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Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification (Revised)
RFC 4601

Document type: RFC - Proposed Standard (August 2006; Errata)
Obsoletes RFC 2362
Document stream: IETF
Last updated: 2013-03-02
Other versions: plain text, pdf, html

IETF State: (None)
Consensus: Unknown
Document shepherd: No shepherd assigned

IESG State: RFC 4601 (Proposed Standard)
Responsible AD: Alex Zinin
Send notices to: pim-chairs@tools.ietf.org

Network Working Group                                          B. Fenner
Request for Comments: 4601                          AT&T Labs - Research
Obsoletes: 2362                                               M. Handley
Category: Standards Track                                            UCL
                                                             H. Holbrook
                                                                 Arastra
                                                             I. Kouvelas
                                                                   Cisco
                                                             August 2006

         Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
                    Protocol Specification (Revised)

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   This document specifies Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode
   (PIM-SM).  PIM-SM is a multicast routing protocol that can use the
   underlying unicast routing information base or a separate multicast-
   capable routing information base.  It builds unidirectional shared
   trees rooted at a Rendezvous Point (RP) per group, and optionally
   creates shortest-path trees per source.

   This document obsoletes RFC 2362, an Experimental version of PIM-SM.

Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 1]
RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................5
   2. Terminology .....................................................5
      2.1. Definitions ................................................5
      2.2. Pseudocode Notation ........................................7
   3. PIM-SM Protocol Overview ........................................7
      3.1. Phase One: RP Tree .........................................8
      3.2. Phase Two: Register-Stop ...................................8
      3.3. Phase Three: Shortest-Path Tree ............................9
      3.4. Source-Specific Joins .....................................10
      3.5. Source-Specific Prunes ....................................11
      3.6. Multi-Access Transit LANs .................................11
      3.7. RP Discovery ..............................................12
   4. Protocol Specification .........................................12
      4.1. PIM Protocol State ........................................13
           4.1.1. General Purpose State ..............................14
           4.1.2. (*,*,RP) State .....................................15
           4.1.3. (*,G) State ........................................16
           4.1.4. (S,G) State ........................................17
           4.1.5. (S,G,rpt) State ....................................20
           4.1.6. State Summarization Macros .........................21
      4.2. Data Packet Forwarding Rules ..............................26
           4.2.1. Last-Hop Switchover to the SPT .....................28
           4.2.2. Setting and Clearing the (S,G) SPTbit ..............29
      4.3. Designated Routers (DR) and Hello Messages ................30
           4.3.1. Sending Hello Messages .............................30
           4.3.2. DR Election ........................................32
           4.3.3. Reducing Prune Propagation Delay on LANs ...........34
           4.3.4. Maintaining Secondary Address Lists ................37
      4.4. PIM Register Messages .....................................38
           4.4.1. Sending Register Messages from the DR ..............38
           4.4.2. Receiving Register Messages at the RP ..............43
      4.5. PIM Join/Prune Messages ...................................45
           4.5.1. Receiving (*,*,RP) Join/Prune Messages .............45
           4.5.2. Receiving (*,G) Join/Prune Messages ................49
           4.5.3. Receiving (S,G) Join/Prune Messages ................53
           4.5.4. Receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune Messages ............56
           4.5.5. Sending (*,*,RP) Join/Prune Messages ...............62
           4.5.6. Sending (*,G) Join/Prune Messages ..................66
           4.5.7. Sending (S,G) Join/Prune Messages ..................71
           4.5.8. (S,G,rpt) Periodic Messages ........................76
           4.5.9. State Machine for (S,G,rpt) Triggered Messages .....77
           4.5.10. Background: (*,*,RP) and (S,G,rpt) Interaction ....82
      4.6. PIM Assert Messages .......................................83
           4.6.1. (S,G) Assert Message State Machine .................83
           4.6.2. (*,G) Assert Message State Machine .................91
           4.6.3. Assert Metrics .....................................98

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RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

           4.6.4. AssertCancel Messages ..............................99
           4.6.5. Assert State Macros ...............................100
      4.7. PIM Bootstrap and RP Discovery ...........................103
           4.7.1. Group-to-RP Mapping ...............................104
           4.7.2. Hash Function .....................................105
      4.8. Source-Specific Multicast ................................106
           4.8.1. Protocol Modifications for SSM Destination
                  Addresses .........................................106
           4.8.2. PIM-SSM-Only Routers ..............................107
      4.9. PIM Packet Formats .......................................108
           4.9.1. Encoded Source and Group Address Formats ..........110
           4.9.2. Hello Message Format ..............................113
           4.9.3. Register Message Format ...........................116
           4.9.4. Register-Stop Message Format ......................119
           4.9.5. Join/Prune Message Format .........................119
                  4.9.5.1. Group Set Source List Rules ..............122
                  4.9.5.2. Group Set Fragmentation ..................126
           4.9.6. Assert Message Format .............................126
      4.10. PIM Timers ..............................................128
      4.11. Timer Values ............................................129
   5. IANA Considerations ...........................................135
      5.1. PIM Address Family .......................................135
      5.2. PIM Hello Options ........................................136
   6. Security Considerations .......................................136
      6.1. Attacks Based on Forged Messages .........................136
           6.1.1. Forged Link-Local Messages ........................136
           6.1.2. Forged Unicast Messages ...........................137
      6.2. Non-Cryptographic Authentication Mechanisms ..............137
      6.3. Authentication Using IPsec ...............................138
           6.3.1. Protecting Link-Local Multicast Messages ..........138
           6.3.2. Protecting Unicast Messages .......................139
                  6.3.2.1. Register Messages ........................139
                  6.3.2.2. Register-Stop Messages ...................139
      6.4. Denial-of-Service Attacks ................................140
   7. Acknowledgements ..............................................140
   8. Normative References ..........................................141
   9. Informative References ........................................141
   Appendix A. PIM Multicast Border Router Behavior .................143
      A.1. Sources External to the PIM-SM Domain ....................143
      A.2.  Sources Internal to the PIM-SM Domain ...................144
   Appendix B. Index ................................................146

Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 3]
RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

List of Figures

   Figure 1. Per-(S,G) register state machine at a DR ................38
   Figure 2. Downstream per-interface (*,*,RP) state machine .........46
   Figure 3. Downstream per-interface (*,G) state machine ............50
   Figure 4. Downstream per-interface (S,G) state machine ............53
   Figure 5. Downstream per-interface (S,G,rpt) state machine ........57
   Figure 6. Upstream (*,*,RP) state machine .........................62
   Figure 7. Upstream (*,G) state machine ............................67
   Figure 8. Upstream (S,G) state machine ............................71
   Figure 9. Upstream (S,G,rpt) state machine for triggered
             messages ................................................77
   Figure 10. Per-interface (S,G) Assert State machine ...............84
   Figure 11. Per-interface (*,G) Assert State machine ...............92

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1.  Introduction

   This document specifies a protocol for efficiently routing multicast
   groups that may span wide-area (and inter-domain) internets.  This
   protocol is called Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode
   (PIM-SM) because, although it may use the underlying unicast routing
   to provide reverse-path information for multicast tree building, it
   is not dependent on any particular unicast routing protocol.

   PIM-SM version 2 was originally specified in RFC 2117 and was revised
   in RFC 2362, both Experimental RFCs.  This document is intended to
   obsolete RFC 2362, to correct a number of deficiencies that have been
   identified with the way PIM-SM was previously specified, and to bring
   PIM-SM onto the IETF Standards Track.  As far as possible, this
   document specifies the same protocol as RFC 2362 and only diverges
   from the behavior intended by RFC 2362 when the previously specified
   behavior was clearly incorrect.  Routers implemented according to the
   specification in this document will be able to interoperate
   successfully with routers implemented according to RFC 2362.

2.  Terminology

   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
   and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1] and
   indicate requirement levels for compliant PIM-SM implementations.

2.1.  Definitions

   The following terms have special significance for PIM-SM:

   Rendezvous Point (RP):
         An RP is a router that has been configured to be used as the
         root of the non-source-specific distribution tree for a
         multicast group.  Join messages from receivers for a group are
         sent towards the RP, and data from senders is sent to the RP so
         that receivers can discover who the senders are and start to
         receive traffic destined for the group.

   Designated Router (DR):
         A shared-media LAN like Ethernet may have multiple PIM-SM
         routers connected to it.  A single one of these routers, the
         DR, will act on behalf of directly connected hosts with respect
         to the PIM-SM protocol.  A single DR is elected per interface
         (LAN or otherwise) using a simple election process.

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RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

   MRIB  Multicast Routing Information Base.  This is the multicast
         topology table, which is typically derived from the unicast
         routing table, or routing protocols such as Multiprotocol BGP
         (MBGP) that carry multicast-specific topology information.  In
         PIM-SM, the MRIB is used to decide where to send Join/Prune
         messages.  A secondary function of the MRIB is to provide
         routing metrics for destination addresses; these metrics are
         used when sending and processing Assert messages.

   RPF Neighbor
         RPF stands for "Reverse Path Forwarding".  The RPF Neighbor of
         a router with respect to an address is the neighbor that the
         MRIB indicates should be used to forward packets to that
         address.  In the case of a PIM-SM multicast group, the RPF
         neighbor is the router that a Join message for that group would
         be directed to, in the absence of modifying Assert state.

   TIB   Tree Information Base.  This is the collection of state at a
         PIM router that has been created by receiving PIM Join/Prune
         messages, PIM Assert messages, and Internet Group Management
         Protocol (IGMP) or Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
         information from local hosts.  It essentially stores the state
         of all multicast distribution trees at that router.

   MFIB  Multicast Forwarding Information Base.  The TIB holds all the
         state that is necessary to forward multicast packets at a
         router.  However, although this specification defines
         forwarding in terms of the TIB, to actually forward packets
         using the TIB is very inefficient.  Instead, a real router
         implementation will normally build an efficient MFIB from the
         TIB state to perform forwarding.  How this is done is
         implementation-specific and is not discussed in this document.

   Upstream
         Towards the root of the tree.  The root of tree may be either
         the source or the RP, depending on the context.

   Downstream
         Away from the root of the tree.

   GenID Generation Identifier, used to detect reboots.

   PMBR  PIM Multicast Border Router, joining a PIM domain with another
         multicast domain.

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2.2.  Pseudocode Notation

   We use set notation in several places in this specification.

   A (+) B is the union of two sets, A and B.

   A (-) B is the elements of set A that are not in set B.

   NULL    is the empty set or list.

   In addition, we use C-like syntax:

   =       denotes assignment of a variable.

   ==      denotes a comparison for equality.

   !=      denotes a comparison for inequality.

   Braces { and } are used for grouping.

3.  PIM-SM Protocol Overview

   This section provides an overview of PIM-SM behavior.  It is intended
   as an introduction to how PIM-SM works, and it is NOT definitive.
   For the definitive specification, see Section 4.

   PIM relies on an underlying topology-gathering protocol to populate a
   routing table with routes.  This routing table is called the
   Multicast Routing Information Base (MRIB).  The routes in this table
   may be taken directly from the unicast routing table, or they may be
   different and provided by a separate routing protocol such as MBGP
   [10].  Regardless of how it is created, the primary role of the MRIB
   in the PIM protocol is to provide the next-hop router along a
   multicast-capable path to each destination subnet.  The MRIB is used
   to determine the next-hop neighbor to which any PIM Join/Prune
   message is sent.  Data flows along the reverse path of the Join
   messages.  Thus, in contrast to the unicast RIB, which specifies the
   next hop that a data packet would take to get to some subnet, the
   MRIB gives reverse-path information and indicates the path that a
   multicast data packet would take from its origin subnet to the router
   that has the MRIB.

   Like all multicast routing protocols that implement the service model
   from RFC 1112 [3], PIM-SM must be able to route data packets from
   sources to receivers without either the sources or receivers knowing
   a priori of the existence of the others.  This is essentially done in
   three phases, although as senders and receivers may come and go at
   any time, all three phases may occur simultaneously.

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3.1.  Phase One: RP Tree

   In phase one, a multicast receiver expresses its interest in
   receiving traffic destined for a multicast group.  Typically, it does
   this using IGMP [2] or MLD [4], but other mechanisms might also serve
   this purpose.  One of the receiver's local routers is elected as the
   Designated Router (DR) for that subnet.  On receiving the receiver's
   expression of interest, the DR then sends a PIM Join message towards
   the RP for that multicast group.  This Join message is known as a
   (*,G) Join because it joins group G for all sources to that group.
   The (*,G) Join travels hop-by-hop towards the RP for the group, and
   in each router it passes through, multicast tree state for group G is
   instantiated.  Eventually, the (*,G) Join either reaches the RP or
   reaches a router that already has (*,G) Join state for that group.
   When many receivers join the group, their Join messages converge on
   the RP and form a distribution tree for group G that is rooted at the
   RP.  This is known as the RP Tree (RPT), and is also known as the
   shared tree because it is shared by all sources sending to that
   group.  Join messages are resent periodically so long as the receiver
   remains in the group.  When all receivers on a leaf-network leave the
   group, the DR will send a PIM (*,G) Prune message towards the RP for
   that multicast group.  However, if the Prune message is not sent for
   any reason, the state will eventually time out.

   A multicast data sender just starts sending data destined for a
   multicast group.  The sender's local router (DR) takes those data
   packets, unicast-encapsulates them, and sends them directly to the
   RP.  The RP receives these encapsulated data packets, decapsulates
   them, and forwards them onto the shared tree.  The packets then
   follow the (*,G) multicast tree state in the routers on the RP Tree,
   being replicated wherever the RP Tree branches, and eventually
   reaching all the receivers for that multicast group.  The process of
   encapsulating data packets to the RP is called registering, and the
   encapsulation packets are known as PIM Register packets.

   At the end of phase one, multicast traffic is flowing encapsulated to
   the RP, and then natively over the RP tree to the multicast
   receivers.

3.2.  Phase Two: Register-Stop

   Register-encapsulation of data packets is inefficient for two
   reasons:

   o Encapsulation and decapsulation may be relatively expensive
     operations for a router to perform, depending on whether or not the
     router has appropriate hardware for these tasks.

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   o Traveling all the way to the RP, and then back down the shared tree
     may result in the packets traveling a relatively long distance to
     reach receivers that are close to the sender.  For some
     applications, this increased latency or bandwidth consumption is
     undesirable.

   Although Register-encapsulation may continue indefinitely, for these
   reasons, the RP will normally choose to switch to native forwarding.
   To do this, when the RP receives a register-encapsulated data packet
   from source S on group G, it will normally initiate an (S,G) source-
   specific Join towards S.  This Join message travels hop-by-hop
   towards S, instantiating (S,G) multicast tree state in the routers
   along the path.  (S,G) multicast tree state is used only to forward
   packets for group G if those packets come from source S.  Eventually
   the Join message reaches S's subnet or a router that already has
   (S,G) multicast tree state, and then packets from S start to flow
   following the (S,G) tree state towards the RP.  These data packets
   may also reach routers with (*,G) state along the path towards the
   RP; if they do, they can shortcut onto the RP tree at this point.

   While the RP is in the process of joining the source-specific tree
   for S, the data packets will continue being encapsulated to the RP.
   When packets from S also start to arrive natively at the RP, the RP
   will be receiving two copies of each of these packets.  At this
   point, the RP starts to discard the encapsulated copy of these
   packets, and it sends a Register-Stop message back to S's DR to
   prevent the DR from unnecessarily encapsulating the packets.

   At the end of phase 2, traffic will be flowing natively from S along
   a source-specific tree to the RP, and from there along the shared
   tree to the receivers.  Where the two trees intersect, traffic may
   transfer from the source-specific tree to the RP tree and thus avoid
   taking a long detour via the RP.

   Note that a sender may start sending before or after a receiver joins
   the group, and thus phase two may happen before the shared tree to
   the receiver is built.

3.3.  Phase Three: Shortest-Path Tree

   Although having the RP join back towards the source removes the
   encapsulation overhead, it does not completely optimize the
   forwarding paths.  For many receivers, the route via the RP may
   involve a significant detour when compared with the shortest path
   from the source to the receiver.

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   To obtain lower latencies or more efficient bandwidth utilization, a
   router on the receiver's LAN, typically the DR, may optionally
   initiate a transfer from the shared tree to a source-specific
   shortest-path tree (SPT).  To do this, it issues an (S,G) Join
   towards S.  This instantiates state in the routers along the path to
   S.  Eventually, this join either reaches S's subnet or reaches a
   router that already has (S,G) state.  When this happens, data packets
   from S start to flow following the (S,G) state until they reach the
   receiver.

   At this point, the receiver (or a router upstream of the receiver)
   will be receiving two copies of the data: one from the SPT and one
   from the RPT.  When the first traffic starts to arrive from the SPT,
   the DR or upstream router starts to drop the packets for G from S
   that arrive via the RP tree.  In addition, it sends an (S,G) Prune
   message towards the RP.  This is known as an (S,G,rpt) Prune.  The
   Prune message travels hop-by-hop, instantiating state along the path
   towards the RP indicating that traffic from S for G should NOT be
   forwarded in this direction.  The prune is propagated until it
   reaches the RP or a router that still needs the traffic from S for
   other receivers.

