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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05                                             
CoRE                                                     P. van der Stok
Internet-Draft                                          Philips Research
Intended status: Informational                                   K. Lynn
Expires: April 28, 2011                                       Consultant
                                                        October 25, 2010

                 CoAP Utilization for Building Control


   This draft describes an example use of the RESTful CoAP protocol for
   building automation and control (BAC) applications such as HVAC and
   lighting.  A few basic design assumptions are stated first, then URI
   structure is utilized to define group as well as unicast scope for
   RESTful operations.  RFC 3986 defines the URI components as (1) a
   scheme, (2) an authority, used here to locate the building, area, or
   node under control, (3) a path, used here to locate the resource
   under control, and (4) a query part (fragments are not supported in
   CoAP.)  Next, it is shown that DNS can be used to locate URIs on the
   scale necessary in large commercial BAC deployments.  Finally, a
   method is proposed for mapping URIs onto legacy BAC resources, e.g.,
   to facilitate application-layer gateways.

   This proposal supports the view that (1) building control is likely
   to move in steps toward all-IP control networks based on the legacy
   efforts provided by DALI, LON, BACnet, ZigBee, and other standards,
   and (2) service discovery is complimentary to resource discovery and
   facilitates control network scaling.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 28, 2011.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.2.  Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  URI structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Scheme part  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.2.  Authority part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.3.  Path part  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Group Naming and Addressing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.1.  DNS-Based Service Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.2.  Service vs Resource Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.3.  Browsing for Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  Legacy Structure in CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Conclusions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   8.  IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   10. Changelog  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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1.  Introduction

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in "Key words for use in
   RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119].

   In addition, the following conventions are used in this document.

   The term "service" often means different things to different
   communities and even different things to the same community.  In
   building control protocol standards, service is often used to refer
   to a function in the RPC sense.  In this context, we generally
   substitute the term "function".  In the IETF community, service may
   often refer to an abstract capability such as "datagram delivery".
   In this submission we use the term service, in the sense defined by
   "DNS-based Service Discovery" [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd], as
   equivalent to a CoAP end-point.

   A CoAP end-point is identified by the authority part of a URI.  We
   refer to this end-point (which is resolved to an {IP address, port}
   tuple) as a "node".  By "device" we generally mean the physical
   object handled by the installer.  While a device may host more than
   one service, for simplicity we assume here that a given device may
   only host a single CoAP node.

   In examples below involving URIs, the authority is preceded by double
   slashes "//" and path is preceded by a single slash "/".  The
   examples may make use of fully qualified or partial domain names and
   the difference should be clear from the context.

1.2.  Motivation

   The CoAP protocol [I-D.ietf-core-coap] aims at providing a user
   application protocol architecture that is targeted to a network of
   nodes with a low resource provision such as memory, CPU capacity, and
   energy.  In general, IT application manufacturers strive to provide
   the highest possible functionality and quality for a given price.  In
   contrast, the building controls market is highly price sensitive and
   manufacturers tend to compete by delivering a given functionality and
   quality for the lowest price.  In the first market a decreasing
   memory price leads to more software functionality, while in the
   second market it leads to a lower Bill of Material (BOM).

   The vast majority of nodes in a typical building control application
   are resource constrained, making the standardization of a lightweight

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   application protocol like CoAP a necessary requirement for IP to
   penetrate the device market.  This approach is further indicated by
   the low energy consumption requirement of battery-less nodes.  Low
   resource budget implies low throughput and small packet size as for
   [IEEE.802.15.4].  Reduction of the packet size is obtained by using
   the header reduction of 6LoWPAN [RFC4944] and encouraging small

   Several legacy building control standards (e.g [BACnet], [DALI],
   [KNX], [LON], [ZigBee], etc.) have been developed based on years of
   accumulated knowledge and industry cooperation.  These standards
   generally specify a data model, functional interfaces, packet
   formats, and sometimes the physical medium for data objects and
   function invocation.  Many of these industry standards also specify
   lower-level functionality such as proprietary transport protocols,
   necessitating expensive stateful gateways for these standards to
   interoperate.  Many more recent building control network include IP-
   based standards for transport (at least to interconnect islands of
   functionality) and other functions such as naming and discovery.
   CoAP will be successful in the building control market to the extent
   that it can represent a given standard's data objects and provide
   functions, e.g. resource discovery, that these standards depend on.

