Geopriv                                                  J. Winterbottom
Internet-Draft                                                M. Thomson
Intended status: Standards Track                      Andrew Corporation
Expires: January 4, 2008                                    July 3, 2007

                   HELD End-Point identity Extensions

Status of this Memo

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

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   This document describes a schema for extending HELD Target
   identification beyond source IP Address.  It describes real-world
   situations where such a mechanism can be deployed, and provides
   examples of HELD message syntax including identity extensions.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  HELD Identity Extensions Usage Examples  . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1.  Digital Subscriber Line Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2.  LLDP Enabled Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.3.  Providing Location Dependability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  XML Schema Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.1.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration for
           urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held:deviceIdentifiers  . . 18
     8.2.  XML Schema Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     10.1. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     10.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 23

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1.  Introduction

   The HELD protocol [I-D.ietf-geopriv-http-location-delivery] defines
   the way in in which location information is acquired from a Location
   Configuration Server (LCS).  HELD uses the IP address of the location
   request message as the primary source of identifier for the
   requesting device, there are however circumstances and network
   configurations where an IP address alone is insufficient to identify
   a Target in a network.  This specification defines an identity
   extensions schema that can be used by requesting devices to assist
   the LCS in determining their physical location.

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2.  Terminology

   The key conventions and terminology used in this document are defined
   as follows:

   This document reuses the terms Target, as defined in [RFC3693].

   This document uses the term Location Configuration Server, LCS as
   described in [I-D.ietf-geopriv-l7-lcp-ps].

   Broadband Regional Aggregation Server (BRAS).  A node in a DSL
   network responsible for switching data streams between end-points and
   Internet Service Providers.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

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3.  Overview

   A basic premise in HELD is that the source IP address of the location
   request message can be used by the LCS to identify the requesting
   Target, and that this identity can be used with other contextual
   network information to provide a physical location for the Target.
   In many network deployments this premise holds true, but in some
   network deployments additional identifiers are required to identify
   the Target at different points throughout the network, or they may
   assist with speeding up location determination.

   The base HELD schema was designed with extensibility in mind and the
   assumption that IP address may not always be enought to identify a
   Target.  The HELD identity extensions schema is made up of a number
   of discrete element blocks that can included into the HELD
   locationRequest, createContext and updateContext messages.  These
   elements can then be used by the LCS to identify the Target closer to
   the edge of the network, for example a MAC address or DHCP client-
   identifier, or to identify an element that has a closer relationship
   with the target, for example LLDP switch and port information.  The
   identity extension elements have been desgined to work across a range
   of existing and emerging technologies.  It is envisaged that while
   this schema is not exhaustive, it will address many of the perceived
   deployment solution.  It is further envisaged that extensions to this
   schema will be necessary as new identifiers are created or required.

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4.  Identifiers

   This section provides a brief description of each of the identifiers
   contained in this specification.

   msisdn :  Mobile Station International Subscriber Dial Number.  This
      is an E.164 number made up of 6 to 15 digits.

   imsi :  International Mobile Station Identifier.  A unique identifier
      for GSM or UMTS mobile terminal made up of 6 to 15 digits.

   directoryNumber :  A common directory number which may represent a
      public telephone number made up of 1 to 15 digits.

   imei :  International Mobile Equipment Identifier.  This is an
      electronic serial number for a mobile device and is consists of up
      to 15 digits.

   ipV4 :  An IP version 4 IP address.

   ipV6 :  An IP version 6 IP address.

   nas-ip-address :  The IP address of a Network Access Server.  This
      may be either a IPv4 or IPv6 address.

   nas-identifier :  An arbitrary identifier for Network Access Server.

   access-node-id :  An arbitrary identifier for a DSL access node such
      as that described in [TR101].

   mdn :  Mobile Dial Number.  And E.164 number made up of 6 to 15

   min :  Mobile Identification Number.  A unique identifier assigned to
      CDMA handsets.

   extension :  The number of a voice terminal in a private dialling
      range, such as a PABX extension.

   mac :  Media Access Control Address.  This is the Ethernet address of
      the terminal.

   lldp :  Link Layer Discovery Protocol.  This is a complex construct
      that allows identifiers and parameters available via LLDP to be
      provided to an LCS.  An example of its use is provied in
      Section 5.2.