   By now, the receiver will be receiving traffic from S along the
   shortest-path tree between the receiver and S.  In addition, the RP
   is receiving the traffic from S, but this traffic is no longer
   reaching the receiver along the RP tree.  As far as the receiver is
   concerned, this is the final distribution tree.

3.4.  Source-Specific Joins

   IGMPv3 permits a receiver to join a group and specify that it only
   wants to receive traffic for a group if that traffic comes from a
   particular source.  If a receiver does this, and no other receiver on
   the LAN requires all the traffic for the group, then the DR may omit
   performing a (*,G) join to set up the shared tree, and instead issue
   a source-specific (S,G) join only.

   The range of multicast addresses from 232.0.0.0 to 232.255.255.255 is
   currently set aside for source-specific multicast in IPv4.  For
   groups in this range, receivers should only issue source-specific
   IGMPv3 joins.  If a PIM router receives a non-source-specific join
   for a group in this range, it should ignore it, as described in
   Section 4.8.

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3.5.  Source-Specific Prunes

   IGMPv3 also permits a receiver to join a group and to specify that it
   only wants to receive traffic for a group if that traffic does not
   come from a specific source or sources.  In this case, the DR will
   perform a (*,G) join as normal, but may combine this with an
   (S,G,rpt) prune for each of the sources the receiver does not wish to
   receive.

3.6.  Multi-Access Transit LANs

   The overview so far has concerned itself with point-to-point transit
   links.  However, using multi-access LANs such as Ethernet for transit
   is not uncommon.  This can cause complications for three reasons:

   o Two or more routers on the LAN may issue (*,G) Joins to different
     upstream routers on the LAN because they have inconsistent MRIB
     entries regarding how to reach the RP.  Both paths on the RP tree
     will be set up, causing two copies of all the shared tree traffic
     to appear on the LAN.

   o Two or more routers on the LAN may issue (S,G) Joins to different
     upstream routers on the LAN because they have inconsistent MRIB
     entries regarding how to reach source S.  Both paths on the source-
     specific tree will be set up, causing two copies of all the traffic
     from S to appear on the LAN.

   o A router on the LAN may issue a (*,G) Join to one upstream router
     on the LAN, and another router on the LAN may issue an (S,G) Join
     to a different upstream router on the same LAN.  Traffic from S may
     reach the LAN over both the RPT and the SPT.  If the receiver
     behind the downstream (*,G) router doesn't issue an (S,G,rpt)
     prune, then this condition would persist.

   All of these problems are caused by there being more than one
   upstream router with join state for the group or source-group pair.
   PIM does not prevent such duplicate joins from occurring; instead,
   when duplicate data packets appear on the LAN from different routers,
   these routers notice this and then elect a single forwarder.  This
   election is performed using PIM Assert messages, which resolve the
   problem in favor of the upstream router that has (S,G) state; or, if
   neither or both router has (S,G) state, then the problem is resolved
   in favor of the router with the best metric to the RP for RP trees,
   or the best metric to the source to source-specific trees.

   These Assert messages are also received by the downstream routers on
   the LAN, and these cause subsequent Join messages to be sent to the
   upstream router that won the Assert.

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3.7.  RP Discovery

   PIM-SM routers need to know the address of the RP for each group for
   which they have (*,G) state.  This address is obtained automatically
   (e.g., embedded-RP), through a bootstrap mechanism, or through static
   configuration.

   One dynamic way to do this is to use the Bootstrap Router (BSR)
   mechanism [11].  One router in each PIM domain is elected the
   Bootstrap Router through a simple election process.  All the routers
   in the domain that are configured to be candidates to be RPs
   periodically unicast their candidacy to the BSR.  From the
   candidates, the BSR picks an RP-set, and periodically announces this
   set in a Bootstrap message.  Bootstrap messages are flooded hop-by-
   hop throughout the domain until all routers in the domain know the
   RP-Set.

   To map a group to an RP, a router hashes the group address into the
   RP-set using an order-preserving hash function (one that minimizes
   changes if the RP-Set changes).  The resulting RP is the one that it
   uses as the RP for that group.

4.  Protocol Specification

   The specification of PIM-SM is broken into several parts:

   o Section 4.1 details the protocol state stored.

   o Section 4.2 specifies the data packet forwarding rules.

   o Section 4.3 specifies Designated Router (DR) election and the rules
     for sending and processing Hello messages.

   o Section 4.4 specifies the PIM Register generation and processing
     rules.

   o Section 4.5 specifies the PIM Join/Prune generation and processing
     rules.

   o Section 4.6 specifies the PIM Assert generation and processing
     rules.

   o Section 4.7 specifies the RP discovery mechanisms.

   o The subset of PIM required to support Source-Specific Multicast,
     PIM-SSM, is described in Section 4.8.

   o PIM packet formats are specified in Section 4.9.

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RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

   o A summary of PIM-SM timers and their default values is given in
     Section 4.10.

   o Appendix A specifies the PIM Multicast Border Router behavior.

4.1.  PIM Protocol State

   This section specifies all the protocol state that a PIM
   implementation should maintain in order to function correctly.  We
   term this state the Tree Information Base (TIB), as it holds the
   state of all the multicast distribution trees at this router.  In
   this specification, we define PIM mechanisms in terms of the TIB.
   However, only a very simple implementation would actually implement
   packet forwarding operations in terms of this state.  Most
   implementations will use this state to build a multicast forwarding
   table, which would then be updated when the relevant state in the TIB
   changes.

   Although we specify precisely the state to be kept, this does not
   mean that an implementation of PIM-SM needs to hold the state in this
   form.  This is actually an abstract state definition, which is needed
   in order to specify the router's behavior.  A PIM-SM implementation
   is free to hold whatever internal state it requires and will still be
   conformant with this specification so long as it results in the same
   externally visible protocol behavior as an abstract router that holds
   the following state.

   We divide TIB state into four sections:

   (*,*,RP) state
        State that maintains per-RP trees, for all groups served by a
        given RP.

   (*,G) state
        State that maintains the RP tree for G.

   (S,G) state
        State that maintains a source-specific tree for source S and
        group G.

   (S,G,rpt) state
        State that maintains source-specific information about source S
        on the RP tree for G.  For example, if a source is being
        received on the source-specific tree, it will normally have been
        pruned off the RP tree.  This prune state is (S,G,rpt) state.

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   The state that should be kept is described below.  Of course,
   implementations will only maintain state when it is relevant to
   forwarding operations; for example, the "NoInfo" state might be
   assumed from the lack of other state information rather than being
   held explicitly.

4.1.1.  General Purpose State

   A router holds the following non-group-specific state:

   For each interface:

        o Effective Override Interval

        o Effective Propagation Delay

        o Suppression state: One of {"Enable", "Disable"}

        Neighbor State:

          For each neighbor:

               o Information from neighbor's Hello

               o Neighbor's GenID.

               o Neighbor Liveness Timer (NLT)

        Designated Router (DR) State:

          o Designated Router's IP Address

          o DR's DR Priority

   The Effective Override Interval, the Effective Propagation Delay and
   the Interface suppression state are described in Section 4.3.3.
   Designated Router state is described in Section 4.3.

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4.1.2.  (*,*,RP) State

   For every RP, a router keeps the following state:

   (*,*,RP) state:
        For each interface:

             PIM (*,*,RP) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "Join" (J), "Prune-
                    Pending" (PP)}

                  o Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)

                  o Join/Prune Expiry Timer (ET)

        Not interface specific:

             Upstream (*,*,RP) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"NotJoined(*,*,RP)",
                    "Joined(*,*,RP)"}

             o Upstream Join/Prune Timer (JT)

             o Last RPF Neighbor towards RP that was used

   PIM (*,*,RP) Join/Prune state is the result of receiving PIM (*,*,RP)
   Join/Prune messages on this interface and is specified in Section
   4.5.1.

   The upstream (*,*,RP) Join/Prune State reflects the state of the
   upstream (*,*,RP) state machine described in Section 4.5.5.

   The upstream (*,*,RP) Join/Prune Timer is used to send out periodic
   Join(*,*,RP) messages, and to override Prune(*,*,RP) messages from
   peers on an upstream LAN interface.

   The last RPF neighbor towards the RP is stored because if the MRIB
   changes, then the RPF neighbor towards the RP may change.  If it does
   so, then we need to trigger a new Join(*,*,RP) to the new upstream
   neighbor and a Prune(*,*,RP) to the old upstream neighbor.
   Similarly, if a router detects through a changed GenID in a Hello
   message that the upstream neighbor towards the RP has rebooted, then
   it should re-instantiate state by sending a Join(*,*,RP).  These
   mechanisms are specified in Section 4.5.5.

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4.1.3.  (*,G) State

   For every group G, a router keeps the following state:

   (*,G) state:
        For each interface:

             Local Membership:
                  State: One of {"NoInfo", "Include"}

             PIM (*,G) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "Join" (J), "Prune-
                    Pending" (PP)}

                  o Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)

                  o Join/Prune Expiry Timer (ET)

             (*,G) Assert Winner State

                  o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "I lost Assert" (L),
                    "I won Assert" (W)}

                  o Assert Timer (AT)

                  o Assert winner's IP Address (AssertWinner)

                  o Assert winner's Assert Metric (AssertWinnerMetric)

        Not interface specific:

             Upstream (*,G) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"NotJoined(*,G)", "Joined(*,G)"}

             o Upstream Join/Prune Timer (JT)

             o Last RP Used

             o Last RPF Neighbor towards RP that was used

   Local membership is the result of the local membership mechanism
   (such as IGMP or MLD) running on that interface.  It need not be kept
   if this router is not the DR on that interface unless this router won
   a (*,G) assert on this interface for this group, although
   implementations may optionally keep this state in case they become
   the DR or assert winner.  We recommend storing this information if

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   possible, as it reduces latency converging to stable operating
   conditions after a failure causing a change of DR.  This information
   is used by the pim_include(*,G) macro described in Section 4.1.6.

   PIM (*,G) Join/Prune state is the result of receiving PIM (*,G)
   Join/Prune messages on this interface and is specified in Section
   4.5.2.  The state is used by the macros that calculate the outgoing
   interface list in Section 4.1.6, and in the JoinDesired(*,G) macro
   (defined in Section 4.5.6) that is used in deciding whether a
   Join(*,G) should be sent upstream.

   (*,G) Assert Winner state is the result of sending or receiving (*,G)
   Assert messages on this interface.  It is specified in Section 4.6.2.

   The upstream (*,G) Join/Prune State reflects the state of the
   upstream (*,G) state machine described in Section 4.5.6.

   The upstream (*,G) Join/Prune Timer is used to send out periodic
   Join(*,G) messages, and to override Prune(*,G) messages from peers on
   an upstream LAN interface.

   The last RP used must be stored because if the RP-Set changes
   (Section 4.7), then state must be torn down and rebuilt for groups
   whose RP changes.

   The last RPF neighbor towards the RP is stored because if the MRIB
   changes, then the RPF neighbor towards the RP may change.  If it does
   so, then we need to trigger a new Join(*,G) to the new upstream
   neighbor and a Prune(*,G) to the old upstream neighbor.  Similarly,
   if a router detects through a changed GenID in a Hello message that
   the upstream neighbor towards the RP has rebooted, then it should
   re-instantiate state by sending a Join(*,G).  These mechanisms are
   specified in Section 4.5.6.

4.1.4.  (S,G) State

   For every source/group pair (S,G), a router keeps the following
   state:

   (S,G) state:

        For each interface:

             Local Membership:
                  State: One of {"NoInfo", "Include"}

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             PIM (S,G) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "Join" (J), "Prune-
                    Pending" (PP)}

                  o Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)

                  o Join/Prune Expiry Timer (ET)

             (S,G) Assert Winner State

                  o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "I lost Assert" (L),
                    "I won Assert" (W)}

                  o Assert Timer (AT)

                  o Assert winner's IP Address (AssertWinner)

                  o Assert winner's Assert Metric (AssertWinnerMetric)

        Not interface specific:

             Upstream (S,G) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"NotJoined(S,G)", "Joined(S,G)"}

             o Upstream (S,G) Join/Prune Timer (JT)

             o Last RPF Neighbor towards S that was used

             o SPTbit (indicates (S,G) state is active)

             o (S,G) Keepalive Timer (KAT)

             Additional (S,G) state at the DR:

                  o Register state: One of {"Join" (J), "Prune" (P),
                    "Join-Pending" (JP), "NoInfo" (NI)}

                  o Register-Stop timer

             Additional (S,G) state at the RP:

                  o PMBR: the first PMBR to send a Register for this
                    source with the Border bit set.

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   Local membership is the result of the local source-specific
   membership mechanism (such as IGMP version 3) running on that
   interface and specifying that this particular source should be
   included.  As stored here, this state is the resulting state after
   any IGMPv3 inconsistencies have been resolved.  It need not be kept
   if this router is not the DR on that interface unless this router won
   a (S,G) assert on this interface for this group.  However, we
   recommend storing this information if possible, as it reduces latency
   converging to stable operating conditions after a failure causing a
   change of DR.  This information is used by the pim_include(S,G) macro
   described in Section 4.1.6.

   PIM (S,G) Join/Prune state is the result of receiving PIM (S,G)
   Join/Prune messages on this interface and is specified in Section
   4.5.2.  The state is used by the macros that calculate the outgoing
   interface list in Section 4.1.6, and in the JoinDesired(S,G) macro
   (defined in Section 4.5.7) that is used in deciding whether a
   Join(S,G) should be sent upstream.

   (S,G) Assert Winner state is the result of sending or receiving (S,G)
   Assert messages on this interface.  It is specified in Section 4.6.1.

   The upstream (S,G) Join/Prune State reflects the state of the
   upstream (S,G) state machine described in Section 4.5.7.

   The upstream (S,G) Join/Prune Timer is used to send out periodic
   Join(S,G) messages, and to override Prune(S,G) messages from peers on
   an upstream LAN interface.

   The last RPF neighbor towards S is stored because if the MRIB
   changes, then the RPF neighbor towards S may change.  If it does so,
   then we need to trigger a new Join(S,G) to the new upstream neighbor
   and a Prune(S,G) to the old upstream neighbor.  Similarly, if the
   router detects through a changed GenID in a Hello message that the
   upstream neighbor towards S has rebooted, then it should re-
   instantiate state by sending a Join(S,G).  These mechanisms are
   specified in Section 4.5.7.

   The SPTbit is used to indicate whether forwarding is taking place on
   the (S,G) Shortest Path Tree (SPT) or on the (*,G) tree.  A router
   can have (S,G) state and still be forwarding on (*,G) state during
   the interval when the source-specific tree is being constructed.
   When SPTbit is FALSE, only (*,G) forwarding state is used to forward
   packets from S to G.  When SPTbit is TRUE, both (*,G) and (S,G)
   forwarding state are used.

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   The (S,G) Keepalive Timer is updated by data being forwarded using
   this (S,G) forwarding state.  It is used to keep (S,G) state alive in
   the absence of explicit (S,G) Joins.  Amongst other things, this is
   necessary for the so-called "turnaround rules" -- when the RP uses
   (S,G) joins to stop encapsulation, and then (S,G) prunes to prevent
   traffic from unnecessarily reaching the RP.

   On a DR, the (S,G) Register State is used to keep track of whether to
   encapsulate data to the RP on the Register Tunnel; the (S,G)
   Register-Stop timer tracks how long before encapsulation begins again
   for a given (S,G).

   On an RP, the PMBR value must be cleared when the Keepalive Timer
   expires.

4.1.5.  (S,G,rpt) State

   For every source/group pair (S,G) for which a router also has (*,G)
   state, it also keeps the following state:

   (S,G,rpt) state:

        For each interface:

             Local Membership:
                  State: One of {"NoInfo", "Exclude"}

             PIM (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"NoInfo", "Pruned", "Prune-
                    Pending"}

                  o Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)

                  o Join/Prune Expiry Timer (ET)

        Not interface specific:

             Upstream (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune State:

                  o State: One of {"RPTNotJoined(G)",
                    "NotPruned(S,G,rpt)", "Pruned(S,G,rpt)"}

                  o Override Timer (OT)

   Local membership is the result of the local source-specific
   membership mechanism (such as IGMPv3) running on that interface and
   specifying that although there is (*,G) Include state, this

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   particular source should be excluded.  As stored here, this state is
   the resulting state after any IGMPv3 inconsistencies between LAN
   members have been resolved.  It need not be kept if this router is
   not the DR on that interface unless this router won a (*,G) assert on
   this interface for this group.  However, we recommend storing this
   information if possible, as it reduces latency converging to stable
   operating conditions after a failure causing a change of DR.  This
   information is used by the pim_exclude(S,G) macro described in
   Section 4.1.6.