   From the above the basic syntax assumptions can be summarized as:

   -  Generate small payloads.

   -  Compatible with legacy standards (e.g LON, BACnet, DALI, ZigBee
      Device Objects).

   -  Service/resource discovery in agreement with legacy standards and
      naming conventions.

   This submission aims at an approach in which the payload contains
   messages with a syntax defined by legacy control standards.
   Accordingly, the syntax of the service/resource discovery messages is
   related to the chosen legacy control standard.  The intention is a
   progressive approach to all-IP in building control.  In a first stage
   standard IETF based protocols (e.g CoAP, DNS-SD) are used for
   transport of control messages and discovery messages expressed in a
   legacy syntax.  This approach enables the reuse of controllers based
   on the semantics of the chosen control standard.  In a later stage a
   complete redesign of the controllers can be envisaged guided by the
   accumulated experience with all-IP control.

   Two concepts, hierarchy and group, are of prime importance in
   building control, particularly in lighting and HVAC.  Many control
   messages or events are multicast from one device to a group of

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   devices (e.g. from a light switch to all lights in a room).  The
   scope of a multicast command or discovery message determines the
   group of nodes that is targeted.  A group scope may be defined as
   link-local, or as a tree maintained by IP-multicast or an overlay
   that corresponds to the logical structure of a building or campus,
   and is independent of the underlying network structure.  Techniques
   for group communication are discussed in [I-D.rahman-core-groupcomm].

   As described in "Commercial Building Applications Requirements"
   [I-D.martocci-6lowapp-building-applications] it is typical practice
   to aggregate building control at the room, area, and supervisory
   levels.  Furthermore, networks for different subsystems (lights,
   HVAC, etc.) or based on different legacy standards have historically
   been isolated from each other in so-called "silos".  RESTful web
   services [Fielding] represent one possible way to expose
   functionality and normalize data representations between silos in
   order to facilitate higher order applications such as campus-wide
   energy management.

   Consequently, additional protocol oriented assumptions are:

   -  Nodes may be addressed by more than one group.

   -  Resources addressed by a group must be uniformly named across all
      targeted nodes.

   For clarity, this I-D limits itself to two types of applications: (1)
   M2M control applications running within a building area without any
   human intervention after commissioning of a given network segment and
   (2) maintenance oriented applications where data are collected from
   node in several building areas by nodes inside or outside the
   building, and humans may intervene to change control settings.

2.  URI structure

   This I-D considers three elements of the URI: scheme, authority, and
   path, as defined in "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic
   Syntax" [RFC3986].  The authority is defined within the context of
   standard DNS host naming, while the path is valid in relation to a
   fully qualified domain name (FQDN) plus optional port (and protocol
   is implicit, based on scheme).  An example based on RFC 3986 is:
   foo://host.example.com:8042/over/there?name=ferret#nose, where "foo"
   is the scheme, "host.example.com:8042" is the authority, "/over/
   there" is the path, "name=ferret" is the query, and "nose" is the
   fragment.  Fragments are not supported in CoAP.

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2.1.  Scheme part

   The default scheme specified in this submission is "coap".  We assume
   syntactic compatibility with the "http" scheme specification
   [RFC2616], namely that the host part of the authority may be
   represented either as a literal IP address or as a fully qualified
   domain name.  While scheme is irrelevant from the perspective of the
   service, it is used in service discovery to identify the protocol
   used to access the service.

