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Versions: 00 01 02 03 rfc2901                              Informational
INTERNET-DRAFT                          Z. Wenzel
draft-wenzel-nsrc-03.txt                J. Klensin
expires 11/01/00                        R. Bush
                                        S. Huter
                                        Network Startup Resource Center
                                        May 2000

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) , its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other
groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or rendered obsolete by other documents
at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

Guide to Administrative Procedures of the Internet Infrastructure

Table of Contents
Who Should Read This Document
I.    Preparation of Systems and Network Planning
        A.  What do I need to connect to the Internet?
        B.  What connectivity medium should I choose?
        C.  What else do I need to do?
        D.  How do I get the documents referred to in this guide?
        E.  Section References
II.   Address Space Allocation
        A.  Who is my upstream provider?
        B.  How much address space should I ask for?
        C.  What is CIDR?
        D.  How do I request and register address space?
        E.  Section References
III.  Autonomous Systems (AS)
        A.  What is an ASN and do I need one?
        B.  How do I register an ASN?
        C.  Section References
IV.   Routing and Exchange Points
        A.  Do I need to register with a routing database?
        B.  What about CIDR and routing?
        C.  How do I choose a routing database?
        D.  How do I register in the RADB (The Americas)?
        E.  Section References
V.    Domain Name Registration
        A.  What is a country domain?
        B.  How do I register as a country domain?
        C.  What if my country is already registered?
        D.  How do I resolve a country domain name dispute?
        E.  Section References
VI.   IN-ADDR.ARPA Domain Delegation
        A.  What is an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain and do I need one?
        B.  How do I register an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain?
VII.  Security
        A.  Is there a way to prevent unauthorized changes to my
VIII. Network Optimization and Management
        A.  How do I optimize traffic on my network?
Authors' Addresses
Appendix A:  The Internet Agencies
Appendix B:  Documentation
Appendix C:  Country Codes
Appendix D:  Acronyms


This document describes the administrative procedures for networks
seeking to connect to the global Internet.  This includes the steps and
operations necessary for address space allocation and registration,
routing database registration, and domain name registration.  The
document also contains information about the required forms and how to
obtain them.

Who Should Read This Document

This document is intended for system engineers and technical managers
of networks who want to make a connection to the Internet.  It assumes
a basic knowledge of the Internet and networking.

This information is intended to help new or expanding networks
understand and follow the Internet administrative procedures, and to
provide assistance in filling out the various templates and
registration forms.  Appendix D is a glossary of acronyms.


This document will explain the following procedures:

o       Determine your organization type and current status.
o       Determine your administrative and technical contacts.
o       Determine your budget (and chargeback system) and choice of
o       Determine to whom you will connect.
o       Predict your current and projected address space needs.
o       Set-up your system to connect.
o       Request and register your address space allocation.
o       Request and register an autonomous system number, if needed.
o       Register with a routing database, if needed.
o       Register your country's domain name, if needed.
o       Request and register your IN-ADDR.ARPA domain name, if needed.


This document assumes that you have examined different alternatives for
physical connectivity and will assist you in navigating the Internet
infrastructure so that you can use that connectivity. In choosing your
upstream provider, you should consider their ability to deal with the
Internet infrastructure.

What will you be doing and what role will you play?

o       If you are interested in connecting yourself (or a small
organization), you are an Internet end user.  You will probably want to
contact an Internet Service Provider (ISP) for most of your needs.
Read section I and the first part of section II.

o       If you are interested in connecting your organization and in
having address space to distribute within your network, you are an
Internet high volume end user.  You will need more address space, but
still may chose to work with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) for
most of your needs.  Read sections I and II.

o       If you are interested in connecting your organization, and in
distributing addresses to your clients (who are end users), you are an
Internet Service Provider (ISP).  You will need to contact a Local
Internet Registry (if one is available, or your upstream provider).
Read section I and continue reading the rest of this document.

o       If you are interested in distributing addresses to your clients
and your clients are in turn distributing addresses, you are a Local
Internet Registry or large ISP.  You will probably need to contact the
Regional Internet Registry in your geographical area.  Read section I
and continue reading the rest of this document.

I.      Preparation of Systems and Network Planning


A.  What do I need to connect to the Internet?

You can connect using dial-up or dedicated lines, and you can choose
UUCP or IP.  It is preferable to be running the UNIX operating system
with TCP/IP over a dedicated line, although you can begin by using UUCP
over a dial-up line.  Although there are alternatives to UNIX, for
historical reasons and robustness UNIX is better prepared to handle
Internet connectivity.  It is best to use TCP/IP inside your network
even if you use another method for your external connectivity.

You will need to obtain an Internet Protocol (IP) address, or block of
addresses, and a domain name.  You may also need an Autonomous System
Number (ASN) and an IN-ADDR.ARPA (reverse addressing) domain name.
However, you may begin by having dial-up connectivity to another
organization that supports one or more mail exchange (MX) record(s) for
your site.  This would allow you to receive email at your own domain
name without requiring you to invest as much initially.