   PIM (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune state is the result of receiving PIM
   (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune messages on this interface and is specified in
   Section 4.5.4.  The state is used by the macros that calculate the
   outgoing interface list in Section 4.1.6, and in the rules for adding
   Prune(S,G,rpt) messages to Join(*,G) messages specified in Section
   4.5.8.

   The upstream (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune state is used along with the
   Override Timer to send the correct override messages in response to
   Join/Prune messages sent by upstream peers on a LAN.  This state and
   behavior are specified in Section 4.5.9.

4.1.6.  State Summarization Macros

   Using this state, we define the following "macro" definitions, which
   we will use in the descriptions of the state machines and pseudocode
   in the following sections.

   The most important macros are those that define the outgoing
   interface list (or "olist") for the relevant state.  An olist can be
   "immediate" if it is built directly from the state of the relevant
   type.  For example, the immediate_olist(S,G) is the olist that would
   be built if the router only had (S,G) state and no (*,G) or (S,G,rpt)
   state.  In contrast, the "inherited" olist inherits state from other
   types.  For example, the inherited_olist(S,G) is the olist that is
   relevant for forwarding a packet from S to G using both source-
   specific and group-specific state.

   There is no immediate_olist(S,G,rpt) as (S,G,rpt) state is negative
   state; it removes interfaces in the (*,G) olist from the olist that
   is actually used to forward traffic.  The inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) is
   therefore the olist that would be used for a packet from S to G
   forwarding on the RP tree.  It is a strict subset of
   (immediate_olist(*,*,RP) (+) immediate_olist(*,G)).

   Generally speaking, the inherited olists are used for forwarding, and
   the immediate_olists are used to make decisions about state
   maintenance.

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   immediate_olist(*,*,RP) =
       joins(*,*,RP)

   immediate_olist(*,G) =
       joins(*,G) (+) pim_include(*,G) (-) lost_assert(*,G)

   immediate_olist(S,G) =
       joins(S,G) (+) pim_include(S,G) (-) lost_assert(S,G)

   inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) =
           ( joins(*,*,RP(G)) (+) joins(*,G) (-) prunes(S,G,rpt) )
       (+) ( pim_include(*,G) (-) pim_exclude(S,G))
       (-) ( lost_assert(*,G) (+) lost_assert(S,G,rpt) )

   inherited_olist(S,G) =
       inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) (+)
       joins(S,G) (+) pim_include(S,G) (-) lost_assert(S,G)

   The macros pim_include(*,G) and pim_include(S,G) indicate the
   interfaces to which traffic might be forwarded because of hosts that
   are local members on that interface.  Note that normally only the DR
   cares about local membership, but when an assert happens, the assert
   winner takes over responsibility for forwarding traffic to local
   members that have requested traffic on a group or source/group pair.

   pim_include(*,G) =
      { all interfaces I such that:
        ( ( I_am_DR( I ) AND lost_assert(*,G,I) == FALSE )
          OR AssertWinner(*,G,I) == me )
        AND  local_receiver_include(*,G,I) }

   pim_include(S,G) =
       { all interfaces I such that:
         ( (I_am_DR( I ) AND lost_assert(S,G,I) == FALSE )
           OR AssertWinner(S,G,I) == me )
          AND  local_receiver_include(S,G,I) }

   pim_exclude(S,G) =
       { all interfaces I such that:
         ( (I_am_DR( I ) AND lost_assert(*,G,I) == FALSE )
           OR AssertWinner(*,G,I) == me )
          AND  local_receiver_exclude(S,G,I) }

   The clause "local_receiver_include(S,G,I)" is true if the IGMP/MLD
   module or other local membership mechanism has determined that local
   members on interface I desire to receive traffic sent specifically by
   S to G.  "local_receiver_include(*,G,I)" is true if the IGMP/MLD
   module or other local membership mechanism has determined that local

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   members on interface I desire to receive all traffic sent to G
   (possibly excluding traffic from a specific set of sources).
   "local_receiver_exclude(S,G,I) is true if
   "local_receiver_include(*,G,I)" is true but none of the local members
   desire to receive traffic from S.

   The set "joins(*,*,RP)" is the set of all interfaces on which the
   router has received (*,*,RP) Joins:

   joins(*,*,RP) =
       { all interfaces I such that
         DownstreamJPState(*,*,RP,I) is either Join or
             Prune-Pending }

   DownstreamJPState(*,*,RP,I) is the state of the finite state machine
   in Section 4.5.1.

   The set "joins(*,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the router
   has received (*,G) Joins:

   joins(*,G) =
       { all interfaces I such that
         DownstreamJPState(*,G,I) is either Join or Prune-Pending }

   DownstreamJPState(*,G,I) is the state of the finite state machine in
   Section 4.5.2.

   The set "joins(S,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the router
   has received (S,G) Joins:

   joins(S,G) =
       { all interfaces I such that
         DownstreamJPState(S,G,I) is either Join or Prune-Pending }

   DownstreamJPState(S,G,I) is the state of the finite state machine in
   Section 4.5.3.

   The set "prunes(S,G,rpt)" is the set of all interfaces on which the
   router has received (*,G) joins and (S,G,rpt) prunes.

   prunes(S,G,rpt) =
       { all interfaces I such that
         DownstreamJPState(S,G,rpt,I) is Prune or PruneTmp }

   DownstreamJPState(S,G,rpt,I) is the state of the finite state machine
   in Section 4.5.4.

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   The set "lost_assert(*,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the
   router has received (*,G) joins but has lost a (*,G) assert.  The
   macro lost_assert(*,G,I) is defined in Section 4.6.5.

   lost_assert(*,G) =
       { all interfaces I such that
         lost_assert(*,G,I) == TRUE }

   The set "lost_assert(S,G,rpt)" is the set of all interfaces on which
   the router has received (*,G) joins but has lost an (S,G) assert.
   The macro lost_assert(S,G,rpt,I) is defined in Section 4.6.5.

   lost_assert(S,G,rpt) =
       { all interfaces I such that
         lost_assert(S,G,rpt,I) == TRUE }

   The set "lost_assert(S,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the
   router has received (S,G) joins but has lost an (S,G) assert.  The
   macro lost_assert(S,G,I) is defined in Section 4.6.5.

   lost_assert(S,G) =
       { all interfaces I such that
         lost_assert(S,G,I) == TRUE }

   The following pseudocode macro definitions are also used in many
   places in the specification.  Basically, RPF' is the RPF neighbor
   towards an RP or source unless a PIM-Assert has overridden the normal
   choice of neighbor.

     neighbor RPF'(*,G) {
         if ( I_Am_Assert_Loser(*, G, RPF_interface(RP(G))) ) {
              return AssertWinner(*, G, RPF_interface(RP(G)) )
         } else {
              return NBR( RPF_interface(RP(G)), MRIB.next_hop( RP(G) ) )
         }
     }

     neighbor RPF'(S,G,rpt) {
         if( I_Am_Assert_Loser(S, G, RPF_interface(RP(G)) ) ) {
              return AssertWinner(S, G, RPF_interface(RP(G)) )
         } else {
              return RPF'(*,G)
         }
     }

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     neighbor RPF'(S,G) {
         if ( I_Am_Assert_Loser(S, G, RPF_interface(S) )) {
              return AssertWinner(S, G, RPF_interface(S) )
         } else {
              return NBR( RPF_interface(S), MRIB.next_hop( S ) )
         }
     }

   RPF'(*,G) and RPF'(S,G) indicate the neighbor from which data packets
   should be coming and to which joins should be sent on the RP tree and
   SPT, respectively.

   RPF'(S,G,rpt) is basically RPF'(*,G) modified by the result of an
   Assert(S,G) on RPF_interface(RP(G)).  In such a case, packets from S
   will be originating from a different router than RPF'(*,G).  If we
   only have active (*,G) Join state, we need to accept packets from
   RPF'(S,G,rpt) and add a Prune(S,G,rpt) to the periodic Join(*,G)
   messages that we send to RPF'(*,G) (see Section 4.5.8).

   The function MRIB.next_hop( S ) returns an address of the next-hop
   PIM neighbor toward the host S, as indicated by the current MRIB.  If
   S is directly adjacent, then MRIB.next_hop( S ) returns NULL.  At the
   RP for G, MRIB.next_hop( RP(G)) returns NULL.

   The function NBR( I, A ) uses information gathered through PIM Hello
   messages to map the IP address A of a directly connected PIM neighbor
   router on interface I to the primary IP address of the same router
   (Section 4.3.4).  The primary IP address of a neighbor is the address
   that it uses as the source of its PIM Hello messages.  Note that a
   neighbor's IP address may be non-unique within the PIM neighbor
   database due to scope issues.  The address must, however, be unique
   amongst the addresses of all the PIM neighbors on a specific
   interface.

   I_Am_Assert_Loser(S, G, I) is true if the Assert state machine (in
   Section 4.6.1) for (S,G) on Interface I is in "I am Assert Loser"
   state.

   I_Am_Assert_Loser(*, G, I) is true if the Assert state machine (in
   Section 4.6.2) for (*,G) on Interface I is in "I am Assert Loser"
   state.

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4.2.  Data Packet Forwarding Rules

   The PIM-SM packet forwarding rules are defined below in pseudocode.

      iif is the incoming interface of the packet.
      S is the source address of the packet.
      G is the destination address of the packet (group address).
      RP is the address of the Rendezvous Point for this group.
      RPF_interface(S) is the interface the MRIB indicates would be used
      to route packets to S.
      RPF_interface(RP) is the interface the MRIB indicates would be
      used to route packets to RP, except at the RP when it is the
      decapsulation interface (the "virtual" interface on which register
      packets are received).

   First, we restart (or start) the Keepalive Timer if the source is on
   a directly connected subnet.

   Second, we check to see if the SPTbit should be set because we've now
   switched from the RP tree to the SPT.

   Next, we check to see whether the packet should be accepted based on
   TIB state and the interface that the packet arrived on.

   If the packet should be forwarded using (S,G) state, we then build an
   outgoing interface list for the packet.  If this list is not empty,
   then we restart the (S,G) state Keepalive Timer.

   If the packet should be forwarded using (*,*,RP) or (*,G) state, then
   we just build an outgoing interface list for the packet.  We also
   check if we should initiate a switch to start receiving this source
   on a shortest path tree.

   Finally we remove the incoming interface from the outgoing interface
   list we've created, and if the resulting outgoing interface list is
   not empty, we forward the packet out of those interfaces.

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   On receipt of data from S to G on interface iif:
    if( DirectlyConnected(S) == TRUE AND iif == RPF_interface(S) ) {
         set KeepaliveTimer(S,G) to Keepalive_Period
         # Note: a register state transition or UpstreamJPState(S,G)
         # transition may happen as a result of restarting
         # KeepaliveTimer, and must be dealt with here.
    }

   if( iif == RPF_interface(S) AND UpstreamJPState(S,G) == Joined AND
      inherited_olist(S,G) != NULL ) {
          set KeepaliveTimer(S,G) to Keepalive_Period
   }

   Update_SPTbit(S,G,iif)
   oiflist = NULL

   if( iif == RPF_interface(S) AND SPTbit(S,G) == TRUE ) {
      oiflist = inherited_olist(S,G)
   } else if( iif == RPF_interface(RP(G)) AND SPTbit(S,G) == FALSE) {
     oiflist = inherited_olist(S,G,rpt)
     CheckSwitchToSpt(S,G)
   } else {
      # Note: RPF check failed
      # A transition in an Assert FSM may cause an Assert(S,G)
      # or Assert(*,G) message to be sent out interface iif.
      # See section 4.6 for details.
      if ( SPTbit(S,G) == TRUE AND iif is in inherited_olist(S,G) ) {
         send Assert(S,G) on iif
      } else if ( SPTbit(S,G) == FALSE AND
                  iif is in inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) {
         send Assert(*,G) on iif
      }
   }

   oiflist = oiflist (-) iif
   forward packet on all interfaces in oiflist

   This pseudocode employs several "macro" definitions:

   DirectlyConnected(S) is TRUE if the source S is on any subnet that is
   directly connected to this router (or for packets originating on this
   router).

   inherited_olist(S,G) and inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) are defined in
   Section 4.1.

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   Basically, inherited_olist(S,G) is the outgoing interface list for
   packets forwarded on (S,G) state, taking into account (*,*,RP) state,
   (*,G) state, asserts, etc.

   inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) is the outgoing interface list for packets
   forwarded on (*,*,RP) or (*,G) state, taking into account (S,G,rpt)
   prune state, asserts, etc.

   Update_SPTbit(S,G,iif) is defined in Section 4.2.2.

   CheckSwitchToSpt(S,G) is defined in Section 4.2.1.

   UpstreamJPState(S,G) is the state of the finite state machine in
   Section 4.5.7.

   Keepalive_Period is defined in Section 4.10.

   Data-triggered PIM-Assert messages sent from the above forwarding
   code should be rate-limited in a implementation-dependent manner.

4.2.1.  Last-Hop Switchover to the SPT

   In Sparse-Mode PIM, last-hop routers join the shared tree towards the
   RP.  Once traffic from sources to joined groups arrives at a last-hop
   router, it has the option of switching to receive the traffic on a
   shortest path tree (SPT).

   The decision for a router to switch to the SPT is controlled as
   follows:

     void
     CheckSwitchToSpt(S,G) {
       if ( ( pim_include(*,G) (-) pim_exclude(S,G)
              (+) pim_include(S,G) != NULL )
            AND SwitchToSptDesired(S,G) ) {
              # Note: Restarting the KAT will result in the SPT switch
              set KeepaliveTimer(S,G) to Keepalive_Period
       }
     }

   SwitchToSptDesired(S,G) is a policy function that is implementation
   defined.  An "infinite threshold" policy can be implemented by making
   SwitchToSptDesired(S,G) return false all the time.  A "switch on
   first packet" policy can be implemented by making
   SwitchToSptDesired(S,G) return true once a single packet has been
   received for the source and group.

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4.2.2.  Setting and Clearing the (S,G) SPTbit

   The (S,G) SPTbit is used to distinguish whether to forward on
   (*,*,RP)/(*,G) or on (S,G) state.  When switching from the RP tree to
   the source tree, there is a transition period when data is arriving
   due to upstream (*,*,RP)/(*,G) state while upstream (S,G) state is
   being established, during which time a router should continue to
   forward only on (*,*,RP)/(*,G) state.  This prevents temporary
   black-holes that would be caused by sending a Prune(S,G,rpt) before
   the upstream (S,G) state has finished being established.

   Thus, when a packet arrives, the (S,G) SPTbit is updated as follows:

     void
     Update_SPTbit(S,G,iif) {
       if ( iif == RPF_interface(S)
             AND JoinDesired(S,G) == TRUE
             AND ( DirectlyConnected(S) == TRUE
                   OR RPF_interface(S) != RPF_interface(RP(G))
                   OR inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) == NULL
                   OR ( ( RPF'(S,G) == RPF'(*,G) ) AND
                        ( RPF'(S,G) != NULL ) )
                   OR ( I_Am_Assert_Loser(S,G,iif) ) {
          Set SPTbit(S,G) to TRUE
       }
     }

   Additionally, a router can set SPTbit(S,G) to TRUE in other cases,
   such as when it receives an Assert(S,G) on RPF_interface(S) (see
   Section 4.6.1).

   JoinDesired(S,G) is defined in Section 4.5.7 and indicates whether we
   have the appropriate (S,G) Join state to wish to send a Join(S,G)
   upstream.

   Basically, Update_SPTbit will set the SPTbit if we have the
   appropriate (S,G) join state, and if the packet arrived on the
   correct upstream interface for S, and if one or more of the following
   conditions applies:

   1.  The source is directly connected, in which case the switch to the
       SPT is a no-op.

   2.  The RPF interface to S is different from the RPF interface to the
       RP.  The packet arrived on RPF_interface(S), and so the SPT must
       have been completed.

   3.  Noone wants the packet on the RP tree.

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   4.  RPF'(S,G) == RPF'(*,G).  In this case, the router will never be
       able to tell if the SPT has been completed, so it should just
       switch immediately.

   In the case where the RPF interface is the same for the RP and for S,
   but RPF'(S,G) and RPF'(*,G) differ, we wait for an Assert(S,G), which
   indicates that the upstream router with (S,G) state believes the SPT
   has been completed.  However, item (3) above is needed because there
   may not be any (*,G) state to trigger an Assert(S,G) to happen.

   The SPTbit is cleared in the (S,G) upstream state machine (see
   Section 4.5.7) when JoinDesired(S,G) becomes FALSE.

4.3.  Designated Routers (DR) and Hello Messages

   A shared-media LAN like Ethernet may have multiple PIM-SM routers
   connected to it.  A single one of these routers, the DR, will act on
   behalf of directly connected hosts with respect to the PIM-SM
   protocol.  Because the distinction between LANs and point-to-point
   interfaces can sometimes be blurred, and because routers may also
   have multicast host functionality, the PIM-SM specification makes no
   distinction between the two.  Thus, DR election will happen on all
   interfaces, LAN or otherwise.