   TBD: we have yet to fully explore the utility of a separate scheme
   (e.g., "coapm") to support group communication models as described in

2.2.  Authority part

   The authority part is either a literal IP address or a DNS name
   comprised of a local part, specifying an individual node or group of
   nodes, and a global part specifying the (sub)domain that may reflect
   the logical hierarchical structure of the building control network.
   The result is said to be a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) which
   is globally unique down to the group or node level.  An optional port
   number may be included in the authority following a single colon ":"
   if the service port is other than the default CoAP value.

   The CoAP spec [I-D.ietf-core-coap] states "When a CoAP server is
   hosted by a 6LoWPAN node, it SHOULD support a port in the 61616-61631
   compressed UDP port space defined in [RFC4944].  The specific port
   number in use will be communicated in a URI and/or by some other
   discovery mechanism."  As shown below, DNS-SD
   [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] is a viable technique for discovering
   dynamic host and port assignments for a given service.  However, the
   use of dynamic ports in URIs is likely to lead to brittle (non-
   persistent) identifiers as it is conventional to treat different
   ports as representing different authorities and there is no assurance
   that a coap server will consistently acquire the same dynamic port.

   A building can be unambiguously addressed by it GPS coordinates or
   more functionally by its zip or postal code.  For example the Dutch
   Internet provider, KPN, assigns to each subscriber a host name based
   on its postcode.  Analogously, an example authority for a building
   may be given by: //bldg.zipcode-localnr.Country/ or more concretely
   an imaginary address in the Netherlands as: //bldg.5533BA-125a.nl/.
   The "bldg" prefix can specify the target node within the building.
   Arriving at the node identified by //bldg.5533BA-125a.nl, the
   receiving service can parse the path portion of the URI and perform
   the requested method on the specified resource.

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   Buildings have a logical internal structure dependent on their size
   and function.  This ranges from a single hall without any structure
   to a complex building with wings, floors, offices and possibly a
   structure within individual rooms.  The naming of the building
   control equipment and the actual control strategy are intimately
   linked to the building structure.  It is therefore natural to name
   the equipment based on their location within the building.
   Consequently, the local part of the URI identifying a piece of
   equipment is expressed in the building structure.  An example is:

   This proposal assumes a basic level of cooperation between the IT and
   building management infrastructure, namely the ability of the former
   to delegate DNS subdomains to the latter.  This allows the building
   controls installer to implement an appropriate naming scheme with the
   required granularity.  For institutional real estate such as a
   college or corporate campus, the authority might be based on the
   organization's domain, e.g. //node-or-
   group.floor.wing.bldg.campus.example.com/.  In cases where subdomain
   delegation is not an option, structure can still be represented in a
   "flat" namespace, subject to the 63 octet limit for a DNS sub-
   string: //group1-floor2-west-bldg3-campus.example.com.

   Most communication is device to device (M2M) within the building.
   Often a device needs to communicate to all devices of a given type
   within a given area of the building.  For example a thermostat may
   access all radiator actuators in a zone.  A light switch located at
   room 25b006 of floor one, expressed as:
   //switch0.25b006.floor1.5533BA-125a.nl/, might specify a command to
   light1 within the same room with //light1.25b006.floor1.5533BA-
   125a.nl/.  This approach seems to lead to rather verbose URI strings
   in the packet, contrary to the small packet assumption.  However, the
   design of CoAP is such that the authority portion of the URI need not
   be transmitted in requests sent to origin servers.  The question
   arises as to whether the syntax of the authority part needs to be
   standardized for building control.  Given the examples later in the
   text, this appears more to be the concern of the building owner or
   the installer.

2.3.  Path part

   Every network addressable resource is completely identified by a URI
   scheme://authority/path.  The path part of the URI specifies the
   resource within a given node.  The representation of object types and
   their associated attributes are typically subjects for
   standardization.  There is no widely accepted standard for uniformly
   naming building control device structure in a URI.  A vigorous effort
   is undertaken by the oBIX working group of OASIS [oBIX], but its

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   current impact is limited.

