DANCE                                                          A. Wilson
Internet-Draft                                                  Valimail
Intended status: Informational                                  S. Huque
Expires: 25 November 2022                                     Salesforce
                                                            O. Johansson
                                                             24 May 2022

       An Architecture for DNS-Bound Client and Sender Identities


   This architecture document defines terminology, interaction, and
   authentication patterns, related to the use of DANE DNS records for
   TLS client and messaging peer identity, within the context of
   existing object security and TLS-based protocols.

Discussion Venues

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the DANE Authentication
   for Network Clients Everywhere Working Group mailing list
   (, which is archived at

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 25 November 2022.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Communication Patterns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Client/Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Peer2peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  Decoupled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Mutual TLS Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.1.1.  Example 1: TLS authentication for HTTPS API
               interaction, DANE preauthorization  . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.1.2.  IoT: Device to cloud  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.3.  Oauth2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.4.  Edge Computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.5.  SIP and WebRTC inter-domain privacy . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.6.  DNS over TLS client authentication  . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.7.  SMTP, STARTTLS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.8.  SSH client  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.9.  Network Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.10. LoRaWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Object Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.2.1.  Structured data messages: JOSE/COSE . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Operational anomaly reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.1.  MUD reporting for improper provisioning . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.2.  XARF for abuse reporting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.4.  Adjacent Ecosystem Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.1.  Certification Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.1.  Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.2.  Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.3.  Availability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.4.  Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       5.4.1.  DNS Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

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       5.4.2.  Change of ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   A digital identity, in an abstract sense, possesses at least two
   features: an identifier (or name), and a means of proving ownership
   of the identifier.  One of the most resilient mechanisms for tying an
   identifier to a method for proving ownership of the identifier is the
   digital certificate, issued by a well-run Certification Authority
   (CA).  The CA acts as a mutually trusted third party, a root of

   Certificate-based identities are limited in scope by the issuing CA,
   or by the namespace of the application responsible for issuing or
   validating the identity.

   An example of this limitation is well-illustrated by organizational
   Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).  Organizational PKI is very often
   coupled with email and LDAP systems, and can be used for associating
   a human or machine identity identifier with a public key.  Within the
   organization, authentication systems already agree on the roots of
   trust for validating entity certificates issued by organizational

   Attempting to use organizational PKI outside the organization can be
   challenging.  In order to authenticate a certificate, the
   certificate's CA must be trusted.  CAs have no way of controlling
   identifiers in certificates issued by other CAs.  Consequently,
   trusting multiple CAs at the same time can enable entity identifier
   collisions.  Asking an entity to trust your CA implies trust in
   anything that your CA signs.  This is why many organizations operate
   a private CA, and require devices connecting to the organization's
   networks or applications to possess certificates issued by the
   organization's CA.

   These limitations make the implementation and ongoing maintenance of
   a PKI costly, and have a chilling effect on the broader adoption of
   certificate-based IoT device identity.  If certificate-based device
   identity were easier to manage, more broadly trusted, and less
   operationally expensive, more organizations and applications would be
   able to use it.

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   The lack of trust between PKI domains has lead to a lack of simple
   and globally scalable solutions for secure end-to-end inter-domain
   communication between entities, such as SIP phones, email and chat
   accounts and IoT devices belonging to different organizations.

   DANCE seeks to make PKI-based IoT device identity universally
   discoverable, more broadly recognized, and less expensive to maintain
   by using DNS as the constraining namespace and lookup mechanism.
   DANCE builds on patterns established by the original DANE RFCs to
   enable client and sending entity certificate, public key, and trust
   anchor discovery.  DANCE allows entities to possess a first-class
   identity, which, thanks to DNS, may be trusted by any application
   also trusting the DNS.  A first-class identity is an application-
   independent identity.