B.  What connectivity medium should I choose?

You may be constrained by telecommunications regulations in your
country as to your choice of dial-up, digital phone lines, fiber optic
cable, or satellite suppliers.  If not, cost, bandwidth, and
reliability will determine your choice.

C.  What else do I need to do?

Before you do anything else:

1.  Designate an administrative contact person and a technical
contact person.

Choose one person to be the administrative contact and another person
to be the technical contact.  Write down their full names, email and
postal addresses, and telephone and fax numbers (with country prefixes
in the form + country code (e.g., +011), city code, and local telephone
number).  The administrative contact should be a member of your
organization and must reside in the country.  The technical contact
should be the key network support person and may be represented
initially by someone outside of the country.  Note that the technical
contact must transition to a network support person residing in the
country.  The Internet Registries will request this information in the
form of database entries called objects.  For example, on the RIPE
template, the administrative contact should be listed in the admin-c
field in the database objects, and the technical contact in the tech-c
field in the database objects (more information on database objects
follows in section II D below).

2. Determine your cost-recovery charging scheme, if needed, so that you
can sustain operations.

No form or record will specifically request this, but it is important
that you project your costs adequately so that you can assess fees to
cover them and ensure stability of operations.

3. Diagram your network topology.

Determine the number of groups and end users.  Describe the size and
shape of your current network.  Design your addressing plan based on
this information.  It may be helpful to consider your organization
chart when doing this, if you anticipate it to be fairly stable.

If you are restricted to using the local telecommunications company's
telephone circuit, choose your circuit carrier based on capacity and
where it lands geographically.  Consider an asymmetric circuit, e.g.
128kbps in and 64kbps out, if you expect to have more incoming traffic
than outgoing (e.g., if most of the traffic is expected to originate
from web servers outside your network).

4.  Determine to whom you will connect.

See the prerequisites section for types of connection providers that
might be appropriate for your situation.  Determine which ISP or
telecommunications company best fits your connectivity needs.

5.  Predict your address space and bandwidth requirements from end
user needs.

Since address space is finite and must be conserved, end users are not
permitted to reserve address space.  Address space is based on what
your needs are and how you justify those needs.  Evaluation of IP
address space requests is usually based on the documentation you
provide for the following 24 months (as per RFC 2050), as specified in
the address space usage template and in the addressing plan you
submit.  Once you have used your assigned address space, you can
request additional space based on an updated estimate of growth in your
network.  This usually includes detailed documentation, updating the
appropriate regional registry database with details of your end user
assignments, and assigning address space both conservatively and

You will need to justify your needs for address space by communicating
your network design and should be prepared to clearly present your plan
for effective use of the request.  Determine your current and future
user needs.  If you are offering virtual web services, it is no longer
necessary to assign one IP address per domain.  HTTP/1.1 defines the
"host" header to allow vanity names without the use of an IP address.
Allocations for points of presence (POP) throughout your region should
also be determined.  Predictions of user behavior can be based on
analysis of published rates, interviews with individual and
institutional subscribers, and case histories of other countries (see
"History of the Internet in Thailand").  For example,

     10 dialup modems
     10 leased lines to organization's LANs (size of the LANs)
      5 dialup modems
   Main POP
      5 servers: mail, WWW, DNS,  FTP, etc.

When you design your plan, you should do it for what you need now, what
you believe you will need six months from now, and then one year and
two years from now.

6.  Set up, connect, and test your hardware and software.

It is important to ensure that you have enough representative systems
set up and their connectivity tested using temporary addresses before
contacting the appropriate agency for address space.

D.  How do I get the documents referred to in this guide?

See Appendix B for details on obtaining the documents referred to in
this guide.

E.  Section References

For more information on TCP/IP, see RFC 2151, "A Primer on Internet and
TCP/IP Tools and Utilities."

II.     Address Space Allocation


Internet Protocol (IP) addresses (under the current version 4) are
32-bit numbers usually expressed as 4 octets in dotted decimal notation
(for example,, which is the IP address for the Network
Startup Resource Center (NSRC) web server at the time of this
writing).  Public IP addresses make up the Internet address space.
Addresses are allocated in a hierarchical manner and are designed to be

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) allocates large address
blocks to the three current Regional Internet Registries (IRs): ARIN,
APNIC, and RIPE NCC which, in turn, allocate smaller blocks to Local
Internet Registries or large ISPs.  Local Internet Registries, which
are typically ISPs or collections of ISPs represented at a country
level, and large ISPs process the vast majority of address space
assignments to ISPs and end users

Contact the Internet service provider from whom you are getting your
connectivity services (your upstream provider) with an address
allocation request.  It is important and required that you contact your
upstream provider first, and not the Regional IR automatically.  The
first question the Regional Registry will ask you is why you cannot get
address space from your upstream provider.

A.  Who is my upstream provider?

If there is an ISP already functioning in your country, contact them
directly.  If you are to be the first connection in your country, you
may need to contact your Regional IR in your geographic region, but you
should always contact your upstream provider first for assistance and
guidance.  Since address allocation is hierarchical, the administrative
organizations and procedures also represent this hierarchical
structure.  It is important not to skip a step in the hierarchy.
Current Regional Registries include ARIN (the Americas, Caribbean, and
Africa), RIPE (Europe, Africa, and the Middle East), and APNIC (the
Pacific Rim and Asia).  Contact information for these organizations is
listed in Appendix A.