   DR election is performed using Hello messages.  Hello messages are
   also the way that option negotiation takes place in PIM, so that
   additional functionality can be enabled, or parameters tuned.

4.3.1.  Sending Hello Messages

   PIM Hello messages are sent periodically on each PIM-enabled
   interface.  They allow a router to learn about the neighboring PIM
   routers on each interface.  Hello messages are also the mechanism
   used to elect a Designated Router (DR), and to negotiate additional
   capabilities.  A router must record the Hello information received
   from each PIM neighbor.

   Hello messages MUST be sent on all active interfaces, including
   physical point-to-point links, and are multicast to the 'ALL-PIM-
   ROUTERS' group address ('224.0.0.13' for IPv4 and 'ff02::d' for
   IPv6).

     We note that some implementations do not send Hello messages on
     point-to-point interfaces.  This is non-compliant behavior.  A
     compliant PIM router MUST send Hello messages, even on point-to-
     point interfaces.

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   A per-interface Hello Timer (HT(I)) is used to trigger sending Hello
   messages on each active interface.  When PIM is enabled on an
   interface or a router first starts, the Hello Timer of that interface
   is set to a random value between 0 and Triggered_Hello_Delay.  This
   prevents synchronization of Hello messages if multiple routers are
   powered on simultaneously.  After the initial randomized interval,
   Hello messages must be sent every Hello_Period seconds.  The Hello
   Timer should not be reset except when it expires.

   Note that neighbors will not accept Join/Prune or Assert messages
   from a router unless they have first heard a Hello message from that
   router.  Thus, if a router needs to send a Join/Prune or Assert
   message on an interface on which it has not yet sent a Hello message
   with the currently configured IP address, then it MUST immediately
   send the relevant Hello message without waiting for the Hello Timer
   to expire, followed by the Join/Prune or Assert message.

   The DR_Priority Option allows a network administrator to give
   preference to a particular router in the DR election process by
   giving it a numerically larger DR Priority.  The DR_Priority Option
   SHOULD be included in every Hello message, even if no DR Priority is
   explicitly configured on that interface.  This is necessary because
   priority-based DR election is only enabled when all neighbors on an
   interface advertise that they are capable of using the DR_Priority
   Option.  The default priority is 1.

   The Generation_Identifier (GenID) Option SHOULD be included in all
   Hello messages.  The GenID option contains a randomly generated
   32-bit value that is regenerated each time PIM forwarding is started
   or restarted on the interface, including when the router itself
   restarts.  When a Hello message with a new GenID is received from a
   neighbor, any old Hello information about that neighbor SHOULD be
   discarded and superseded by the information from the new Hello
   message.  This may cause a new DR to be chosen on that interface.

   The LAN Prune Delay Option SHOULD be included in all Hello messages
   sent on multi-access LANs.  This option advertises a router's
   capability to use values other than the defaults for the
   Propagation_Delay and Override_Interval, which affect the setting of
   the Prune-Pending, Upstream Join, and Override Timers (defined in
   Section 4.10).

   The Address List Option advertises all the secondary addresses
   associated with the source interface of the router originating the
   message.  The option MUST be included in all Hello messages if there
   are secondary addresses associated with the source interface and MAY
   be omitted if no secondary addresses exist.

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   To allow new or rebooting routers to learn of PIM neighbors quickly,
   when a Hello message is received from a new neighbor, or a Hello
   message with a new GenID is received from an existing neighbor, a new
   Hello message should be sent on this interface after a randomized
   delay between 0 and Triggered_Hello_Delay.  This triggered message
   need not change the timing of the scheduled periodic message.  If a
   router needs to send a Join/Prune to the new neighbor or send an
   Assert message in response to an Assert message from the new neighbor
   before this randomized delay has expired, then it MUST immediately
   send the relevant Hello message without waiting for the Hello Timer
   to expire, followed by the Join/Prune or Assert message.  If it does
   not do this, then the new neighbor will discard the Join/Prune or
   Assert message.

   Before an interface goes down or changes primary IP address, a Hello
   message with a zero HoldTime should be sent immediately (with the old
   IP address if the IP address changed).  This will cause PIM neighbors
   to remove this neighbor (or its old IP address) immediately.  After
   an interface has changed its IP address, it MUST send a Hello message
   with its new IP address.  If an interface changes one of its
   secondary IP addresses, a Hello message with an updated Address_List
   option and a non-zero HoldTime should be sent immediately.  This will
   cause PIM neighbors to update this neighbor's list of secondary
   addresses immediately.

4.3.2.  DR Election

   When a PIM Hello message is received on interface I, the following
   information about the sending neighbor is recorded:

     neighbor.interface
          The interface on which the Hello message arrived.

     neighbor.primary_ip_address
          The IP address that the PIM neighbor used as the source
          address of the Hello message.

     neighbor.genid
          The Generation ID of the PIM neighbor.

     neighbor.dr_priority
          The DR Priority field of the PIM neighbor, if it is present in
          the Hello message.

     neighbor.dr_priority_present
          A flag indicating if the DR Priority field was present in the
          Hello message.

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     neighbor.timeout
          A timer value to time out the neighbor state when it becomes
          stale, also known as the Neighbor Liveness Timer.

          The Neighbor Liveness Timer (NLT(N,I)) is reset to
          Hello_Holdtime (from the Hello Holdtime option) whenever a
          Hello message is received containing a Holdtime option, or to
          Default_Hello_Holdtime if the Hello message does not contain
          the Holdtime option.

          Neighbor state is deleted when the neighbor timeout expires.

   The function for computing the DR on interface I is:

     host
     DR(I) {
         dr = me
         for each neighbor on interface I {
             if ( dr_is_better( neighbor, dr, I ) == TRUE ) {
                 dr = neighbor
             }
         }
         return dr
     }

   The function used for comparing DR "metrics" on interface I is:

     bool
     dr_is_better(a,b,I) {
         if( there is a neighbor n on I for which n.dr_priority_present
                 is false ) {
             return a.primary_ip_address > b.primary_ip_address
         } else {
             return ( a.dr_priority > b.dr_priority ) OR
                    ( a.dr_priority == b.dr_priority AND
                      a.primary_ip_address > b.primary_ip_address )
         }
     }

   The trivial function I_am_DR(I) is defined to aid readability:

     bool
     I_am_DR(I) {
        return DR(I) == me
     }

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   The DR Priority is a 32-bit unsigned number, and the numerically
   larger priority is always preferred.  A router's idea of the current
   DR on an interface can change when a PIM Hello message is received,
   when a neighbor times out, or when a router's own DR Priority
   changes.  If the router becomes the DR or ceases to be the DR, this
   will normally cause the DR Register state machine to change state.
   Subsequent actions are determined by that state machine.

     We note that some PIM implementations do not send Hello messages on
     point-to-point interfaces and thus cannot perform DR election on
     such interfaces.  This is non-compliant behavior.  DR election MUST
     be performed on ALL active PIM-SM interfaces.

4.3.3.  Reducing Prune Propagation Delay on LANs

   In addition to the information recorded for the DR Election, the
   following per neighbor information is obtained from the LAN Prune
   Delay Hello option:

     neighbor.lan_prune_delay_present
          A flag indicating if the LAN Prune Delay option was present in
          the Hello message.

     neighbor.tracking_support
          A flag storing the value of the T bit in the LAN Prune Delay
          option if it is present in the Hello message.  This indicates
          the neighbor's capability to disable Join message suppression.

     neighbor.propagation_delay
          The Propagation Delay field of the LAN Prune Delay option (if
          present) in the Hello message.

     neighbor.override_interval
          The Override_Interval field of the LAN Prune Delay option (if
          present) in the Hello message.

   The additional state described above is deleted along with the DR
   neighbor state when the neighbor timeout expires.

   Just like the DR_Priority option, the information provided in the LAN
   Prune Delay option is not used unless all neighbors on a link
   advertise the option.  The function below computes this state:

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     bool
     lan_delay_enabled(I) {
         for each neighbor on interface I {
             if ( neighbor.lan_prune_delay_present == false ) {
                 return false
             }
         }
         return true
     }

   The Propagation Delay inserted by a router in the LAN Prune Delay
   option expresses the expected message propagation delay on the link
   and should be configurable by the system administrator.  It is used
   by upstream routers to figure out how long they should wait for a
   Join override message before pruning an interface.

   PIM implementers should enforce a lower bound on the permitted values
   for this delay to allow for scheduling and processing delays within
   their router.  Such delays may cause received messages to be
   processed later as well as triggered messages to be sent later than
   intended.  Setting this Propagation Delay to too low a value may
   result in temporary forwarding outages because a downstream router
   will not be able to override a neighbor's Prune message before the
   upstream neighbor stops forwarding.

   When all routers on a link are in a position to negotiate a
   Propagation Delay different from the default, the largest value from
   those advertised by each neighbor is chosen.  The function for
   computing the Effective_Propagation_Delay of interface I is:

     time_interval
     Effective_Propagation_Delay(I) {
         if ( lan_delay_enabled(I) == false ) {
             return Propagation_delay_default
         }
         delay = Propagation_Delay(I)
         for each neighbor on interface I {
             if ( neighbor.propagation_delay > delay ) {
                 delay = neighbor.propagation_delay
             }
         }
         return delay
     }

   To avoid synchronization of override messages when multiple
   downstream routers share a multi-access link, sending of such
   messages is delayed by a small random amount of time.  The period of
   randomization should represent the size of the PIM router population

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   on the link.  Each router expresses its view of the amount of
   randomization necessary in the Override Interval field of the LAN
   Prune Delay option.

   When all routers on a link are in a position to negotiate an Override
   Interval different from the default, the largest value from those
   advertised by each neighbor is chosen.  The function for computing
   the Effective Override Interval of interface I is:

     time_interval
     Effective_Override_Interval(I) {
         if ( lan_delay_enabled(I) == false ) {
             return t_override_default
         }
         delay = Override_Interval(I)
         for each neighbor on interface I {
             if ( neighbor.override_interval > delay ) {
                 delay = neighbor.override_interval
             }
         }
         return delay
     }

   Although the mechanisms are not specified in this document, it is
   possible for upstream routers to explicitly track the join membership
   of individual downstream routers if Join suppression is disabled.  A
   router can advertise its willingness to disable Join suppression by
   using the T bit in the LAN Prune Delay Hello option.  Unless all PIM
   routers on a link negotiate this capability, explicit tracking and
   the disabling of the Join suppression mechanism are not possible.
   The function for computing the state of Suppression on interface I
   is:

     bool
     Suppression_Enabled(I) {
         if ( lan_delay_enabled(I) == false ) {
             return true
         }
         for each neighbor on interface I {
             if ( neighbor.tracking_support == false ) {
                 return true
             }
         }
         return false
     }

   Note that the setting of Suppression_Enabled(I) affects the value of
   t_suppressed (see Section 4.10).

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4.3.4.  Maintaining Secondary Address Lists

   Communication of a router's interface secondary addresses to its PIM
   neighbors is necessary to provide the neighbors with a mechanism for
   mapping next_hop information obtained through their MRIB to a primary
   address that can be used as a destination for Join/Prune messages.
   The mapping is performed through the NBR macro.  The primary address
   of a PIM neighbor is obtained from the source IP address used in its
   PIM Hello messages.  Secondary addresses are carried within the Hello
   message in an Address List Hello option.  The primary address of the
   source interface of the router MUST NOT be listed within the Address
   List Hello option.

   In addition to the information recorded for the DR Election, the
   following per neighbor information is obtained from the Address List
   Hello option:

     neighbor.secondary_address_list
          The list of secondary addresses used by the PIM neighbor on
          the interface through which the Hello message was transmitted.

   When processing a received PIM Hello message containing an Address
   List Hello option, the list of secondary addresses in the message
   completely replaces any previously associated secondary addresses for
   that neighbor.  If a received PIM Hello message does not contain an
   Address List Hello option, then all secondary addresses associated
   with the neighbor must be deleted.  If a received PIM Hello message
   contains an Address List Hello option that includes the primary
   address of the sending router in the list of secondary addresses
   (although this is not expected), then the addresses listed in the
   message, excluding the primary address, are used to update the
   associated secondary addresses for that neighbor.

   All the advertised secondary addresses in received Hello messages
   must be checked against those previously advertised by all other PIM
   neighbors on that interface.  If there is a conflict and the same
   secondary address was previously advertised by another neighbor, then
   only the most recently received mapping MUST be maintained, and an
   error message SHOULD be logged to the administrator in a rate-limited
   manner.

   Within one Address List Hello option, all the addresses MUST be of
   the same address family.  It is not permitted to mix IPv4 and IPv6
   addresses within the same message.  In addition, the address family
   of the fields in the message SHOULD be the same as the IP source and
   destination addresses of the packet header.

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4.4.  PIM Register Messages

   The Designated Router (DR) on a LAN or point-to-point link
   encapsulates multicast packets from local sources to the RP for the
   relevant group unless it recently received a Register-Stop message
   for that (S,G) or (*,G) from the RP.  When the DR receives a
   Register-Stop message from the RP, it starts a Register-Stop Timer to
   maintain this state.  Just before the Register-Stop Timer expires,
   the DR sends a Null-Register Message to the RP to allow the RP to
   refresh the Register-Stop information at the DR.  If the Register-
   Stop Timer actually expires, the DR will resume encapsulating packets
   from the source to the RP.

4.4.1.  Sending Register Messages from the DR

   Every PIM-SM router has the capability to be a DR.  The state machine
   below is used to implement Register functionality.  For the purposes
   of specification, we represent the mechanism to encapsulate packets
   to the RP as a Register-Tunnel interface, which is added to or
   removed from the (S,G) olist.  The tunnel interface then takes part
   in the normal packet forwarding rules as specified in Section 4.2.

   If register state is maintained, it is maintained only for directly
   connected sources and is per-(S,G).  There are four states in the
   DR's per-(S,G) Register state machine:

   Join (J)
        The register tunnel is "joined" (the join is actually implicit,
        but the DR acts as if the RP has joined the DR on the tunnel
        interface).

   Prune (P)
        The register tunnel is "pruned" (this occurs when a Register-
        Stop is received).

   Join-Pending (JP)
        The register tunnel is pruned but the DR is contemplating adding
        it back.

   NoInfo (NI)
        No information.  This is the initial state, and the state when
        the router is not the DR.

   In addition, a Register-Stop Timer (RST) is kept if the state machine
   is not in the NoInfo state.

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   Figure 1: Per-(S,G) register state machine at a DR in tabular form

+----------++----------------------------------------------------------+
|          ||                          Event                           |
|          ++----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|Prev State||Register- | Could     | Could     | Register- | RP changed|
|          ||Stop Timer| Register  | Register  | Stop      |           |
|          ||expires   | ->True    | ->False   | received  |           |
+----------++----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|NoInfo    ||-         | -> J state| -         | -         | -         |
|(NI)      ||          | add reg   |           |           |           |
|          ||          | tunnel    |           |           |           |
+----------++----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|          ||-         | -         | -> NI     | -> P state| -> J state|
|          ||          |           | state     |           |           |
|          ||          |           | remove reg| remove reg| update reg|
|Join (J)  ||          |           | tunnel    | tunnel;   | tunnel    |
|          ||          |           |           | set       |           |
|          ||          |           |           | Register- |           |
|          ||          |           |           | Stop      |           |
|          ||          |           |           | Timer(*)  |           |
+----------++----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|          ||-> J state| -         | -> NI     | -> P state| -> J state|
|          ||          |           | state     |           |           |
|Join-     ||add reg   |           |           | set       | add reg   |
|Pending   ||tunnel    |           |           | Register- | tunnel;   |
|(JP)      ||          |           |           | Stop      | cancel    |
|          ||          |           |           | Timer(*)  | Register- |
|          ||          |           |           |           | Stop Timer|
+----------++----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|          ||-> JP     | -         | -> NI     | -         | -> J state|
|          ||state     |           | state     |           |           |
|          ||set       |           |           |           | add reg   |
|Prune (P) ||Register- |           |           |           | tunnel;   |
|          ||Stop      |           |           |           | cancel    |
|          ||Timer(**);|           |           |           | Register- |
|          ||send Null-|           |           |           | Stop Timer|
|          ||Register  |           |           |           |           |
+----------++----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

   Notes:

   (*)  The Register-Stop Timer is set to a random value chosen
        uniformly from the interval ( 0.5 * Register_Suppression_Time,
        1.5 * Register_Suppression_Time) minus Register_Probe_Time.

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        Subtracting off Register_Probe_Time is a bit unnecessary because
        it is really small compared to Register_Suppression_Time, but
        this was in the old spec and is kept for compatibility.

   (**) The Register-Stop Timer is set to Register_Probe_Time.