   When a GET method with an URI like
   "//t-sensor1.25b006.floor1.example.com/temperature" is sent, it
   represents an a priori understanding that the node with name
   t-sensor1 exists, is of a given standard type (e.g BACnet temperature
   sensor), and that this standard type has the readable attribute:
   temperature.  When commands are sent to a group of nodes it MUST be
   the case that the targeted resource has the same path on all targeted
   nodes.  Therefore, it is necessary to establish at least a local
   uniform path naming convention to achieve this.  One approach is to
   include the name of the standard, e.g BACnet, as the first element in
   the path and then employ the standard's chosen data scheme (in the
   case of BACnet, /bacnet/device/object/property).  Perhaps a better
   alternative is to build on the concepts presented in
   [I-D.ietf-core-link-format] and identify resources of a given type in
   terms of the "/.well-known/core" prefix.

3.  Group Naming and Addressing

   Given a network configuration and associated prefixes, the network
   operator needs to define an appropriate set of groups which can be
   mapped to the building areas.  Knowledge about the hierarchical
   structure of the building areas may assist in defining a network
   architecture which encourages an efficient group communication
   implementation.  IP-multicasting over the group is a possible
   approach for building control, although proxy-based methods may prove
   to be more appropriate in some deployments

   Example groups become:

   URI authority                    Targeted group
   //all.bldg6...                   "all nodes in building 6"
   //all.west.bldg6...              "all nodes in west wing, building 6"
   //all.floor1.west.bldg6...       "all nodes on floor 1, west wing,
   //all.bu036.floor1.west.bldg6... "all nodes in office bu036, ..."

   The granularity of this example is for illustration rather than a
   recommendation.  Experience will dictate the appropriate hierarchy
   for a given structure as well as the appropriate number of groups per
   subdomain.  Note that in this example, the group name "all" is used
   to identify the group of all nodes in each subdomain.  In practice,
   "all" could name an address record in each of the DNS zones shown
   above and would bind to a different multicast address [RFC3596] in
   each zone.  Highly granular multicast scopes are only possible using

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   IPv6.  The multicast address allocation strategy is beyond the scope
   of this I-D, but various alternatives have been proposed
   [RFC3306][RFC3307][RFC3956].  Some techniques in this proposal, e.g.
   service discovery as described below, can be accomplished with a
   single coap-specific multicast address as long as the desired scope
   is building-wide.

   To illustrate the concept of multiple group names within a building,
   consider the definition, as done with [DALI], of scenes within the
   context of a floor or a single office.  For example, the setting of
   all blue lights in office bu036 of floor 1 can be realized by
   multicasting a message to the group "//blue-lights.bu036.floor1".
   Each group is associated with an IP address.  Consequently, when the
   application specifies the sending of an "on" message to all blue
   lights in the office, the message is multicast to the associated IP
   address.  The uri-authority option [I-D.ietf-core-coap] need not be
   sent as part of the message.  However to identify the resource that
   is addressed, a short version of the resource path can be inserted as
   an option as explained in [I-D.ietf-core-link-format].

   The binding of a group FQDN to multicast address (i.e., creation of
   the AAAA record in the DNS zone server) happens during the
   commissioning process.  (TBD: How do we associate this name with
   MLD's notion of a group?)  Resolution of the group name to a
   multicast address happens at restart of a source or receiver node.  A
   multicast address and associated group name in this context are
   assumed to be long-lived.  It can happen that during operation the
   membership of the group changes (less or more lights) but its address
   is not altered and neither its name.  In the limit, the group can
   degrade to a single controller that represents a non-networked
   subsystem replacing the original networked group of nodes.  Group
   membership may be managed by a protocol such as Multicast Listener
   Discovery [RFC5790].

