Network Working Group                                       R. Bush, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                 Internet Initiative Japan
Intended status: Standards Track                           July 14, 2009
Expires: January 15, 2010

             The A+P Approach to the IPv4 Address Shortage

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   We are facing the exhaustion of the IANA IPv4 free IP address pool.

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   Unfortunately, IPv6 is not yet deployed widely enough to fully
   replace IPv4, and it is unrealistic to expect that this is going to
   change before we run out of IPv4 addresses.  Letting hosts seamlessly
   communicate in an IPv4-world without assigning a unique globally
   routable IPv4 address to each of them is a challenging problem.

   This draft discusses the possibility of address sharing by treating
   some of the port number bits as part of an extended IPv4 address
   (Address plus Port, or A+P).  Instead of assigning a single IPv4
   address to a customer device, we propose to extended the address by
   "stealing" bits from the port number in the TCP/UDP header, leaving
   the applications a reduced range of ports.  This means assigning the
   same IPv4 address to multiple clients (e.g., CPE's, mobile phones),
   each with its assigned port-range.  In the face of IPv4 address
   exhaustion, the need for addresses is stronger than the need to be
   able to address thousands of applications on a single host.  If
   address translation is needed, the end-user should be in control of
   the translation process - not some smart boxes in the core.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Why Carrier Grade NATs are Harmful . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Design Constraints and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.1.  Design constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.  Overview of the A+P Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.1.  Signaling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.2.  Address realm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.3.  Reasons for allowing multiple A+P gateways . . . . . . . . 13
   4.  Deployment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.1.  A+P for Broadband Providers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.2.  A+P for Mobile Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.3.  A+P from provider networks perspective . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.4.  Dynamic allocation of port ranges  . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.5.  Example of A+P-forwarded packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     4.6.  Forwarding of standard packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     4.7.  Handling ICMP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     4.8.  Limitations of the A+P approach  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   7.  Authors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

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1.  Introduction

   This document addresses the imminent IPv4 address space exhaustion.
   Quite soon there will be not enough IPv4 space allocatable to
   customers of broadband or mobile providers, while IPv6 is not yet
   widely enough deployed to migrate to an IPv6-only world.  Many large
   Internet Service Providers (ISPs) face the problem that their
   networks' customer edges are so large that it will soon not be
   possible to provide each customer with a unique IPv4 address.
   Therefore these ISPs have to devise something more ingenious.
   Although undesirable, address sharing, a la NAT, is inevitable.

   To allow end-to-end connectivity between IPv4 speaking applications
   we propose to "steal" some bits from the UDP/TCP header and use them
   to extend addressing of devices.  Assuming we could limit the
   applications' port addressing to 8 (or 4) bits, we can increase the
   effective size of an IPv4 address by 8 (or 12) additional bits.  In
   this scenario, 128 (or 4096) customers could be multiplexed on the
   same IPv4 address, while allowing them a fixed range of 512 (or 16)
   ports.  Customers that require larger port-ranges could dynamically
   request additional blocks, depending on their contract.  We call this
   "extended addressing" or "A+P" (Address Plus Port) addressing.  The
   main advantage of A+P is that it preserves the Internet "end-to-end"
   paradigm by not translating (at least some ports of) an IP address.
   With NAT in the core of the network, this end-to-end connectivity is
   broken.  As long as the customer chooses to do this on his/her
   premises this is a choice that he/she takes, however this is not an
   option in face of the looming IPv4 address exhaustion, where so
   called Carrier Grade NATs (CGNs) or Large Scale NATs (LSNs) might be
   deployed within the providers network - beyond control of the

1.1.  Why Carrier Grade NATs are Harmful

   Various forms of NATs will be installed at various levels and places
   in the IPv4-Internet to achieve address compression.  This document
   argues for mechanisms where end-customers will not be locked into a
   walled-garden without any control over the translation.  It is is
   essential to create mechanisms to "bypass" NATs in the core, and keep
   the control at the end-user:

   "Carrier grade" is a euphemism for centralized.  More semantics move
   to the core of the network.  This is bad in and of itself.  Net-heads
   call it "telco-think" because it is the telco model of smarts in the
   core as opposed to the Internet model of a simple, just-forward-
   packets core, with smart edges.  It also places the provider in the
   position, where the user is trapped behind unchangeable application
   and policies, and has the danger of invoking lawyers when users wish

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   to deploy new applications needing Application Level Gateways (ALGs).
   This is the opposite of the "end-to-end" model of the Internet.

   With the smarts at the edges, one can easily field new protocols
   between consenting end-points by merely tweaking the NATs at the
   corresponding Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), even adding
   application layer gateways if they are needed.

   Today's NATs are typically mitigated by ALGs over which the customer
   has control, e.g. port forwarding or UPnP.  However, this is not
   expected to work with LSNs.  LSN proposals other than DS-Lite
   [I-D.durand-softwire-dual-stack-lite] with A+P, admit that it is not
   expected that applications that require specific port assignment or
   port mapping from the NAT box will keep working.  This is the
   ultimate horror the NAT-haters fear, and, in this case, they are not
   all that wrong.

   We believe this is not an option and that the end-user must have the
   ability to control their own ALGs.  With CGN, If a user wishes to
   deploy a new application, they must talk to the providers' lawyers or
   run new disruptive technology over HTTP; we can pick our poison.  And
   if the NAT is not where the customer can directly control it, i.e.,
   it is anywhere in the provider's network, then the provider controls
   what the user can control, i.e. it is not really under user control.
   We do not wish to deal with the case where the provider has to decide
   whether to allow Skype v42 when they themselves provide a competing
   VoIP product.

   Remember that as IPv6 deploys, if we want to have one Internet, i.e.
   IPv4 nodes talking freely with IPv6 nodes, then translation must be
   done somewhere.  The challenge is whether someone can figure out a
   scheme for these large networks.  We believe it should be at the
   customer edge, not in the core.

   Another issue with CGN is scalability.  ISPs face a tension between
   the placement of CGNs within their network to aggregate as much as
   possible, when too much aggregation creates a massive state problem.
   CGNs also have the single point of failure issue.  And having a
   back-up CGN has the state trandfer problem as well as exposure to
   network partitioon and dual-device failure.