   The following three actions are defined:

   Add Register Tunnel

      A Register-Tunnel virtual interface, VI, is created (if it doesn't
      already exist) with its encapsulation target being RP(G).
      DownstreamJPState(S,G,VI) is set to Join state, causing the tunnel
      interface to be added to immediate_olist(S,G) and
      inherited_olist(S,G).

   Remove Register Tunnel

      VI is the Register-Tunnel virtual interface with encapsulation
      target of RP(G).  DownstreamJPState(S,G,VI) is set to NoInfo
      state, causing the tunnel interface to be removed from
      immediate_olist(S,G) and inherited_olist(S,G).  If
      DownstreamJPState(S,G,VI) is NoInfo for all (S,G), then VI can be
      deleted.

   Update Register Tunnel

      This action occurs when RP(G) changes.

      VI_old is the Register-Tunnel virtual interface with encapsulation
      target old_RP(G).  A Register-Tunnel virtual interface, VI_new, is
      created (if it doesn't already exist) with its encapsulation
      target being new_RP(G).  DownstreamJPState(S,G,VI_old) is set to
      NoInfo state and DownstreamJPState(S,G,VI_new) is set to Join
      state.  If DownstreamJPState(S,G,VI_old) is NoInfo for all (S,G),
      then VI_old can be deleted.

      Note that we cannot simply change the encapsulation target of
      VI_old because not all groups using that encapsulation tunnel will
      have moved to the same new RP.

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   CouldRegister(S,G)

      The macro "CouldRegister" in the state machine is defined as:

      bool CouldRegister(S,G) {
         return ( I_am_DR( RPF_interface(S) ) AND
                  KeepaliveTimer(S,G) is running AND
                  DirectlyConnected(S) == TRUE )
      }

      Note that on reception of a packet at the DR from a directly
      connected source, KeepaliveTimer(S,G) needs to be set by the
      packet forwarding rules before computing CouldRegister(S,G) in the
      register state machine, or the first packet from a source won't be
      registered.

   Encapsulating Data Packets in the Register Tunnel

      Conceptually, the Register Tunnel is an interface with a smaller
      MTU than the underlying IP interface towards the RP.  IP
      fragmentation on packets forwarded on the Register Tunnel is
      performed based upon this smaller MTU.  The encapsulating DR may
      perform Path MTU Discovery to the RP to determine the effective
      MTU of the tunnel.  Fragmentation for the smaller MTU should take
      both the outer IP header and the PIM register header overhead into
      account.  If a multicast packet is fragmented on the way into the
      Register Tunnel, each fragment is encapsulated individually so it
      contains IP, PIM, and inner IP headers.

      In IPv6, the DR MUST perform Path MTU discovery, and an ICMP
      Packet Too Big message MUST be sent by the encapsulating DR if it
      receives a packet that will not fit in the effective MTU of the
      tunnel.  If the MTU between the DR and the RP results in the
      effective tunnel MTU being smaller than 1280 (the IPv6 minimum
      MTU), the DR MUST send Fragmentation Required messages with an MTU
      value of 1280 and MUST fragment its PIM register messages as
      required, using an IPv6 fragmentation header between the outer
      IPv6 header and the PIM Register header.

      The TTL of a forwarded data packet is decremented before it is
      encapsulated in the Register Tunnel.  The encapsulating packet
      uses the normal TTL that the router would use for any locally-
      generated IP packet.

      The IP ECN bits should be copied from the original packet to the
      IP header of the encapsulating packet.  They SHOULD NOT be set
      independently by the encapsulating router.

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      The Diffserv Code Point (DSCP) should be copied from the original
      packet to the IP header of the encapsulating packet.  It MAY be
      set independently by the encapsulating router, based upon static
      configuration or traffic classification.  See [12] for more
      discussion on setting the DSCP on tunnels.

   Handling Register-Stop(*,G) Messages at the DR

      An old RP might send a Register-Stop message with the source
      address set to all zeros.  This was the normal course of action in
      RFC 2362 when the Register message matched against (*,G) state at
      the RP, and it was defined as meaning "stop encapsulating all
      sources for this group".  However, the behavior of such a
      Register-Stop(*,G) is ambiguous or incorrect in some
      circumstances.

      We specify that an RP should not send Register-Stop(*,G) messages,
      but for compatibility, a DR should be able to accept one if it is
      received.

      A Register-Stop(*,G) should be treated as a Register-Stop(S,G) for
      all (S,G) Register state machines that are not in the NoInfo
      state.  A router should not apply a Register-Stop(*,G) to sources
      that become active after the Register-Stop(*,G) was received.

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4.4.2.  Receiving Register Messages at the RP

   When an RP receives a Register message, the course of action is
   decided according to the following pseudocode:

   packet_arrives_on_rp_tunnel( pkt ) {
       if( outer.dst is not one of my addresses ) {
           drop the packet silently.
           # Note: this may be a spoofing attempt
       }
       if( I_am_RP(G) AND outer.dst == RP(G) ) {
             sentRegisterStop = FALSE;
             if ( register.borderbit == TRUE ) {
                  if ( PMBR(S,G) == unknown ) {
                       PMBR(S,G) = outer.src
                  } else if ( outer.src != PMBR(S,G) ) {
                       send Register-Stop(S,G) to outer.src
                       drop the packet silently.
                  }
             }
             if ( SPTbit(S,G) OR
              ( SwitchToSptDesired(S,G) AND
                ( inherited_olist(S,G) == NULL ))) {
               send Register-Stop(S,G) to outer.src
               sentRegisterStop = TRUE;
             }
             if ( SPTbit(S,G) OR SwitchToSptDesired(S,G) ) {
                  if ( sentRegisterStop == TRUE ) {
                       set KeepaliveTimer(S,G) to RP_Keepalive_Period;
                  } else {
                       set KeepaliveTimer(S,G) to Keepalive_Period;
                  }
             }
             if( !SPTbit(S,G) AND ! pkt.NullRegisterBit ) {
                  decapsulate and forward the inner packet to
                  inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) # Note (+)
             }
       } else {
           send Register-Stop(S,G) to outer.src
           # Note (*)
       }
   }

   outer.dst is the IP destination address of the encapsulating header.

   outer.src is the IP source address of the encapsulating header, i.e.,
   the DR's address.

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   I_am_RP(G) is true if the group-to-RP mapping indicates that this
   router is the RP for the group.

   Note (*): This may block traffic from S for Register_Suppression_Time
      if the DR learned about a new group-to-RP mapping before the RP
      did.  However, this doesn't matter unless we figure out some way
      for the RP also to accept (*,G) joins when it doesn't yet realize
      that it is about to become the RP for G.  This will all get sorted
      out once the RP learns the new group-to-rp mapping.  We decided to
      do nothing about this and just accept the fact that PIM may suffer
      interrupted (*,G) connectivity following an RP change.

   Note (+): Implementations are advised not to make this a special
      case, but to arrange that this path rejoin the normal packet
      forwarding path.  All of the appropriate actions from the "On
      receipt of data from S to G on interface iif" pseudocode in
      Section 4.2 should be performed.

   KeepaliveTimer(S,G) is restarted at the RP when packets arrive on the
   proper tunnel interface and the RP desires to switch to the SPT or
   the SPTbit is already set.  This may cause the upstream (S,G) state
   machine to trigger a join if the inherited_olist(S,G) is not NULL.

   An RP should preserve (S,G) state that was created in response to a
   Register message for at least ( 3 * Register_Suppression_Time );
   otherwise, the RP may stop joining (S,G) before the DR for S has
   restarted sending registers.  Traffic would then be interrupted until
   the Register-Stop Timer expires at the DR.

   Thus, at the RP, KeepaliveTimer(S,G) should be restarted to ( 3 *
   Register_Suppression_Time + Register_Probe_Time ).

   When forwarding a packet from the Register Tunnel, the TTL of the
   original data packet is decremented after it is decapsulated.

   The IP ECN bits should be copied from the IP header of the Register
   packet to the decapsulated packet.

   The Diffserv Code Point (DSCP) should be copied from the IP header of
   the Register packet to the decapsulated packet.  The RP MAY retain
   the DSCP of the inner packet or re-classify the packet and apply a
   different DSCP.  Scenarios where each of these might be useful are
   discussed in [12].

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4.5.  PIM Join/Prune Messages

   A PIM Join/Prune message consists of a list of groups and a list of
   Joined and Pruned sources for each group.  When processing a received
   Join/Prune message, each Joined or Pruned source for a Group is
   effectively considered individually, and applies to one or more of
   the following state machines.  When considering a Join/Prune message
   whose Upstream Neighbor Address field addresses this router, (*,G)
   Joins and Prunes can affect both the (*,G) and (S,G,rpt) downstream
   state machines, while (*,*,RP), (S,G), and (S,G,rpt) Joins and Prunes
   can only affect their respective downstream state machines.  When
   considering a Join/Prune message whose Upstream Neighbor Address
   field addresses another router, most Join or Prune messages could
   affect each upstream state machine.

   In general, a PIM Join/Prune message should only be accepted for
   processing if it comes from a known PIM neighbor.  A PIM router hears
   about PIM neighbors through PIM Hello messages.  If a router receives
   a Join/Prune message from a particular IP source address and it has
   not seen a PIM Hello message from that source address, then the
   Join/Prune message SHOULD be discarded without further processing.
   In addition, if the Hello message from a neighbor was authenticated
   using IPsec AH (see Section 6.3), then all Join/Prune messages from
   that neighbor MUST also be authenticated using IPsec AH.

   We note that some older PIM implementations incorrectly fail to send
   Hello messages on point-to-point interfaces, so we also RECOMMEND
   that a configuration option be provided to allow interoperation with
   such older routers, but that this configuration option SHOULD NOT be
   enabled by default.

4.5.1.  Receiving (*,*,RP) Join/Prune Messages

   The per-interface state machine for receiving (*,*,RP) Join/Prune
   Messages is given below.  There are three states:

     NoInfo (NI)
          The interface has no (*,*,RP) Join state and no timers
          running.

     Join (J)
          The interface has (*,*,RP) Join state, which will cause the
          router to forward packets destined for any group handled by RP
          from this interface except if there is also (S,G,rpt) prune
          information (see Section 4.5.4) or the router lost an assert
          on this interface.

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     Prune-Pending (PP)
          The router has received a Prune(*,*,RP) on this interface from
          a downstream neighbor and is waiting to see whether the prune
          will be overridden by another downstream router.  For
          forwarding purposes, the Prune-Pending state functions exactly
          like the Join state.

   In addition, the state machine uses two timers:

     ExpiryTimer (ET)
          This timer is restarted when a valid Join(*,*,RP) is received.
          Expiry of the ExpiryTimer causes the interface state to revert
          to NoInfo for this RP.

     Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(*,*,RP) is received.
          Expiry of the Prune-Pending Timer causes the interface state
          to revert to NoInfo for this RP.

       Figure 2: Downstream per-interface (*,*,RP) state machine
                            in tabular form

+------------++--------------------------------------------------------+
|            ||                          Event                         |
|            ++-------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+
|Prev State  ||Receive      | Receive     | Prune-       | Expiry Timer|
|            ||Join(*,*,RP) | Prune       | Pending      | Expires     |
|            ||             | (*,*,RP)    | Timer        |             |
|            ||             |             | Expires      |             |
+------------++-------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+
|            ||-> J state   | -> NI state | -            | -           |
|NoInfo (NI) ||start Expiry |             |              |             |
|            ||Timer        |             |              |             |
+------------++-------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+
|            ||-> J state   | -> PP state | -            | -> NI state |
|Join (J)    ||restart      | start Prune-|              |             |
|            ||Expiry Timer | Pending     |              |             |
|            ||             | Timer       |              |             |
+------------++-------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+
|Prune-      ||-> J state   | -> PP state | -> NI state  | -> NI state |
|Pending (PP)||restart      |             | Send Prune-  |             |
|            ||Expiry Timer |             | Echo(*,*,RP) |             |
+------------++-------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+

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   The transition events "Receive Join(*,*,RP)" and "Receive
   Prune(*,*,RP)" imply receiving a Join or Prune targeted to this
   router's primary IP address on the received interface.  If the
   upstream neighbor address field is not correct, these state
   transitions in this state machine must not occur, although seeing
   such a packet may cause state transitions in other state machines.

   On unnumbered interfaces on point-to-point links, the router's
   address should be the same as the source address it chose for the
   Hello message it sent over that interface.  However, on point-to-
   point links we also recommend that for backwards compatibility PIM
   Join/Prune messages with an upstream neighbor address field of all
   zeros are also accepted.

   Transitions from NoInfo State

   When in NoInfo state, the following event may trigger a transition:

     Receive Join(*,*,RP)
          A Join(*,*,RP) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the Join state.  The Expiry Timer (ET) is
          started and set to the HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune
          message.

          Note that it is possible to receive a Join(*,*,RP) message for
          an RP for which we do not have information telling us that it
          is an RP.  In the case of (*,*,RP) state, so long as we have a
          route to the RP, this will not cause a problem, and the
          transition should still take place.

   Transitions from Join State

   When in Join state, the following events may trigger a transition:

     Receive Join(*,*,RP)
          A Join(*,*,RP) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on interface I remains
          in Join state, and the Expiry Timer (ET) is restarted, set to
          maximum of its current value and the HoldTime from the
          triggering Join/Prune message.

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     Receive Prune(*,*,RP)
          A Prune(*,*,RP) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the Prune-Pending state.  The Prune-Pending
          Timer is started.  It is set to the J/P_Override_Interval(I)
          if the router has more than one neighbor on that interface;
          otherwise, it is set to zero, causing it to expire
          immediately.

     Expiry Timer Expires
          The Expiry Timer for the (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on
          interface I expires.

          The (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the NoInfo state.

   Transitions from Prune-Pending State

   When in Prune-Pending state, the following events may trigger a
   transition:

     Receive Join(*,*,RP)
          A Join(*,*,RP) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the Join state.  The Prune-Pending Timer is
          canceled (without triggering an expiry event).  The Expiry
          Timer is restarted, set to maximum of its current value and
          the HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune message.

     Expiry Timer Expires
          The Expiry Timer for the (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on
          interface I expires.

          The (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the NoInfo state.

     Prune-Pending Timer Expires
          The Prune-Pending Timer for the (*,*,RP) downstream state
          machine on interface I expires.

          The (*,*,RP) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the NoInfo state.  A PruneEcho(*,*,RP) is sent
          onto the subnet connected to interface I.

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          The action "Send PruneEcho(*,*,RP)" is triggered when the
          router stops forwarding on an interface as a result of a
          prune.  A PruneEcho(*,*,RP) is simply a Prune(*,*,RP) message
          sent by the upstream router on a LAN with its own address in
          the Upstream Neighbor Address field.  Its purpose is to add
          additional reliability so that if a Prune that should have
          been overridden by another router is lost locally on the LAN,
          then the PruneEcho may be received and cause the override to
          happen.  A PruneEcho(*,*,RP) need not be sent on an interface
          that contains only a single PIM neighbor during the time this
          state machine was in Prune-Pending state.

4.5.2.  Receiving (*,G) Join/Prune Messages

   When a router receives a Join(*,G), it must first check to see
   whether the RP in the message matches RP(G) (the router's idea of who
   the RP is).  If the RP in the message does not match RP(G), the
   Join(*,G) should be silently dropped.  (Note that other source list
   entries, such as (S,G,rpt) or (S,G), in the same Group-Specific Set
   should still be processed.)  If a router has no RP information (e.g.,
   has not recently received a BSR message), then it may choose to
   accept Join(*,G) and treat the RP in the message as RP(G).  Received
   Prune(*,G) messages are processed even if the RP in the message does
   not match RP(G).

   The per-interface state machine for receiving (*,G) Join/Prune
   Messages is given below.  There are three states:

     NoInfo (NI)
          The interface has no (*,G) Join state and no timers running.

     Join (J)
          The interface has (*,G) Join state, which will cause the
          router to forward packets destined for G from this interface
          except if there is also (S,G,rpt) prune information (see
          Section 4.5.4) or the router lost an assert on this interface.

     Prune-Pending (PP)
          The router has received a Prune(*,G) on this interface from a
          downstream neighbor and is waiting to see whether the prune
          will be overridden by another downstream router.  For
          forwarding purposes, the Prune-Pending state functions exactly
          like the Join state.

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   In addition, the state machine uses two timers:

     Expiry Timer (ET)
          This timer is restarted when a valid Join(*,G) is received.
          Expiry of the Expiry Timer causes the interface state to
          revert to NoInfo for this group.

     Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(*,G) is received.  Expiry
          of the Prune-Pending Timer causes the interface state to
          revert to NoInfo for this group.

