the Internet Standards Process
      would ensure more transparent, stringent, and trusted change
      control than is currently available "in the wild".

   o  In order to develop audio codecs that are optimized for use over
      the Internet, it is important to gain input from the entire
      Internet community and to incorporate cross-area review from the
      full range of technical experts who work within the IETF,
      including areas such as transport, routing, operations,
      architecture, applications, and security.

   o  The Internet Standards Process provides a transparent process for
      the development of Internet technologies, in which any interested
      member of the Internet community can participate.

   o  The IETF's policies toward Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), as
      codified in BCP 79 [IPR], facilitate (but do not guarantee) the
      development of unencumbered audio codecs.

   This document describes suggested processes for work on
   standardization of unencumbered Internet audio codecs within the
   Internet Standards Process, in particular as guidance to the proposed
   Codec Working Group.  Nothing in this document shall be taken to
   override official IETF policies and procedures as codified in BCP 9,
   BCP 78, BCP 79, or any other approved document.  In case the



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   suggestions in this document conflict with official policies and
   procedures, the official policies and procedures shall rule.

   Although the authors of this document consider formation of a working
   group to be the most productive path forward because of the
   consensus-building mechanisms inherent to working groups, work could
   also be pursued through independent submissions, to which the
   procedural guidelines suggested here would apply.

   Furthermore, although this document sometimes speaks of "codec" in
   the singular in order to simplify the text, IETF participants could
   develop more than one codec; any decisions about the number of codecs
   to work on, and when to work on them, would be subject to normal
   consensus processes within the IETF.

   The authors welcome discussion and comments related to the topics
   presented in this document.  The preferred venue is the
   <codec@ietf.org> mailing list, for which archives and subscription
   information are available at
   <https://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/codec>.































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2.  Development Process

   The process outlined here is intended to maximize the transparency of
   work on codecs within the IETF.  Such work might involve development
   of one or more completely new codecs, adaptation of an existing codec
   to meet the requirements specified in the accompanying requirements
   document [REQS], or integration between two or more existing codecs
   that results in an improved codec combining the best aspects of each
   codec.  To enable such procedural transparency, the contributor of an
   existing codec must be willing to cede change control to the IETF and
   should have sufficient knowledge of the codec to assist in the work
   of adapting it or applying some of its technology to the development
   or improvemnet of other codecs.  Furthermore, contributors need to be
   aware that any codec that results from work within the IETF is likely
   to be different from any existing codec that was contributed to the
   Internet Standards Process.

   Work on codec development is expected to proceed as follows:

   1.  One or more IETF participants will identify the requirements to
       be met by Internet codecs, in the form of an Internet-Draft (a
       start at this task is provided in [REQS]).

   2.  Interested parties will actively solicit the contribution of
       existing or proposed new codecs to the Internet Standards
       Process.  Ideally these contributions will occur in the form of
       Internet-Drafts to enable the widest community review, although
       any contributions made in accordance with BCP 78 and BCP 79 will
       be acceptable (e.g., via mailing list or a presentation during a
       WG session).  If there is any IPR related to a contributed codec,
       the contribution should be accompanied by an appropriate IPR
       disclosure (IPR issues are described in more detail under
       Section 5).

   3.  As contributions are received and discussed within the working
       group, the group will gain a clearer understanding of what is
       achievable within the design space.  As a result, the authors of
       the requirements document [REQS] should iteratively clarify and
       improve their document to reflect the emerging working group
       consensus.  This will likely involve collaboration with IETF
       working groups in other areas, such as collaboration with working
       groups in the Transport area to identify important aspects of
       packet transmission over the Internet, with working groups in the
       RAI area to ensure that information about and negotiation of the
       codec can be easily represented at the signalling layer, and with
       working groups in the Transport area to understand the degree of
       rate adaptation desirable.  In parallel with this work,
       interested parties should evaluate the contributions at a higher



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       level to see which requirements might be met by each codec.

   4.  Once a sufficient number of proposals has been received, the
       interested parties will identify the strengths, weaknesses, and
       innovative aspects of the contributed codecs.  This step will
       consider not only the codecs as a whole, but also key features of
       the individual algorithms (predictors, quantizers, transforms,
       etc.).

