OAuth Working Group                                           W. Denniss
Internet-Draft                                                    Google
Intended status: Best Current Practice                        J. Bradley
Expires: August 7, 2016                                    Ping Identity
                                                       February 04, 2016

                       OAuth 2.0 for Native Apps


   OAuth 2.0 authorization requests from native apps should only be made
   through external user-agents such as the system browser (including
   via an in-app browser tab).  This specification details the security
   and usability reasons why this is the case, and how native apps and
   authorization servers can implement this best practice.

Status of This Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 7, 2016.

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   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.3.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Using Inter-app URI Communication for OAuth . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Initiating the Authorization Request  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Receiving the Authorization Response  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  App-declared Custom URI Scheme Redirection  . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  App-claimed HTTPS URI Redirection . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.3.  Localhost-based URI Redirection . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Embedded User-Agents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  Protecting the Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.3.  Phishing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.4.  Limitations of Non-verifiable Clients . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  Other External User Agents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Operating System Specific Implementation Details . .  15
     A.1.  iOS Implementation Details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     A.2.  Android Implementation Details  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   The OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749] authorization framework, documents two
   approaches in Section 9 for native apps to interact with the
   authorization endpoint: via an embedded user-agent, or an external

   This document recommends external user-agents like in-app browser
   tabs as the only secure and usable choice for OAuth.  It documents
   how native apps can implement authorization flows with such agents,
   and the additional requirements of authorization servers needed to
   support such usage.

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1.1.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in Key
   words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].  If
   these words are used without being spelled in uppercase then they are
   to be interpreted with their normal natural language meanings.

1.2.  Terminology

   In addition to the terms defined in referenced specifications, this
   document uses the following terms:

   "app"  A native application, such as one on a mobile device or
      desktop operating system.

   "app store"  An ecommerce store where users can download and purchase
      apps.  Typically with quality-control measures to protect users
      from malicious developers.

   "system browser"  The operating system's default browser, typically
      pre-installed as part of the operating system, or installed and
      set as default by the user.

   "browser tab"  An open page of the system browser.  Browser typically
      have multiple "tabs" representing various open pages.

   "in-app browser tab"  A full page browser with limited navigation
      capabilities that is displayed inside a host app, but retains the
      full security properties and authentication state of the system
      browser.  Has different platform-specific product names, such as
      SFSafariViewController on iOS 9, and Chrome Custom Tab on Android.

   "Claimed HTTPS URL"  Some platforms allow apps to claim a domain name
      by hosting a file that proves the link between site and app.
      Typically this means that URLs opened by the system will be opened
      in the app instead of the browser.

   "web-view"  A web browser UI component that can be embedded in apps
      to render web pages, used to create embedded user-agents.

   "reverse domain name notation"  A naming convention based on the
      domain name system, but where where the domain components are
      reversed, for example "app.example.com" becomes "com.example.app".

   "custom URI scheme"  A URI scheme (as defined by [RFC3986]) that the
      app creates and registers with the OS (and is not a standard URI

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      scheme like "https:" or "tel:").  Requests to such a scheme
      results in the app which registered it being launched by the OS.
      For example, "myapp:", "com.example.myapp:" are both custom URI

   "inter-app communication"  Communication between two apps on a

   "OAuth"  In this document, OAuth refers to OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749].

1.3.  Overview

   At the time of writing, many native apps are still using web-views, a
   type of embedded user-agent, for OAuth.  That approach has multiple
   drawbacks, including the client app being able to eavesdrop user
   credentials, and is a suboptimal user experience as the
   authentication session can't be shared, and users need to sign-in to
   each app separately.

   OAuth flows between a native app and the system browser (or another
   external user-agent) are more secure, and take advantage of the
   shared authentication state to enable single sign-on.  The in-app
   browser tab pattern makes this approach even more viable, as apps can
   present the system browser without the user switching context
   something that could previously only be achieved by a web-view on
   most platforms.

   Inter-process communication, such as OAuth flows between a native app
   and the system browser can be achieved through URI-based
   communication.  As this is exactly how OAuth works for web-based
   OAuth flows between RP and IDP websites, OAuth can be used for native
   app auth with very little modification.

