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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11                           
Network Working Group                                           E. Wilde
Internet-Draft                                Swiss Federal Institute of
Expires: June 26, 2002                                        Technology
                                                       December 26, 2001


               Registration of GSTN SMS Service Qualifier
                       draft-wilde-sms-service-00

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://
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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 26, 2002.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This memo describes the registration of the Short Message Service
   (SMS) as a registered IANA service selector for Global Switched
   Telephone Network (GSTN) numbers.  SMS is not available for all GSTN
   subscribers, but it has proven very popular with users of the Global
   System for Mobile Communications (GSM), and has also been adapted to
   other telephone network technologies such as the Integrated Services
   Digital Network (ISDN).







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Table of Contents

   1.    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   1.1   What is GSM? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   1.2   What is SMS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   1.2.1 SMS content  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   1.2.2 SMS infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.    IANA registrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.1   IANA registration form for GSTN address service-selector
         "SMS"  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.2   IANA registration form for GSTN address qualit-type1 keyword
         "SMSC" and value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.    Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
         Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
         Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
         Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   A.    Where to send Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   B.    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
         Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
































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1. Introduction

   The capitalized key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
   "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119 [RFC2119].

1.1 What is GSM?

   GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is a digital mobile
   phone standard which is used extensively in many parts of the world.
   First named after its frequency band around 900 MHz, GSM-900 has
   provided the basis for several other networks utilizing GSM
   technology, in particular GSM networks operating in the frequency
   bands around 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz.  When referring to "GSM" in this
   document, we mean any of these GSM-based networks that operate a
   short message service.

1.2 What is SMS?

   The Short Message Service [SMS] is an integral part of the GSM
   network technology.  It has been very successful and currently is a
   major source of revenue for most GSM operators.  SMS as a service is
   so successful that other Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN)
   technologies have adapted it as well, in particular the Integrated
   Services Digital Network (ISDN).  Because of this development, this
   memo uses the term "SMS client" to refer to user agents who are able
   to send and/or receive SMS messages.

1.2.1 SMS content

   GSM SMS messages are alphanumeric paging messages that can be sent to
   and SMS clients.  SMS messages have a maximum length of 160
   characters (7-bit characters from the GSM character set [SMS-CHAR]),
   or 140 octets.  Other character sets (such as UCS-2 16-bit
   characters, resulting in 80 character messages) MAY also be supported
   [SMS-CHAR], but are defined as being OPTIONAL by the SMS
   specification.

   While the 160 character variety for SMS messages is by far the most
   widely used one, there are numerous other content types for SMS
   messages, such as small bitmaps ("operator logos") and simple formats
   for musical notes ("ring tones").  However, these formats are
   proprietary and are not considered in this memo.

   SMS messages are very limited in length (140 octets), so several
   methods exist to concatenate SMS messages.  However, none of these
   methods is standardized, and different manufacturers of mobile phones



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   implement different methods of message concatenation.  Therefore, SMS
   message concatenation is not taken into consideration by this memo.
   SMS clients composing messages may still employ concatenation
   methods, but they MUST be aware that they do so at their own risk,
   possibly using a method that is not supported by the receiving SMS
   client.

1.2.2 SMS infrastructure

   SMS messages can be transmitted over an SMS client's network
   interface using the signalling channels of the underlying GSTN
   infrastructure, so there is no delay for call setup.  Alternatively,
   SMS messages MAY be submitted through other front-ends (for example
   such as Web services), which makes it possible for SMS clients to run
   on computers which are not directly connected to a GSTN network
   supporting SMS.

   SMS messages are stored by an entity called Short Message Service
   Centre (SMSC), and sent to the recipient when the subscriber connects
   to the network.  The number of a cooperative SMSC must be known to
   the SMS sender (ie, the entity submitting the SMS message to a GSTN
   infrastructure) when sending the message (usually, the SMSC's number
   is configured in the SMS client and specific for the network operator
   to which the sender has subscribed).  In most situations, the SMSC
   number is part of the sending SMS client's configuration.  However,
   in some special cases (such as when the SMS recipient only accepts
   messages from a certain SMSC), it may be necessary to send the SMS
   message over a specific SMSC.

   Short messages can be mobile terminated (MT) or mobile originated
   (MO).  MT messages are the ones that arrive at SMS clients; MO
   messages are sent by SMS clients.  Networks may support either, both,
   or none of these.  For the purpose of this memo, it is important that
   the sending SMS client is allowed to submit MO messages, and that the
   receiver is allowed to receive MT messages.

   The exact setup of message submission and delivery is not subject of
   this memo, it may incorporate additional hops in addition to the pure
   SMS transport.  For example, the sending SMS client may use a Web
   service to submit the SMS message, and the receiving SMS client may
   be set up to forward the SMS to an email account.  For the purpose of
   this memo, it is important that the receiver can be addressed by a
   GSTN number, and that the sender can submit an SMS message using this
   number.

2. IANA registrations

   Based on the requirements defined in RFC 3191 [RFC3191], the IANA



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   registration forms for the "SMS" service-selector and "SMSC" qualif-
   type1 elements are defined here.  Syntax definitions are given using
   the Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications [RFC2234].

2.1 IANA registration form for GSTN address service-selector "SMS"


   To:      IANA@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of new values for the GSTN address
            service-selector specifier "SMS"

      service-selector name: SMS

      Description of Use: SMS - specify that the GSTN address refers to
         a GSTN subscriber who is capable of receiving messages using
         the GSM Short Message Service (SMS).