   To reduce the state, the placement ends up as LSNs somewhere closer
   to the edge.  It is not clear how a LSN should maintain per-session
   state in a scalable manner.  State for improperly terminated sessions
   could remain stale for some time.  The LSN hence trades scalability
   for the amount of state that needs to be kept, which makes optimally
   placing a LSN a hard engineering problem.

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   In addition, NATs frequently need to initiate translation for
   secondary port numbers.  This may be a decision based on packet
   inspection (i.e., looking for PORT commands in FTP [RFC0959]
   sessions), or it may rely on explicit signaling from the end host via
   protocols such as UPnP.  Either way, LSNs pose a security threat
   and/or an administrative nightmare.

   The issue is proper authentication of such requests.  Most UPnP
   devices do not implement appropriate security features.  Even if they
   did, there would be no way to administer the security mechanism.
   Every end-user device would have to have a secret corresponding to
   some authentication field in the LSN.  End users will not set these
   up properly; providers do not want to maintain such a database.

   Decisions made based on packet inspection are just as problematic.  A
   request from one customer could easily request opening a port for an
   other customer's addresses, similar to the Java-based attack
   described by Martin et al in [Martin-Java].

   Furthermore, with LSNs, tracing hackers, spammers and other criminals
   will be impossible, unless all the connection based mapping
   information is recorded and stored.  This would not only cause
   concern for law enforcement services, but also for privacy advocates.

2.  Design Constraints and Assumptions

   The problem of address space shortage is first felt by providers with
   a very large end-user customer base, such as broadband providers and
   mobile-service providers.  Though the cases and requirements are
   slightly different, they share many commonalities.  In the following
   we will develop a set of overall design constraints.

2.1.  Design constraints

   We regard several constraints as important for our design:

   1)      End-to-end is under customer control: Customers shall have
           the possibility to send/receive packets unmodified and deploy
           new application protocols at will.  IPv4 address shortage
           should not be a license to break the Internet's end-to-end

   2)      End-to-end transparency through multiple intermediate
           devices: Multiple gateways should be able to operate in
           sequence along one data path without interfering with each

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   3)      Backward compatibility: Approaches should be transparent to
           unaware users.  Devices or existing applications should be
           able to work without modification.  Emergence of new
           applications should not be limited.

   4)      Incrementally Deployable: One should not have to replace
           unaffected core devices or replace customer premisis
           equipment (CPE).  In particular, the provider should be able
           to only change out those CPE where they wish to deploy A+P.
           And customers should be able to acquire A+P aware CPE at

   5)      Highly-scalable and minimal state core: Minimal state should
           be kept inside the ISP's network.  If the operator is rolling
           A+P out incrementally, it is understood there may be state in
           the core during the roll-out.

   6)      Efficiency vs. Complexity: Operators should have the
           flexibility to trade off between port multiplexing efficiency
           and scalability + end-to-end transparency.

   7)      Automatic configuration/administration: There should be no
           need for customers to call the ISP and tell them that they
           are operating their own A+P-gateway devices.  Customers/
           mobile phone users should not be expected to look-up assigned
           ports manually on websites and then configure them on devices
           or applications.

   8)      "Double-NAT" should be avoided: Based on Constraint 2
           multiple gateway devices might be present in a path, and once
           one has done some translation, those packets should not be

   9)      Legal traceability: ISPs must be able to provide the identity
           of a customer from the knowledge of the IPv4 public address
           and the port.  This should have the lowest impact possible on
           the storage and the ISP.  We assume that NATs on customer
           premises do not pose much of a problem, while provider NATs
           need to keep additional logs.

   10)     IPv6 deployment should be encouraged.

   While we acknowledge that A+P works in an IPv4-only environment
   (e.g., [I-D.boucadair-port-range]) we strongly believe that IPv6 is
   the best long-term approach, and that A+P should be considered only
   as an intermediate hack towards an IPv6-only world.  We therefore
   prefer to assume in Constraint 10 that the ISP has migrated to a
   dual-stack core and A+P can use IPv6 as a transport inside the

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   network.  This ensures that A+P will not be a1 hindrance to the
   introduction of IPv6.

   Constraints 2 and 8 are important: while many techniques have been
   deployed to allow applications to work through a NAT, traversing
   cascaded NATs is crucial if NATs are being deployed in the core of a
   provider network.

2.2.  Terminology

   The A+P idea can be split into three distinct functions: encaps/
   decaps, NAT, and signaling.

   Encaps/decaps function: is used to forward port-restricted A+P-
   packets over intermediate legacy devices.  The encapsulation function
   takes an IPv4 packet, looks up the IP and TCP/UDP headers, and puts
   the packet into the appropriate tunnel.  The state needed to perform
   this action is comparable to a forwarding table.  The decapsulation
   device SHOULD check if the source address and port of packets coming
   out of the tunnel are legitimate (e.g., see [BCP38]).  Based on the
   result of such a check, the packet MAY be forwarded untranslated, it
   MAY be discarded or MAY be NATed.

   Network Address Translation (NAT) function: is used to connect legacy
   end-hosts.  Unless upgraded, end-hosts or end-systems are not aware
   of A+P restrictions and therefore assume a full IP address.  The NAT
   function performs any address or port translation, including
   application-level-gateways (ALGs).  The state that has to be kept to
   implement this function is the mapping for which external addresses
   and ports have been mapped to which internal addresses and ports,
   just as in CPE NATs today.

   Signaling function: is used in order to allow A+P-aware devices get
   to know which ports are assigned to be passed through untranslated
   and what will happen to packets outside the assigned port-range
   (e.g., could be NATed or discarded).  Signaling may also be used to
   learn the encapsulation method and any endpoint information needed.
   In addition, the signaling function may be used to dynamically
   increase/decrease the requested port-range.

   A+P address realm: a public routable IPv4 address that is port
   restricted (A+P).  Forwarding of packets is done based on the IPv4
   address and the TCP/UDP port numbers.  When this draft talks about
   "A+P packets" it is assumed that those packets pass untranslated.