1.3.1.  Authorization Flow for Native Apps

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    |          User Device           |
    |                                |
    | +---------------------------+  |                     +-----------+
    | |                           |  | (4) Authz Grant     |           |
    | |        Client App         |----------------------->|  Authz    |
    | |                           |<-----------------------|  Server   |
    | +---------------------------+  | (5) Access Token    |           |
    |    |              ^            |                     +-----------+
    |    |              |            |
    |    |              |            |
    |    | (1)          | (3)        |
    |    | Authz        | Authz      |
    |    | Request      | Grant      |
    |    | "https://"   | "app:/"    |
    |    |              |            |
    |    v              |            |
    | +---------------------------+  |                     +-----------+
    | |                           |  | (2) User            |           |
    | |    System Browser Tab     |  |     authenticated   | Identity  |
    | |                           |<---------------------->| Provider  |
    | +---------------------------+  |                     |           |
    |                                |                     +-----------+

        Figure 1: Native App Authorization via External User-agent

   Figure 1 illustrates the interaction of the native app with the
   system browser to authorize the user via an external user-agent.

   1) The client app opens a system browser with the authorization
      request (e.g. https://idp.example.com/oauth2/auth...)

   2) Server authenticates the end-user, potentially chaining to another
      authentication system, and issues Authorization Code Grant on

   3) Browser switches focus back to the client app using a URI with a
      custom scheme or claimed HTTPS URL, passing the code as a URI

   4) Client presents the OAuth 2.0 authorization code and PKCE
      [RFC7636] proof of possession verifier.

   5) Server issues the tokens requested.

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2.  Using Inter-app URI Communication for OAuth

   Just as URIs are used for OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749] on the web to initiate
   the authorization request and return the authorization response to
   the requesting website, URIs can be used by native apps to initiate
   the authorization request in the device's system browser and return
   the response to the requesting native app.

   By applying the same principles from the web to native apps, we gain
   similar benefits like the usability of a single sign-on session, and
   the security by a separate authentication context.  It also reduces
   the implementation complexity by reusing the same flows as the web,
   and increases interoperability by relying on standards-based web
   flows that are not specific to a particular platform.

   It is RECOMMENDED that native apps use the URI-based communication
   functionality of the operating system to perform OAuth flows in an
   external user-agent, typically the system browser.

   For usability, it is RECOMMENDED that native apps perform OAuth using
   the system browser by presenting an in-app browser tab where
   possible.  This affords the benefits of the system browser, while
   allowing the user to remain in the app.

   It is possible to create an external user-agent for OAuth that is a
   native app provided by the authorization server, as opposed to the
   system browser.  This approach shares a lot of similarity with using
   the system browser as both use URIs for inter-app communication and
   is able to provide a secure, shared authentication session, and thus
   MAY be used for secure native OAuth, applying most of the techniques
   described here.  However it is NOT RECOMMENDED due to the increased
   complexity and requirement for the user to have the AS app installed.
   While much of the advice and security considerations are applicable
   to such clients, they are out of scope for this specification.

3.  Initiating the Authorization Request

   The authorization request is created as per OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749], and
   opened in the system browser.  Where the operating system supports
   in-app browser tabs, those should be preferred over switching to the
   system browser, to improve usability.

   The function of the redirect URI for a native app authorization
   request is similar to that of a web-based authorization request.
   Rather than returning the authorization code to the OAuth client's
   server, it returns it to the native app.  The various options for a
   redirect URI that will return the code to the native app are

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   documented in Section 4.  Any redirect URI that allows the app to
   receive the URI and inspect its parameters is viable.

4.  Receiving the Authorization Response

   There are three main approaches to redirection URIs for native apps:
   custom URI schemes, app-claimed HTTP URI schemes, and
   http://localhost redirects.

4.1.  App-declared Custom URI Scheme Redirection

   Most major mobile and desktop computing platforms support inter-app
   communication via URIs by allowing apps to register custom URI
   schemes.  When the system browser or another app attempts to follow a
   URI with a custom scheme, the app that registered it is launched to
   handle the request.  This document is only relevant on platforms that
   support this pattern.

   In particular, the custom URI scheme pattern is supported on the
   mobile platforms Android [Android.URIScheme], iOS [iOS.URIScheme],
   and Windows Phone [WindowsPhone.URIScheme].  Desktop operating
   systems Windows [Windows.URIScheme] and OS X [OSX.URIScheme] also
   support custom URI schemes.

4.1.1.  Using Custom URI Schemes for Redirection

   To perform an OAuth 2.0 Authorization Request on a supported
   platform, the native app launches the system browser with a normal
   OAuth 2.0 Authorization Request, but provides a redirection URI that
   utilizes a custom URI scheme that is registered by the calling app.

   When the authentication server completes the request, it redirects to
   the client's redirection URI like it would any redirect URI, but as
   the redirection URI uses a custom scheme, this results in the OS
   launching the native app passing in the URI.  The native app extracts
   the code from the query parameters from the URI just like a web
   client would, and exchanges the Authorization Code like a regular
   OAuth 2.0 client.

