Geopriv                                                  J. Winterbottom
Internet-Draft                                                M. Thomson
Intended status: Standards Track                      Andrew Corporation
Expires: April 4, 2007                                          Oct 2006

                   HELD End-Point identity Extensions

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

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   This document describes a schema for extending HELD Target
   identification beyond source IP Address.  It describes real-world
   situations where such a mechanism can be deployed, and provides
   examples of HELD message syntax including identity extensions.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Example Network Deployments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  Digital Subscriber Line Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  LLDP Enabled Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  XML Schema Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.1.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration for
           urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held:deviceIdentifiers  . . 14
     7.2.  XML Schema Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.1.  Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.2.  Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 19

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1.  Introduction

   The HELD protocol [I-D.winterbottom-http-location-delivery] defines
   the way in in which location information is acquired from a Location
   Information Server (LIS).  HELD uses the IP address of the location
   request message as the primary source of identifier for the
   requesting device, there are however circumstances and network
   configurations where an IP address alone is insufficient to identify
   a Target in a network.  This specification defines an identity
   extensions schema that can be used by requesting devices to assist
   the LIS in determining their physical location.

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2.  Terminology

   The key conventions and terminology used in this document are defined
   as follows:

   This document reuses the terms Target, as defined in [RFC3693].

   This document uses the term Location Information Server, LIS, to
   represent a combined Location Server and Location Generator (as
   defined in [RFC3693]) residing inside the local access domain.

   Broadband Regional Aggregation Server (BRAS).  A node in a DSL
   network responsible for switching data streams between end-points and
   Internet Service Providers.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

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3.  Overview

   A basic premise in HELD is that the source IP address of the location
   request message can be used by the LIS to identify the requesting
   Target, and that this identity can be used with other contextual
   network information to provide a physical location for the Target.
   In many network deployments this premise holds true, but in some
   network deployments additional identifiers are required to identify
   the Target at different points throughout the network, or they may
   assist with speeding up location determination.

   The base HELD schema was designed with extensibility in mind and the
   assumption that IP address may not always be enought to identify a
   Target.  The HELD identity extensions schema is made up of a number
   of discrete element blocks that can included into the HELD
   locationRequest, createContext and updateContext messages.  These
   elements can then be used by the LIS to identify the Target closer to
   the edge of the network, for example a MAC address or DHCP client-
   identifier, or to identify an element that has a closer relationship
   with the target, for example LLDP switch and port information.  The
   identity extension elements have been desgined to work across a range
   of existing and emerging technologies.  It is envisaged that while
   this schema is not exhaustive, it will address many of the perceived
   deployment solution.  It is further envisaged that extensions to this
   schema will be necessary as new identifiers are created or required.

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4.  Example Network Deployments

4.1.  Digital Subscriber Line Networks

   Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) networks represent the fastest growing
   residentital broadband technology.  DSL networks have evolved
   consideraly since their first deployments, with core aggregation
   architectures being covered in DSL forum documents [TR025] and
   [TR101].  DSL depoloyments are frequently constructed through the
   cooperation of two or more providers.  These can be generalized into
   two basic categories, infrastructure providers and Internet
   providers.  Infrastructure providers own the cables and provide layer
   2 connectivity from a residence to the Internet provider.  The
   Internet provider assigns an IP address and provides routing and
   access to broader network services.  End users obtain their service
   from and ISP, that in turn needs to negotiate access from an
   Infrastructure provider.  Request for location from the end user
   therefore, are made to the Internet Service Provider (ISP) LIS.  In
   many cases the ISP LIS is unable to provide location as it is removed
   from the physical access network, consequently it needs to request
   location from the Infrastructure provider LIS.  Depending on the
   network configuration the ISP LIS may need to provide the
   Infrastructure provider LIS with additional identifier information
   that it can glean when the end-point connection is established with
   the ISP Network Access Server (NAS).