         For a complete description refer to RFC 3191 and draft-wilde-
         sms-service-00.

      Security Considerations: See the Security Consideration section of
         draft-wilde-sms-service-00.

      Person & email address to contact for further information:

   Erik Wilde
   Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
   ETH-Zentrum
   8092 Zurich
   Switzerland
   tel:+41-1-6325132
   fax:+41-1-6321035
   mailto:ietf@dret.net


2.2 IANA registration form for GSTN address qualit-type1 keyword "SMSC"
    and value


   To:      IANA@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of new values for the GSTN address
            qualif-type1 element "SMSC"

      qualif-type1 "keyword" name: SMSC

      qualif-type1 "value" ABNF definition: The ABNF definition for the
         value of the SMSC keyword is taken from draft-allocchio-gstn-01




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   sub-addr      =  gstn-phone
   gstn-phone    =  ( global-phone / local-phone )
   global-phone  =  "+" 1*( DIGIT / written-sep )
   local-phone   =  [ exit-code ] dial-number / exit-code [ dial-number ]
   exit-code     =  phone-string
   dial-number   =  phone-string
   phone-string  =  1*( DTMF / pause / tonewait / written-sep )
   DTMF          =  ( DIGIT / "#" / "*" / "A" / "B" / "C" / "D" )
   pause         =  "p"
   tonewait      =  "w"
   written-sep   =  ( "-" / "." )

      Description of Use: SMSC - In some situations, it may be necessary
         to guide the sender of an SMS message to send the message via a
         certain Short Message Service Center (SMSC).  If the SMSC
         qualif-type1 element is present, an SMS client SHOULD try to
         send the message first using the specified SMSC.  If that
         fails, the SMS client MAY try another SMSC (such as the default
         SMSC for that client).

         Further description is available in draft-wilde-sms-service-00

      Use Restriction: The use of the "SMSC" qualif-type1 element is
         restricted to the "SMS" service-selector, it has no meaning
         outside the SMS service defined by the "SMS" service-selector.

      Security Considerations: See the Security Consideration section of
         draft-wilde-sms-service-00.

      Person & email address to contact for further information:

   Erik Wilde
   Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
   ETH-Zentrum
   8092 Zurich
   Switzerland
   tel:+41-1-6325132
   fax:+41-1-6321035
   mailto:ietf@dret.net


3. Security Considerations

   SMS messages are transported without any provisions for privacy or
   integrity, so SMS users should be aware of these inherent security
   problems of SMS messages.  Unlike electronic mail, where additional



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   mechanisms exist to layer security features on top of the
   infrastructure, there is no such framework for SMS messages.

   SMS messages very often are delivered almost instantaneously (if the
   receiving SMS client is on line), but there is no guarantee for when
   SMS messages will be delivered.  In particular, SMS messages between
   different network operators sometimes take a long time to be
   delivered (hours or even days) or are not delivered at all, so
   applications SHOULD NOT make any assumptions about the reliability
   and performance of SMS message transmission.

   In most networks, sending SMS messages is not a free service.
   Therefore, SMS clients MUST make sure that any action that incurs
   costs is acknowledged by the end user, unless explicitly instructed
   otherwise by the end user.  If an SMS client has different ways of
   submitting an SMS message (such as a Web service and a phone line),
   then the end user MUST have a way to control which way is chosen.

   SMS clients often are limited devices (typically mobile phones), and
   the sending SMS client SHOULD NOT make any assumptions about the
   receiving SMS client supporting any non-standard services, such as
   message concatenation or proprietary content types.  However, if the
   sending SMS client has prior knowledge about the receiving SMS
   client, then he MAY use this knowledge to compose non-standard SMS
   messages.

Normative References

   [RFC2119]                     Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs
                                 to Indicate Requirement Levels", RFC
                                 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2234]                     Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented
                                 BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF",
                                 RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC3191]                     Allocchio, C., "Minimal GSTN address
                                 format in Internet Mail", RFC 3191,
                                 October 2001.

   [SMS]                         European Telecommunications Standards
                                 Institute, "Digital Cellular
                                 Telecommunications System (Phase 2+);
                                 Technical realization of the Short
                                 Message Service (SMS); Point-to-Point
                                 (PP)", December 1998, <http://
                                 pda.etsi.org/pda/home.asp?wki_id=6822>.




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   [SMS-CHAR]                    European Telecommunications Standards
                                 Institute, "Digital Cellular
                                 Telecommunications System (Phase 2+)
                                 (GSM); Alphabets and language-specific
                                 information (GSM 03.38)", July 1996,
                                 <http://pda.etsi.org/pda/
                                 home.asp?wki_id=4690>.

   [draft-allocchio-gstn]        Allocchio, C., "Text string notation
                                 for Dial Sequences and GSTN / E.164
                                 addresses", draft-allocchio-gstn-01
                                 (work in progress), November 2001.

   [draft-wilde-sms-service-00]  Wilde, E., "Registration of GSTN SMS
                                 Service Qualifier", draft-wilde-sms-
                                 service-00 (work in progress), December
                                 2001.

Non-Normative References

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.


Author's Address

   Erik Wilde
   Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
   ETH-Zentrum
   8092 Zurich
   Switzerland

   Phone: +41-1-6325132
   EMail: ietf@dret.net
   URI:   http://dret.net/netdret/

Appendix A. Where to send Comments

   Please send all comments about this document to Erik Wilde.

Appendix B. Acknowledgements

   This document has been written using the IETF document DTD described
   in RFC 2629 [RFC2629].







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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
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   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
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   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
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   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.



















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