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   l2tp :  Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol.  This is a complex construct that
      allows identifiers and parameters used to identifier an L2TP
      tunnel session to be provided to an LCS.  An example of its use is
      provied in Section 5.1

   vlan :  Virtual LAN Identfiier.  This is a complex construct that
      allows VLAN tags such as those described in [TR101] to be
      asscoiated with a slot and port on an access server.

   atm :  Asynchronous Transfer Mode.  This is a complex construct that
      allows ATM virtual path identifiers (vpi) and virtual circuit
      identifiers (vci) to be asscoiated with a slot and port on an
      access server.

   dhcp :  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.  This is a complex
      construct that allows identifiers and parameters provided by a
      DHCP relay agent [RFC3046] to be provided to a LCS.

   link :  A generic URI that may be used to identify or assist in the
      identitication of an end device.  This contains an optional "type"
      attribute that can be used indicate what the URI relates to.  For
      example, if the URI is a SIP AoR then this can be indicated.

   ssid :  Service Set Identifier.  In WiFi networks the SSID provides a
      mechansims for distinguishing messages on overlapping WiFi

   depend :  This is a complex construct that allows a device to provide
      an identifier for inclusion in signed location objects.  The form
      for this identifier is described in more detail in Section 5.3.

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5.  HELD Identity Extensions Usage Examples

5.1.  Digital Subscriber Line Networks

   Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) networks represent the fastest growing
   residentital broadband technology.  DSL networks have evolved
   consideraly since their first deployments, with core aggregation
   architectures being covered in DSL forum documents [TR025] and
   [TR101].  DSL depoloyments are frequently constructed through the
   cooperation of two or more providers.  These can be generalized into
   two basic categories, infrastructure providers and Internet
   providers.  Infrastructure providers own the cables and provide layer
   2 connectivity from a residence to the Internet provider.  The
   Internet provider assigns an IP address and provides routing and
   access to broader network services.  End users obtain their service
   from and ISP, that in turn needs to negotiate access from an
   Infrastructure provider.  Request for location from the end user
   therefore, are made to the Internet Service Provider (ISP) LCS.  In
   many cases the ISP LCS is unable to provide location as it is removed
   from the physical access network, consequently it needs to request
   location from the Infrastructure provider LCS.  Depending on the
   network configuration the ISP LCS may need to provide the
   Infrastructure provider LCS with additional identifier information
   that it can glean when the end-point connection is established with
   the ISP Network Access Server (NAS).

   Determining location in DSL environments is dependent on identifying
   and following provisioned circuit chains.  And circuit chains are
   identified differently depending the DSL network deployment.  Take
   for example a deployment that uses a proxy-RADIUS service between the
   BRAS, this mode of operation IP routing is used between the BRAS and
   the ISP NAS.  In this case, the Infrastructure provider LCS may
   information about incoming port information to the BRAS that it can
   link back to a DSLAM port, and hence a street address.  Since the
   BRAS must perform IP routing to the ISP NAS, the Infrastructure
   provider LCS may more easily perform associations between IP address
   and provisioned circuit chain information.

   A large number of DSL deployments however use L2TP connections from
   the BRAS to the ISP NAS.  In this case, the Infrastructure provider
   LCS can only link tunnel and session information to with the
   provisioned circuit chain.  Since the ISP LCS can obtain this same
   tunnel and session information it can provide this in a HELD request
   to the Infrastructre provider LCS, and obtain the location of the
   end-point.  A HELD location request using this meachnism may look
   something similar to the figure below.

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     <locationRequest xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held"

5.2.  LLDP Enabled Network

   Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)[LLDP] is being increasingly
   deployed in enterprise environments.  One of the functions available
   in these networks is for an LLDP capable switch to report information
   about itself to attached clients, such as the switch chassis type,
   switch chassis id, port type and port id.  If a Target provides this
   data in a location request to the LCS, it may significantly improve
   the location determination process.  This is because the LCS may
   trust the Target implicitly and simply perform a lookup on the data
   provided, of it can redcue the number of switches that an LCS may
   need to search in order to verify the Target's point of attachment.
   A HELD location request using this extension may look similar to that
   shown in the figure below.

   <locationRequest xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held"

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5.3.  Providing Location Dependability

   Location dependability is means of providing confidence to location
   recipients that the location is associated with the specific Target.
   One way of doing this is described in
   [I-D.thomson-geopriv-location-dependability] and
   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-l7-lcp-ps], which involves the Target providing
   some kind of identity (this may be cryptographically obscured) to the
   LCS for inclusion in any signature generated by the LCS over the
   location information.  This mechanism coupled with strong proof of
   identity measures included as part of location conveyance can provide
   some degree of location dependability.  The HELD identity extensions
   define the "depend" element to allow the Target provide this
   information ot the LCS.