   Private address realm: IPv4 addresses that are not globally routed.
   They may be taken from the [RFC1918] range.  However, this draft does
   not make such an assumption.  We regard as private address space any

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   IPv4 address, which needs to be translated in order to gain global
   connectivity, irrespective of whether it falls in [RFC1918] space or

3.  Overview of the A+P Solution

   The core architectural elements of the A+P solution are three
   separated and independent functions: the NAT function, the encaps/
   decaps function, and the signaling function.  The NAT function is
   similar to a NAT as we know it today: it performs a translation
   between two different address realms.  When the external realm is
   public IPv4 address space, we assume that the translation is many-to-
   one, in order to multiplex many customers on a single public IPv4
   address.  The only difference with a traditional NAT (Figure 1) is
   that the translator might only be able to use a restricted range of
   ports when mapping multiple internal addresses onto an external one,
   e.g., the external address realm might be port-restricted.

                    "internal-side"          "external-side"
                      internal     |  N  |     external
                      address  <---|  A  |---> address
                       realm       |  T  |      realm

                              Traditional NAT

                                 Figure 1

   The encaps/decaps function, on the other hand, is the capability of
   establishing a tunnel with another end-point providing the same
   function.  This implies some form of signaling to establish a tunnel.
   Such signaling can be viewed as integrated with DHCP or as a separate
   service.  Section 3.1 discusses the constraints of this signaling
   function.  The established tunnel can be an IPv6 encapsulation, a
   layer-2 tunnel, or some other form of softwire.  Note that the
   presence of a tunnel allows for intermediate naive or even legacy
   devices between the two endpoints.

   Two or more devices which provide the encaps/decaps function and are
   linked by tunnels form an A+P subsystem.  The function of each
   gateway is to encapsulate and decapsulate respectively.  Figure 2
   depicts the simplest possible A+P subsystem, that is, two devices
   providing the encaps/decaps function.

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     port-restricted  | +----------+  tunnel  +----------+ |   external
      address realm --|-| gateway  |==========| gateway  |-|-- address
                      | +----------+          +----------+ |    realm
                                  A+P subsystem

                          A simple A+P subsystem

                                 Figure 2

   Within an A+P subsystem, the external address realm is extended by
   "stealing" bits from the port number.  Each device is assigned one
   address from the external realm and a range of port numbers.  Hence,
   devices which are part of an A+P subsystem can communicate with the
   external address without the need for address translation (i.e.,
   preserving end-to-end packet integrity): an A+P packet originated
   from within the A+P subsystem can be simply forwarded over tunnels up
   to the endpoint, where it gets decapsulated and routed in the
   external realm.

   On the other hand, packets originated from outside the A+P subsystem
   need to be translated, since they belong to different realms.  For
   this reason, one or both of the two edges of the A+P subsystem MUST
   provide the NAT function.  It is up to the provider to trade off the
   placement of the NAT function.  Hence, the design of A+P is
   deliberately agnostic as to where packets in transit will be
   translated, provided that the translation happens only once
   (Constraint 8).

3.1.  Signaling

   The following information needs to be available on all the gateways
   in the A+P subsystem.  It is expected that there will be a signaling
   protocol such as [I-D.boucadair-dhc-port-range],
   [I-D.bajko-v6ops-port-restricted-ipaddr-assign].  The information
   that needs to be shared are the following:

   o  a set of public IPv4 addresses,

   o  for each IPv4 address a set of allocated port-ranges (port-set),

   o  the tunneling technology to be used (e.g., "IPv6-encapsulation")

   o  addresses of the tunnel endpoints (e.g., IPv6 address of tunnel

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   o  whether or not NAT function is provided by the gateway

   o  a device identification number and some authentification

   o  a version number and some reserved bits for future use.

   Note that the functions of encapsulation and decapsulation have been
   separated from the NAT function.  However, to accommodate legacy
   hosts, NATing must provided at some point in the path; therefore the
   availability or absence of NATing must be communicated in signaling,
   as A+P is agnostic about NAT placement.

3.2.  Address realm

   Each gateway within the A+P subsystem manages a certain portion of
   A+P address space, that is, a portion of IPv4 space which is extended
   borrowing bits from the port number.  This address space may be a
   single, port-restricted IPv4 address.  The gateway MAY use its
   managed A+P address space for several purposes:

   o  Allocation of a sub-portion of the A+P address space to other
      authenticated A+P gateways in the A+P subsystem (referred to as
      delegation).  We call the allocated sub-portion delegated address

   o  Exchange of (untranslated) packets with the external address
      realm.  For this to work, such packets MUST use source address and
      port belonging to the non-delegated address space.

   Note that if the gateway is also capable of performing the NAT
   function, it MAY translate packets arriving on an internal interface
   which are outside of its managed A+P address space into non-delegated
   address space.

   Hence, a provider may have 'islands' of A+P as they slowly convert
   over time.  The provider does not have to replace CPE until they want
   to provide the A+P function to an island of users or even to one
   particular user in a sea of non-A+P users.

   An A+P gateway ("A"), accepts incoming connections from other A+P
   gateways ("B").  Upon connection establishment (provided appropriate
   authentication), B would "ask" A for delegation of an A+P address.
   In turn, A will inform B about its public IPv4 address, and will
   delegate a portion of its port-range to B. In addition, A will also
   negotiate the encaps/decaps function with B (e.g., let B know the
   address of the decaps device/other-end-point of the tunnel).