You should contact your Regional Internet Registry if 1) the ISP you
are connecting to is unable or unwilling to provide address space, or
2) your particular connectivity requirements will result in non-local
data to your customers possibly taking a different route over the
Internet than data destined for your upstream provider's customers, or
3) you anticipate a quick growth rate that may require changing your
current upstream provider to a larger one and you wish to avoid the
renumbering that such a move would require.

B.  How much address space should I ask for?

Regional IRs typically assign address blocks on the basis of an
immediate need and projected utilization rate within one year.  (If you
are in the ARIN region, it is one year for end user organizations and
three months for ISPs.)  Calculate your address space request
accordingly.  It is recommended to include the organization chart and
network topology diagram referred to in section I.C, number 3 (above).
Note that address space is allocated based on CIDR bit boundaries (see
next section).  The registries will need to understand your network
engineering and deployment plans in significant detail before they can
allocate address space.  Therefore, the more detailed information you
can provide, the more likely your request will be processed quickly.

If you obtain address space from your ISP, it is very likely that you
will need to renumber should you decide to change upstream providers
and/or if you grow considerably.  As this renumbering may affect your
customers (and their customers, etc.) if they are using dedicated
lines, you should carefully weigh the cost/benefit involved in
obtaining address space from your upstream provider.

If you are singly homed, you should obtain your address space from your
upstream ISP.  If you plan on enlarging but remaining singly homed, you
should continue to obtain space this way as it promotes aggregation.
If, however, you plan to be multi-homed as part of your growth plan, it
would make sense to become a member of an appropriate Regional IR (or,
if one exists in your region, a national Network Information Center
(NIC) and obtain a /19 or "provider aggregatable" address space.

The minimum routable block is often a /19, so if you plan on enlarging,
it is better to pay the fees to the Regional IR now and obtain a /19
block so that you will not have to renumber later.  Note that if you
are an ISP in the ARIN region, ARIN  has special requirements before
you can do this in terms of the amount of address space you have
previously used, which must be a /21.  The current policy is that you
must have used a /19 previously from your upstream ISP before going to
ARIN.  Or you must be multi-homed and show you have used a /21 and be
willing to renumber and ARIN will issue a /20 from a reserved /19.

As of February 8, 1999, ARIN lowered the minimum allocation size for IP
addresses from a /19 to a /20.  ARIN will issue initial allocations of
prefixes no longer than /20.  If allocations smaller than /20 are
needed, ISPs and end users should request address space from their
upstream provider.  ARIN does not guarantee that addresses will be
globally routable.

APNIC and RIPE NCC do not have these requirements.  For APNIC, new
allocations to members will be a /19.

Remember that your upstream provider should route you if you ask them.
You are a customer of the ISP, so if the service is not what you need
you should change ISPs.


C.  What is CIDR?

CIDR stands for Classless Inter-Domain Routing.  Historically, IP
addresses were assigned within classes: Class A (8 bits of network
address, 24 bits of host address), Class B (16 bits of network address,
16 bits of host address), or Class C (24 bits of network address, 8
bits of host address).  With the advent of CIDR, address space is now
allocated and assigned on bit boundaries.  Using CIDR means you are
able to assign addresses corresponding with the number of hosts on the
network, thereby conserving address space.

The following table illustrates this:

Addrs Bits  Pref  Class         Mask

1       0       /32           
2       1       /31           
4       2       /30           
8       3       /29           
16      4       /28           
32      5       /27           
64      6       /26           
128     7       /25           
256     8       /24     1C    
512     9       /23     2C    
1K      10      /22     4C    
2K      11      /21     8C    
4K      12      /20     16C   
8K      13      /19     32C   

                Number of addresses available; note that the number of
                addressable hosts normally is 2 less than this number
                because the host parts with all equal bits
                (all 0s, all 1s) are reserved.
                Size of the allocation/assignment in bits of address
                Length of the prefix covering this address space. This
                is sometimes used to indicate the size of an
                Size of the address space in terms of class C network
                The network mask defining the routing prefix in dotted
                quad notation.

(From http://www.ibm.net.il/~hank/cidr.html)

D.  How do I request and register address space?

You will need to send a database object to the appropriate registry to
request and register address space.  The registration databases are
composed of records that are a series of fields separated by one or
more blank lines; each field consists of two parts, the tag and the
value.  Do not modify the tags in the templates or errors will occur.
Values for particular fields are specified in the templates; be careful
to enter appropriate information.

The first line of a template denotes the record type.  For example, an
IP address template's first line is inetnum, therefore the record is
known as an inetnum object.  This first line is also used as the
primary key for the record, therefore if you want to modify the first
field of the record, the only way to do so is to delete the record
entirely and add a new record with the corrected information.