   Determining location in DSL environments is dependent on identifying
   and following provisioned circuit chains.  And circuit chains are
   identified differently depending the DSL network deployment.  Take
   for example a deployment that uses a proxy-RADIUS service between the
   BRAS, this mode of operation IP routing is used between the BRAS and
   the ISP NAS.  In this case, the Infrastructure provider LIS may
   information about incoming port information to the BRAS that it can
   link back to a DSLAM port, and hence a street address.  Since the
   BRAS must perform IP routing to the ISP NAS, the Infrastructure
   provider LIS may more easily perform associations between IP address
   and provisioned circuit chain information.

   A large number of DSL deployments however use L2TP connections from
   the BRAS to the ISP NAS.  In this case, the Infrastructure provider
   LIS can only link tunnel and session information to with the
   provisioned circuit chain.  Since the ISP LIS can obtain this same
   tunnel and session information it can provide this in a HELD request
   to the Infrastructre provider LIS, and obtain the location of the
   end-point.  A HELD location request using this meachnism may look
   something similar to the figure below.

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     <locationRequest xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held"
   -   <heldDevice
   -     <l2tp>

4.2.  LLDP Enabled Network

   Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)[LLDP] is being increasingly
   deployed in enterprise environments.  One of the functions available
   in these networks is for an LLDP capable switch to report information
   about itself to attached clients, such as the switch chassis type,
   switch chassis id, port type and port id.  If a Target provides this
   data in a location request to the LIS, it may significantly improve
   the location determination process.  This is because the LIS may
   trust the Target implicitly and simply perform a lookup on the data
   provided, of it can redcue the number of switches that a LIS may need
   to search in order to verify the Target's point of attachment.  A
   HELD location request using this extension may look similar to that
   shown in the figure below.

   <locationRequest xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held"
 -   <heldDevice
 -     <lldp>

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5.  XML Schema Definition

 <?xml version="1.0"?>
 elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">

   <!-- Directory Number Definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="dn">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="[0-9]{1,15}"/>

   <!-- International Mobile Subscriber Identity -->
   <xs:simpleType name="imsi">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="[0-9]{6,15}"/>

   <!-- Hostname definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="host">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="([a-zA-Z0-9]([\-a-zA-Z0-9]*

   <!-- Octet definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="heldOctet">
    <xs:restriction base="xs:integer">
       <xs:minInclusive value="0"/>
       <xs:maxInclusive value="255"/>

   <!-- IPv6 format definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="ipV6">
         An IP version 6 address, based on RFC 1884.

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     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <!-- Fully specified address -->
       <xs:pattern value="[0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}(
       <!-- Double colon start -->
       <xs:pattern value=":(:[0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}){1,7}"/>
       <!-- Double colon middle -->
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,6}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,5}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,4}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,3}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,2}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1}
       <!-- Double colon end -->
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,7}:"/>
       <!-- Embedded IPv4 addresses -->
       <xs:pattern value="((:(:0{1,4}){0,3}(:(0{1,4}|
       <!-- The unspecified address -->
       <xs:pattern value="::"/>

   <!-- IPv4 format definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="ipV4">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[0-1]?[0-9]

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   <!-- Ethernet MAC address -->
   <xs:simpleType name="ethernetMAC">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:hexBinary">
       <xs:minLength value="12"/>
       <xs:maxLength value="12"/>

   <!-- General IP address definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="anyIP">
     <xs:union memberTypes="heldDI:ipV4 heldDI:ipV6"/>

   <!-- Layer 2 Tunelling Protocol attributes -->
   <xs:complexType name="l2tp">
       <xs:element name="sourceIP" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
       <xs:element name="destinationIP" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
       <xs:element name="sessionID"

   <!-- VLAN tagging definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="vlanTags">
       <xs:element name="slot" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="port" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="ctag" type="xs:token"/>
       <xs:element name="stag" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>

   <!-- ATM Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="atmTags">
       <xs:element name="slot" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="port" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="vpi" type="xs:token"/>
       <xs:element name="vci" type="xs:token"/>

   <!-- DHCP definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="dhcpTags">
       <xs:element name="giaddr" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
       <xs:element name="agentID"

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                   type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="circuitID"
                   type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>

