DETNET                                                          Q. Xiong
Internet-Draft                                           ZTE Corporation
Intended status: Standards Track                                   Z. Du
Expires: 28 August 2022                                     China Mobile
                                                           February 2022


       DetNet Enhancements for Large-Scale Deterministic Networks
             draft-xiong-detnet-large-scale-enhancements-00

Abstract

   This document describes enhancements to DetNet to achieve the
   differentiated DetNet QoS in large-scale deterministic networks
   including the overall requirements and solutions with deterministic
   resources, routes and services.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 August 2022.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  DetNet Applicability for Large-Scale Deterministic
           Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Overall Requirements of Large-Scale Deterministic Networks  .   5
     4.1.  Service Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.1.1.  Support the Differentiated DetNet QoS of Multiple
               Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.1.2.  Guarantees of Multiple Dynamic Deterministic Flows  .   7
     4.2.  Route Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.2.1.  Support the Distributed Deterministic Routes  . . . .   8
       4.2.2.  Support the Inter-domain Deterministic Routes . . . .   8
       4.2.3.  Support the Replication and Elimination Deterministic
               Routes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Resource Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.1.  Management and Scheduling of the Network Resources  .   8
       4.3.2.  Support the Utilization of Heterogeneous Resources  .   9
   5.  Solutions of Large-Scale Deterministic Networks . . . . . . .   9
     5.1.  Enhanced Layering Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.2.  Mechanisms to Achieve Differentiated DetNet QoS . . . . .  10
       5.2.1.  Deterministic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.2.2.  Deterministic Routes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       5.2.3.  Deterministic Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   9.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   5G network is oriented to the internet of everything.  In addition to
   the Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) and Massive Machine Type
   Communications(mMTC) services, it also supports the Ultra-reliable
   Low Latency Communications (uRLLC) services.  The uRLLC services
   demand SLA guarantees such as low latency and high reliability and
   other deterministic and precise properties especially in Wide Area
   Network (WAN) applications.

   The uRLLC services should be provided in large-scale networks which
   cover the industries such as intelligent electrical network,
   intelligent factory, internet of vehicles, industry automation and
   other industrial internet scenarios.  The industrial internet is the
   key infrastructure that coordinate various units of work over various



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   system components, e.g. people, machines and things in the industrial
   environment including big data, cloud computing, Internet of Things
   (IOT), Augment Reality (AR), industrial robots, Artificial
   Intelligence (AI) and other basic technologies.  For the intelligent
   electrical network, there are deterministic requirements for
   communication delay, jitter and packet loss rate.  For example, in
   the electrical current difference model, a delay of 3~10ms and a
   jitter variation is no more than 100us are required.  For the
   automation control, it is one of the basic application and the the
   core is closed-loop control system.  The control process cycle is as
   low as millisecond level, so the system communication delay needs to
   reach millisecond level or even lower to ensure the realization of
   precise control.  There are three levels of real-time requirements
   for industrial interconnection: factory level is about 1s, and
   process level is 10~100ms, and the highest real-time requirement is
   motion control, which requires less than 1ms.

   According to [RFC8655], Deterministic Networking (DetNet) operates at
   the IP layer and delivers service which provides extremely low data
   loss rates and bounded latency within a network domain.  The
   applications in 5G networks demand much more deterministic and
   precise properties in WAN.  The existing deterministic technologies
   are facing large-scale number of nodes and long-distance
   transmission, traffic scheduling, dynamic flows, and other
   controversial issues in large-scale networks.

   This document describes enhancements to DetNet to achieve the
   differentiated DetNet QoS in large-scale deterministic networks
   including the overall requirements and solutions with deterministic
   resources, routes and services.

2.  Conventions used in this document

2.1.  Terminology

   The terminology is defined as [RFC8655].

2.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.







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3.  DetNet Applicability for Large-Scale Deterministic Networks

   As per [RFC8655], it defined the overall architecture for DetNet,
   which provides a capability for real-time applications with extremely
   low data loss rates and bounded latency within a network domain.  It
   has three goals: minimum and maximum end-to-end latency from source
   to destination, bounded jitter (packet delay variation), packet loss
   ratio and upper bound on out-of-order packet delivery.  To achieve
   the above objectives, multiple techniques need to be used in
   combination, including explicit routes, service protection and
   resource allocation defined by DetNet.  And the DetNet functionality
   is implemented at DetNet service sub-layer and DetNet forwarding sub-
   layer.  It is required to analyse the applicability in DetNet for
   large-scale deterministic networks.