2.  Conventions and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   *This section will be interesting to define.  We have great examples
   of identity terminology in the
   draft-sarikaya-t2trg-sbootstrapping-06 document, but this document
   also admits that there is semantic drift on terms like
   "bootstrapping", depending on who's talking.*

   *Identity provisioning:* This refers to the set of tasks required to
   securely provision an asymmetric key pair for the device, sign the
   certificate (if the public credential is not simply a raw public
   key), and publish the public key or certificate in DNS.  Under some
   circumstances, these steps are not all performed by the same party or
   organization.  A manufacturer may instantiate the key pair, and a
   systems integrator may be responsible for issuing (and publishing)
   the device certificate in DNS.  In some circumstances, a manufacturer
   may also publish device identity records in DNS.  In this case, the
   system integrator needs to perform network and application access
   configuration, since the identity already exists in DNS.

   *Security Domain:* DNS-bound client identity allows the device to
   establish secure communications with any server with a DNS-bound
   identity, as long as a network path exists, the entity is configured
   to trust its communicating peer by name, and agreement on protocols
   can be achieved.  The act of joining a security domain, in the past,
   may have involved certificate provisioning.  Now, it can be as simple
   as using a manufacturer-provisioned identity to join the device to

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   the network and application.  [Is the security domain defined by how
   broadly the identity is recognized, or by the breadth of the
   application or network access policy?]

   *Client:* This architecture document adopts the definition of
   "Client" from RFC 8446: "The endpoint initiating the TLS connection"

   *Server:* This architecture document adopts the definition of
   "Server" from RFC 8446: "The endpoint that did not initiate the TLS

   *Sending agent:* Software which encodes and transmits messages.  A
   sending agent may perform tasks related to generating cryptographic
   signatures and/or encrypting messages before transmission.

   *Receiving agent:* Software which interprets and processes messages.
   A receiving agent may perform tasks related to the decryption of
   messages, and verification of message signatures.

   *Store-and-forward system:* A message handling system in-path between
   the sending agent and the receiving agent.

   *Hardware supplier role:* The entity which manufactures or assembles
   the physical device.  In many situations, multiple hardware suppliers
   are involved in producing a given device.  In some cases, the
   hardware supplier may provision an asymmetric key pair for the device
   and establish the device identity in DNS.  In some cases, the
   hardware supplier may ship a device with software pre-installed.

   *Systems integrator:* The party responsible for configuration and
   deployment of application components.  In some cases, the systems
   integrator also installs the software onto the device, and may
   provision the device identity in DNS.

   *Consumer:* The entity or organization which pays for the value
   provided by the application, and defines the success criteria for the
   output of the application.

3.  Communication Patterns

3.1.  Client/Server

   Client/server communication patterns imply a direct connection
   between an entity which provides a service (the server), and an
   entity which initiates a connection to the server, called a client.
   A secure implementation of this pattern includes a TLS-protected
   session directly between the client and the server.  A secure
   implementation may also include public key-based mutual

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   Extending DANE to include client identity allows the server to
   authenticate clients independent of the private PKI used to issue the
   client certificate.  This reduces the complexity of managing the CA
   certificate collection, and mitigates the possibility of client
   identifier collision.

3.2.  Peer2peer

   The extension also allows an application to find an application
   identity and set up a secure communication channel directly.  This
   pattern can be used in mesh networking, IoT and in many communication
   protocols for multimedia sessions, chat and messaging.

3.3.  Decoupled

   Decoupled architecture, frequently incorporating store-and-forward
   systems, provides no direct connection between the producer and
   consumer of information.  The producer (or sending agent) and
   consumer (or receiving agent) are typically separated by at least one
   layer of messaging-oriented middleware.  The Messaging-oriented
   middleware components may act as a server for the purpose of
   establishing TLS sessions for the producer and consumer.  This allows
   the assertion of identity between the middleware and sending agent,
   and the middleware and receiving agent.  The trust relationship
   between the sending agent and receiving agent is based on the
   presumed trustworthiness of the middleware, unless an identity can be
   attached to the message itself, independent of transport and
   middleware components.