For illustration, here is the RIPE inetnum object.

     inetnum: [IP address range that will be assigned]
     netname: Network-Name
     descr: Network-Name Communications Company, Town
     admin-c: NIC-handle of administrative contact
     tech-c: NIC-handle of technical contact
     country: ISO 3166-country-code
     rev-srv: ns.someserver.net
     rev-srv: ns.otherserver.net
     status: assigned pa (provider aggregatable)
        or assigned pi (provider independent)
     changed: email@address.net 960731
     source: RIPE

For Countries in the APNIC Region

In order to obtain services from APNIC, you will need to become a
member.  APNIC-070 is the APNIC Membership Application.  It is located


Send the completed  form via email to APNIC at:


APNIC Address Allocation Requests:

Once you have become a member, you can request IP address space using
one of the three IP address request forms.  If you are an organization
that will use address space internally only (e.g., large enterprises
such as universities, government ministries, large corporations, etc.),
choose #1 (End User Address Request).  If  you are an organization that
plans to sub-delegate address space to customers (e.g., you are an
ISP), choose #2 (ISP Address Request).  If you are a confederation of
ISPs (e.g., national NICs, etc.), choose #3 (Confederation Address

1.  APNIC-074 is the APNIC End User Internet Address Request Form.

2.  APNIC-065 is the APNIC Internet Services Provider Internet
Address Request Form.

3.  Confederations are a means by which service providers can group
together to provide resource allocation and registration services
tailored to their specific local language and cultural requirements.
For details on how to become an APNIC recognized confederation, please
see APNIC Confederation Concepts and Requirements located at:


APNIC-074 is the APNIC Confederation Internet Address Request Form.

Copies of all forms can be found in the following directory:


All completed forms should be sent to:


If there are strong reasons why you cannot obtain address space from
your upstream ISP, and you require address space as a one-time
allocation only, you can obtain address space as a "non member."  For
more details, see APNIC-071:


and send the completed form to:


For Countries in the ARIN Region

Membership in ARIN is optional and not a requirement for requesting IP
address space from the registry or from your Internet service
provider.  If you are a large end user organization, choose #1.  If you
are an ISP, choose #2.

1.  The form for network number assignments is located at:


2.  The form for ISPs to obtain a CIDR block of IP network numbers is
located at:


Send either completed form via email to ARIN at:


with "IP request" (if you chose #1) or "ISP CIDR request" (if you chose
#2) in the subject field, as appropriate.

For Countries in the RIPE Region

RIPE NCC provides IP address space allocation only to contributing
local Internet registries.  For a description of the European Internet
Registry policies and procedures, see RIPE-159, "European Internet
Registry Policies and Procedures."  It is located at:


RIPE-160 is Guidelines for Setting up a Local Internet Registry.  It is
located at:


If you have questions regarding setting up a new local IR, please
contact the RIPE NCC at:


Once your local IR is established, you will get detailed information on
how to submit requests to the RIPE NCC hostmaster.

Send the completed form via email to RIPE NCC at:


If you have general queries, please contact RIPE NCC at:


E.  Section References

For more information on IP addresses, see RFC 1518, "An Architecture
for IP Address Allocation with CIDR" and RFC 2050, "Internet Registry
IP Allocation Guidelines."

III.    Autonomous Systems (AS)


A.  What is an ASN and do I need one?

Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) are used to facilitate routing in
multi-homed environments.  They are allocated when your routing policy
is different from your provider's.  This generally means your site is
multi-homed.  In nearly all cases, unless you are multi-homed to more
than one ISP, you will not need an ASN.  If your routing policy does
not differ from your service provider's, you should use the service
provider's ASN.  If there is constant traffic between you and a point
in another country, you may want to connect to a second ISP in that
country.  Note that the resultant multi-homing generally makes the
system more robust and may also change registry (and therefore request)
relationships.  It also increases costs greatly.

You may have to reduce traffic on your international lines by choosing
to connect to a local exchange point.  This allows traffic to stay
within your country and off of expensive international links.  If you
implement this plan, you will be multi-homed and will need to read the
autonomous systems and routing

sections of this document.

B.  How do I register an ASN?

Since the ASN space is quite limited, request only what you really need
when you need it.

For Countries in the APNIC Region

APNIC-066 is the ASN Request Form. The form is located at:


Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:


For Countries in the ARIN Region

A complete listing of assigned ASNs is located at:


The ASN registration form is located at:


Send the completed  form via email to ARIN at:


with "ASN request" in the subject field.

For Countries in the RIPE Region

The European Autonomous System Number Application Form and Supporting
Notes form (RIPE-147) is located at:


Local IRs can send the completed form via email to RIPE at:


C.  Section References

For more information on ASNs, see  RFC 1930, "Autonomous Systems (AS)."

IV.     Routing and Exchange Points


A.  Do I need to register with a routing database?

You do not need to register with a routing database if you are simply
carrying default routes to your (single) ISP.  If you get your address
space from an ISP, the ISP will register you.  If you are connected to
more than one ISP, then you should register with a routing database.

The more multi-homed you are, the larger your routing tables need to
be.  If you are connected to public exchange points (see examples
below), or to more than one backbone ISP, you need to carry full
routing tables and run without a default route.