   From the perspective of services requirements discussed in section
   4.1, a large-scale network needs to provide the deterministic service
   for various applications.  And the deterministic service may demand
   different deterministic QoS requirements according to different
   application scenarios.  The service protection in service sub-layer
   is not sufficient to meet the services requirements of large-scale
   networks, it should provide unified planning and scheduling
   mechanisms for service flows to perform end-to-end delay and jitter
   control and achieve differentiated DetNet QoS of multiple services.

   The large-scale deterministic networks have a large number of hops
   and high link delay, which makes it difficult to achieve network-wide
   precise time synchronization.  It may across multiple IP domains, or
   there may be different heterogeneous forwarding plane transport
   technologies.  It is required to consider the efficiency of resources
   utilization and routes steering.

   From the perspective of routes requirements discussed in section 4.3,
   a large-scale network should provide the deterministic paths for the
   services in large-scale networks.  The deterministic routes should be
   calculated based on the deterministic metrics such as the end-to-end
   bounded latency and jitter.  The forwarding sub-layer should
   establish the deterministic routes with SLA guarantees based on the
   deterministic resources.  Moreover, other than explicit routes in
   centralized control scenarios, the distributed routes when the DetNet
   deployed with no controller may be more important for large-scale
   networks.

   From the perspective of resources requirements discussed in section
   4.3, a large-scale network should utilize the bandwidth, nodes,
   links, jitter resource, and queue scheduling resource and the other
   heterogeneous resources to establish the deterministic links which
   could provide SLA guarantees for the deterministic forwarding



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   capabilities at different levels.  Other than resource allocation,
   the forwarding sub-layer should support the unified and simplified
   scheduling and management mechanism for resources.  For example,
   resource modeling, isolation and reservation should be considered to
   guarantee the deterministic transmission.

   It is required to provide mechanisms within DetNet service and
   forwarding sub-layers to meet the requirements of large-scale
   deterministic networks.  This document describes enhancements to
   DetNet to achieve the differentiated DetNet QoS in large-scale
   deterministic networks including the overall requirements and
   solutions with deterministic resources, routes and services.

4.  Overall Requirements of Large-Scale Deterministic Networks

   As per [draft-liu-detnet-large-scale-requirements], the technical and
   operational requirements have been specified for large-scale
   deterministic networks.  For DetNet architecture to support
   deterministic service in a large-scale network, the requirements from
   services, routes and resources also need to be considered.

4.1.  Service Requirements

4.1.1.  Support the Differentiated DetNet QoS of Multiple Services

   As defined in [RFC8655], the DetNet QoS can be expressed in terms of
   : Minimum and maximum end-to-end latency, bounded jitter (packet
   delay variation), packet loss ratio and an upper bound on out-of-
   order packet delivery.  As described in [RFC8578], DetNet
   applications differ in their network topologies and specific desired
   behavior and different services requires differentiated DetNet QoS.
   In the large-scale networks, multiple services with differentiated
   DetNet QoS is co-existed in the same DetNet network.  The
   classification of the deterministic flows within different levels is
   should be taken into considerations.  It is required to provide
   Latency, bounded jitter and packet loss dynamically and flexibly in
   all scenarios for each characterized flow.

   As the Figure 1 shows, the services can be divided into 5 levels and
   level 2~5 is the DetNet flows and level-1 is non-DetNet flow.  DetNet
   applications and DetNet QoS is differentiated within each level.










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   +-------------+-----------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
   | Item        | Level-1   | Level-2  | Level-3  | Level-4  |  Level-5  |
   +-------------+-----------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
   | Applications| Broadcast |  Voice   | Audio and| AR/VR    | Industrial|
   | Examples    |           |          | Video    |          |           |
   +-------------+-----------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
   | DetNet QoS  | Bandwidth | Jitter   | Latency  | Low      | Ultra-low |
   |             | Guarantee | Guarantee| Guarantee| latency  |latency and|
   |             |           |          |          |and jitter| jitter    |
   +-------------+-----------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+


     Figure 1: Figure 1: The classification of multiple services


   From the perspective of deterministic service requirements,
   deterministic Quality of Service (QoS) in the network can be divided
   into five types or levels:

   Level-1: bandwidth guarantee.  The indicator requirements include
   basic bandwidth guarantee and certain packet loss tolerance.  There
   is no requirement for the upper bound of the latency, and no
   requirement for the jitter.  Typical services include download and
   FTP services.