   Within many existing store-and-forward protocols, certificates may be
   transmitted within the signed message itself.  An example of this is
   S/MIME.  Within IoT applications, we find that networks may be more
   constrained.  Including certificates in message payloads can present
   an unnecessary overhead on constrained network links.  Decoupled
   applications benefit from an out-of-band public key discovery
   mechanism, which may enable the retrieval of certificates only when
   needed, and sometimes using a less expensive network connection.

4.  Use Cases

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4.1.  Mutual TLS Authentication

   Using DNS to convey certificate information for authenticating TLS
   clients gives a not-yet-authenticated client the ability to trigger a
   DNS lookup on the server side of the TLS connection.  An opportunity
   for DDOS may exist when malicious clients can trigger arbitrary DNS
   lookups.  For instance, an authoritative DNS server which has been
   configured to respond slowly, may cause a high concurrency of in-
   flight TLS authentication processes as well as open connections to
   upstream resolvers.  This sort of attack (of type slowloris) could
   have a performance or availability impact on the TLS server.

4.1.1.  Example 1: TLS authentication for HTTPS API interaction, DANE

   *  The client initiates a TLS connection to the server.

   *  The TLS server compares the dane_clientid (conveyed via the DANE
      Client Identity extension) to a list of allowed client domains.

   *  If the dane_clientid is allowed, the TLS server then performs a
      DNS lookup for the client's TLSA record.  If the dane_clientid is
      not allowed, authentication fails.

   *  If the client's TLSA record matches the presented certificate or
      public key, the TLS handshake completes successfully and the
      authenticated dane_clientid is presented to the web application in
      the (TBD) header field.

   This pattern has the following advantages:

   *  This pattern translates well to TLS/TCP load balancers, by using a
      TCP TLV instead of an HTTP header.

   *  No traffic reaches the application behind the load balancer unless
      DANE client authentication is successful.  Example 2: TLS authentication for HTTPS API interaction, DANE
          matching in web application

   *  The client initiates a TLS connection to the server.

   *  The TLS server accepts any certificate for which the client can
      prove possession of the corresponding private key.

   *  The TLS server passes the certificate to the web application in
      (TBD) header field.

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   *  The HTTP request body contains the dane_clientid, and is passed to
      the web application.

   *  The web application compares the dane_clientid to a list of
      allowed clients or client domains.

   *  If the dane_clientid is allowed, the web application makes the DNS
      query for the TLSA records for dane_clientid

   *  If the presented certificate (which was authenticated by the TLS
      server) matches at least one TLSA record for dane_clientid,
      authentication succeeds.

   This pattern has the following advantages:

   *  In a web application where a TLS-terminating load balancer sits in
      front of a web application, the authentication logic in the load
      balancer remains simple.

   *  The web application ultimately decides whether to make the DNS
      query to support DANE authentication.  This allows the web
      application to reject clients with identifiers which are not
      allowed, before making a DNS query for TLSA retrieval and
      comparison.  No need to manage an allow-list in the load balancer.

   *  This can be implemented with no changes to the TLS handshake.

4.1.2.  IoT: Device to cloud

   Direct device-to-cloud communication is common in simple IoT
   applications.  Authentication in these applications is usually
   accomplished using shared credentials like API keys, or using client
   certificates.  Client certificate authentication frequently requires
   the consumer to maintain a CA.  The CA trust anchor certificate is
   installed into the cloud application, and used in the TLS
   authentication process.

   Using DANE for device identity can allow parties other than the
   implementer to operate the CA.  A hardware manufacturer can provide a
   pre-established identity, with the certificate or public key already
   published in DNS.  This makes PKI-based identity more approachable
   for small organizations which currently lack the resources to operate
   an organizational CA.

4.1.3.  Oauth2

   [This can be a broad topic.  Should we include, or wait until a re-
   chartering to update?]