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   This could be implemented for example via a NAT-PMP or DHCP-like
   solution.  In general the following rule applies: A sub-portion of
   the managed A+P address space is delegated as long as devices below
   ask for it, otherwise private IPv4 is provided to support legacy

              private    +-----+          +-----+     public
              address ---|  B  |==========|  A  |---  Internet
               realm     +-----+          +-----+

                         Address space realm of A:
                         public IPv4 address =
                         port range = 0-65535

                         Address space realm of B:
                         public IPv4 address =
                         port range = 2560-3071

                                 Figure 3

   Figure 3 illustrates a sample configuration.  Note that A might
   actually consist of three different devices: one that handles
   signaling requests from B; one device that performs encapsulation and
   decapsulation; and, if provided, one device that performs NATing
   function (e.g., LSN).  Packet forwarding is assumed to be as follows:
   In the "out-bound" case, a packet arrives from the private address
   realm to B. As stated above, B has two options: it can either apply
   or not apply the NAT function.  The decision depends upon the
   specific configuration and/or the capabilities of A and B. Note that
   NAT functionality is required to support legacy hosts, however, this
   can be done at either of the two devices A or B. The term NAT refers
   to translating the packet into the managed A+P address (B has address and ports 2560-3071 in the example above).  We then have two

   1)  B NATs the packet.  The translated packet is then tunneled to A.
       A recognizes that the packet has already been translated, because
       the source address and port match the delegated space.  A
       decapsulates the packet and releases it in the public Internet.

   2)  B does not NAT the packet.  The untranslated packet is then
       tunneled to A. A recognizes that the packet has not been
       translated, so A forwards the packet to a co-located NATing
       device, which translates the packet and routes it in the public
       Internet.  This device, e.g., an LSN, has to store the mapping
       between the source port used to NAT and the tunnel where the

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       packet came from, in order to correctly route the reply.  Note
       that A cannot use a port number from the range that has been
       delegated to B. As a consequence A has to assign a part of its
       non-delegated address space to the NATing function.

   "Inbound" packets are handled in the following way: a packet from the
   public realm arrives at A. A analyzes the destination port number to
   understand whether the packet needs to be NATed or not.

   1)  If the destination port number belongs to the range that A
       delegated to B, then A tunnels the packet to B. B NATs the packet
       using its stored mapping and forward the translated packet in the
       private domain.

   2)  If the destination port number is from the address space of the
       LSN, then A passes the packet on to the co-located LSN which uses
       its stored mapping to NAT the packet into the private address
       realm of B. The appropriate tunnel is stored as well in the
       mapping of the initial NAT.  The LSN then encapsulates the packet
       to B, which decapsulates it and normally routes it within its
       private realm.

   3)  Finally, if the destination port number neither falls in a
       delegated range, nor into the address range of the LSN, A
       discards the packet.  If the packet is passed to the LSN, but no
       mapping can be found, the LSN discards the packet.

3.3.  Reasons for allowing multiple A+P gateways

   Since each device in an A+P subsystem provides the encaps/decaps
   function, new devices can establish tunnels and become in turn part
   of an A+P subsystem.  As noted above, being part of an A+P subsystem
   implies the capability of talking to the external address realm
   without any translation.  In particular, as described in the previous
   section, a device X in an A+P subsystem can be reached from the
   external domain by simply using the public IPv4 address and a port
   which has been delegated to X. Figure 4 shows an example where three
   devices are connected in a chain.  In other words, A+P signaling can
   be used to extend end-to-end connectivity to the devices which are in
   an A+P subsystem.  This allows A+P-aware applications (or OSes)
   running on end hosts to enter an A+P subsystem and exploit
   untranslated connectivity.

   There are two modes for end-hosts to gain fine-grained control of
   end-to-end connectivity.  The first is where actual end-hosts perform
   the NAT function and the encaps/decaps function which is required to
   join the A+P subsystem.  This option works in a similar way to the
   NAT-in-the-host trick employed by virtualization software such as

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   VMware, where the guest operating system is connected via a NAT to
   the host operating system.  The second mode is applications which
   autonomously ask for an A+P address and use it to join the A+P
   subsystem.  This capability is necessary for some applications that
   require end-to-end connectivity (e.g., applications that need to be
   contacted from outside).

               +---------+      +---------+      +---------+
     internal  | gateway |      | gateway |      | gateway |  external
     realm   --|    1    |======|    2    |======|    3    |-- realm
               +---------+      +---------+      +---------+

                  An A+P subsystem with multiple devices

                                 Figure 4

   Whatever the reasons might be, the Internet was built on a paradigm
   that end-to-end connectivity is possible.  A+P makes this still
   possible in a time where address shortage forces ISPs to use NATs at
   various levels.  In such sense, A+P can be regarded as a way to
   bypass NATs.

              +---+          (customer2)
              |A+P|-*         +---+
              +---+  \     NAT|A+P|-*
                      \       +---+ |
                       \            |       forward if in-range
              +---+     \+---+    +---+    /
              +---+     /+---+    +---+    \
                       /                    NAT if necessary
                      / (cust1)   (prov.    (e.g., provider NAT)
              +---+  /            router)

                          A complex A+P subsystem

                                 Figure 5

   Figure 5 depicts a complex scenario, where the A+P subsystem is
   composed by multiple devices organized in a hierarchy.  Each A+P
   gateway decapsulates the packet and then re-encapsulates it again to
   the next tunnel.

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   A packet can either be NATed when it enters the A+P subsystem, or at
   intermediate devices, or when it exits the A+P subsystem.  This could
   be for example a gateway installed within the provider's network,
   together with a LSN (a large-scale-NAT provided by the provider).
   Then each customer operates its own CPE.  However, behind the CPE
   applications might also be A+P-aware and run their own A+P-gateways,
   which enables them to have end-to-end connectivity.

   One limitation applies, if "delayed translation" is used (e.g.,
   translation at the LSN instead of the CPE).  If devices using
   "delayed translation" want to talk to each other they SHOULD use A+P
   addresses or out-of-band addressing.

4.  Deployment Scenarios

4.1.  A+P for Broadband Providers

   Large broadband providers do not have enough IPv4 address space to
   provide every customer with a single IP.  The natural solution is
   sharing a single IP address among many customers.  Multiplexing
   customers is usually accomplished by allocating different port
   numbers to different customers somewhere within the network of the

   In this document we use the following terms and assumptions:

   1.  Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), i.e. cable/DSL modem.