Example European Exchange Points:

LINX            London Internet Exchange
M9-IX           Moscow Internet Exchange
NIX.CZ          Neutral Internet Exchange, Czech Republic

Example Asia/Pacific Exchange Points:

AUIX            Australia Internet Exchange
HKIX            Hong Kong Internet Exchange
JPIX            Japan Internet Exchange

Example Americas Exchange Points:

MAE-EAST        Metropolitan Area Ethernet - East
MAE-WEST        Metropolitan Area Ethernet - West
PAIX            Palo Alto Internet Exchange

Depending on the requirements of your international ISP, you may be
able to have only a default route to them and specific routes to other
suppliers if you have an in-country exchange point.  Or they may
require that you carry a full set of routes, treating your connection
to the in-country exchange point as if it were a multi-homed

B.  What about CIDR and routing?

All registries use CIDR. All major router vendors (Cisco, 3Com, Nortel,
Proteon, IBM, etc) support CIDR.  CIDR Internet routers use only the
prefix of the destination address to route traffic to a subnetted

C.  How do I choose a routing database?

The Internet Routing Registry (IRR) describes registries maintained by
several national and international networking organizations.  These
currently include the RIPE Network Coordination Centre (NCC), ANS
(Advanced Network Solutions, Inc.), Bell Canada (formerly CA*net),
Cable and Wireless (CW), and the Routing Arbiter Database (RADB).  The
IRR is a way for ASNs to publicize their own intended routing policies
without having to request a change from a go-between.

WHOIS queries to "whois.ra.net" return data that they gather from the
entire IRR set of routing registries.  Tools such as "peval" and
"rtconfig" return data only from the RADB.  Thus, when running those
tools and desiring data from a set of registries, one must enumerate
them as in the following example.  WHOIS queries to the client
configure the precedence of routing databases.  For example:

        @RtConfig set sources = "TEST, RADB, RIPE, ANS, BELL, CW"

There are several other registries, such as ALTDB.  A list, and other
information on RADB, is available at:


As of January 1, 2000, the transition to the Routing Policy
Specification is Language (RPSL) complete.  RIPE-181 object submissions
are no longer accepted.  For more information, see:


With the exception of the Routing Arbiter Database, each registry
serves a limited customer base.  ANS, Cable and Wireless, and Bell
Canada accept routing registrations for their customers alone, and the
RIPE NCC oversees European registrations. The Routing Arbiter Database
is unique in that it handles registrations for networking organizations
not covered by the other routing registries. The Routing Arbiter also
provides coordination among all the registries to ensure consistent
representation of routing policies.

All Regional IRs need to register with one (only one) of the routing
databases in the IRR. If you are announcing routes via BGP4, you need
to register your routes in the Routing Registry in only one of the
IRR's.  Logically, this will be the "closest" IRR to you.  However,
note that some ISPs do not use the regional registries or RADB.

D.  How do I register in the RADB (The Americas)?

You need to submit three types of database records to the RADB: one or
more maintainer objects, an AS object, and one or more route objects.

To specify the individuals who are allowed to update your records in
the RADB, fill out one or more maintainer objects and send them via
email to:


You need to submit a maintainer object before you can register any AS
or route objects.

To describe the autonomous system that announces your routes, fill out
an AS object and submit it via email to:


AS objects are also called aut-num objects.

To register your routes, fill out one or more route objects, and send
them to RADB via email to:


Note that most of  the IRR participants have the auto-dbm@xx.net email
address function for accepting updates to the IRR automatically.

E.  Section References

For more information on routers, see RFC 1812, "Requirements for IP
Version 4 Routers."  See also RFC 1786, "Representation of IP Routing
Policies in a Routing Registry (ripe-181++)."

For more information on CIDR and routing, see RFC 1817, "CIDR and
Classful Routing."

V.      Domain Name Registration


A.  What is a country domain?

The Domain Name System (DNS) specifies the naming of computers within a
hierarchy.  Top-Level Domain (TLD) names include generic TLDs (gTLDs)
and two-letter country codes (ccTLDs).  Examples of gTLDs include .com
(commercial), .net (network), and .org (organization).  Examples of
two-letter country codes are .id for Indonesia, .ca for Canada, and .fr
for France.  ISO 3166 is used as a basis for country code top-level
domain names.  Country codes are assigned by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) in cooperation with the United
Nations.  The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) directly
registers all country-code top-level domains, however it is not
involved in the allocation of codes to countries.  IANA is a function
pf the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN, see
Appendix A).  See ISO 3166 for more information and a current listing
of country codes (Appendix C).

A hierarchy of names may, and normally should be, created under each
TLD.  There is a wide variation in the structure of country domains.
In some countries there is a substantial hierarchy, while in others the
structure is flat.  In some country domains the second levels are
generic categories, while in others they are based on geography, and in
still others, organization names are listed directly under the country
code.  Examples of second level generic categories are ac or edu
(academic or education), co or com (corporate or commercial), and go or
gov (government).