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4.1.4.  Edge Computing
   computing-01 (Edge Computing) may require devices to mutually
   authenticate in the field.  A practical example of this pattern is
   the edge computing in construction use case
   computing-01#section-6.2.1].  Using traditional certificate-based
   identity, the sensor and the gateway may have certificates issued by
   the same organizational PKI.  By using DANE for client and sender
   identity, the sensor and the gateway may have identities represented
   by the equipment supplier, and still be able to mutually
   authenticate.  Important sensor measurements forwarded by the gateway
   to the cloud may bear the DNS name and signature of the originating
   sensor, and the cloud application may authenticate the measurement
   independent of the gateway which forwarded the information to the

4.1.5.  SIP and WebRTC inter-domain privacy

   End to end security in SIP is currently based on a classical S/MIME
   model which has not received much implementation.  There are also SIP
   standards that build upon a trust chained anchored on the HTTP trust
   chain (SIP identity, STIR).  WebRTC has a trust model between the web
   browser and the servers using TLS, but no inter-domain trust
   infrastructure.  WebRTC lacks a definition of namespace to map to
   DNS, where SIP is based on an email-style addressing scheme.  For
   WebRTC the application developer needs to define the name space and
   mapping to DNS.

   By using DNS as a shared root of trust SIP and WebRTC end points can
   anchor the keys used for DTLS/SRTP media channel setup.  In addition,
   SIP devices can establish security in the SIP messaging by using DNS
   to find the callee's and the callers digital identity.


   *NOTE: include reference to earlier drafts for SIP + DANE*

4.1.6.  DNS over TLS client authentication


4.1.8.  SSH client

4.1.9.  Network Access

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   *Supplicant:* The entity which acts as the TLS client in the EAP-TLS
   authentication protocol.  This term is defined in IEEE 802.1x.  The
   suppliant acts as a client in the EAPOL (EAP over LAN) protocol,
   which is terminated at the authenticator (defined below).

   *Authentication server:* The entity which acts as the TLS server in
   the EAP-TLS protocol.  RADIUS (RFC 2865) is a frequently-used
   authentication server protocol.

   *Authenticator:* The authenticator is the device which acts as a
   server the EAPOL (EAP over LAN) protocol, and is a client of the
   authentication server.  The authenticator is responsible for passing
   EAP messages between the supplicant and the authentication server,
   and for ensuring that only authenticated supplicants gain access to
   the network. (EAP-TLS) is a mature
   and widely-used protocol for network authentication, for IoT and IT
   equipment.  IEEE 802.1x defines the encapsulation of EAP over LAN
   access technologies, like IEEE 802.11 wireless and IEEE 802.3
   ethernet.  RADIUS is a protocol and server technology frequently used
   for supporting the server side of EAP-TLS authentication.  Guidance
   for implementing RADIUS strongly encourages the use of a single
   common CA for all supplicants, to mitigate the possibility of
   identifier collisions across PKIs.  The use of DANE for client
   identity can allow the safe use of any number of CAs.  DNS acts as a
   constraining namespace, which prevents two unrelated CAs from issuing
   valid certificates bearing the same identifier.  Certificates
   represented in DNS are valid, and all others are un-trusted.  RADSEC

   The RADIUS protocol has a few recognized security problems. (RADSEC) addresses the
   challenges related to the weakness of MD5-based authentication and
   confidentiality over untrusted networks by establishing a TLS session
   between the RADIUS protocol client and the RADIUS protocol server.
   RADIUS datagrams are then transmitted between the authenticator and
   authentication server within the TLS session.  Updating the RADSEC
   standard to include the use of DANE for client and server identity
   would allow a RADIUS server and client to mutually authenticate,
   independent of the client's and server's issuing CAs.  The benefit
   for this use case is that a hosted RADIUS service may mutually
   authenticate any client device, like a WiFi access point or ethernet

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   switch, via RADSEC, without requiring the distribution of CA

4.1.10.  LoRaWAN

   *We should ask S. if he wants to contribute to this section*

4.2.  Object Security

4.2.1.  Structured data messages: JOSE/COSE

   JOSE and COSE provide formats for exchanging authenticated and
   encrypted structured data.  JOSE defines the x5u field in
   (RFC7515), and COSE defines a field of the same name in
   x509-08#section-2 (draft-ietf-cose-x509) which can be used for out-
   of-band x.509 certificate discovery.  By adopting DANE for out-of-
   band certificate discovery, CBOR and JSON data may be authenticated,
   even if the originating sending agent not have IP connectivity,
   provided that the sending agent's certificate is discoverable in DNS
   and the receiving agent has access to DNS.