 Figure 3: Downstream per-interface (*,G) state machine in tabular form

+------------++--------------------------------------------------------+
|            ||                         Event                          |
|            ++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|Prev State  ||Receive      | Receive      | Prune-      | Expiry Timer|
|            ||Join(*,G)    | Prune(*,G)   | Pending     | Expires     |
|            ||             |              | Timer       |             |
|            ||             |              | Expires     |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|            ||-> J state   | -> NI state  | -           | -           |
|NoInfo (NI) ||start Expiry |              |             |             |
|            ||Timer        |              |             |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|            ||-> J state   | -> PP state  | -           | -> NI state |
|Join (J)    ||restart      | start Prune- |             |             |
|            ||Expiry Timer | Pending      |             |             |
|            ||             | Timer        |             |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|Prune-      ||-> J state   | -> PP state  | -> NI state | -> NI state |
|Pending (PP)||restart      |              | Send Prune- |             |
|            ||Expiry Timer |              | Echo(*,G)   |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+

   The transition events "Receive Join(*,G)" and "Receive Prune(*,G)"
   imply receiving a Join or Prune targeted to this router's primary IP
   address on the received interface.  If the upstream neighbor address
   field is not correct, these state transitions in this state machine
   must not occur, although seeing such a packet may cause state
   transitions in other state machines.

   On unnumbered interfaces on point-to-point links, the router's
   address should be the same as the source address it chose for the
   Hello message it sent over that interface.  However, on point-to-

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   point links we also recommend that for backwards compatibility PIM
   Join/Prune messages with an upstream neighbor address field of all
   zeros are also accepted.

   Transitions from NoInfo State

   When in NoInfo state, the following event may trigger a transition:

     Receive Join(*,G)
          A Join(*,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the Join state.  The Expiry Timer (ET) is started and set
          to the HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune message.

   Transitions from Join State

   When in Join state, the following events may trigger a transition:

     Receive Join(*,G)
          A Join(*,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,G) downstream state machine on interface I remains in
          Join state, and the Expiry Timer (ET) is restarted, set to
          maximum of its current value and the HoldTime from the
          triggering Join/Prune message.

     Receive Prune(*,G)
          A Prune(*,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the Prune-Pending state.  The Prune-Pending Timer is
          started.  It is set to the J/P_Override_Interval(I) if the
          router has more than one neighbor on that interface;
          otherwise, it is set to zero, causing it to expire
          immediately.

     Expiry Timer Expires
          The Expiry Timer for the (*,G) downstream state machine on
          interface I expires.

          The (*,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the NoInfo state.

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   Transitions from Prune-Pending State

   When in Prune-Pending state, the following events may trigger a
   transition:

     Receive Join(*,G)
          A Join(*,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (*,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the Join state.  The Prune-Pending Timer is canceled
          (without triggering an expiry event).  The Expiry Timer is
          restarted, set to maximum of its current value and the
          HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune message.

     Expiry Timer Expires
          The Expiry Timer for the (*,G) downstream state machine on
          interface I expires.

          The (*,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the NoInfo state.

     Prune-Pending Timer Expires
          The Prune-Pending Timer for the (*,G) downstream state machine
          on interface I expires.

          The (*,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the NoInfo state.  A PruneEcho(*,G) is sent onto the subnet
          connected to interface I.

          The action "Send PruneEcho(*,G)" is triggered when the router
          stops forwarding on an interface as a result of a prune.  A
          PruneEcho(*,G) is simply a Prune(*,G) message sent by the
          upstream router on a LAN with its own address in the Upstream
          Neighbor Address field.  Its purpose is to add additional
          reliability so that if a Prune that should have been
          overridden by another router is lost locally on the LAN, then
          the PruneEcho may be received and cause the override to
          happen.  A PruneEcho(*,G) need not be sent on an interface
          that contains only a single PIM neighbor during the time this
          state machine was in Prune-Pending state.

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4.5.3.  Receiving (S,G) Join/Prune Messages

   The per-interface state machine for receiving (S,G) Join/Prune
   messages is given below and is almost identical to that for (*,G)
   messages.  There are three states:

     NoInfo (NI)
          The interface has no (S,G) Join state and no (S,G) timers
          running.

     Join (J)
          The interface has (S,G) Join state, which will cause the
          router to forward packets from S destined for G from this
          interface if the (S,G) state is active (the SPTbit is set)
          except if the router lost an assert on this interface.

     Prune-Pending (PP)
          The router has received a Prune(S,G) on this interface from a
          downstream neighbor and is waiting to see whether the prune
          will be overridden by another downstream router.  For
          forwarding purposes, the Prune-Pending state functions exactly
          like the Join state.

   In addition, there are two timers:

     Expiry Timer (ET)
          This timer is set when a valid Join(S,G) is received.  Expiry
          of the Expiry Timer causes this state machine to revert to
          NoInfo state.

     Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(S,G) is received.  Expiry
          of the Prune-Pending Timer causes this state machine to revert
          to NoInfo state.

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 Figure 4: Downstream per-interface (S,G) state machine in tabular form

+------------++--------------------------------------------------------+
|            ||                         Event                          |
|            ++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|Prev State  ||Receive      | Receive      | Prune-      | Expiry Timer|
|            ||Join(S,G)    | Prune(S,G)   | Pending     | Expires     |
|            ||             |              | Timer       |             |
|            ||             |              | Expires     |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|            ||-> J state   | -> NI state  | -           | -           |
|NoInfo (NI) ||start Expiry |              |             |             |
|            ||Timer        |              |             |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|            ||-> J state   | -> PP state  | -           | -> NI state |
|Join (J)    ||restart      | start Prune- |             |             |
|            ||Expiry Timer | Pending      |             |             |
|            ||             | Timer        |             |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+
|Prune-      ||-> J state   | -> PP state  | -> NI state | -> NI state |
|Pending (PP)||restart      |              | Send Prune- |             |
|            ||Expiry Timer |              | Echo(S,G)   |             |
+------------++-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+

   The transition events "Receive Join(S,G)" and "Receive Prune(S,G)"
   imply receiving a Join or Prune targeted to this router's primary IP
   address on the received interface.  If the upstream neighbor address
   field is not correct, these state transitions in this state machine
   must not occur, although seeing such a packet may cause state
   transitions in other state machines.

   On unnumbered interfaces on point-to-point links, the router's
   address should be the same as the source address it chose for the
   Hello message it sent over that interface.  However, on point-to-
   point links we also recommend that for backwards compatibility PIM
   Join/Prune messages with an upstream neighbor address field of all
   zeros are also accepted.

   Transitions from NoInfo State

   When in NoInfo state, the following event may trigger a transition:

     Receive Join(S,G)
          A Join(S,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

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          The (S,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the Join state.  The Expiry Timer (ET) is started and set
          to the HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune message.

   Transitions from Join State

   When in Join state, the following events may trigger a transition:

     Receive Join(S,G)
          A Join(S,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G) downstream state machine on interface I remains in
          Join state, and the Expiry Timer (ET) is restarted, set to
          maximum of its current value and the HoldTime from the
          triggering Join/Prune message.

     Receive Prune(S,G)
          A Prune(S,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the Prune-Pending state.  The Prune-Pending Timer is
          started.  It is set to the J/P_Override_Interval(I) if the
          router has more than one neighbor on that interface;
          otherwise, it is set to zero, causing it to expire
          immediately.

     Expiry Timer Expires
          The Expiry Timer for the (S,G) downstream state machine on
          interface I expires.

          The (S,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the NoInfo state.

   Transitions from Prune-Pending State

   When in Prune-Pending state, the following events may trigger a
   transition:

     Receive Join(S,G)
          A Join(S,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

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          The (S,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the Join state.  The Prune-Pending Timer is canceled
          (without triggering an expiry event).  The Expiry Timer is
          restarted, set to maximum of its current value and the
          HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune message.

     Expiry Timer Expires
          The Expiry Timer for the (S,G) downstream state machine on
          interface I expires.

          The (S,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the NoInfo state.

     Prune-Pending Timer Expires
          The Prune-Pending Timer for the (S,G) downstream state machine
          on interface I expires.

          The (S,G) downstream state machine on interface I transitions
          to the NoInfo state.  A PruneEcho(S,G) is sent onto the subnet
          connected to interface I.

          The action "Send PruneEcho(S,G)" is triggered when the router
          stops forwarding on an interface as a result of a prune.  A
          PruneEcho(S,G) is simply a Prune(S,G) message sent by the
          upstream router on a LAN with its own address in the Upstream
          Neighbor Address field.  Its purpose is to add additional
          reliability so that if a Prune that should have been
          overridden by another router is lost locally on the LAN, then
          the PruneEcho may be received and cause the override to
          happen.  A PruneEcho(S,G) need not be sent on an interface
          that contains only a single PIM neighbor during the time this
          state machine was in Prune-Pending state.

4.5.4.  Receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune Messages

   The per-interface state machine for receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune
   messages is given below.  There are five states:

     NoInfo (NI)
          The interface has no (S,G,rpt) Prune state and no (S,G,rpt)
          timers running.

     Prune (P)
          The interface has (S,G,rpt) Prune state, which will cause the
          router not to forward packets from S destined for G from this
          interface even though the interface has active (*,G) Join
          state.

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     Prune-Pending (PP)
          The router has received a Prune(S,G,rpt) on this interface
          from a downstream neighbor and is waiting to see whether the
          prune will be overridden by another downstream router.  For
          forwarding purposes, the Prune-Pending state functions exactly
          like the NoInfo state.

     PruneTmp (P')
          This state is a transient state that for forwarding purposes
          behaves exactly like the Prune state.  A (*,G) Join has been
          received (which may cancel the (S,G,rpt) Prune).  As we parse
          the Join/Prune message from top to bottom, we first enter this
          state if the message contains a (*,G) Join.  Later in the
          message, we will normally encounter an (S,G,rpt) prune to
          reinstate the Prune state.  However, if we reach the end of
          the message without encountering such a (S,G,rpt) prune, then
          we will revert to NoInfo state in this state machine.

          As no time is spent in this state, no timers can expire.

     Prune-Pending-Tmp (PP')
          This state is a transient state that is identical to P' except
          that it is associated with the PP state rather than the P
          state.  For forwarding purposes, PP' behaves exactly like PP
          state.

   In addition, there are two timers:

     Expiry Timer (ET)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(S,G,rpt) is received.
          Expiry of the Expiry Timer causes this state machine to revert
          to NoInfo state.

     Prune-Pending Timer (PPT)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(S,G,rpt) is received.
          Expiry of the Prune-Pending Timer causes this state machine to
          move on to Prune state.

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      Figure 5: Downstream per-interface (S,G,rpt) state machine
                            in tabular form

+----------++----------------------------------------------------------+
|          ||                          Event                           |
|          ++---------+----------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
|Prev      ||Receive  | Receive  | Receive  | End of | Prune- | Expiry |
|State     ||Join(*,G)| Join     | Prune    | Message| Pending| Timer  |
|          ||         | (S,G,rpt)| (S,G,rpt)|        | Timer  | Expires|
|          ||         |          |          |        | Expires|        |
+----------++---------+----------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
|          ||-        | -        | -> PP    | -      | -      | -      |
|          ||         |          | state    |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | start    |        |        |        |
|NoInfo    ||         |          | Prune-   |        |        |        |
|(NI)      ||         |          | Pending  |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Timer;   |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | start    |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Expiry   |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Timer    |        |        |        |
+----------++---------+----------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
|          ||-> P'    | -> NI    | -> P     | -      | -      | -> NI  |
|          ||state    | state    | state    |        |        | state  |
|Prune (P) ||         |          | restart  |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Expiry   |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Timer    |        |        |        |
+----------++---------+----------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
|Prune-    ||-> PP'   | -> NI    | -        | -      | -> P   | -      |
|Pending   ||state    | state    |          |        | state  |        |
|(PP)      ||         |          |          |        |        |        |
+----------++---------+----------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
|          ||-        | -        | -> P     | -> NI  | -      | -      |
|PruneTmp  ||         |          | state    | state  |        |        |
|(P')      ||         |          | restart  |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Expiry   |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Timer    |        |        |        |
+----------++---------+----------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
|          ||-        | -        | -> PP    | -> NI  | -      | -      |
|Prune-    ||         |          | state    | state  |        |        |
|Pending-  ||         |          | restart  |        |        |        |
|Tmp (PP') ||         |          | Expiry   |        |        |        |
|          ||         |          | Timer    |        |        |        |
+----------++---------+----------+----------+--------+--------+--------+

   The transition events "Receive Join(S,G,rpt)", "Receive
   Prune(S,G,rpt)", and "Receive Join(*,G)" imply receiving a Join or
   Prune targeted to this router's primary IP address on the received
   interface.  If the upstream neighbor address field is not correct,

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   these state transitions in this state machine must not occur,
   although seeing such a packet may cause state transitions in other
   state machines.

   On unnumbered interfaces on point-to-point links, the router's
   address should be the same as the source address it chose for the
   Hello message it sent over that interface.  However, on point-to-
   point links we also recommend that PIM Join/Prune messages with an
   upstream neighbor address field of all zeros are also accepted.

   Transitions from NoInfo State

   When in NoInfo (NI) state, the following event may trigger a
   transition:

     Receive Prune(S,G,rpt)
          A Prune(S,G,rpt) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the Prune-Pending state.  The Expiry Timer (ET)
          is started and set to the HoldTime from the triggering
          Join/Prune message.  The Prune-Pending Timer is started.  It
          is set to the J/P_Override_Interval(I) if the router has more
          than one neighbor on that interface; otherwise, it is set to
          zero, causing it to expire immediately.

   Transitions from Prune-Pending State

   When in Prune-Pending (PP) state, the following events may trigger a
   transition:

     Receive Join(*,G)
          A Join(*,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to Prune-Pending-Tmp state whilst the remainder of
          the compound Join/Prune message containing the Join(*,G) is
          processed.

     Receive Join(S,G,rpt)
          A Join(S,G,rpt) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to NoInfo state.  ET and PPT are canceled.

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     Prune-Pending Timer Expires
          The Prune-Pending Timer for the (S,G,rpt) downstream state
          machine on interface I expires.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the Prune state.

   Transitions from Prune State

   When in Prune (P) state, the following events may trigger a
   transition:

     Receive Join(*,G)
          A Join(*,G) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to PruneTmp state whilst the remainder of the
          compound Join/Prune message containing the Join(*,G) is
          processed.

     Receive Join(S,G,rpt)
          A Join(S,G,rpt) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to NoInfo state.  ET and PPT are canceled.

     Receive Prune(S,G,rpt)
          A Prune(S,G,rpt) is received on interface I with its Upstream
          Neighbor Address set to the router's primary IP address on I.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I remains
          in Prune state.  The Expiry Timer (ET) is restarted, set to
          maximum of its current value and the HoldTime from the
          triggering Join/Prune message.

     Expiry Timer Expires
          The Expiry Timer for the (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on
          interface I expires.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the NoInfo state.

   Transitions from Prune-Pending-Tmp State

   When in Prune-Pending-Tmp (PP') state and processing a compound
   Join/Prune message, the following events may trigger a transition:

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     Receive Prune(S,G,rpt)
          The compound Join/Prune message contains a Prune(S,G,rpt).

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions back to the Prune-Pending state.  The Expiry Timer
          (ET) is restarted, set to maximum of its current value and the
          HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune message.

     End of Message
          The end of the compound Join/Prune message is reached.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the NoInfo state.  ET and PPT are canceled.

   Transitions from PruneTmp State

   When in PruneTmp (P') state and processing a compound Join/Prune
   message, the following events may trigger a transition:

     Receive Prune(S,G,rpt)
          The compound Join/Prune message contains a Prune(S,G,rpt).

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions back to the Prune state.  The Expiry Timer (ET) is
          restarted, set to maximum of its current value and the
          HoldTime from the triggering Join/Prune message.

     End of Message
          The end of the compound Join/Prune message is reached.

          The (S,G,rpt) downstream state machine on interface I
          transitions to the NoInfo state.  ET is canceled.

   Notes:

   Receiving a Prune(*,G) does not affect the (S,G,rpt) downstream state
   machine.

   Receiving a Join(*,*,RP) does not affect the (S,G,rpt) downstream
   state machine.  If a router has originated Join(*,*,RP) and pruned a
   source off it using Prune(S,G,rpt), then to receive that source again
   it should explicitly re-join using Join(S,G,rpt) or Join(*,G).  In
   some LAN topologies it is possible for a router sending a new
   Join(*,*,RP) to have to wait as much as a Join/Prune Interval before
   noticing that it needs to override a neighbor's preexisting
   Prune(S,G,rpt).  This is considered acceptable, as (*,*,RP) state is
   intended to be used only in long-lived and persistent scenarios.

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4.5.5.  Sending (*,*,RP) Join/Prune Messages

   The per-interface state machines for (*,*,RP) hold join state from
   downstream PIM routers.  This state then determines whether a router
   needs to propagate a Join(*,*,RP) upstream towards the RP.