B.  How do I register as a country domain?

First check that: (1) the domain is still available, few are, (2) you
have someone in your country as the administrative contact, and (3)
your name servers are prepared (see RFC 1912 for information on common
errors in preparing name servers).

The whois master database is the authoritative source of information on
.com, .net, .org, and .edu domain name registrations.  It is currently
maintained by Network Solutions, Inc. and holds referal pointers to
which whois database contains the record for the domain name.

To apply to manage a country code top-level domain you should:

1.      First, if you are on a UNIX host, use the whois command to see
if the domain is already registered:

        whois =<domain>

2.      If the domain does not already have an administrative contact,
request a Domain Name Agreement template from IANA by sending email


C.  What if my country is already registered?

If your country is already registered, contact the country-code
administrator to register a new second-level domain name.

Please note that ARIN, RIPE, and APNIC do not handle domain names
(other than IN-ADDR.ARPA).  If you want to register a domain name
directly under a top-level domain (TLD), please contact the appropriate
TLD administrator.

D.  How do I resolve a country domain name dispute?

See RFC 1591 for domain name dispute information.  Note that you will
need to resolve the dispute within your country before you contact

E.  Section References

For more information on domain names, see RFC 1591, "Domain Name System
Structure and Delegation"; RFC 1713, "Tools for DNS Debugging"; and RFC
1912, "Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors."

VI.     IN-ADDR.ARPA Domain Delegation


A.  What is an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain and do I need one?

An IN-ADDR.ARPA domain allows for mapping of IP addresses into domain
names.  This is often referred to as "inverse addressing" because it is
the opposite of the domain name to IP address resolution.  IN-ADDR
domains are represented using the network number in reverse.  For
example, the IN-ADDR domain for network is represented as

You almost always need reverse resolution.

B.  How do I register an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain?

You should ask your upstream provider about registering your
IN-ADDR.ARPA domains.  If you are working directly with a regional
registry, see below.

For Countries in the APNIC Region

The IN-ADDR.ARPA Delegation Form is APNIC-064 and is located at:


CAUTION: You must set-up your name server to accept the delegation
prior to submission of this form.

Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:


For Countries in the ARIN Region

How IN-ADDR.ARPA is registered is dependent on the registration of the
block needing reverse entries.  For example, all blocks that have been
registered directly from the Regional IR may have IN-ADDR.ARPA
delegation established by ARIN.  In this case, IN-ADDR.ARPA delegations
are registered using the ARIN modify template.  This template can be
found at:



Instructions for completing the template can be found at the bottom of
the template.

CAUTION: Do not list your network number in reverse on the template.

Send the completed form via email to ARIN at:


All blocks that have been reassigned to your organization by an ISP
will have IN-ADDR.ARPA established by  your provider.  In this case,
contact the ISP that reassigned IP address space to your organization
and coordinate IN-ADDR.ARPA delegation.

For Countries in the RIPE Region

The domain object needs to be entered in the RIPE database before
requesting reverse delegation.

domain: 0.194.in-addr.arpa
descr: Our organization allocation
admin-c: NIC-handle of administrative contact (e.g., JLC-2RIPE)
tech-c: NIC-handle of technical contact
zone-c: NIC-handle of zone contact
nserver: Name server (e.g., ns.someserver.net)
nserver: ns.otherserver.net
nserver: ns.ripe.net
changed: email@address.net 960731
source: RIPE

NOTE:  One of the name servers has to be ns.ripe.net

The domain object described above should be included in the request, as
well as zone file entries for the zone above the one requested.  For
example, if a reverse delegation is requested for 1.193.in-addr.arpa,
the relevant zone file entries should be included for 193.in-addr.arpa;
whereas if a reverse delegation is requested for 2.2.193.in-addr.arpa,
the zone file entries should be included for 2.193.in-addr.arpa.

Send the completed object(s) via email to RIPE at:


VII.    Security

A.  Is there a way to prevent unauthorized changes to my objects?

Registries provide various security measures to prevent unauthorized
changes to your database entries.  Contact your regional IR for more
information.  Note that the contact information you provide in the
database object registrations is not private.

VIII.   Network Optimization and Management

A.  How do I optimize traffic on my network?

Contact the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis
(CAIDA).  CAIDA is a collaborative undertaking to promote greater
cooperation in the engineering and maintenance of a robust, scalable
global Internet infrastructure.  CAIDA provides a neutral framework to
support these cooperative endeavors.

The CAIDA web-site is located at:


Send email with questions or comments to:



Thanks to Brian Candler, David Conrad, John Heasley, Kim Hubbard,
Daniel Karrenberg, Anne Lord, Dawn Martin, Charles Musisi, Jon Postel,
and April Marine and the IETF User Services Working Group for reviewing
various versions of this document; and to Hank Nussbacher for
permission to reprint his table on CIDR.

Special thanks are also due to Dr. Steven Goldstein of the National
Science Foundation for his contributions and suggestions, and to the
National Science Foundation for partial funding of this work.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science
Foundation under Grant No. NCR-961657. Any opinions, findings, and
conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of
the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National
Science Foundation.