   5.  It is expected that none of the contributed codecs will meet all
       of the defined requirements.  Therefore, it is expected that IETF
       participants will choose a _starting point_ for the reference
       implementation to facilitate the development process.  This codec
       will meet as many of the requirements as possible, but probably
       will need to be adjusted through an iterative development process
       in order to meet all of the requirements (or as many requirements
       as possible).  The starting point codec might be one of the
       contributed codecs (especially if it is the only codec that meets
       most of the requirements), a combination of two or more of the
       contributed codecs, or an entirely new codec.  None of the
       decisions taken at this step will be definitive.  In particular,
       IETF participants will not provide a "rubber stamp" for any
       contributed codec.

   6.  IETF participants will attempt to iteratively improve each
       component of the starting point reference implementation, where
       by "component" we mean individual algorithms such as predictors,
       transforms, quantizers, and entropy coders.  The participants
       will proceed by trying new designs, applying ideas from the
       contributed codecs, evaluating "proof of concept" ideas, and
       using their expertise in codec development to improve the
       starting point codec.  Any aspect of the starting point codec
       might be changed (even the fundamental principles of the codec)
       or the participants might start over entirely by scrapping the
       starting point codec and designing a completely new one.  The
       overriding goal shall be to design a codec that will meet the
       requirements defined in the requirements document.  Given the
       IETF's open standards process, any interested party will be able
       to contribute to this work, whether or not they submitted an
       Internet-Draft for one of the contributed codecs.  The codec
       itself will be normatively specified with code in an Internet-
       Draft.

   7.  In parallel with work on the codec reference implementation,
       developers and other interested parties should perform evaluation
       of the codec as described under Section 3, IETF participants
       should define (within the AVT Working Group) the codec's payload
       format for use with the Real-time Transport Protocol [RTP], and



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       application developers should start testing the codec by
       implementing it in code and deploying it in actual Internet audio
       applications to identify any potential problems.

   8.  Once IETF participants agree that the codec being developed meets
       the requirements (e.g., through consensus calls on the relevant
       discussion list or via a working group last call if a working
       group is formed), IETF participants can begin the task of
       characterizating the codec.  The characterization process is
       described under Section 3.









































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3.  Evaluation, Testing, and Characterization

   Lab evaluation of the codecs should happen throughout the development
   process because it will help ensure that progress is being made
   toward fulfillment of the requirements.  There are many ways in which
   continuous evaluation can be performed.  For minor, uncontroversial
   changes to the codec it should usually be sufficient to use objective
   measurements (e.g., PESQ, PEAQ, and SegSNR) validated by listening to
   a few samples.  For more complex changes (e.g., when psychoacoustic
   aspects are involved) or for controversial issues, internal testing
   should be performed.  An example of internal testing would be to have
   individual participants rate audio samples using one of the
   established testing methodologies, such as ITU-R BS.1534 (MUSHRA).

   Throughout the process, it will be important to make use of the
   Internet community at large for real-world distributed testing.  This
   will enable many different people with different equipment and use
   cases to test the codec and report any problems they experience.  In
   the same way, third-party software developers will be encouraged to
   integrate the codec (with a warning about the bit-stream not being
   final) and provide feedback on its performance in real-world use
   cases.

   Characterization of the final codec must be based on the reference
   implementation only (and not on any "private implementation").  This
   can be performed by independent testing labs or, if this is not
   possible, using the testing labs of the organizations that contribute
   to the Internet Standards Process.  Packet loss robustness should be
   evaluated using actual loss patterns collected from use over the
   Internet, rather than theoretical models.  The goals of the
   characterization phase are to:

   o  ensure that the requirements have been fulfilled

   o  guide the IESG in its evaluation of the resulting work

   o  assist application developers in understanding whether the codec
      is suitable for a particular application













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4.  Requirements Conformance

   It is the responsibility of the working group to define criteria for
   evaluating conformance, including but not limited to comparison tools
   and test vectors.  The following text provides suggestions for
   consideration by the working group.