   <locationRequest xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held"
                    signed="true" responseTime="2">
     <locationType exact="true">geodetic</locationType>

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6.  XML Schema Definition

 <?xml version="1.0"?>
 elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">

   <!-- Directory Number Definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="dn">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="[0-9]{1,15}"/>

   <!-- International Mobile Subscriber Identity -->
   <xs:simpleType name="imsi">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="[0-9]{6,15}"/>

   <!-- Hostname definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="host">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="([a-zA-Z0-9]([\-a-zA-Z0-9]*

   <!-- Octet definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="heldOctet">
    <xs:restriction base="xs:integer">
       <xs:minInclusive value="0"/>
       <xs:maxInclusive value="255"/>

   <!-- IPv6 format definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="ipV6">
         An IP version 6 address, based on RFC 1884.

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     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <!-- Fully specified address -->
       <xs:pattern value="[0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}(
       <!-- Double colon start -->
       <xs:pattern value=":(:[0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}){1,7}"/>
       <!-- Double colon middle -->
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,6}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,5}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,4}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,3}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,2}
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1}
       <!-- Double colon end -->
       <xs:pattern value="([0-9A-Fa-f]{1,4}:){1,7}:"/>
       <!-- Embedded IPv4 addresses -->
       <xs:pattern value="((:(:0{1,4}){0,3}(:(0{1,4}|
       <!-- The unspecified address -->
       <xs:pattern value="::"/>

   <!-- IPv4 format definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="ipV4">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
       <xs:pattern value="(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[0-1]?[0-9]

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   <!-- Ethernet MAC address -->
   <xs:simpleType name="ethernetMAC">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:hexBinary">
       <xs:minLength value="12"/>
       <xs:maxLength value="12"/>

   <!-- General IP address definition -->
   <xs:simpleType name="anyIP">
     <xs:union memberTypes="heldDI:ipV4 heldDI:ipV6"/>

   <!-- Layer 2 Tunelling Protocol attributes -->
   <xs:complexType name="l2tp">
       <xs:element name="sourceIP" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
       <xs:element name="destinationIP" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
       <xs:element name="sessionID"

   <!-- VLAN tagging definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="vlanTags">
       <xs:element name="slot" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="port" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="ctag" type="xs:token"/>
       <xs:element name="stag" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>

   <!-- ATM Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="atmTags">
       <xs:element name="slot" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="port" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="vpi" type="xs:token"/>
       <xs:element name="vci" type="xs:token"/>

   <!-- DHCP definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="dhcpTags">
       <xs:element name="giaddr" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
       <xs:element name="agentID"

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                   type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="circuitID"
                   type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>

   <!-- LLDP definitions -->
   <xs:complexType name="lldpTags">
       <xs:element name="chassisType" type="heldDI:heldOctet"/>
       <xs:element name="chassisID" type="xs:token"/>
       <xs:element name="portType" type="heldDI:heldOctet"/>
       <xs:element name="portID" type="xs:token"/>

   <!-- NAS Identification attributes -->

   <xs:simpleType name="nas-port-id">
      <xs:restriction base="xsd:token">
         <xs:minLength value="3"/>

   <xs:element name="nas-ip-address" type="heldDI:anyIP"/>
   <xs:element name="nas-identifier" type="heldDI:nas-port-id"/>
   <xs:element name="access-node-id" type="heldDI:nas-port-id"/>

   <!-- typedURI definition -->

   <xs:complexType name="typedURI">
       <xs:extension base="xs:anyURI">
         <xs:attribute name="type" type="xs:token"

   <!-- Dependability attributes -->

   <xs:complexType name="dependability">
       <xs:extension base="xs:anySimpleType">
         <xs:attribute name="form" type="xs:anyURI" use="required"/>
         <xs:attribute name="hash" default="##none">

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             <xs:union memberTypes="xs:anyURI">
                 <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
                   <xs:enumeration value="##none"/>