[1]     Malkin, G., LaQuey Parker, T., "Internet Users' Glossaary", RFC
1392, Xylogics, Inc and U. Texas, January 1993.

[2]     Hinden, R., Editor, "Applicability Statement for the
Implementation of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)", RFC 1517,
Internet Engineering Steering Group, September 1993.

[3]     Rekhter, Y. and Li, T.  "An Architecture for IP Address
Allocation with CIDR", RFC 1518, T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp,
Cisco Systems, September 1993.

[4]     Fuller, V., Li, T., Yu, J., and Varadhan, K.  "Classless
Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and Aggregation
Strategy", RFC 1519, BARRNet, Cisco Systems, MERIT, OARnet, September

[5]     Rekhter, Y. and Topolcic, C.  "Exchanging Routing Information
Across Provider Boundaries in the CIDR Environment", RFC 1520, T.J.
Watson Research Center, IBM Corp., CNRI, September 1993.

[6]     Postel, J.  "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation", RFC
1591, USC/Information Systems Institute, March 1994.

[7]     Wijnen, B., Carpenter, G., Curran, K., Sehgal, A. & Waters, G.,
"Simple Network Management Protocol Distributed Protocol Interface
Version 2.0", RFC 1592, T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp. and Bell
Northern Research, Ltd., March 1994.

[8]     Ramao, A.  "Tools for DNS debugging", RFC 1713, FCCN, November

[9]     Baker, F.  "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", RFC 1812,
Cisco Systems, June 1995.

[10]    Rekhter, Y.  "CIDR and Classful Routing", RFC 1817, Cisco
Systems, August 1995.

[11]    Barr, D.  "Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors",
RFC 1912, The Pennsylvania State University, February 1996.

[12]    Hawkinson, J. and Bates, T.  "Guidelines for Creation,
Selection, and Registration of an Autonomous System", RFC 1930, BBN
Planet Corporation, MCI, March 1996.

[13]    Freed, N. and Borenstein, N.  "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC
2045, Innosoft and First Virtual, November 1996.

[14]    Hubbard, K., Kosters, M., Conrad, D., Karrenberg, D., and
Postel, J.  "Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines", RFC 2050,
InterNIC, APNIC, RIPE, ISI, November 1996.

[15]    Kessler, G. and Shepard, S. "A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP
Tools and Utilities", RFC 2151, June 1997.

[16]    ISO 3166:  "Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries"

[17]    Palasri, S., Huter, S., and Wenzel, Z.  "The History of the
Internet in Thailand", by University of Oregon Books, 1999.

Authors' Addresses

Zita Wenzel, Ph.D.
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
1225 Kincaid Street
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA

John C. Klensin, Ph.D.
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
1225 Kincaid Street
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA

Randy Bush
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
1225 Kincaid Street
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR  97403-1212 USA

Steven Huter
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
1225 Kincaid Street
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA

Appendix A:     The Internet Agencies

o   The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

IANA is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter
values for Internet protocols and for all address space and name space
used in the Internet.  IANA allocates parts of the Internet address
space to Regional Internet Registries (IRs) for distribution to Local
IRs and ISPs.  IANA is also responsible for the coordination and
management of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Note that as of 1999, IANA is a function of the Internet Corporation
for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the non-profit corporation that
is the top-level administration authority of the global Internet.

Email:          iana@iana.org
Postal:         P. O. Box 12607
                Marina del Rey, CA  90295-3607
Telephone:      +1-310-822-1511
Fax:            +1-310-823-6714
Internet:       http://www.iana.org/

o Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

>From the ICANN web site:

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a
technical coordination body for the Internet. Created in October 1998
by a broad coalition of the Internet's business, technical, academic,
and user communities, ICANN is assuming responsibility for a set of
technical functions previously performed under U.S. Government
contract by IANA and other groups.

Specifically, ICANN coordinates the assignment of the following
identifiers that must be globally unique for the Internet to function:
Internet domain names, IP address numbers, protocol parameter and port
numbers.  In addition, ICANN coordinates the stable operation of the
Internet's root server system.

As a non-profit, private-sector corporation, ICANN is dedicated to
preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting
competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet
communities; and to developing policy through private-sector,
bottom-up, consensus-based means.  ICANN welcomes the participation of
any interested Internet user, business, or organization.

Email:          icann@icann.org
Postal:         Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
                4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 330
                Marina del Rey, CA 90292
Telehone:       +1-310-823-9358
Fax:            +1-310-823-8649
Internet:       http://www.icann.org/

o InterNIC

The InterNIC was a cooperative activity between the National Science
Foundation, General Atomics, AT&T, and Network Solutions, Inc.  The
joint activity InterNIC no longer exists.

Currently, Network Solutions runs the central registry according to the
shared registry model specified by ICANN for registration of
second-level domain names under the generic top-level domains .com,
.net, and .org.

For information on accredited registrars for .com, .net, and .org,
please see:


(note that Network Solutions is an accredited registrar as well as the
entity running the registry).