   2.  Provider Edge Router (PE), AKA customer aggregation router

   3.  Port Range Router (PRR), edge behind which A+P addresses are

   4.  Provider Border Router (BR), providers edge to other providers

   5.  Network Core Routers (Core), provider routers which are not at
       the edge.

   It is expected that, when the provider wishes to enable A+P for a
   customer or a range of customers, the CPE can be upgraded or replaced
   to support A+P encaps/decaps functionality.  Ideally the CPE also
   provides NATing functionality.  Further, it is expected that at least
   another component in the ISP network provides the same functionality,
   and hence is able to establish an A+P subsystem with the CPE.  This
   device is referred to as A+P router or port-range router (PRR), and
   could be located close to PE routers.  The core of the network MUST
   support the tunneling protocol (which SHOULD be IPv6, as per

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   Constraint 10).  In addition, we do not want to restrict any
   initiative of customers who might want to run an A+P-capable network
   on or behind their CPE.  To satisfy both Constraints 1 and 3
   unmodified legacy hosts should keep working seamlessly, while
   upgraded/new end-systems should be given the opportunity to exploit
   enhanced features.

4.2.  A+P for Mobile Providers

   In the case of mobile service provider the situation is slightly
   different.  The A+P border is assumed to be the gateway (e.g., GGSN/
   PDN GW of 3GPP, or ASN GW of WiMAX).  The need to extend the address
   is not within the provider network, but on the edge between the
   mobile phone devices and the base-station.  While desirable, IPv6
   connectivity may or may not be provided.

   For mobile providers we use the following terms and assumptions:

   1.  Provider Network (PN)

   2.  Gateway (GW)

   3.  Mobile Phone device (phone)

   4.  Devices behind phone, e.g., laptop computer connecting via phone
       to Internet.

   We expect that the gateway has many IPv4 addresses and is always in
   the data-path of the packets.  Transport between gateway and phone
   devices is assumed to be an end-to-end layer-2 tunnel.  We assume
   that phone as well as gateway can be upgraded to support A+P.
   However, some applications running on the phone or devices behind the
   phone (such as laptop computers connecting via the phone), are not
   expected to be upgraded.  Again, while we do not expect that devices
   behind the phone will be A+P aware/upgraded we also do not want to
   hinder their evolution.  In this sense the mobile phone would be
   comparable to the CPE in the broadband provider case; the gateway to
   the PRR/LSN box in the network of the broadband provider.

4.3.  A+P from provider networks perspective

   ISPs suffering from IPv4 address space exhaustion are interested in
   achieving a high address space compression ratio.  In this respect,
   an A+P subsystem allows much more flexibility than traditional NATs:
   the NAT can be placed at the customer, and/or in the provider
   network.  In addition hosts or applications can request ports and
   thus have untranslated end-to-end connectivity.

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      private    | +------+  A+P-in  +--------+ |    dual-stacked
     (RFC1918) --|-| CPE  |==-IPv6-==| PRR    |-|--  network
       space     | +------+  tunnel  +--------+ |    (public addresses)
                 |    ^              +--------+ |
                 |    |  IPv6-only   | LSN    | |
                 |    |   network    +--------+ |
                 +----+----------------- ^ -----+
                      |                  |
                 on customer        within provider
            premises and control      network

                      A simple A+P subsystem example

                                 Figure 6

   Consider the deployment scenario in Figure 6, where an A+P subsystem
   is formed by the CPE and a port-range router (PRR) within the ISP
   core network, preferably close to the customer edge, and represents
   the border from where on packets are forwarded based on address and
   port.  The provider MAY deploy a LSN co-located with the PRR to
   handle packets that have not been translated by the CPE.  In such a
   configuration, the ISP allows the customer to freely decide whether
   the translation is done at the CPE or at the LSN.  In order to
   establish the A+P subsystem, the CPE will be configured automatically
   (e.g. via a signaling protocol, that conforms to the requirements
   stated above).

   Note that the CPE in the example above is only provisioned with an
   IPv6 address on the external interface.

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   +------------ IPv6-only transport ------------+
   | +---------------+ |              |          |
   | |A+P-application| |  +--------+  |  +-----+ |    dual-stacked
   | | on end-host   |=|==| CPE w/ |==|==| PRR |-|--  network
   | +---------------+ |  +--------+  |  +-----+ |    (public addresses)
   +---------------+   |  +--------+  |  +-----+ |
     private IPv4 <-*--+->| NAT    |  |  | LSN | |
     address space   \ |  +--------+  |  +-----+ |
     for legacy       +|--------------|----------+
       hosts           |              |
                       |              |
     end-host with     |  CPE device  |  provider
       upgraded        |  on customer |  network
      application      |   premises   |

         An extended A+P subsystem with end-host running A+P-aware

                                 Figure 7

   Figure 7 shows an example of how an upgraded application running on a
   legacy end-host can connect.  The legacy host is provisioned with a
   private IPv4 address allocated by the CPE.  Any packet sent from the
   legacy host will be NATed either at the CPE (if configured to do so),
   or at the LSN (if available).

   An A+P-aware application running on the end-host MAY use the
   signaling described in Section 3.1 to connect to the A+P-subsystem.
   In this case, the application will be delegated some space in the A+P
   address realm, and will be able to contact the external realm (i.e.,
   the public Internet) without the need for translation.

   Note that part of A+P signaling is that the NATs are optional.
   However, if neither the CPE nor the PRR provides NATing
   functionality, then it will not be possible to connect legacy end-

   To enable packet forwarding with A+P, the ISP MUST install an PRR, at
   its A+P border which encaps/decaps packets.  However, to achieve a
   higher address space compression ratio and/or to support CPEs without
   NATing functionality, the ISP MAY decide to provide an LSN as well.
   If no LSN is installed in some part of the ISP's topology, all CPE in
   that part of the topology MUST support NAT functionality.  For
   reasons of scalability, it is assumed that the PRR is located within
   the access-portion of the network.  The CPE would be configured
   automatically (e.g. via an extended DHCP or NAT-PMP, which has the
   signaling requirements stated above) with the address of the PRR, and

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   if a LSN is being provided or not.  Figure 6 illustrates a possible
   deployment scenario.