   A group defines a set of nodes.  All resources on a given node are
   referenced by the multicast address(es) to which the node belongs.  A
   given node might belong to a number of groups.  For example the node
   belonging to the "blue-lights" group in a given corridor might also
   belong to the groups: "whole building", "given wing", "given floor",
   "given corridor", and "lights in given corridor".  Assuming that
   belonging to a group has as only consequence for the group member
   that it should accept packets for an additional IP address, the
   granularity of the domain names may have an impact on the complexity
   of the DNS server but not necessarily on the low-resource
   destinations or sources.  Assuming that resolution of addresses only
   happens at node start-up, the complexity of the DNS server need not
   affect the responsiveness of the nodes.

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   In summary, the authority portion of the URI is used to identify a
   node (group) and the resulting DNS name is bound to a unicast
   (multicast) address.  Naming is building or organization dependent,
   must be flexible, and does not require standardization efforts but
   SHOULD conform to some uniform convention.

4.  Discovery

4.1.  DNS-Based Service Discovery

   DNS-Based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) defines a conventional way to
   configure DNS PTR, SRV, and TXT records to facilitate discovery of
   services such as CoAP nodes within a subdomain, using the existing
   DNS infrastrucure.  This section gives a cursory overview of DNS-SD;
   see [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] for a detailed description.

   A DNS-SD service is specified by a name of the form
   Instance.ServiceType.Domain, where the service type for CoAP nodes is
   "_coap._udp".  The identifier "_udp" is required by the SRV record
   definition [RFC2782] and "_coap" identifies the protocol on top of
   udp.  For each CoAP end-point in the zone, a PTR record with the name
   _coap._udp is defined and each of these refers to SRV and TXT records
   having the Instance.ServiceType.Domain name.

   DNS-SD also supports one level of subtype, which could be used to
   locate coap services based on object model, for example:
   _bacnet._sub._coap._udp, _dali._sub._coap._udp, or
   _zigbee._sub._coap._udp.  The maximum length of the type and subtype
   fields is 14 octets, therefore this could be extended to type-
   function as _dali-light, _dali-switch, etc.

   The Domain part of the service name is identical to the DNS
   (sub)domain part of the authority in URIs that identify the resources
   on this node or group and may identify a building zone as in the
   examples above.

   The Instance part of the service name is defined as part of the
   commissioning process.  It must be unique within the (sub)domain.
   The complete service name uniquely identifies both a SRV and TXT
   record in the DNS zone.  The granularity of a service name MAY be
   that of a host or group, or it could represent a particular resource
   within a coap node.  The SRV record contains the host (AAAA record)
   name and port of the service.  In the case where a service name
   identifies a particular resource, the path part of the URI must be
   placed in the TXT record.

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4.2.  Service vs Resource Discovery

   While service discovery is concerned with finding the IP address,
   port, and protocol of a named service, resource discovery is a fine-
   grained discovery of resource URIs within a web service.
   [I-D.ietf-core-link-format] specifies a resource discovery pattern,
   such that sending a confirmable GET message for the /.well-known/core
   resource returns a set of links that identify all resources present
   on this node that are exposed as functions.

   Assuming the ability to multicast the GET over the local link, the
   coap resource discovery can be used to populate the DNS-SD database
   in a semi-automated fashion.  CoAP resource descriptions can be
   imported into DNS-SD for exposure to service discovery by using the
   n= attribute as the basis for a unique "Instance" name, defaulting to
   "_coap._udp" for the ServiceType, and using some means to establish
   which domain the service should be registered in (TBD).  The DNS TXT
   record can be populated by importing the other resource description
   attributes as they share the same key=value format specified in
   Section 6 of [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd].

4.3.  Browsing for Services

   CoAP nodes in a given subdomain may be enumerated by sending a DNS
   query to the authoritative server for that zone for PTR records named
   _coap._udp.  A list of names for SRV records matching that
   ServiceType.Domain is returned.  Each SRV record contains the port
   and host name of a CoAP node.  The IP address of the node is obtained
   by resolving the host name.  DNS-SD also specifies an optional TXT
   record, having the same name as the SRV record, which can contain
   "key=value" attributes.  This can be used to store information about
   the device, e.g., schema=DALI, type=switch.  The format of the TXT
   record can be standardized by the various control standards bodies as
   they adopt CoAP.