4.3.  Operational anomaly reporting

4.3.1.  MUD reporting for improper provisioning

4.3.2.  XARF for abuse reporting

4.4.  Adjacent Ecosystem Components

4.4.1.  Certification Authority

5.  Security Considerations

5.1.  Confidentiality

   DNS clients should use DNS over TLS with trusted DNS resolvers to
   protect the identity of authenticating peers.

5.2.  Integrity

   The integrity of public keys represented in DNS is most important.
   An altered public key can enable device impersonation, and the denial
   of existence for a valid identity can cause devices to become un-
   trusted by the network or the application.  DNS records should be
   validated by the DNS stub resolver, using the DNSSEC protocol.

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   Compartmentalizing failure domains within an application is a well-
   known architectural best practice.  Within the context of protecting
   DNS-based identities, this compartmentalization may manifest by
   hosting an identity zone on a DNS server which only supports the
   resource record types essential for representing device identities.
   This can prevent a compromised identity zone DNS server from
   presenting records essential for impersonating web sites under the
   organization's domain name.

   The naming pattern suggested in
   includes an underscore label (_device) which also prevents the
   issuance of Web PKI-validating certificates in the event a DNS server
   hosting a client identity zone, which is capable of presenting A and
   AAAA records, is compromised.

5.3.  Availability

5.4.  Privacy

   If the name of the identity proven by a certificate is directly or
   indirectly relatable to a person, privacy needs to be considered when
   forming the name of the DNS resource record for the certificate.
   When creating the name of the RR, effects of DNS zone walking and
   possible harvesting of identities in the DNS zone will have to be
   considered.  The name of the RR may note have to have a direct
   relation to the name of the subject of the certificate.

   Further work has do be done in this area.

   AW: Consider if an approach like the email local-part hashing used in
   ( might work for this.
   If the identifier/local-part is hashed and the certificate
   association is a SHA256 or SHA512 hash, the effort required to walk a
   zone would not produce much useful information.

5.4.1.  DNS Scalability

   In the use case for IoT an implementation must be scalable to a large
   amount of devices.  In many cases, identities may also be very short
   lived as revocation is performed by simply removing a DNS record.  A
   zone will have to manage a large amount of changes as devices are
   constantly added and de-activated.

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   In these cases it is important to consider the architecture of the
   DNS zone and when possible use a tree-like structure with many
   subdomain parts, much like reverse DNS records or how telephone
   numbers are represented in the ENUM standard (RFC 6116).

   If an authoritative resolver were configured to respond quite slowly
   (think slow loris), is it possible to cause a DoS on the TLS server
   via complete exhaustion of TCP connections?

   The availability of a client identity zone is essential to permitting
   clients to authenticate.  If the DNS infrastructure hosting client
   identities becomes unavailable, then the clients represented by that
   zone cannot be authenticated.

   *OEJ: We may want to have a discussion with the IETF DNS directorate.
   The scalability section above is from a discussion with one of the

5.4.2.  Change of ownership

   What happens if an organization owning the client identity goes out
   of business?  What's the best way to transfer an identifier to
   another zone? <note: there may be an opportunity here to take
   advantage of EST, or another protocol supporting certificate renewal,
   to allow client devices to rotate to another zone>

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

7.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <>.


   TODO acknowledge.

Authors' Addresses

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   Ash Wilson

   Shumon Huque

   Olle Johansson

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