   First, any codec specified by the IETF must include source code for a
   normative reference implementation, specified in an Internet-Draft.
   This will aid in interoperability testing and requirements
   conformance.

   Second, it is best to use the minimum number of normative
   requirements that will ensure complete interoperability between
   implementations.  In practice this generally means that only the
   decoder needs to be normative, so that the encoder can improve over
   time.  This also enables different tradeoffs between quality and
   complexity.

   Third, to reduce the risk of bias towards certain CPU/DSP
   architectures, ideally the decoder specification would not have a
   "bit-exact" definition.  The output of a decoder implementation
   should only be "close enough" to the output of the reference decoder.
   A comparison tool should be provided along with the codec to verify
   objectively that the output of a decoder is likely to be perceptually
   indistinguishable from that of the reference decoder.  However, to
   simplify the testing procedure, an implementation may still wish to
   produce an output that is bit-exact with the reference
   implementation.  The packet loss concealment (PLC) algorithm need not
   be normative.  However, if any part of the PLC requires specific
   information transmitted by the encoder in the bit-stream, then the
   corresponding aspect of the reference encoder must be normative.

   Fourth, an encoder implementation should not be required in order to
   generate all the "features" in the bit-stream definition.  However,
   the codec specification may required that an encoder implementation
   shall be able to generate any possible bit-rates.  Unless a
   particular "profile" is defined in the specification, the decoder
   must be able to decode all features of the bit-stream.  The decoder
   must also be able to handle any combination of bits, even if that
   combination cannot be generated by the reference encoder.  It is
   recommended that the decoder specification shall define exactly how
   the decoder should react to "impossible" packets.

   Compressed test vectors should be provided as a means to verify
   conformance with the decoder specification.  These test vectors
   should exercise all paths in the decoder (100% code coverage).




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   While the exact encoder will not be specified, it is recommended to
   specify objective measurement targets for an encoder, below which use
   of a particular encoder implementation is not recommended.  For
   example, one such specification could be: "the use of an encoder
   whose PESQ MOS is less than 0.1 below the reference encoder in the
   following conditions is not recommended".













































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5.  Intellectual Property

   The codec should be "unencumbered".  At a high level, this means that
   any party wishing to implement, deploy, or distribute the codec in
   software, in hardware, or in a service can do so without requesting a
   license, entering into a business agreement, paying licensing fees or
   royalties, or otherwise adhering to special conditions or
   restrictions stipulated by patent holder(s).

   Producing an unencumbered codec is important for the following
   reasons:

   o  The IETF already defines a comprehensive "stack" of unencumbered
      protocols and formats for communication over the Internet.
      However, there is a conspicuous gap in this stack for audio
      codecs.  Although some unencumbered audio codecs have been
      produced "in the wild", they have not been standardized within the
      IETF or any other standards development organization, leading to
      concerns about stability and change control that have hindered
      adoption.

   o  It is the experience of a wide variety of application developers
      and service providers that encumbrances such as licensing and
      royalties make it difficult to implement, deploy, and distribute
      audio applications for use by the Internet community.

   o  It is beneficial to have low-cost options whenever possible
      because standalone voice services are being commoditized and
      small, innovative development teams often cannot afford to pay
      per-channel licensing fees and royalties.

   o  Many market segments are moving away from selling hard-coded
      hardware devices and toward freely distributing end-user software;
      this is true of numerous large application providers and even
      telcos themselves.

   o  Compatibility with the licensing of typical open source
      applications implies the need to avoid the kinds of encumbrances
      listed above, including even the requirement to obtain a license
      for implementation, deployment, or use (even if the license does
      not require the payment of a fee).

   Therefore, the group shall prefer unencumbered technologies in a way
   that is consistent with BCP 78 [TRUST] and BCP 79 [IPR], and shall
   heed the preference stated in BCP 79: "In general, IETF working
   groups prefer technologies with no known IPR claims or, for
   technologies with claims against them, an offer of royalty-free
   licensing."  Although this preference cannot guarantee that the group



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   will produce an unencumbered codec, the group shall attempt to adhere
   to the spirit of BCP 79.  This preference does not explicitly rule
   out the possibility of adapting encumbered technologies; such
   decisions will be made in accordance with the rough consensus of the
   group.