4.4.  Dynamic allocation of port ranges

   Allocating the same fixed sized range of ports to all CPE may lead to
   exhaustion of ports for high usage customers.  This is a perfect
   recipe for upsetting the more demanding customer.  On the other hand,
   allocating to all customers ports sufficient to match the needs of
   peak users will not be very efficient.  A mechanism for dynamic
   allocation of port ranges allows the ISP to achieve two goals; a more
   efficient compression ratio of number of customers on one IPv4
   address and, on the other hand, not limiting the more demanding
   customers on their communication to/from the Internet.

   The following mechanism applies to NAT functionality in CPE only: If
   a customer has an arrangement with the ISP for well-known-ports, and
   the PRR allocates to this CPE WKP range, this range is used for end-
   to-end communications to a server behind CPE with public IP address
   or if customer configures so for inbound NAT (1:1 or port
   forwarding).  This function has a fixed range of ports and is not
   considered in the dynamic pool allocation mechanism.  On the other
   hand, if customer configures the NAT function to access the Internet
   from a private address pool behind the CPE, this mechanism is
   automatically applied.  NAT keeps track of translation tables, so
   only a small "daemon" needs to be developed and implemented by the
   CPE manufacturer to keep track of allocated ranges of ports and how
   many are used.  In the case of 90% usage, the dynamic allocation
   daemon would signal to the PRR the need for additional ports.  A
   downside of this mechanism is that port allocation to a CPE might get
   quite large without an additional mechanism that would return unused
   port ranges back to the PRR's pool.  This may be dealt with by
   requiring the NAT to sequentially allocate ports for translation and
   reallocate to new requests and released ports.  So the use of ports
   is controlled and unfragmented ranges may be returned to pool.  An
   other, not so pretty, way is to reset the additional allocations to 0
   every 24 hours, and leave only the first allocation.  Additional
   allocations would be requested by mechanism in very short time,
   leaving the customer unlikely to notice the event.

   The mechanism would prefer allocations of port ranges from the same
   IP for an initial allocation.  If it is not possible to allocate an
   additional port range from the same IP, than mechanism can allocate a
   port range from another IP within the same subnet.  With every
   additional port range allocation, the PRR updates its routing table
   and sends packets coming to allocated ports on that IP to the
   appropriate tunnel that ends on the CPE which requested and allocated
   that additional port range.  The mechanism for allocating additional

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   port ranges may be part of normal signaling that is used to
   authenticate CPE to ISP.

   The ISP controls the dynamic allocation of port ranges by the PRR by
   setting the initial allocation size and maximum number of allocations
   per CPE, or the maximum allocations per subscription, depending on
   subscription level.  There is a general observation that the more
   demanding customer uses around 1024 ports when heavily communicating.
   So, for example, a first suggestion might be 128 ports initially and
   then dynamic allocations of ranges of 128 ports up to 511 more
   allocations maximum.  A configured maximum number of allocations
   could be used to prevent one customer acting in distructive manner
   should they become infected.  The maximum number of allocations might
   also be more finely grained, with parameters of how many allocations
   a user may request per some time frame.  If this is used, evasive
   applications may need to be limited in their bad behavior, for
   example one additional allocation per minute would considerably slow
   the port requesting storm.

   There is likely no minimum request size.  This is because A+P-aware
   applications running on end-hosts MAY request a single port (or a few
   ports) for the CPE to be contacted on (e.g., VoIP clients register a
   public IP and a single delegated port from the CPE, and accept
   incoming calls on that port).  The implementation on the CPE or PRR
   will dictate how to handle such requests for smaller blocks: For
   example half of available blocks might be used for "block-
   allocations", 1/6 for single port requests, and the rest for NATing.

4.5.  Example of A+P-forwarded packets

   This section provides a detailed example of A+P setup, configuration,
   and how packets flow from an end-host behind an A+P upgraded provider
   to any host in the IPv4 Internet and how the return packets flow
   back.  The following example discusses the situation of an A+P-
   unaware end-host, the NATing is done at the CPE.  Figure 8
   illustrates how the CPE receives an IPv4 packet from the end-user
   device.  We first describe the case where the CPE has been configured
   to provide the NAT functionality (e.g., by the customer via
   interaction via a website, or via automatic signaling).  In the
   following, we call a packet which is translated at the CPE an A+P-
   forwarded packet, in analogy with the port-forwarding function
   employed in today's CPEs.  Upon receiving a packet from the internal
   interface, the CPE NATs it and forwards it to the PRR.  The NAT on
   the CPE is assumed to store the 5-tuple (source_IPv4, source_port,
   destination_IPv4, destination_port, tunnel-interface).

   When the PRR receives the A+P-forwarded packet, it de-capsulates the
   inner IPv4 packet and it checks the source address and port.  If the

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   source address and port match the CPE's A+P address, then the PRR
   simply routes the encapsulated packet.  This is always the case for
   A+P-forwarded packets.  Otherwise, the PRR assumes that the packet is
   not A+P-forwarded, and then passes it to the LSN function, which in-
   turn NATs the packet and then releases it into the Internet.
   Figure 8 shows the packet flow for an outgoing A+P-forwarded packet.

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                   |    Host   |
                      |  |
      IPv4 datagram 1 |  |
                      |  |
                      v  |
               |CPE      |         |
                      | |||     a::2
                      | ||| (100-200)
       IPv6 datagram 2| |||
                      | |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6
                      | |||
               /      | |||        \
              |  ISP access network |
               \      | |||        /
                      | |||
                      v |||     a::1
               |PRR     |||        |
                      |  |
      IPv4 datagram 3 |  |
               /      |  |         \
              |   ISP network /     |
               \      Internet     /
                      |  |
                      v  |
                   | IPv4 Host |

          Figure 8: Forwarding of Outgoing A+P-forwarded Packets

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     |        Datagram | Header field | Contents                    |
     | IPv4 datagram 1 |     IPv4 Dst |                   |
     |                 |     IPv4 Src |                    |
     |                 |      TCP Dst | 80                          |
     |                 |      TCP Src | 8000                        |
     | --------------- | ------------ | --------------------------- |
     | IPv6 Datagram 2 |     IPv6 Dst | a::1                        |
     |                 |     IPv6 Src | a::2                        |
     |                 |     IPv4 Dst |                   |
     |                 |     IPv4 Src |                    |
     |                 |      TCP Dst | 80                          |
     |                 |      TCP Src | 100                         |
     | --------------- | ------------ | --------------------------- |
     | IPv4 datagram 3 |     IPv4 Dst |                   |
     |                 |     IPv4 Src |                    |
     |                 |      TCP Dst | 80                          |
     |                 |      TCP Src | 100                         |

                         Datagram header contents

   An incoming packet undergoes the reverse process.  When the PRR
   receives an IPv4 packet on an external interface, it first checks
   whether the destination port number falls in a delegated range or
   not.  If the address space was delegated, then PRR tunnels the
   packets unmodified.  If the address space was not-delegated the
   packet will be handed to the LSN to check if a mapping is available.

