Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Overview
RFC 8376

Document Type RFC - Informational (May 2018; No errata)
Last updated 2018-05-31
Replaces draft-farrell-lpwan-overview
Stream IETF
Formats plain text pdf html bibtex
Reviews
Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Document shepherd Alexander Pelov
Shepherd write-up Show (last changed 2017-11-06)
IESG IESG state RFC 8376 (Informational)
Consensus Boilerplate Yes
Telechat date
Responsible AD Suresh Krishnan
Send notices to Alexander Pelov <a@ackl.io>
IANA IANA review state IANA OK - No Actions Needed
IANA action state No IANA Actions
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                   S. Farrell, Ed.
Request for Comments: 8376                        Trinity College Dublin
Category: Informational                                         May 2018
ISSN: 2070-1721

              Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Overview

Abstract

   Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) are wireless technologies with
   characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly
   very small packet and application-layer data sizes, and long battery
   life operation.  This memo is an informational overview of the set of
   LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that
   exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running
   IP in LPWANs.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8376.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Farrell                       Informational                     [Page 1]
RFC 8376                     LPWAN Overview                     May 2018

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  LPWAN Technologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  LoRaWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       2.1.1.  Provenance and Documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       2.1.2.  Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.2.1.  Provenance and Documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.2.2.  Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     2.3.  Sigfox  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       2.3.1.  Provenance and Documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       2.3.2.  Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     2.4.  Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN)  . . . . . . . .  20
       2.4.1.  Provenance and Documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.4.2.  Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   3.  Generic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   4.  Gap Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     4.1.  Naive Application of IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     4.2.  6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       4.2.1.  Header Compression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       4.2.2.  Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       4.2.3.  Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       4.2.4.  Neighbor Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     4.3.  6lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     4.4.  6tisch  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     4.5.  RoHC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     4.6.  ROLL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     4.7.  CoAP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     4.8.  Mobility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     4.9.  DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   7.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43

1.  Introduction

   This document provides background material and an overview of the
   technologies being considered in the IETF's IPv6 over Low Power Wide-
Show full document text