Email:          hostmaster@netsol.com
Postal:         Network Solutions, Inc.
                505 Huntmar Park Dr.
                Herndon, VA 20170 US
Telephone:      +1-703-742-4777
Fax:            +1-703-742-9552
Internet:       http://www.networksolutions.com/

Regional Internet Registries (IRs)

Regional IRs operate in large geopolitical regions such as continents.
Currently, there are three Regional IRs: ARIN for the Americas, the
Caribbean, and Africa; RIPE NCC for Europe, Africa, and the Middle
East; and APNIC for the Asia Pacific region.  The specific duties of
the Regional IRs include coordination and representation of all local
Internet Registries in their respective region.


Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) is a non-profit
Internet registry for the Asia Pacific region.  APNIC provides IP
address allocation, Autonomous System Number (ASN) assignment, and
IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.

Email:          hostmaster@apnic.net
Postal:         APNIC Box 2131
                Milton Queensland 4064
                Telephone:      +61-7-3367-0490
Fax:            +61-7-3367-0482
Internet:       http://www.apnic.net/


The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is a non-profit
Internet registry that was established for the purpose of
administration and registration of Internet Protocol (IP) numbers to
the geographical areas that were previously managed by Network
Solutions, Inc.  These areas include, but are not limited to, North
America, South America, Africa, and the Caribbean region.  ARIN
provides IP address allocation, Autonomous System Number (ASN)
assignment, and IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.

Email:          hostmaster@arin.net
Postal:         4506 Daly Drive
                Suite 200
                Chantilly, VA  20151
Telephone:      +1-703-227-0660
Fax             +1-703-227-0676
Internet:       http://www.arin.net/


Reseaux IP Europens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) is a
non-profit Internet registry for the European, North African, and
Middle East regions.  RIPE NCC provides IP address allocation,
Autonomous System Number (ASN) assignment, and IN-ADDR.ARPA

Email:          ncc@ripe.net
Postal:         Singel 258
                1016 AB Amsterdam
                The Netherlands
Phone:          +31-20-535-4444
Fax:            +31-20-535-4445
Internet:       http://www.ripe.net/

Appendix B:     Documentation

Internet Documentation

For general Internet documentation, ftp to rfc-editor.org and cd to the
/rfc subdirectory for Request for Comments documents.

Details on obtaining these documents via ftp or email may be obtained
by sending
an email message to:


with the message body  help: ways_to_get_rfcs.  For example:

        To: rfc-info@isi.edu
        Subject: getting rfcs

        help: ways_to_get_rfcs

Documents, Templates, and Forms

The documents, templates, and forms referenced in this guide are
available from the document stores in the directories listed in the
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators).  Organizations without connectivity
wishing to obtain copies of the referenced documents should contact
their Local IR to arrange postal delivery of one or more of the
documents.  Note that fees may be associated with the delivery of
hardcopy versions of documents.

The document stores can be accessed in two ways:

1.  Via anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

Using your ftp program, connect to the appropriate host computer shown
below using your email address as the password.  Use the cd (change
directory) command to connect to the appropriate subdirectory, then use
the get command to retrieve
the specific file.  For example:

ftp rs.apnic.net (for countries in the Asia/Pacific region)
ftp rs.arin.net (for countries in the Americas)
ftp rs.ripe.net (for countries in Europe or North Africa)

        login:  anonymous
        password:  your_email_address

        cd netinfo

        get <domain>_info.txt

2.  Via electronic mail, ftp, or the World Wide Web

Send email to the appropriate address shown below with the message body as

APNIC Documentation

For APNIC documents and templates, connect to ftp.apnic.net and cd to
/apnic/docs.  APNIC no longer has an electronic mail method of form
retrieval.  Many of APNIC's request forms are also available on the web
site at:


ARIN Documentation

For ARIN templates, connect to rs.arin.net and cd to /templates.

You can also obtain templates via the web site at:


Other ARIN documentation is available at:


Or send email to:


RIPE Documentation

For RIPE documents and forms, connect to ftp.ripe.net/ripe and cd to
/docs or cd to /forms.

Or send email to:


with send help in the body of the message.

Appendix C:     Country Codes

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166
Maintenance Agency and ISO 3166 current list of two-letter country
codes is available via:


Appendix D:     Acronyms

ANS             Advanced Network Services, Inc.
ASN             Autonomous System Number
APNIC           Asia Pacific Network Information Center
ARIN            American Registry for Internet Numbers
AS              Autonomous System
CANET           Canada Net
CIDR            Classless Inter-Domain Routing
DNS             Domain Name System
gTLD            Generic Top-Level Domain
IANA            Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
InterNIC        Internet Network Information Center
IP              Internet Protocol
IR              Internet Registry
IRR             Internet Routing Registry
ISO             International Organization for Standardization
ISP             Internet Service Provider
LINX            London Internet Exchange
NCC             Network Coordination Centre
NIC             Network Information Center
NSRC            Network Startup Resource Center
POP             Point of Presence
RADB            Routing Arbiter Data Base
RFC             Request for Comments
RIPE            Reseaux IP Europ¬Čens
TCP/IP          Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TLD             Top-Level Domain

expires 11/01/00