   <!-- LLDP definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="lldpTags">
       <xs:element name="chassisType" type="heldDI:heldOctet"/>
       <xs:element name="chassisID" type="xs:token"/>
       <xs:element name="portType" type="heldDI:heldOctet"/>
       <xs:element name="portID" type="xs:token"/>

   <!-- NAS Identification attributes -->

   <xs:simpleType name="nas-port-id">
      <xs:restriction base="xsd:token">
         <xs:minLength value="3"/>

   <xs:element name="nas-ip-address" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
   <xs:element name="nas-identifier" type="heldDI:nas-port-id"/>
   <xs:element name="access-node-id" type="heldDI:nas-port-id"/>

   <!-- Identity Parameters -->

   <xs:complexType name="idParameters">
       <xs:element name="msisdn"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="imsi"
                   type="heldDI:imsi" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="directoryNumber"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="imei"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="ipV4"
                   type="heldDI:ipV4" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="ipV6"
                   type="heldDI:ipV6" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element ref="nas-ip-address" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element ref="nas-identifier" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element ref="access-node-id" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="mdn" type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>

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       <xs:element name="min" type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="extension"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="mac"
                   type="heldDI:ethernetMAC" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="lldp"
                   type="heldDI:lldpTags" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="hostname"
                   type="heldDI:host" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="l2tp"
                   type="heldDI:l2tp" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="vlan"
                   type="heldDI:vlanTags" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="atm"
                   type="heldDI:atmTags" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="dhcp"
                   type="heldDI:dhcpTags" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="link"
                   type="xs:anyURI" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="sid" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>

   <xs:element name="heldDevice" type="heldDI:idParameters"/>


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6.  Security Considerations

   Operators of a LIS that supports this schema extension need to take
   to take steps to ensure that location provided to nodes requesting
   location in this manner are entitled to the location information
   being requested.  In some circumstances support of this schema
   extension will be inappropriate and alternative measure will need to
   be employed.

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7.  IANA Considerations

   According to the guidelines in [RFC3688], this document registers an
   XML namespace and schema with IANA.

7.1.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration for

   This section registers a new XML namespace,
   "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held:deviceIdentfiers", as per the
   guidelines in [RFC3688].

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held:deviceIdentifiers

      Registrant Contact: IETF, GEOPRIV working group,
      (, James Winterbottom


      <?xml version="1.0"?>
      <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
      <html xmlns="" xml:lang="en">
          <title>HELD Device Ddentity Extensions</title>
          <h1>Namespace for HELD Device Identity Extensions</h1>
[[NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR: Please update RFC URL and replace XXXX
    with the RFC number for this specification.]]
          <p>See <a href="[[RFC URL]]">RFCXXXX</a>.</p>

7.2.  XML Schema Registration

   This section registers an XML schema as per the guidelines in

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:geopriv:held:deviceIdentifiers

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   Registrant Contact:  IETF, GEOPRIV working group, (,
      James Winterbottom (

   Schema:  The XML for this schema can be found as the entirety of
      Section 5 of this document.

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8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank the NENA VoIP location working group for
   their assistance in the definition of the schema used in this

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9.  References

9.1.  Normative references

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

              Winterbottom, J., "HTTP Enabled Location Delivery (HELD)",
              draft-winterbottom-http-location-delivery-03 (work in
              progress), May 2006.

9.2.  Informative references

   [RFC3693]  Cuellar, J., Morris, J., Mulligan, D., Peterson, J., and
              J. Polk, "Geopriv Requirements", RFC 3693, February 2004.

   [TR025]    Wang, R., "Core Network Architecture Recommendations for
              Access to Legacy Data Networks over ADSL", September 1999.

   [TR101]    Cohen, A. and E. Shrum, "Migration to Ethernet-Based DSl
              Aggregation", April 2006.

   [LLDP]     IEEE, "802.1AB, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan
              area networks, Station and Media Access Control
              Connectivity Discovery", June 2005.

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Authors' Addresses

   James Winterbottom
   Andrew Corporation
   PO Box U40
   University of Wollongong, NSW  2500


   Martin Thomson
   Andrew Corporation
   PO Box U40
   University of Wollongong, NSW  2500


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