4.1.2.  Custom URI Scheme Namespace Considerations

   When selecting which URI scheme to associate with the app, apps
   SHOULD pick a scheme that is globally unique, and which they can
   assert ownership over.

   To avoid clashing with existing schemes in use, using a scheme that
   follows the reverse domain name pattern applied to a domain under the
   app publishers control is RECOMMENDED.  Such a scheme can be based on

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   a domain they control, or the OAuth client identifier in cases where
   the authorization server issues client identifiers that are also
   valid DNS subdomains.  The chosen scheme MUST NOT clash with any IANA
   registered scheme [IANA.URISchemes].  You SHOULD also ensure that no
   other app by the same publisher uses the same scheme.

   Schemes using reverse domain name notation are hardened against
   collision.  They are unlikely to clash with an officially registered
   scheme [IANA.URISchemes] or unregistered de-facto scheme, as these
   generally don't include a period character, and are unlikely to match
   your domain name in any case.  They are guaranteed not to clash with
   any OAuth client following these naming guidelines in full.

   Some platforms use globally unique bundle or package names that
   follow the reverse domain name notation pattern.  In these cases, the
   app SHOULD register that bundle id as the custom scheme.  If an app
   has a bundle id or package name that doesn't match a domain name
   under the control of the app, the app SHOULD NOT register that as a
   scheme, and instead create a URI scheme based off one of their domain

   For example, an app whose publisher owns the top level domain name
   "example.com" can register "com.example.app:/" as their custom
   scheme.  An app whose authorization server issues client identifiers
   that are also valid domain names, for example
   "client1234.usercontent.idp.com", can use the reverse domain name
   notation of that domain as the scheme, i.e.
   "com.idp.usercontent.client1234:/".  Each of these examples are URI
   schemes which are likely to be unique, and where the publisher can
   assert ownership.

   As a counter-example, using a simple custom scheme like "myapp:/" is
   not guaranteed to be unique and is NOT RECOMMENDED.

   In addition to uniqueness, basing the URI scheme off a name that is
   under the control of the app's publisher can help to prove ownership
   in the event of a dispute where two apps register the same custom
   scheme (such as if an app is acting maliciously).  For example, if
   two apps registered "com.example.app:", the true owner of
   "example.com" could petition the app store operator to remove the
   counterfeit app.  This petition is harder to prove if a generic URI
   scheme was chosen.

4.1.3.  Registration of App Redirection URIs

   As recommended in Section of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749], the
   authorization server SHOULD require the client to pre-register the

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   redirection URI.  This remains true for app redirection URIs that use
   custom schemes.

   Additionally, authorization servers MAY request the inclusion of
   other platform-specific information, such as the app package or
   bundle name, or other information used to associate the app that may
   be useful for verifying the calling app's identity, on operating
   systems that support such functions.

   Authorizations servers SHOULD support the ability for native apps to
   register Redirection URIs that utilize custom URI schemes.
   Authorization servers SHOULD enforce the recommendation in
   Section 4.1.2 that apps follow naming guidelines for URI schemes.

4.2.  App-claimed HTTPS URI Redirection

   Some operating systems allow apps to claim HTTPS URLs of their
   domains.  When the browser sees such a claimed URL, instead of the
   page being loaded in the browser, the native app is launched instead
   with the URL given as input.

   Where the operating environment provided app-claimed HTTPS URIs in a
   usable fashion, these URIs should be used as the OAuth redirect, as
   they allow the identity of the destination app to be guaranteed by
   the operating system.

   Apps on platforms that allow the user to disable this functionality,
   present it in a user-unfriendly way, or lack it altogether MUST
   fallback to using custom URI schemes.

   The authorization server MUST allow the registration of HTTPS
   redirect URIs for non-confidential native clients to support app-
   claimed HTTPS redirect URIs.

4.3.  Localhost-based URI Redirection

   More applicable to desktop operating systems, some environments allow
   the app to create a local server and listen for redirect URIs that.
   This is an acceptable redirect URI choice for native apps on
   compatible platforms.

   Authorization servers SHOULD support redirect URIs on the localhost
   host, and HTTP scheme, that is redirect URIs beginning with
   http://localhost (NB. in this case, HTTP is acceptable, as the
   request never leaves the device).

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   When an app is registered with such a redirect, it SHOULD be able to
   specify any port in the authorization request, meaning that a request
   with http://localhost:*/* as the redirect should be considered valid.

5.  Security Considerations

5.1.  Embedded User-Agents

   Embedded user-agents, commonly implemented with web-views, are an
   alternative method for authorizing native apps.  They are however
   unsafe for use by third-parties by definition.  They involve the user
   signing in with their full login credentials, only to have them
   downscoped to less powerful OAuth credentials.