   Figure 9 shows how an incoming packet is forwarded, under the
   assumption that the port number matches the port range which was
   delegated to the CPE.

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                   |    Host   |
                      ^  |
      IPv4 datagram 3 |  |
                      |  |
                      |  |
               |CPE      |         |
                      ^ |||     a::2
                      | ||| (100-200)
       IPv6 datagram 2| |||
                      | |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6
                      | |||
               /      | |||        \
              | ISP access network  |
               \      | |||        /
                      | |||
                      | |||     a::1
               |PRR     |||        |
                      ^  |
      IPv4 datagram 1 |  |
               /      |  |         \
              |  ISP network /      |
               \      Internet     /
                      |  |
                      |  |
                   | IPv4 Host |

          Figure 9: Forwarding of Incoming A+P-forwarded Packets

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     |        Datagram | Header field | Contents                    |
     | IPv4 datagram 1 |     IPv4 Dst |                    |
     |                 |     IPv4 Src |                   |
     |                 |      TCP Dst | 100                         |
     |                 |      TCP Src | 80                          |
     | --------------- | ------------ | --------------------------- |
     | IPv6 Datagram 2 |     IPv6 Dst | a::2                        |
     |                 |     IPv6 Src | a::1                        |
     |                 |     IPv4 Dst |                    |
     |                 |       IP Src |                   |
     |                 |      TCP Dst | 100                         |
     |                 |      TCP Src | 80                          |
     | --------------- | ------------ | --------------------------- |
     | IPv4 datagram 3 |     IPv4 Dst |                    |
     |                 |     IPv4 Src |                   |
     |                 |      TCP Dst | 8000                        |
     |                 |      TCP Src | 80                          |

                         Datagram header contents

   Note that datagram 1 travels untranslated up to the CPE, thus the
   customer has the same control over the translation as it has today
   where he/she has an home gateway with customizable port-forwarding.

4.6.  Forwarding of standard packets

   Packets for which the CPE does not have a corresponding port
   forwarding rule are tunneled to the PRR which provides the LSN
   function.  We underline that the LSN MUST NOT use the delegated space
   for NATting.  See [I-D.durand-softwire-dual-stack-lite] for network
   diagrams which illustrate the packet flow in this case.

4.7.  Handling ICMP

   ICMP is problematic for all NATs, because it lacks port numbers.  A+P
   routing exacerbates the problem.

   Most ICMP messages fall into one of two categories: error reports, or
   ECHO/ECHO reply (commonly known as "ping").  For error reports, the
   offending packet header is embedded within the ICMP packet; NAT
   devices can then rewrite that portion and route the packet to the
   actual destination host.  This functionality will remain the same
   with A+P; however, the PRR will need to examine the embedded header
   to extract the port number, while the A+P gateway will do the
   necessary rewriting.

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   ECHO and ECHO reply are more problematic.  For ECHO, the A+P gateway
   device must rewrite the "Identifier" and perhaps "Sequence Number"
   fields in the ICMP request, treating them as if they were port
   numbers.  This way, the PRR can build the correct A+P address for the
   returning ECHO replies, so they can be correctly routed back to the
   appropriate host in the same way as TCP/UDP packets.  (Pings
   originated from an external domain/legacy Internet towards an A+P
   device are not supported.)

4.8.  Limitations of the A+P approach

   One limitation that A+P shares with any other IP address-sharing
   mechanism is the availability of well-known ports.  In fact, services
   run by customers that share the same IP address will be distinguished
   by the port number.  As a consequence, it will be impossible for two
   customers who share the same IP address to run services on the same
   port (e.g., port 80).  Unfortunately, working around this limitation
   usually implies application-specific hacks (e.g., HTTP and HTTPS
   redirection), discussion of which is out of the scope of this
   document.  Of course, a provider might charge more for giving a
   customer the well-known port range, 0..1024, thus allowing the
   customer to provide externally available services.  Many applications
   require the availability of well known ports.  However, those
   applications are not expected to work in A+P environment unless they
   can adapt to work with different ports.  However, such application do
   not work behind today's NATs either.

   Another problem which is common to all kind of NATs is the
   coexistence with IPsec.  In fact, a NAT which also translates port
   numbers prevents AH and ESP from functioning properly, both in tunnel
   and in transport mode.  In this respect, we stress that, since an A+P
   subsystem exhibits the same external behavior as a NAT, well-known
   workarounds (such as [RFC3715]) can be employed.

   Port randomization is also a bit compromised in A+P solution.  As CPE
   can randomize ports only within port range that is delegated to it,
   randomness is more limited than in the scenario where CPE can harness
   the full port spectrum for randomization.  We can assume, that CPE
   either gets port range from ephemeral range (49152-65535) or from
   "registered ports" range (1024-49151).  Both ranges can be used for
   randomization, see [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-port-randomization] for more

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of IANA.

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   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an

6.  Security Considerations

   The primary security issue any time a NAT is mentioned is the
   implicit firewall provided by a NAT.  Any proposal to eliminate NATs
   raises the specter of insecure hosts lying naked before a hostile
   Internet.  For a number of reasons, we do not think this is a serious
   issue here.  If nothing else, NATs are not really security devices;
   their protective value is limited.