   TO DO: How to handle changes in building control network

5.  Legacy Structure in CoAP

   In the text above it is shown how information to locate services and
   devices can be stored in a DNS zone registry.  An installation tool
   can populate the registry with the resource information gleaned by
   the coap GET query to /.well-known/core.  Applications can then query
   the registry to find the address, port, and path for targeted
   services/resources.  Given the returned information, an application
   that acts on devices of a given legacy standard can invoke the legacy

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   service using coap methods.  Assume a short URI-reference /dl and the
   setting of a value of 200 in the DALI device, dt is the number of the
   dali type stored in the TXT record, and ct=52 is the proposed
   Internet media type.

       Client                                          DALI server
         |  REQUEST                                           |
         |------- CON + PUT /dl [TID = 1234, ct=52] --------->|
         | binary 16 bit payload dt*256 + 200                 |
         |                                                    |
         |  RESPONSE                                          |
         |<---------- ACK + 200 OK [TID = 1234] ------------- |
         |                                                    |

         Figure 1: Sending a DALI setting with coap to DALI device

   In the example the format of the payload is determined by the legacy
   standard.  The short URI /dl on this IP address is obtained from the
   TXT record for this service, e.g., sh="/dl".  The value dt is entered
   (e.g. dt="200") as the number identifying the dali type of the dali
   compatible resource.

6.  Conclusions

   This I-D explains how naming in building control is based on a
   hierarchical structure of the building areas.  It is shown that DNS
   subdomain delegation and naming can be used to express this hierarchy
   in the authority portion of the URI, down to the group or node level.
   The hierarchical naming scheme need not be standardized, but rather
   can be designed to suit the application.  However, it is recommended
   that the scheme be employed consistently throughout the delegated

   The authority portion of the URI is resolved by the client, using
   conventional DNS, into the unicast or multicast IP address of the
   targeted node(s).  Taking advantage of the CoAP design
   [I-D.ietf-core-coap], the uri-authority option need not be
   transmitted in requests to origin servers and thus there is no
   performance penalty for using descriptive naming schemes.  The coap
   design allows sending a short url to distinguish between resources on
   a given node, resulting in very compact identifiers.

   DNS-SD [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] can be used to scale up service

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   discovery beyond the local link.  DNS-SD can be used to enumerate
   instances of a given service type within a given sub-domain.  This
   affords additional flexibility, such as the ability to discover
   dynamic port assignments for coap node, locate coap nodes by subtype,
   or bind service names for particular coap URIs.

   A targeted resource is specified by the path portion of the URI.
   Again, this I-D does not mandate a universal naming standard for
   resources but uses examples to show how resources could be named for
   various legacy standards.  An obvious requirement for resources that
   are accessed by multicast is that they MUST all share the same path,
   including short uri if used.  It is shown that it is possible to
   transport legacy commands (e.g. expressed in BACnet, LON, DALI,
   ZigBee, etc.) inside a CoAP message body.  This necessitates the
   definition of an additional IANA mime code, and the mapping of legacy
   specific discovery semantics to CoAP resource discovery messages or
   DNS-SD lookups.

7.  Security considerations

   TBD: The detailed CoAP security analysis needs to encompass scenarios
   for building control applications.

   Based on the programming model presented in this I-D, security
   scenarios for building control need to be stated.  Appropriate
   methods to counteract the proposed threats may be based on the work
   done elsewhere, for example in the ZigBee over IP context.

   Multicast messages are, by their nature, transmitted via UDP.  Any
   privacy applied to such messages must be block oriented and based on
   group keys shared by all targeted nodes.  The CoRE security analysis
   must be broadened to include multicast scenarios.