   Even when used by trusted first-party apps, embedded user-agents
   violate the principle of least privilege by obtaining more powerful
   credentials than they need, potentially increasing the attack

   In typical web-view based implementations of embedded user-agents,
   the host application can: log every keystroke entered in the form to
   capture usernames and passwords; automatically submit forms and
   bypass user-consent; copy session cookies and use them to perform
   authenticated actions as the user.

   Encouraging users to enter credentials in an embedded web-view
   without the usual address bar and other identity features that
   browsers have makes it impossible for the user to know if they are
   signing in to the legitimate site, and even when they are, it trains
   them that it's OK to enter credentials without validating the site

   Aside from the security concerns, web-views do not share the
   authentication state with other apps or the system browser, requiring
   the user to login for every authorization request and leading to a
   poor user experience.

   Due to the above, use of embedded user-agents is NOT RECOMMENDED,
   except where a trusted first-party app acts as the external user-
   agent for other apps, or provides single sign-on for multiple first-
   party apps.

   Authorization servers SHOULD consider taking steps to detect and
   block logins via embedded user-agents that are not their own, where

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5.2.  Protecting the Authorization Code

   A limitation of custom URI schemes is that multiple apps can
   typically register the same scheme, which makes it indeterminate as
   to which app will receive the Authorization Code Grant.  This is not
   an issue for HTTPS redirection URIs (i.e. standard web URLs) due to
   the fact the HTTPS URI scheme is enforced by the authority (as
   defined by [RFC3986]), the domain name system, which does not allow
   multiple entities to own the same domain.

   If multiple apps register the same scheme, it is possible that the
   authorization code will be sent to the wrong app (generally the
   operating system makes no guarantee of which app will handle the URI
   when multiple register the same scheme).  PKCE [RFC7636] details how
   this limitation can be used to execute a code interception attack
   (see Figure 1).  This attack vector applies to public clients
   (clients that are unable to maintain a client secret) which is
   typical of most native apps.

   While Section 4.1.2 details ways that this can be mitigated through
   policy enforcement (through being able to report and have removed any
   offending apps), we can also protect the authorization code grant
   from being used in cases where it was intercepted.

   The Proof Key for Code Exchange by OAuth Public Clients (PKCE
   [RFC7636]) standard was created specifically to mitigate against this
   attack.  It is a Proof of Possession extension to OAuth 2.0 that
   protects the code grant from being used if it is intercepted.  It
   achieves this by having the client generate a secret verifier which
   it passes in the initial authorization request, and which it must
   present later when redeeming the authorization code grant.  An app
   that intercepted the authorization code would not be in possession of
   this secret, rendering the code useless.

   Both the client and the Authorization Server MUST support PKCE
   [RFC7636] to use custom URI schemes, or localhost redirects.
   Authorization Servers SHOULD reject authorization requests using a
   custom scheme, or localhost as part of the redirection URI if the
   required PKCE parameters are not present, returning the error message
   as defined in Section 4.4.1 of PKCE [RFC7636].  It is RECOMMENDED to
   use PKCE [RFC7636] for app-claimed HTTPS redirect URIs, even though
   these are not generally subject to interception, to protect against
   attacks on inter-app communication.

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5.3.  Phishing

   While in-app browser tabs provide a secure authentication context, as
   the user initiates the flow from a native app, it is possible for
   that native app to completely fake an in-app browser tab.

   This can't be prevented directly - once the user is in the native
   app, that app is fully in control of what it can render, however
   there are several mitigating factors.

   Importantly, such an attack that uses a web-view to fake an in-app
   browser tab will always start with no authentication state.  If all
   native apps use the techniques described in this best practice, users
   will not need to sign-in frequently and thus should be suspicious of
   any sign-in request when they should have already been signed-in.

   This is true even for authorization servers that require frequent or
   occasional re-authentication, as such servers can preserve some user
   identifiable information from the old request, like the email address
   or avatar.  To help mitigate against phishing, it is RECOMMENDED to
   show the user some hint that they were previously logged in, as an
   attacking app would not be capable of doing this.

   Users who are particularly concerned about their security may also
   take the additional step of opening the request in the system browser
   from the in-app browser tab, and completing the authorization there,
   as most implementations of the in-app browser tab pattern offer such
   functionality.  This is not expected to be common user behavior,

5.4.  Limitations of Non-verifiable Clients

   As stated in Section 10.2 of RFC 6749, the authorization server
   SHOULD NOT process authorization requests automatically without user
   consent or interaction, except when the identity of the client can be
   assured.  Measures such as claimed HTTPS redirects can be used by
   native apps to prove their identity to the authorization server, and
   some operating systems may offer alternative platform-specific
   identity features which may be used, as appropriate.