   The following guidelines will help to maximize the odds that the
   codec will be unencumbered:

   1.  In accordance with BCP 79 [IPR], contributed codecs should
       preferably use technologies with no known IPR claims or
       technologies with an offer of royalty-free (RF) licensing.

   2.  Given two, nearly equivalent technologies, the working group
       should prefer technologies where any intellectual property rights
       have expired.  In most jurisdictions, that means technologies
       where the first publication was at least twenty years ago.  This
       protects the work from both current IPR claims as well as
       potential IPR the group is not aware of.

   3.  Whenever possible, the working group should use technologies that
       are perceived by the participants to be safer with regard to IPR
       issues.

   4.  If a technology under consideration is known to be covered by a
       patent, the patent holder should be contacted and asked to
       license the patent under acceptable RF terms (if the patent
       holder is also a contributor, the license may have already been
       specified in the IPR disclosure).

   5.  In cases where no RF license can be obtained regarding a patent,
       the group should consider alternative algorithms or methods, even
       if they result in lower quality, higher complexity, or otherwise
       less desirable characteristics (in most cases, the degradation
       will likely be small once the best alternative has been
       identified).

   6.  In accordance with BCP 78 [TRUST], the source code for the
       reference implementation should be made available under a BSD-
       style license (or whatever license is defined as acceptable by
       the IETF Trust when the Internet-Draft defining the reference
       implementation is published).

   IETF participants should be aware that, given the way patents work in
   most countries, the resulting codecs can never be guaranteed to be
   free of patent claims because some patents may not be known to the
   contributors, some patent applications may not be disclosed at the
   time the codec is developed, and only courts of law can determine the



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   validity and breadth of patent claims.  However, these observations
   are no different within the Internet Standards Process than they are
   for standardization of codecs within other SDOs (or development of
   codecs outside the context of any SDO), and furthermore are no
   different for codecs than for other technologies worked on within the
   IETF.  In all these cases, the best approach is to minimize the risk
   of unknowingly incurring encrumbrance on existing patents.  Despite
   these precautions, participants need to understand that, practically
   speaking, it is nearly impossible to guarantee that implementors will
   not incur encumbrance on existing patents.









































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6.  Relationship with Other SDOs

   It is understood that other SDOs are also involved in the development
   and standardization of audio codecs, including but not necessarily
   limited to:

   o  The Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) of the
      International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in particular Study
      Group 16

   o  The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)

   o  The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

   o  The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)

   o  The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)

   Clearly, there is no "natural monopoly" over codec work, since many
   SDOs have defined codecs in parallel.  However, it is important to
   ensure that such work does not constitute uncoordinated protocol
   development, of the kind described in [UNCOORD] in the following
   principle:

      [T]he IAB considers an essential principle of the protocol
      development process that only one SDO maintains design authority
      for a given protocol, with that SDO having ultimate authority over
      the allocation of protocol parameter code-points; defining the
      intended semantics, interpretation, and actions associated with
      those code-points.

   The work envisioned by this guidelines document and the associated
   requirements document [REQS] is not "uncoordinated" in the sense
   described in the foregoing quote, for the following reasons:

   o  Internet signalling technologies are designed to enable the
      negotiation of any codecs that are supported in a particular
      application (such signalling technologies include the Session
      Initiation Protocol [SIP], Session Description Protocol [SDP], and
      the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol [XMPP] extensions
      for media negotiation as specified in [Jingle]).

   o  Internet transport technologies such as the Real-time Transport
      Protocol [RTP] (including secure transport as described in [SRTP])
      are designed to support any codec for which RTP packetization
      rules have been defined.





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   o  To the extent that codec work at the IETF differs from work at
      other SDOs, it will focus on issues that are specific to the
      Internet, including robustness to packet loss and other aspects of
      packet transmission over the Internet.  Issues that are specific
      to non-Internet transports (e.g., radio communication and circuit-
      switched networks) are specifically out of scope.