8.  IANA considerations

   This I-D proposes the following additions to the Media type
   identifiers in conformance with the proposals done in

                         Internet media type Code
                         /application/legacy 52

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9.  Acknowledgements

   This I-D has benefited from conversations with and comments from
   Andrew Tokmakoff, Emmanuel Frimout, Jamie Mc Cormack, Oscar Garcia,
   Dee Denteneer, Joop Talstra, Zach Shelby, Jerald Martocci, Matthieu
   Vial, Jerome Hamel, and Nicolas Riou.

10.  Changelog

   - Removed all references to multicast and multicast scope, given
   draft of rahman group communication.

   - Adapted examples to coap-2 and core-link drafts.

   - transport short URL for destination recognition.

   - Elaborated legacy discovery under DNS-SD.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2782]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              February 2000.

   [RFC3306]  Haberman, B. and D. Thaler, "Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6
              Multicast Addresses", RFC 3306, August 2002.

   [RFC3307]  Haberman, B., "Allocation Guidelines for IPv6 Multicast
              Addresses", RFC 3307, August 2002.

   [RFC3596]  Thomson, S., Huitema, C., Ksinant, V., and M. Souissi,
              "DNS Extensions to Support IP Version 6", RFC 3596,
              October 2003.

   [RFC3956]  Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous
              Point (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address",
              RFC 3956, November 2004.

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   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, September 2007.

   [RFC5785]  Nottingham, M. and E. Hammer-Lahav, "Defining Well-Known
              Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 5785,
              April 2010.

   [RFC5790]  Liu, H., Cao, W., and H. Asaeda, "Lightweight Internet
              Group Management Protocol Version 3 (IGMPv3) and Multicast
              Listener Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) Protocols", RFC 5790,
              February 2010.

11.2.  Informative References

              Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", draft-cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd-06 (work in
              progress), March 2010.

              Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS",
              draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns-11 (work in progress),
              March 2010.

              Shelby, Z., Frank, B., and D. Sturek, "Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-02
              (work in progress), September 2010.

              Shelby, Z., "CoRE Link Format",
              draft-ietf-core-link-format-00 (work in progress),
              October 2010.

              Martocci, J., Schoofs, A., and P. Stok, "Commercial
              Building Applications Requirements",
              draft-martocci-6lowapp-building-applications-01 (work in
              progress), July 2010.

              Rahman, A., "Group Communication for CoAP",
              draft-rahman-core-groupcomm-00 (work in progress),

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              October 2010.

   [BACnet]   Bender, J. and M. Newman, "BACnet/IP",
              Web http://www.bacnet.org/Tutorial/BACnetIP/index.html.

   [ZigBee]   Tolle, G., "A UDP/IP Adaptation of the ZigBee Application
              Protocol", draft-tolle-cap-00 (work in progress),
              October 2008.

   [LON]      "LONTalk protocol specification, version 3", 1994.

   [DALI]     "DALI Manual", Web http://www.dali-ag.org/c/manual_gb.pdf,

   [KNX]      Kastner, W., Neugschwandtner, G., and M. Koegler, "AN OPEN
              fet05-openapproach-preprint.pdf, 2005.

              "Information technology - Telecommunications and
              information exchange between systems - Local and
              metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part
              15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical
              Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal
              Area Networks (LR-WPANs)", IEEE Std 802.15.4-2006,
              June 2006,

   [oBIX]     "oBIX working group", Web http://www.obix.org, 2003.

              Fielding, R., "Architectural Styles and the Design of
              Network-based Software Architectures, Second Edition",
              Doctoral dissertation , University of California, Irvine ,
              Web http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/pubs/dissertation/
              top.html, 2000.

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Authors' Addresses

   Peter van der Stok
   Philips Research
   High Tech Campus
   Eindhoven,   5656 AA
   The Netherlands

   Email: peter.van.der.stok@philips.com

   Kerry Lynn

   Phone: +1 978 460 4253
   Email: kerlyn@ieee.org

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