   A NAT owned by a customer, whether a home consumer or a large
   enterprise, is under the control of that customer.  All machines on
   the customer's side of the NAT have unfettered access to each other
   machines on the same side; generally, this is what is desired.  A+P
   NATs do not change that, as the customer has still control over what
   is being NATed.  LSNs does not change the access property, either.
   However, with a LSN without A+P there are *many* machines on the
   inside of the translation, not all of which are in the customer's
   administrative domain.  Unless other firewall mechanisms are
   employed, LSNs create added risk of unauthorized access.

   By contrast, the protection scope of an A+P NAT is, by definition, at
   the boundary to the customer network.  The access properties are thus
   precisely what traditional NATs have provided.

   There is one notable exception to this point.  Inbound packets
   addressed to the assigned port number range are passed through
   unchanged, even if no outbound packets were sent to the originator.
   While this allows customers to run their own servers on certain
   ports, it also allows attackers to probe these servers without the
   protection provided today by provider-supplied NAT boxes.  The issue
   is not that internal machines are addressable -- that is an
   inevitable corollary to servers being run -- but that it may
   represent a change from today's behavior.  Furthermore, the effect on
   the customer varies greatly, depending on what port number range they
   are assigned; someone who is assigned 0-4K derives more benefit and
   runs more risk than someone who is assigned 48K-52K, since the latter
   is in the IANA-assigned dynamic port range.

   A useful middle ground would be provision of a customer-controllable
   switch in the CPE that controls what happens to such packets.  If
   filtering is to be done, state must be kept, which might be costly;
   this suggests that perhaps it should only be done in the CPE if it is
   replacing current CPE that provides NAT functionality.  If
   applications on end-hosts installed A+P gateways, they might open up

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   ports untranslated.

   Note that regardless of the existence of such an option, the A+P
   gateway will need customer-controllable port number-mapping
   capability, since most customers will not be assigned a range that
   corresponds to the servers they wish to run.

   With CGNs, tracing hackers, spammers and other criminals will be
   impossible, unless all the connection based mapping information is
   recorded and stored.  The need for storage implies a tradeoff.  On
   one hand, the LSNs should manage addresses and ports as dynamically
   as possible, in order to maximize aggregation.  On the other hand,
   the more quickly the mapping between private and public space
   changes, the more information needs to be recorded.  This would not
   only cause concern for law enforcement services, but also for privacy

   A+P offers a better set of tradeoffs.  All that needs to be logged is
   the allocation of a range of port numbers to a customer.  By design,
   this will be done rarely, improving scalability.  If the NAT
   functionality is moved further up the tree, the logging requirement
   will be as well, increasing the load on one node, but giving it more
   resources to allocate to a busy customer, perhaps decreasing the
   frequency of allocation requests.

   The other extreme is A+P NAT on the customer premises.  Such a node
   would be no different than today's NAT boxes, which do no such
   logging.  We thus conclude that A+P is no worse than today's
   situation, while being considerably better than CGN.

7.  Authors

   This document has six primary authors, which is not allowed.  So this
   hack is meant to credit them all in alphabetic order.

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      Olaf Maennel
      Deutsche Telekom Laboratories
      Ernst-Reuter-Platz 7
      Berlin  10587
      Phone: +3727120686

      Luca Cittadini
      Universita' Roma Tre
      via della Vasca Navale, 79
      Rome,   00146
      Phone: +39 06 5733 3215

      Jan Zorz
      Frankovo naselje 165
      Skofja Loka  4220
      Phone: +38659042000

      Steven M. Bellovin
      Columbia University
      1214 Amsterdam Avenue
      MC 0401
      New York, NY  10027
      Phone: +1 212 939 7149

      Alain Durand
      1500 Market St.
      Philadelphia, PA

      Randy Bush
      Internet Initiative Japan
      5147 Crystal Springs
      Bainbridge Island, Washington  98110
      Phone: +1 206 780 0431 x1

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8.  Acknowledgments

   The authors wish to thank especially (in alphabetical order) Gabor
   Bajko, Remi Despres, Pierre Levis, and Teemu Savolainen for their
   close collaboration on the development of the A+P approach.  David
   Ward for review, constructive criticism, and interminable questions.
   Cullen Jennings for discussion and review of fragmentation, and Dave
   Thaler for useful criticism on "stackable" A+P gateways.  We would
   also like to thank the following persons for their feedback on
   earlier versions of this work: Bernhard Ager, Rob Austein, Gert
   Doering, Dino Farinacci, Russ Housley, and Ruediger Volk.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

9.2.  Informative References

   [BCP38]    Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
              Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
              Address Spoofing", BCP 38, May 2000.

              Bajko, G. and T. Savolainen, "Port Restricted IP Address
              draft-bajko-v6ops-port-restricted-ipaddr-assign-02 (work
              in progress), November 2008.

              Boucadair, M., Grimault, J., Levis, P., and A.
              Villefranque, "DHCP Options for Conveying Port Mask and
              Port Range Router IP Address",
              draft-boucadair-dhc-port-range-01 (work in progress),
              October 2008.

              Boucadair, M., Levis, P., Bajko, G., and T. Savolainen,
              "IPv4 Connectivity Access in the Context of IPv4 Address
              Exhaustion: Port  Range based IP Architecture",
              draft-boucadair-port-range-02 (work in progress),
              July 2009.

              Durand, A., Droms, R., Haberman, B., and J. Woodyatt,

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              "Dual-stack lite broadband deployments post IPv4
              exhaustion", draft-durand-softwire-dual-stack-lite-01
              (work in progress), November 2008.

              Larsen, M. and F. Gont, "Port Randomization",
              draft-ietf-tsvwg-port-randomization-02 (work in progress),
              August 2008.

              Martin, D., Rajagopalan, S., and A. Rubin, "Blocking Java
              Applets at the Firewall", Proceedings of the Internet
              Society Symposium on Network and Distributed System
              Security, pp. 16-26, 1997.

   [RFC0959]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
              STD 9, RFC 959, October 1985.

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC3715]  Aboba, B. and W. Dixon, "IPsec-Network Address Translation
              (NAT) Compatibility Requirements", RFC 3715, March 2004.

Author's Address

   Randy Bush (editor)
   Internet Initiative Japan
   5147 Crystal Springs
   Bainbridge Island, Washington  98110

   Phone: +1 206 780 0431 x1

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