   Furthermore, as discussed under Section 5, the group will explicitly
   attempt to develop a codec that is unencumbered or at least royalty-
   free.  It is the understanding of the authors that non-technical
   requirements related to IPR cannot be considered within the above-
   mentioned SDOs until late in their standardization processes, if at
   all.

   Although there is already sufficient codec expertise available among
   IETF participants to complete the envisioned work, additional
   contributions are welcome within the framework of the Internet
   Standards Process, in the following ways:

   o  Individuals who are technical contributors to codec work within
      other SDOs can participate directly in codec work within the IETF.

   o  Other SDOs can contribute their expertise (e.g., codec
      characterization and evaluation techniques) and thus facilitate
      the testing of codecs produced by the IETF.

   o  Any SDO can provide input to IETF work through liaison statements.

   However, it is important to note that final responsibility for the
   development process and the resulting codecs will remain with the
   IETF as governed by BCP 9 [PROCESS].

   Finally, there is precedent for the contribution of codecs developed
   elsewhere to the ITU-T (e.g., AMR Wideband was standardized
   originally within 3GPP).  This is a model to explore as the IETF
   coordinates further with the ITU-T in accordance with the
   collaboration guidelines defined in [COLLAB].














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7.  Security Considerations

   The procedural guidelines for codec development do not have security
   considerations.  However, the resulting codec needs to take
   appropriate security considerations into account, for example as
   outlined in [DOS] and [SECGUIDE].













































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8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.
















































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9.  Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank all the other people who contributed directly
   or indirectly to this document, including Jason Fischl, Gregory
   Maxwell, Alan Duric, Jonathan Christensen, Julian Spittka, and Henry
   Sinnreich.  We also like to thank Cullen Jennings and Gregory
   Lebovitz for their advice.












































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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [IPR]      Bradner, S., "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF
              Technology", BCP 79, RFC 3979, March 2005.

   [PROCESS]  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision
              3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

   [TRUST]    Bradner, S. and J. Contreras, "Rights Contributors Provide
              to the IETF Trust", BCP 78, RFC 5378, November 2008.

10.2.  Informative References

   [COLLAB]   Fishman, G. and S. Bradner, "Internet Engineering Task
              Force and International Telecommunication Union -
              Telecommunications Standardization Sector Collaboration
              Guidelines", RFC 3356, August 2002.

   [DOS]      Handley, M., Rescorla, E., and IAB, "Internet Denial-of-
              Service Considerations", RFC 4732, December 2006.

   [Jingle]   Ludwig, S., Saint-Andre, P., Egan, S., McQueen, R., and D.
              Cionoiu, "Jingle RTP Sessions", XSF XEP 0167, June 2009.

   [REQS]     Valin, J., Borilin, S., Vos, K., Montgomery, C., and J.
              Chen, "Codec Requirements",
              draft-valin-codec-requirements-00 (work in progress),
              September 2009.

   [RTP]      Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [SDP]      Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [SECGUIDE]
              Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC
              Text on Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552,
              July 2003.

   [SIP]      Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.




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   [SRTP]     Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, March 2004.

   [UNCOORD]  Bryant, S. and M. Morrow, ""Uncoordinated Protocol
              Development Considered Harmful"",
              draft-iab-mpls-tp-uncoord-harmful-02 (work in progress),
              September 2009.

   [XMPP]     Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 3920, October 2004.








































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Authors' Addresses

   Jean-Marc Valin
   Octasic Inc.
   4101, Molson Street
   Montreal, Quebec
   Canada

   Email: jean-marc.valin@octasic.com


   Peter Saint-Andre
   Cisco


   Email: Peter.SaintAndre@WebEx.com


   Slava Borilin
   SPIRIT DSP


   Email: borilin@spiritdsp.net


   Koen Vos
   Skype


   Email: koen.vos@skype.net


   Christopher Montgomery
   Xiph.Org Foundation


   Email: xiphmont@xiph.org


   Raymond (Juin-Hwey) Chen
   Broadcom Corporation


   Email: rchen@broadcom.com







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