   Level-2: jitter guarantee.  The indicator requirements include:
   jitter 50ms, delay 300ms.  Typical services include synchronous voice
   services, such as voice call.

   Level-3: Latency guarantee.  The indicator requirements include:
   delay 50ms, jitter 50ms.  Typical services include real-time
   communication services, such as video, production monitoring, and
   communication services.

   Level-4: low delay and low jitter guarantee.  The indicator
   requirements include: delay 20ms, jitter 5ms.  Typical services
   include video interaction services, such as AR/VR, holographic
   communication, cloud video and cloud games.

   Level-5: ultra-low delay and jitter guarantee.  The indicator
   requirements include: delay 10ms, jitter 100us.  Typical services
   include production control services, such as power protection and
   remote control.

   Moreover, different DetNet services is required to tolerate different
   percentage of packet loss ratio such as 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999%, and
   so on.  It is also required to provide service isolation.  In some
   scenarios, such as intelligent electrical network, the isolation



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   requirements are very important.  For example, the automatic
   operation or control of a process or isochronous data and service
   with different priorities need to meet the requirements of hard
   isolation.  In addition to the requirements of delay and jitter, the
   differential protection (DP) service needs to be isolated from other
   services and hard isolated tunnel is required.

4.1.2.  Guarantees of Multiple Dynamic Deterministic Flows

   As described in [RFC8557], deterministic forwarding can only apply to
   flows with such well-defined characteristics as periodicity and
   burstiness.  As defined in DetNet architecture [RFC8655], the traffic
   characteristics of an App-flow can be CBR (constant bit rate) or VBR
   (variable bit rate) of L1, L2 and L3 layers (VBR takes the maximum
   value when reserving resources).  But the current scenarios and
   technical solutions only consider CBR flow, without considering the
   coexistence of VBR and CBR, the burst and aperiodicity of flows.  The
   operations such as shaping or scheduling have not been specified.
   Even TSN mechanisms are based on a constant and forecastable traffic
   characteristics.

   It will be more complicated in WAN applications where much more flows
   coexist and the traffic characteristics is more dynamic.  A huge
   number of flows with different DetNet QoS requirements is dynamically
   concurrent and the state of each flow cannot be maintained.  It is
   required to offer reliable delivery and SLA guarantee for dynamic
   flows.  For example, periodic flow and aperiodic flow (including
   micro burst flow, etc.), CBR and VBR flow, flow with different
   periods or phases, etc.  When the network needs to forward these
   deterministic flows at the same time, it must solve the problems of
   time micro bursts, queue processing and aggregation of multiple
   flows.  It is required to guarantee the deterministic QoS of multiple
   dynamic flows.  Flow shaping and concurrent and micro-burst control
   should be provided.

4.2.  Route Requirements

   Traditional routes only have reachability.  Deterministic
   requirements such as delay and jitter are only used as path
   computation constraints.  The paths vary with the real-time change of
   the network topology.  They do not have Service Level Agreement (SLA)
   capability, and cannot meet the deterministic requirements at
   different levels.  On the basic of the resources, the steering path
   and routes for deterministic flows should be programmed before the
   flows coming and able to provide SLA capability.  And the routes
   should be considered to be established in distributed and centralized
   control Plane.




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4.2.1.  Support the Distributed Deterministic Routes

   In large-scale deterministic networks, the distributed scenario with
   no controller should be taken into consideration.  It is required to
   support the distributed deterministic routes which are established by
   distributed protocols such as IGP.

4.2.2.  Support the Inter-domain Deterministic Routes

   In large-scale deterministic networks, it may across multiple network
   domains, it is required to support the inter-domain deterministic
   routes to achieve the end-to-end latency, bounded jitter.  And the
   deadline of latency and jitter of each domain and segment should be
   determined and controlled.  The inter-domain mechanism MUST be
   considered at the boundary nodes such as BGP configurations.