   <!-- Identity Parameters -->

   <xs:complexType name="idParameters">
       <xs:element name="msisdn"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="imsi"
                   type="heldDI:imsi" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="directoryNumber"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="imei"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="ipV4"
                   type="heldDI:ipV4" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="ipV6"
                   type="heldDI:ipV6" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element ref="heldDI:nas-ip-address" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element ref="heldDI:nas-identifier" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element ref="heldDI:access-node-id" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="mdn" type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="min" type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="extension"
                   type="heldDI:dn" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="mac"
                   type="heldDI:ethernetMAC" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="lldp"
                   type="heldDI:lldpTags" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="hostname"
                   type="heldDI:host" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="l2tp"
                   type="heldDI:l2tp" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="vlan"
                   type="heldDI:vlanTags" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="atm"
                   type="heldDI:atmTags" minOccurs="0"/>

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       <xs:element name="dhcp"
                   type="heldDI:dhcpTags" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="link"
                   type="heldDI:typedURI" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="ssid" type="xs:token" minOccurs="0"/>
       <xs:element name="depend" type="heldDI:dependability"

   <xs:element name="heldDevice" type="heldDI:idParameters"/>


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7.  Security Considerations

   Operators of a LCS that supports this schema extension need to take
   to take steps to ensure that location provided to nodes requesting
   location in this manner are entitled to the location information
   being requested.  In some circumstances support of this schema
   extension will be inappropriate and alternative measures will need to
   be employed.

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8.  IANA Considerations

   According to the guidelines in [RFC3688], this document registers an
   XML namespace and schema with IANA.

8.1.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration for

   This section registers a new XML namespace,
   "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held:deviceIdentfiers", as per the
   guidelines in [RFC3688].

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held:deviceIdentifiers

      Registrant Contact: IETF, GEOPRIV working group,
      (, James Winterbottom


      <?xml version="1.0"?>
      <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
      <html xmlns="" xml:lang="en">
          <title>HELD Device Identity Extensions</title>
          <h1>Namespace for HELD Device Identity Extensions</h1>
[[NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR: Please update RFC URL and replace XXXX
    with the RFC number for this specification.]]
          <p>See <a href="[[RFC URL]]">RFCXXXX</a>.</p>

8.2.  XML Schema Registration

   This section registers an XML schema as per the guidelines in

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:geopriv:held:deviceIdentifiers

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   Registrant Contact:  IETF, GEOPRIV working group, (,
      James Winterbottom (

   Schema:  The XML for this schema can be found as the entirety of
      Section 6 of this document.

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9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank the NENA VoIP location working group for
   their assistance in the definition of the schema used in this
   document.  Special thanks go to Barbara Stark, Guy Caron, Nadine
   Abbott, Jerome Grenier and Martin Dawson.  Thanks also to Bob Sherry
   for requesting that a URI-types be supported which led to the
   typedURI form.

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10.  References

10.1.  Normative references

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

              Barnes, M., "HTTP Enabled Location Delivery (HELD)",
              draft-ietf-geopriv-http-location-delivery-00 (work in
              progress), June 2007.

              Thomson, M. and J. Winterbottom, "Digital Signature
              Methods for Location Dependability",
              draft-thomson-geopriv-location-dependability-00 (work in
              progress), February 2007.

              Tschofenig, H. and H. Schulzrinne, "GEOPRIV Layer 7
              Location Configuration Protocol; Problem Statement and
              Requirements", draft-ietf-geopriv-l7-lcp-ps-02 (work in
              progress), April 2007.

10.2.  Informative references

   [RFC3693]  Cuellar, J., Morris, J., Mulligan, D., Peterson, J., and
              J. Polk, "Geopriv Requirements", RFC 3693, February 2004.

   [TR025]    Wang, R., "Core Network Architecture Recommendations for
              Access to Legacy Data Networks over ADSL", September 1999.

   [TR101]    Cohen, A. and E. Shrum, "Migration to Ethernet-Based DSl
              Aggregation", April 2006.

   [LLDP]     IEEE, "802.1AB, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan
              area networks, Station and Media Access Control
              Connectivity Discovery", June 2005.

   [RFC3046]  Patrick, M., "DHCP Relay Agent Information Option",
              RFC 3046, January 2001.

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Authors' Addresses

   James Winterbottom
   Andrew Corporation
   PO Box U40
   University of Wollongong, NSW  2500


   Martin Thomson
   Andrew Corporation
   PO Box U40
   University of Wollongong, NSW  2500


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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

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   retain all their rights.

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