   If a router wishes to propagate a Join(*,*,RP) upstream, it must also
   watch for messages on its upstream interface from other routers on
   that subnet, and these may modify its behavior.  If it sees a
   Join(*,*,RP) to the correct upstream neighbor, it should suppress its
   own Join(*,*,RP).  If it sees a Prune(*,*,RP) to the correct upstream
   neighbor, it should be prepared to override that prune by sending a
   Join(*,*,RP) almost immediately.  Finally, if it sees the Generation
   ID (see Section 4.3) of the correct upstream neighbor change, it
   knows that the upstream neighbor has lost state, and it should be
   prepared to refresh the state by sending a Join(*,*,RP) almost
   immediately.

   In addition, if the MRIB changes to indicate that the next hop
   towards the RP has changed, the router should prune off from the old
   next hop and join towards the new next hop.

   The upstream (*,*,RP) state machine contains only two states:

   Not Joined
      The downstream state machines and local membership information do
      not indicate that the router needs to join the (*,*,RP) tree for
      this RP.

   Joined
      The downstream state machines and local membership information
      indicate that the router should join the (*,*,RP) tree for this
      RP.

   In addition, one timer JT(*,*,RP) is kept that is used to trigger the
   sending of a Join(*,*,RP) to the upstream next hop towards the RP,
   NBR(RPF_interface(RP), MRIB.next_hop(RP)).

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       Figure 6: Upstream (*,*,RP) state machine in tabular form

+-------------------++-------------------------------------------------+
|                   ||                      Event                      |
|  Prev State       ++-------------------------+-----------------------+
|                   ||   JoinDesired           |    JoinDesired        |
|                   ||   (*,*,RP) ->True       |    (*,*,RP) ->False   |
+-------------------++-------------------------+-----------------------+
|                   ||   -> J state            |    -                  |
|  NotJoined (NJ)   ||   Send Join(*,*,RP);    |                       |
|                   ||   Set Join Timer to     |                       |
|                   ||   t_periodic            |                       |
+-------------------++-------------------------+-----------------------+
|  Joined (J)       ||   -                     |    -> NJ state        |
|                   ||                         |    Send Prune         |
|                   ||                         |    (*,*,RP); Cancel   |
|                   ||                         |    Join Timer         |
+-------------------++-------------------------+-----------------------+

   In addition, we have the following transitions, which occur within
   the Joined state:

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                         In Joined (J) State                          |
+-------------------+--------------------+-----------------------------+
| Timer Expires     |  See               |   See                       |
|                   |  Join(*,*,RP)      |   Prune(*,*,RP)             |
|                   |  to MRIB.          |   to MRIB.                  |
|                   |  next_hop(RP)      |   next_hop(RP)              |
+-------------------+--------------------+-----------------------------+
| Send              |  Increase Join     |   Decrease Join             |
| Join(*,*,RP);     |  Timer to          |   Timer to                  |
| Set Join Timer    |  t_joinsuppress    |   t_override                |
| to t_periodic     |                    |                             |
+-------------------+--------------------+-----------------------------+

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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                         In Joined (J) State                          |
+-----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
|    NBR(RPF_interface(RP),         |       MRIB.next_hop(RP) GenID    |
|    MRIB.next_hop(RP))             |       changes                    |
|    changes                        |                                  |
+-----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
|    Send Join(*,*,RP) to new       |       Decrease Join Timer to     |
|    next hop; Send                 |       t_override                 |
|    Prune(*,*,RP) to old           |                                  |
|    next hop; set Join Timer       |                                  |
|    to t_periodic                  |                                  |
+-----------------------------------+----------------------------------+

   This state machine uses the following macro:

     bool JoinDesired(*,*,RP) {
        if immediate_olist(*,*,RP) != NULL
            return TRUE
        else
            return FALSE
     }

   JoinDesired(*,*,RP) is true when the router has received (*,*,RP)
   Joins from any downstream interface.  Note that although JoinDesired
   is true, the router's sending of a Join(*,*,RP) message may be
   suppressed by another router sending a Join(*,*,RP) onto the upstream
   interface.

   Transitions from NotJoined State

   When the upstream (*,*,RP) state machine is in NotJoined state, the
   following event may trigger a state transition:

     JoinDesired(*,*,RP) becomes True
          The downstream state for (*,*,RP) has changed so that at least
          one interface is in immediate_olist(*,*,RP), making
          JoinDesired(*,*,RP) become True.

          The upstream (*,*,RP) state machine transitions to Joined
          state.  Send Join(*,*,RP) to the appropriate upstream
          neighbor, which is NBR(RPF_interface(RP), MRIB.next_hop(RP)).
          Set the Join Timer (JT) to expire after t_periodic seconds.

   Transitions from Joined State

   When the upstream (*,*,RP) state machine is in Joined state, the
   following events may trigger state transitions:

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     JoinDesired(*,*,RP) becomes False
          The downstream state for (*,*,RP) has changed so no interface
          is in immediate_olist(*,*,RP), making JoinDesired(*,*,RP)
          become False.

          The upstream (*,*,RP) state machine transitions to NotJoined
          state.  Send Prune(*,*,RP) to the appropriate upstream
          neighbor, which is NBR(RPF_interface(RP), MRIB.next_hop(RP)).
          Cancel the Join Timer (JT).

     Join Timer Expires
          The Join Timer (JT) expires, indicating time to send a
          Join(*,*,RP)

          Send Join(*,*,RP) to the appropriate upstream neighbor, which
          is NBR(RPF_interface(RP), MRIB.next_hop(RP)).  Restart the
          Join Timer (JT) to expire after t_periodic seconds.

     See Join(*,*,RP) to MRIB.next_hop(RP)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(RP) is a shared
          medium.  This router sees another router on RPF_interface(RP)
          send a Join(*,*,RP) to NBR(RPF_interface(RP),
          MRIB.next_hop(RP)).  This causes this router to suppress its
          own Join.

          The upstream (*,*,RP) state machine remains in Joined state.

          Let t_joinsuppress be the minimum of t_suppressed and the
          HoldTime from the Join/Prune message triggering this event.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in less than t_joinsuppress
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_joinsuppress
          seconds.  If the Join Timer is set to expire in more than
          t_joinsuppress seconds, leave it unchanged.

     See Prune(*,*,RP) to MRIB.next_hop(RP)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(RP) is a shared
          medium.  This router sees another router on RPF_interface(RP)
          send a Prune(*,*,RP) to NBR(RPF_interface(RP),
          MRIB.next_hop(RP)).  As this router is in Joined state, it
          must override the Prune after a short random interval.

          The upstream (*,*,RP) state machine remains in Joined state.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in less than t_override
          seconds, leave it unchanged.

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     NBR(RPF_interface(RP), MRIB.next_hop(RP)) changes
          A change in the MRIB routing base causes the next hop towards
          the RP to change.

          The upstream (*,*,RP) state machine remains in Joined state.
          Send Join(*,*,RP) to the new upstream neighbor, which is the
          new value of NBR(RPF_interface(RP), MRIB.next_hop(RP)).  Send
          Prune(*,*,RP) to the old upstream neighbor, which is the old
          value of NBR(RPF_interface(RP), MRIB.next_hop(RP)).  Set the
          Join Timer (JT) to expire after t_periodic seconds.

     MRIB.next_hop(RP) GenID changes
          The Generation ID of the router that is MRIB.next_hop(RP)
          changes.  This normally means that this neighbor has lost
          state, and so the state must be refreshed.

          The upstream (*,*,RP) state machine remains in Joined state.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.

4.5.6.  Sending (*,G) Join/Prune Messages

   The per-interface state machines for (*,G) hold join state from
   downstream PIM routers.  This state then determines whether a router
   needs to propagate a Join(*,G) upstream towards the RP.

   If a router wishes to propagate a Join(*,G) upstream, it must also
   watch for messages on its upstream interface from other routers on
   that subnet, and these may modify its behavior.  If it sees a
   Join(*,G) to the correct upstream neighbor, it should suppress its
   own Join(*,G).  If it sees a Prune(*,G) to the correct upstream
   neighbor, it should be prepared to override that prune by sending a
   Join(*,G) almost immediately.  Finally, if it sees the Generation ID
   (see Section 4.3) of the correct upstream neighbor change, it knows
   that the upstream neighbor has lost state, and it should be prepared
   to refresh the state by sending a Join(*,G) almost immediately.

   If a (*,G) Assert occurs on the upstream interface, and this changes
   this router's idea of the upstream neighbor, it should be prepared to
   ensure that the Assert winner is aware of downstream routers by
   sending a Join(*,G) almost immediately.

   In addition, if the MRIB changes to indicate that the next hop
   towards the RP has changed, and either the upstream interface changes
   or there is no Assert winner on the upstream interface, the router
   should prune off from the old next hop and join towards the new next
   hop.

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   The upstream (*,G) state machine only contains two states:

   Not Joined
      The downstream state machines indicate that the router does not
      need to join the RP tree for this group.

   Joined
      The downstream state machines indicate that the router should join
      the RP tree for this group.

   In addition, one timer JT(*,G) is kept that is used to trigger the
   sending of a Join(*,G) to the upstream next hop towards the RP,
   RPF'(*,G).

         Figure 7: Upstream (*,G) state machine in tabular form

+-------------------++-------------------------------------------------+
|                   ||                      Event                      |
|  Prev State       ++------------------------+------------------------+
|                   ||   JoinDesired(*,G)     |    JoinDesired(*,G)    |
|                   ||   ->True               |    ->False             |
+-------------------++------------------------+------------------------+
|                   ||   -> J state           |    -                   |
|  NotJoined (NJ)   ||   Send Join(*,G);      |                        |
|                   ||   Set Join Timer to    |                        |
|                   ||   t_periodic           |                        |
+-------------------++------------------------+------------------------+
|  Joined (J)       ||   -                    |    -> NJ state         |
|                   ||                        |    Send Prune(*,G);    |
|                   ||                        |    Cancel Join Timer   |
+-------------------++------------------------+------------------------+

   In addition, we have the following transitions, which occur within
   the Joined state:

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                        In Joined (J) State                           |
+----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|Timer Expires   | See Join(*,G)   | See Prune(*,G)  | RPF'(*,G)       |
|                | to RPF'(*,G)    | to RPF'(*,G)    | changes due to  |
|                |                 |                 | an Assert       |
+----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|Send            | Increase Join   | Decrease Join   | Decrease Join   |
|Join(*,G); Set  | Timer to        | Timer to        | Timer to        |
|Join Timer to   | t_joinsuppress  | t_override      | t_override      |
|t_periodic      |                 |                 |                 |
+----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+

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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                         In Joined (J) State                          |
+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
|    RPF'(*,G) changes not         |       RPF'(*,G) GenID changes     |
|    due to an Assert              |                                   |
+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
|    Send Join(*,G) to new         |       Decrease Join Timer to      |
|    next hop; Send                |       t_override                  |
|    Prune(*,G) to old next        |                                   |
|    hop; Set Join Timer to        |                                   |
|    t_periodic                    |                                   |
+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

   This state machine uses the following macro:

     bool JoinDesired(*,G) {
        if (immediate_olist(*,G) != NULL OR
            (JoinDesired(*,*,RP(G)) AND
             AssertWinner(*, G, RPF_interface(RP(G))) != NULL))
            return TRUE
        else
            return FALSE
     }

   JoinDesired(*,G) is true when the router has forwarding state that
   would cause it to forward traffic for G using shared tree state.
   Note that although JoinDesired is true, the router's sending of a
   Join(*,G) message may be suppressed by another router sending a
   Join(*,G) onto the upstream interface.

   Transitions from NotJoined State

   When the upstream (*,G) state machine is in NotJoined state, the
   following event may trigger a state transition:

     JoinDesired(*,G) becomes True
          The macro JoinDesired(*,G) becomes True, e.g., because the
          downstream state for (*,G) has changed so that at least one
          interface is in immediate_olist(*,G).

          The upstream (*,G) state machine transitions to Joined state.
          Send Join(*,G) to the appropriate upstream neighbor, which is
          RPF'(*,G).  Set the Join Timer (JT) to expire after t_periodic
          seconds.

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   Transitions from Joined State

   When the upstream (*,G) state machine is in Joined state, the
   following events may trigger state transitions:

     JoinDesired(*,G) becomes False
          The macro JoinDesired(*,G) becomes False, e.g., because the
          downstream state for (*,G) has changed so no interface is in
          immediate_olist(*,G).

          The upstream (*,G) state machine transitions to NotJoined
          state.  Send Prune(*,G) to the appropriate upstream neighbor,
          which is RPF'(*,G).  Cancel the Join Timer (JT).

     Join Timer Expires
          The Join Timer (JT) expires, indicating time to send a
          Join(*,G)

          Send Join(*,G) to the appropriate upstream neighbor, which is
          RPF'(*,G).  Restart the Join Timer (JT) to expire after
          t_periodic seconds.

     See Join(*,G) to RPF'(*,G)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(RP(G)) is a
          shared medium.  This router sees another router on
          RPF_interface(RP(G)) send a Join(*,G) to RPF'(*,G).  This
          causes this router to suppress its own Join.

          The upstream (*,G) state machine remains in Joined state.

          Let t_joinsuppress be the minimum of t_suppressed and the
          HoldTime from the Join/Prune message triggering this event.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in less than t_joinsuppress
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_joinsuppress
          seconds.  If the Join Timer is set to expire in more than
          t_joinsuppress seconds, leave it unchanged.

     See Prune(*,G) to RPF'(*,G)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(RP(G)) is a
          shared medium.  This router sees another router on
          RPF_interface(RP(G)) send a Prune(*,G) to RPF'(*,G).  As this
          router is in Joined state, it must override the Prune after a
          short random interval.

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          The upstream (*,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in less than t_override
          seconds, leave it unchanged.

     RPF'(*,G) changes due to an Assert
          The current next hop towards the RP changes due to an
          Assert(*,G) on the RPF_interface(RP(G)).

          The upstream (*,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in less than t_override
          seconds, leave it unchanged.

     RPF'(*,G) changes not due to an Assert
          An event occurred that caused the next hop towards the RP for
          G to change.  This may be caused by a change in the MRIB
          routing database or the group-to-RP mapping.  Note that this
          transition does not occur if an Assert is active and the
          upstream interface does not change.

          The upstream (*,G) state machine remains in Joined state.
          Send Join(*,G) to the new upstream neighbor, which is the new
          value of RPF'(*,G).  Send Prune(*,G) to the old upstream
          neighbor, which is the old value of RPF'(*,G).  Use the new
          value of RP(G) in the Prune(*,G) message or all zeros if RP(G)
          becomes unknown (old value of RP(G) may be used instead to
          improve behavior in routers implementing older versions of
          this spec).  Set the Join Timer (JT) to expire after
          t_periodic seconds.

     RPF'(*,G) GenID changes
          The Generation ID of the router that is RPF'(*,G) changes.
          This normally means that this neighbor has lost state, and so
          the state must be refreshed.

          The upstream (*,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.

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4.5.7.  Sending (S,G) Join/Prune Messages

   The per-interface state machines for (S,G) hold join state from
   downstream PIM routers.  This state then determines whether a router
   needs to propagate a Join(S,G) upstream towards the source.

   If a router wishes to propagate a Join(S,G) upstream, it must also
   watch for messages on its upstream interface from other routers on
   that subnet, and these may modify its behavior.  If it sees a
   Join(S,G) to the correct upstream neighbor, it should suppress its
   own Join(S,G).  If it sees a Prune(S,G), Prune(S,G,rpt), or
   Prune(*,G) to the correct upstream neighbor towards S, it should be
   prepared to override that prune by scheduling a Join(S,G) to be sent
   almost immediately.  Finally, if it sees the Generation ID of its
   upstream neighbor change, it knows that the upstream neighbor has
   lost state, and it should refresh the state by scheduling a Join(S,G)
   to be sent almost immediately.

   If a (S,G) Assert occurs on the upstream interface, and this changes
   the this router's idea of the upstream neighbor, it should be
   prepared to ensure that the Assert winner is aware of downstream
   routers by scheduling a Join(S,G) to be sent almost immediately.

   In addition, if MRIB changes cause the next hop towards the source to
   change, and either the upstream interface changes or there is no
   Assert winner on the upstream interface, the router should send a
   prune to the old next hop and a join to the new next hop.

   The upstream (S,G) state machine only contains two states:

   Not Joined
      The downstream state machines and local membership information do
      not indicate that the router needs to join the shortest-path tree
      for this (S,G).

   Joined
      The downstream state machines and local membership information
      indicate that the router should join the shortest-path tree for
      this (S,G).

   In addition, one timer JT(S,G) is kept that is used to trigger the
   sending of a Join(S,G) to the upstream next hop towards S, RPF'(S,G).