6.  Other External User Agents

   This best practice recommends a particular type of external user-
   agent: the in-app browser tab.  Other external user-agents patterns
   may also be viable for secure and usable OAuth.  This document makes
   no comment on those patterns.

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7.  Client Authentication

   Secrets that are statically included as part of an app distributed to
   multiple users should not be treated as confidential secrets, as one
   user may inspect their copy and learn the secret of all users.  For
   this reason it is NOT RECOMMENDED for authorization servers to
   require client authentication of native apps using a secret shared by
   multiple installs of the app, as this serves no value beyond client
   identification which is already provided by the client_id request
   parameter.  If an authorization server requires a client secret for
   native apps, it MUST NOT assume that it is actually secret, unless
   some method is being used to dynamically provision a unique secret to
   each installation.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC6749]  Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
              RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012,

   [RFC7636]  Sakimura, N., Ed., Bradley, J., and N. Agarwal, "Proof Key
              for Code Exchange by OAuth Public Clients", RFC 7636,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7636, September 2015,

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6819]  Lodderstedt, T., Ed., McGloin, M., and P. Hunt, "OAuth 2.0
              Threat Model and Security Considerations", RFC 6819,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6819, January 2013,

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              "Inter-App Communication", February 2015, <https://develop

              "Launch Services Concepts", February 2015, <https://develo

              "Intents and Intent Filters", February 2015,

              "Auto-launching apps using file and URI associations for
              Windows Phone 8", February 2015,

              "Registering an Application to a URI Scheme", February
              2015, <https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/

              "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Schemes", February
              2015, <http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes/

              "Chrome Custom Tabs", July 2015,

              "SafariServices Changes", July 2015, <https://developer.ap

              "App Links", July 2015,

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Appendix A.  Operating System Specific Implementation Details

   Most of this document attempts to lay out best practices in an
   generic manner, referencing technology available on most operating
   systems.  This non-normative section contains OS-specific
   implementation details that are accurate at the time of authorship.

   It is expected that this OS-specific information will change, but
   that the overall principles described in this document for using
   external user-agents will remain valid for longer.

A.1.  iOS Implementation Details

   From iOS 9, apps can invoke the system browser without the user
   leaving the app through SFSafariViewController
   [SFSafariViewController], which implements the browser-view pattern.
   This class has all the properties of the system browser, and is
   considered an 'external user-agent', even though it is presented
   within the host app.  Regardless of whether the system browser is
   opened, or SFSafariViewController, the return of the token goes
   through the same system.

A.2.  Android Implementation Details

   Chrome 45 introduced the concept of Chrome Custom Tab
   [ChromeCustomTab], which follows the browser-view pattern and allows
   authentication without the user leaving the app.

   The return of the token can go through the custom URI scheme or
   claimed HTTPS URI (including those registered with the App Link
   [Android.AppLinks] system), or the navigation events can be observed
   by the host app.  It is RECOMMENDED that the custom URI, or claimed
   HTTPS URI options be used for better portability, to allow the user
   to open the authorization request in the Chrome app, and to prevent
   accidental observation of intermediate tokens on URI parameters.

   At the time of writing, Android does allow apps to claim HTTPs links
   (App Links), but not in a way that is usable for OAuth, the native
   app is only opened if the intent is fired from outside the browser.

Appendix B.  Acknowledgements

   The author would like to acknowledge the work of Marius Scurtescu,
   and Ben Wiley Sittler whose design for using custom URI schemes in
   native OAuth 2.0 clients formed the basis of Section 4.1.

   The following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
   that shaped and formed the final specification:

Denniss & Bradley        Expires August 7, 2016                [Page 15]

Internet-Draft                oauth_mobile                 February 2016

   Naveen Agarwal, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Adam Dawes, Hannes
   Tschofenig, Ashish Jain, Paul Madsen, Breno de Medeiros, Eric Sachs,
   Nat Sakimura, Steve Wright, Erik Wahlstrom, Andy Zmolek.

Authors' Addresses

   William Denniss
   1600 Amphitheatre Pkwy
   Mountain View, CA  94043

   Phone: +1 650-253-0000
   Email: wdenniss@google.com
   URI:   http://google.com/

   John Bradley
   Ping Identity

   Phone: +1 202-630-5272
   Email: ve7jtb@ve7jtb.com
   URI:   http://www.thread-safe.com/

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