4.2.3.  Support the Replication and Elimination Deterministic Routes

   As described in [RFC8557], the packet replication and elimination
   service protection should be provided to achieve the low packet loss
   ratio.  It will copy the flows and spread the data over multiple
   disjoint forwarding paths.  The bounded latency and jitter of each
   path should be meet service deterministic requirement.  And the
   difference of latency within these paths should be limited.  So the
   replication and elimination deterministic routes with configured
   latency and jitter policy should be supported.

4.3.  Resource Requirements

4.3.1.  Management and Scheduling of the Network Resources

   Traditional Ethernet, IP and MPLS networks which is based on
   statistical multiplexing provides best-effort packet service and
   offers no delivery and SLA guarantee.  As described in [RFC8655], the
   primary technique by which DetNet achieves its QoS is to allocate
   sufficient resources.  But it can not be achieved by not sufficient
   resource which can be allocated due to practical and cost reason.  So
   it is required to achieve the high-efficiency of resources
   utilization when provide the DetNet service.

   Network resources include nodes, links, ports, bandwidth, queues,
   etc.  The congestion control, shaping and queue scheduling and other
   traffic mechanisms which have been proposed in IEEE 802.1 TSN such as
   IEEE802.1Qbv, IEEE802.1Qch, IEEE802.1Qav, IEEE802.1Qcr and so on.

   Resource classification and modeling is required along with the
   explicit path with more SLA guarantee parameters like bandwidth,
   latency, jitter, packet loss and so on.



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4.3.2.  Support the Utilization of Heterogeneous Resources

   In large-scale application, a large-scale number of nodes and long-
   distance transmission in the network will lead to latency and jitter,
   such as increasing transmission latency, jitter and packet loss.  It
   is required to reduce the scale of the network topology by
   establishing cut-through channels.  The existing technologies such as
   FlexE and SR tunnels should be taken into consideration.  And
   multiple capabilities is also provided by the nodes and links within
   the network topology such as FlexE tunnels, TSN sub-network and
   IP/MPLS/SRv6 tunnels.  It is required to integrate the multi-
   capability resources to achieve the optimal DetNet QoS.

   Heterogeneous resource should be used and unified and simplified
   resources mechanism under the selection of existing multiple
   technical methods to realize the elastic of deterministic capability.

5.  Solutions of Large-Scale Deterministic Networks

5.1.  Enhanced Layering Model

   The large-scale IP network can provide three levels of determinism,
   deterministic resources, deterministic routes and deterministic
   services, to establish a unified large-scale deterministic IP network
   architecture.  The deterministic resources maintains the resources of
   the entire network, and performs unified modeling for deterministic
   resources to form deterministic links to shield the differences in
   heterogeneous resource capabilities.  The deterministic routes
   computes routes based on the deterministic links modeled at the
   resource layer to provide deterministic transport capabilities.  The
   deterministic services performs traffic monitoring on ingress nodes
   by planning the traffic characteristics of service flows, and maps
   them to deterministic routes to meet the time requirements of
   different types and levels of services.

















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                 +-----------------------------------------+
                 |         Service sub-layer               |
                 +-----------------------------------------+
                 | Differentiated DetNet QoS for Services  |
                 +-----------------------------------------+
                 |         Forwarding sub-layer            |
                 +-----------------------------------------+
                 | Routes with Deterministic metrics       |
                 | Distributed Deterministic Routes        |
                 | Inter-domain Deterministic Routes       |
                 | Replication and Elimination Routes      |
                 +-----------------------------------------+
                 | Resource Modeling                       |
                 | Resource Reservation                    |
                 | Resource Isolation                      |
                 +-----------------------------------------+


       Figure 2: Figure 2: The Enhanced Layering Model of Large-Scale
                           Deterministic Networks


