K-12 Internetworking Guidelines
RFC 1709

Document Type RFC - Informational (November 1994; No errata)
Also known as FYI 26
Last updated 2013-03-02
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Network Working Group                                         J. Gargano
Request for Comments: 1709               University of California, Davis
FYI: 26                                                        D. Wasley
Category: Informational               University of California, Berkeley
                                                           November 1994

                    K-12 Internetworking Guidelines

Status Of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

I.  Introduction

   Many organizations concerned with K-12 educational issues and the
   planning for the use of technology recognize the value of data
   communications throughout the educational system.  State sponsored
   documents such as the California Department of Education's "Strategic
   Plan for Information Technology" recommend the planning of voice,
   video and data networks to support learning and educational
   administration, but they do not provide specific technical direction.

   The institutions that built the Internet and connected early in its
   development are early adopters of technology, with technical staff
   dedicated to the planning for and implementation of leading edge
   technology.  The K-12 community traditionally has not had this level
   of staffing available for telecommunications planning.  This document
   is intended to bridge that gap and provides a recommended technical
   direction, an introduction to the role the Internet now plays in K-12
   education and technical guidelines for building a campus data
   communications infrastructure that provides internetworking services
   and connections to the Internet.

   For a more general introduction to the Internet and its applications
   and uses, the reader is referred to any of the references listed in
   the following RFCs:

   1392    "Internet Users' Glossary" (also FYI 18)
   1432    "Recent Internet Books"
   1462    "What is the Internet" (also FYI 20)
   1463    "Introducing the Internet - A Short Bibliograpy of
           Introductory Internetworking on Readings for the Network
           Novice" (also FYI 19)

ISN Working Group                                               [Page 1]
RFC 1709            K-12 Internetworking Guidelines        November 1994

II.  Rationale for the Use of Internet Protocols

   In 1993, the Bank Street College of Education conducted a survey of
   550 educators who are actively involved in using telecommunications.
   (Honey, Margaret, Henriquez, Andres, "Telecommunications and K-12
   Educators: Findings from a National Survey," Bank Street College of
   Education, New York, NY, 1993.)  The survey looked at a wide variety
   of ways telecommunications technology is used in K-12 education.
   Their findings on Internet usage are summarized below.

        "Slightly less than half of these educators have access
        to the Internet, which is supplied most frequently by a
        university computer or educational service."

        "Internet services are used almost twice as often for
        professional activities as for student learning
        activities."

        "Sending e-mail is the most common use of the Internet,
        followed by accessing news and bulletin boards and gaining
        access to remote computers."

   The following chart shows the percentage of respondents that use each
   network application to support professional and student activities.

   Applications                    Professional             Student
                                   Activities              Activities

   Electronic mail                 91                      79

   News or bulletin board          63                      50

   Remote access to other          48                      32
   computers

   Database access                 36                      31

   File transfer                   34                      19

   The value of the Internet and its explosive growth are a direct
   result of the computer communications technology used on the network.
   The same network design principals and computer communications
   protocols (TCP/IP) used on the Internet can be used within a school
   district to build campuswide networks.  This is standard practice
   within higher education, and increasingly in K-12 schools as well.
   The benefits of the TCP/IP protocols are listed below.

ISN Working Group                                               [Page 2]
RFC 1709            K-12 Internetworking Guidelines        November 1994

   Ubiquity        TCP/IP is available on most, if not all, of the
                   computing platforms likely to be important for
                   instructional or administrative purposes.  TCP/IP
                   is available for the IBM compatible personal
                   computers (PCs) running DOS or Windows and all
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