5.2.  Mechanisms to Achieve Differentiated DetNet QoS

5.2.1.  Deterministic Resources

   Differentiated deterministic service requirements require the
   networks to provide different deterministic capabilities.  The
   resources related to deterministic capabilities are also
   differentiated.  The networks need to shield the differences between
   network capabilities.  Deterministic resource is the basis for
   providing deterministic network services.  It refers to the resources
   that meet the deterministic indicators of a node and link processing
   as well as the corresponding resource processing mechanisms (such as
   link bandwidth, queues, and scheduling algorithms).  It is necessary
   to make overall resource planning for the network and make unified
   modeling for heterogeneous deterministic resources to form unified
   deterministic links to provide guarantee for the deterministic
   forwarding capabilities at different levels.  A deterministic link
   can be a sub-network that provides deterministic transmission or a
   Point-to-Point (P2P) link.  When the existing resources in the
   network are insufficient to meet the SLA requirements, virtual
   networks need to be reconstructed.








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5.2.2.  Deterministic Routes

   To meet the requirements of different types and levels of
   deterministic services, deterministic route is to create
   deterministic routes with different SLA levels based on the
   deterministic link resources after unified modeling.

   Deterministic routes can be based on strict explicit paths or loose
   routes.  The former is applicable to centralized scenarios with
   controllers, and the latter is applicable to distributed scenarios
   without controllers.  In the centralized scenario, when the source
   and sink PEs of a deterministic service are located at the two ends
   of a WAN with a limited physical range, one controller (single
   domain) or multiple controllers (cross domain) compute one or more
   paths with deterministic SLA in advance according to the typical
   Traffic Specification (T-SPEC) based on the collected deterministic
   resources, or compute dynamically according to the service T-SPEC as
   required by the services.  It is suggested to generate two non-
   intersecting paths with very close delay to form 1+1 protection and
   perform concurrent transmission and dual reception, and make
   replication and elimination on the egress PE.  In the distributed
   scenario, intrinsic deterministic loose routes are computed on the
   device side through routing protocols.  Interior Gateway Protocol
   (IGP) is used to compute deterministic routes based on deterministic-
   delay inside a domain, and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is used to
   compute deterministic routes based on accurate delay/jitter across
   domains.

5.2.3.  Deterministic Services

   Deterministic services provide unified planning and scheduling
   mechanisms for service flows and perform end-to-end delay and jitter
   control.  It is necessary to implement admission control and traffic
   policing at the ingress PE node based on the SLA of deterministic
   service flows, and map the service flows to deterministic routes to
   achieve the final goal of deterministic QoS.

   Deterministic services support that the end-to-end delay/jitter of
   the traffic with a specific T-SPEC in the network will be strictly
   limited within a bounded range on the basis of deterministic resource
   and route . As different service levels have different requirements
   for delay and jitter, the resources and routing mechanisms used for
   mapping services to deterministic routes are also different.  For
   example, the extremely low delay and jitter can be guaranteed by
   multiplexing the rigid pipes at L1, so as to avoid the excessive
   intra-node delay contributed by too many hops of intermediate nodes
   at L3.  Or in the customized virtual network, the bounded delay and
   jitter can be guaranteed by forwarding along the paths composed of



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   links based on the ATS or CQF scheduling algorithm.  Traffic policing
   on the ingress PE ensures that the service traffic does not exceed
   the reserved bandwidth, and then performs traffic shaping on the
   egress node.  Different scheduling algorithms have different shaping
   effects.

6.  Security Considerations

   TBA

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Peng Liu, Bin Tan, Aihua Liu Shaofu
   Peng for their review, suggestions and comments to this document.

8.  IANA Considerations

   TBA

9.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8557]  Finn, N. and P. Thubert, "Deterministic Networking Problem
              Statement", RFC 8557, DOI 10.17487/RFC8557, May 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8557>.

   [RFC8578]  Grossman, E., Ed., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases",
              RFC 8578, DOI 10.17487/RFC8578, May 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8578>.

   [RFC8655]  Finn, N., Thubert, P., Varga, B., and J. Farkas,
              "Deterministic Networking Architecture", RFC 8655,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8655, October 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8655>.

Authors' Addresses

   Quan Xiong
   ZTE Corporation
   No.6 Huashi Park Rd



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   Wuhan
   Hubei, 430223
   China
   Email: xiong.quan@zte.com.cn


   ZongPeng Du
   China Mobile
   Beijing
   China
   Email: duzongpeng@chinamobile.com








































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