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         Figure 8: Upstream (S,G) state machine in tabular form

+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|                   |                      Event                       |
|  Prev State       +-------------------------+------------------------+
|                   |   JoinDesired(S,G)      |   JoinDesired(S,G)     |
|                   |   ->True                |   ->False              |
+-------------------+-------------------------+------------------------+
|  NotJoined (NJ)   |   -> J state            |   -                    |
|                   |   Send Join(S,G);       |                        |
|                   |   Set Join Timer to     |                        |
|                   |   t_periodic            |                        |
+-------------------+-------------------------+------------------------+
|  Joined (J)       |   -                     |   -> NJ state          |
|                   |                         |   Send Prune(S,G);     |
|                   |                         |   Set SPTbit(S,G) to   |
|                   |                         |   FALSE; Cancel Join   |
|                   |                         |   Timer                |
+-------------------+-------------------------+------------------------+

   In addition, we have the following transitions, which occur within
   the Joined state:

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                         In Joined (J) State                          |
+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+
| Timer Expires   | See Join(S,G)   | See Prune(S,G)  | See Prune      |
|                 | to RPF'(S,G)    | to RPF'(S,G)    | (S,G,rpt) to   |
|                 |                 |                 | RPF'(S,G)      |
+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+
| Send            | Increase Join   | Decrease Join   | Decrease Join  |
| Join(S,G); Set  | Timer to        | Timer to        | Timer to       |
| Join Timer to   | t_joinsuppress  | t_override      | t_override     |
| t_periodic      |                 |                 |                |
+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+

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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                        In Joined (J) State                           |
+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+-----------------+
| See Prune(*,G)  | RPF'(S,G)       | RPF'(S,G)      | RPF'(S,G)       |
| to RPF'(S,G)    | changes not     | GenID changes  | changes due to  |
|                 | due to an       |                | an Assert       |
|                 | Assert          |                |                 |
+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+-----------------+
| Decrease Join   | Send Join(S,G)  | Decrease Join  | Decrease Join   |
| Timer to        | to new next     | Timer to       | Timer to        |
| t_override      | hop; Send       | t_override     | t_override      |
|                 | Prune(S,G) to   |                |                 |
|                 | old next hop;   |                |                 |
|                 | Set Join Timer  |                |                 |
|                 | to t_periodic   |                |                 |
+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+-----------------+

   This state machine uses the following macro:

     bool JoinDesired(S,G) {
         return( immediate_olist(S,G) != NULL
                 OR ( KeepaliveTimer(S,G) is running
                      AND inherited_olist(S,G) != NULL ) )
     }

   JoinDesired(S,G) is true when the router has forwarding state that
   would cause it to forward traffic for G using source tree state.  The
   source tree state can be as a result of either active source-specific
   join state, or the (S,G) Keepalive Timer and active non-source-
   specific state.  Note that although JoinDesired is true, the router's
   sending of a Join(S,G) message may be suppressed by another router
   sending a Join(S,G) onto the upstream interface.

   Transitions from NotJoined State

   When the upstream (S,G) state machine is in NotJoined state, the
   following event may trigger a state transition:

     JoinDesired(S,G) becomes True
          The macro JoinDesired(S,G) becomes True, e.g., because the
          downstream state for (S,G) has changed so that at least one
          interface is in inherited_olist(S,G).

          The upstream (S,G) state machine transitions to Joined state.
          Send Join(S,G) to the appropriate upstream neighbor, which is
          RPF'(S,G).  Set the Join Timer (JT) to expire after t_periodic
          seconds.

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   Transitions from Joined State

   When the upstream (S,G) state machine is in Joined state, the
   following events may trigger state transitions:

     JoinDesired(S,G) becomes False
          The macro JoinDesired(S,G) becomes False, e.g., because the
          downstream state for (S,G) has changed so no interface is in
          inherited_olist(S,G).

          The upstream (S,G) state machine transitions to NotJoined
          state.  Send Prune(S,G) to the appropriate upstream neighbor,
          which is RPF'(S,G).  Cancel the Join Timer (JT), and set
          SPTbit(S,G) to FALSE.

     Join Timer Expires
          The Join Timer (JT) expires, indicating time to send a
          Join(S,G)

          Send Join(S,G) to the appropriate upstream neighbor, which is
          RPF'(S,G).  Restart the Join Timer (JT) to expire after
          t_periodic seconds.

     See Join(S,G) to RPF'(S,G)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(S) is a shared
          medium.  This router sees another router on RPF_interface(S)
          send a Join(S,G) to RPF'(S,G).  This causes this router to
          suppress its own Join.

          The upstream (S,G) state machine remains in Joined state.

          Let t_joinsuppress be the minimum of t_suppressed and the
          HoldTime from the Join/Prune message triggering this event.

          If the Join Timer is set to expire in less than t_joinsuppress
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_joinsuppress
          seconds.  If the Join Timer is set to expire in more than
          t_joinsuppress seconds, leave it unchanged.

     See Prune(S,G) to RPF'(S,G)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(S) is a shared
          medium.  This router sees another router on RPF_interface(S)
          send a Prune(S,G) to RPF'(S,G).  As this router is in Joined
          state, it must override the Prune after a short random
          interval.

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          The upstream (S,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.

     See Prune(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(S) is a shared
          medium.  This router sees another router on RPF_interface(S)
          send a Prune(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G).  If the upstream router is
          an RFC-2362-compliant PIM router, then the Prune(S,G,rpt) will
          cause it to stop forwarding.  For backwards compatibility,
          this router should override the prune so that forwarding
          continues.

          The upstream (S,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.

     See Prune(*,G) to RPF'(S,G)
          This event is only relevant if RPF_interface(S) is a shared
          medium.  This router sees another router on RPF_interface(S)
          send a Prune(*,G) to RPF'(S,G).  If the upstream router is an
          RFC-2362-compliant PIM router, then the Prune(*,G) will cause
          it to stop forwarding.  For backwards compatibility, this
          router should override the prune so that forwarding continues.

          The upstream (S,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.

     RPF'(S,G) changes due to an Assert
          The current next hop towards S changes due to an Assert(S,G)
          on the RPF_interface(S).

          The upstream (S,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.
          If the Join Timer is set to expire in less than t_override
          seconds, leave it unchanged.

     RPF'(S,G) changes not due to an Assert
          An event occurred that caused the next hop towards S to
          change.  Note that this transition does not occur if an Assert
          is active and the upstream interface does not change.

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          The upstream (S,G) state machine remains in Joined state.
          Send Join(S,G) to the new upstream neighbor, which is the new
          value of RPF'(S,G).  Send Prune(S,G) to the old upstream
          neighbor, which is the old value of RPF'(S,G).  Set the Join
          Timer (JT) to expire after t_periodic seconds.

     RPF'(S,G) GenID changes
          The Generation ID of the router that is RPF'(S,G) changes.
          This normally means that this neighbor has lost state, and so
          the state must be refreshed.

          The upstream (S,G) state machine remains in Joined state.  If
          the Join Timer is set to expire in more than t_override
          seconds, reset it so that it expires after t_override seconds.

4.5.8.  (S,G,rpt) Periodic Messages

   (S,G,rpt) Joins and Prunes are (S,G) Joins or Prunes sent on the RP
   tree with the RPT bit set, either to modify the results of (*,G)
   Joins, or to override the behavior of other upstream LAN peers.  The
   next section describes the rules for sending triggered messages.
   This section describes the rules for including a Prune(S,G,rpt)
   message with a Join(*,G).

   When a router is going to send a Join(*,G), it should use the
   following pseudocode, for each (S,G) for which it has state, to
   decide whether to include a Prune(S,G,rpt) in the compound Join/Prune
   message:

     if( SPTbit(S,G) == TRUE ) {
         # Note: If receiving (S,G) on the SPT, we only prune off the
         # shared tree if the RPF neighbors differ.
          if( RPF'(*,G) != RPF'(S,G) ) {
              add Prune(S,G,rpt) to compound message
          }
     } else if ( inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) == NULL ) {
       # Note: all (*,G) olist interfaces received RPT prunes for (S,G).
       add Prune(S,G,rpt) to compound message
     } else if ( RPF'(*,G) != RPF'(S,G,rpt) {
       # Note: we joined the shared tree, but there was an (S,G) assert
       # and the source tree RPF neighbor is different.
       add Prune(S,G,rpt) to compound message
     }

   Note that Join(S,G,rpt) is normally sent not as a periodic message,
   but only as a triggered message.

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4.5.9.  State Machine for (S,G,rpt) Triggered Messages

   The state machine for (S,G,rpt) triggered messages is required per-
   (S,G) when there is (*,G) or (*,*,RP) join state at a router, and the
   router or any of its upstream LAN peers wishes to prune S off the RP
   tree.

   There are three states in the state machine.  One of the states is
   when there is neither (*,G) nor (*,*,RP(G)) join state at this
   router.  If there is (*,G) or (*,*,RP(G)) join state at the router,
   then the state machine must be at one of the other two states.  The
   three states are:

   Pruned(S,G,rpt)
      (*,G) or (*,*,RP(G)) Joined, but (S,G,rpt) pruned

   NotPruned(S,G,rpt)
      (*,G) or (*,*,RP(G)) Joined, and (S,G,rpt) not pruned

   RPTNotJoined(G)
      neither (*,G) nor (*,*,RP(G)) has been joined.

   In addition, there is an (S,G,rpt) Override Timer, OT(S,G,rpt), which
   is used to delay triggered Join(S,G,rpt) messages to prevent
   implosions of triggered messages.

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   Figure 9: Upstream (S,G,rpt) state machine for triggered messages
                            in tabular form

+------------++--------------------------------------------------------+
|            ||                           Event                        |
|            ++--------------+--------------+-------------+------------+
|Prev State  || PruneDesired | PruneDesired | RPTJoin     | inherited_ |
|            || (S,G,rpt)    | (S,G,rpt)    | Desired(G)  | olist      |
|            || ->True       | ->False      | ->False     | (S,G,rpt)  |
|            ||              |              |             | ->non-NULL |
+------------++--------------+--------------+-------------+------------+
|RPTNotJoined|| -> P state   | -            | -           | -> NP state|
|(G) (NJ)    ||              |              |             |            |
+------------++--------------+--------------+-------------+------------+
|Pruned      || -            | -> NP state  | -> NJ state | -          |
|(S,G,rpt)   ||              | Send Join    |             |            |
|(P)         ||              | (S,G,rpt)    |             |            |
+------------++--------------+--------------+-------------+------------+
|NotPruned   || -> P state   | -            | -> NJ state | -          |
|(S,G,rpt)   || Send Prune   |              | Cancel OT   |            |
|(NP)        || (S,G,rpt);   |              |             |            |
|            || Cancel OT    |              |             |            |
+------------++--------------+--------------+-------------+------------+

   Additionally, we have the following transitions within the
   NotPruned(S,G,rpt) state, which are all used for prune override
   behavior.

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                    In NotPruned(S,G,rpt) State                       |
+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
|Override  | See Prune    | See Join     | See Prune    | RPF'         |
|Timer     | (S,G,rpt) to | (S,G,rpt) to | (S,G) to     | (S,G,rpt) -> |
|expires   | RPF'         | RPF'         | RPF'         | RPF' (*,G)   |
|          | (S,G,rpt)    | (S,G,rpt)    | (S,G,rpt)    |              |
+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
|Send Join | OT = min(OT, | Cancel OT    | OT = min(OT, | OT = min(OT, |
|(S,G,rpt);| t_override)  |              | t_override)  | t_override)  |
|Leave OT  |              |              |              |              |
|unset     |              |              |              |              |
+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+

   Note that the min function in the above state machine considers a
   non-running timer to have an infinite value (e.g., min(not-running,
   t_override) = t_override).

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   This state machine uses the following macros:

     bool RPTJoinDesired(G) {
       return (JoinDesired(*,G) OR JoinDesired(*,*,RP(G)))
     }

   RPTJoinDesired(G) is true when the router has forwarding state that
   would cause it to forward traffic for G using either (*,G) or
   (*,*,RP) shared tree state.

     bool PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) {
          return ( RPTJoinDesired(G) AND
                   ( inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) == NULL
                     OR (SPTbit(S,G)==TRUE
                         AND (RPF'(*,G) != RPF'(S,G)) )))
     }

   PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) can only be true if RPTJoinDesired(G) is true.
   If RPTJoinDesired(G) is true, then PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) is true
   either if there are no outgoing interfaces that S would be forwarded
   on, or if the router has active (S,G) forwarding state but RPF'(*,G)
   != RPF'(S,G).

   The state machine contains the following transition events:

   See Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt)
      This event is only relevant in the "Not Pruned" state.

      The router sees a Join(S,G,rpt) from someone else to
      RPF'(S,G,rpt), which is the correct upstream neighbor.  If we're
      in "NotPruned" state and the (S,G,rpt) Override Timer is running,
      then this is because we have been triggered to send our own
      Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt).  Someone else beat us to it, so
      there's no need to send our own Join.

      The action is to cancel the Override Timer.

   See Prune(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt)
      This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

      The router sees a Prune(S,G,rpt) from someone else to
      RPF'(S,G,rpt), which is the correct upstream neighbor.  If we're
      in the "NotPruned" state, then we want to continue to receive
      traffic from S destined for G, and that traffic is being supplied
      by RPF'(S,G,rpt).  Thus, we need to override the Prune.

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      The action is to set the (S,G,rpt) Override Timer to the
      randomized prune-override interval, t_override.  However, if the
      Override Timer is already running, we only set the timer if doing
      so would set it to a lower value.  At the end of this interval, if
      noone else has sent a Join, then we will do so.

   See Prune(S,G) to RPF'(S,G,rpt)
      This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

      This transition and action are the same as the above transition
      and action, except that the Prune does not have the RPT bit set.
      This transition is necessary to be compatible with routers
      implemented from RFC2362 that don't maintain separate (S,G) and
      (S,G,rpt) state.

   The (S,G,rpt) prune Override Timer expires
      This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

      When the Override Timer expires, we must send a Join(S,G,rpt) to
      RPF'(S,G,rpt) to override the Prune message that caused the timer
      to be running.  We only send this if RPF'(S,G,rpt) equals
      RPF'(*,G); if this were not the case, then the Join might be sent
      to a router that does not have (*,G) or (*,*,RP(G)) Join state,
      and so the behavior would not be well defined.  If RPF'(S,G,rpt)
      is not the same as RPF'(*,G), then it may stop forwarding S.
      However, if this happens, then the router will send an
      AssertCancel(S,G), which would then cause RPF'(S,G,rpt) to become
      equal to RPF'(*,G) (see below).

   RPF'(S,G,rpt) changes to become equal to RPF'(*,G)
      This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

      RPF'(S,G,rpt) can only be different from RPF'(*,G) if an (S,G)
      Assert has happened, which means that traffic from S is arriving
      on the SPT, and so Prune(S,G,rpt) will have been sent to
      RPF'(*,G).  When RPF'(S,G,rpt) changes to become equal to
      RPF'(*,G), we need to trigger a Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(*,G) to
      cause that router to start forwarding S again.

      The action is to set the (S,G,rpt) Override Timer to the
      randomized prune-override interval t_override.  However, if the
      timer is already running, we only set the timer if doing so would
      set it to a lower value.  At the end of this interval, if noone
      else has sent a Join, then we will do so.

   PruneDesired(S,G,rpt)->TRUE
      See macro above.  This event is relevant in the "NotPruned" and
      "RPTNotJoined(G)" states.

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      The router wishes to receive traffic for G, but does not wish to
      receive traffic from S destined for G.  This causes the router to
      transition into the Pruned state.

      If the router was previously in NotPruned state, then the action
      is to send a Prune(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt), and to cancel the
      Override Timer.  If the router was previously in RPTNotJoined(G)
      state, then there is no need to trigger an action in this state
      machine because sending a Prune(S,G,rpt) is handled by the rules
      for sending the Join(*,G) or Join(*,*,RP).

   PruneDesired(S,G,rpt)->FALSE
      See macro above.  This transition is only relevant in the "Pruned"
      state.

      If the router is in the Pruned(S,G,rpt) state, and
      PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) changes to FALSE, this could be because the
      router no longer has RPTJoinDesired(G) true, or it now wishes to
      receive traffic from S again.  If it is the former, then this
      transition should not happen, but instead the
      "RPTJoinDesired(G)->FALSE" transition should happen.  Thus, this
      transition should be interpreted as "PruneDesired(S,G,rpt)->FALSE
      AND RPTJoinDesired(G)==TRUE".

      The action is to send a Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt).

   RPTJoinDesired(G)->FALSE
      This event is relevant in the "Pruned" and "NotPruned" states.

      The router no longer wishes to receive any traffic destined for G
      on the RP Tree.  This causes a transition to the RPTNotJoined(G)
      state, and the Override Timer is canceled if it was running.  Any
      further actions are handled by the appropriate upstream state
      machine for (*,G) or (*,*,RP).

   inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) becomes non-NULL
      This transition is only relevant in the RPTNotJoined(G) state.

      The router has joined the RP tree (handled by the (*,G) or
      (*,*,RP) upstream state machine as appropriate) and wants to
      receive traffic from S.  This does not trigger any events in this
      state machine, but causes a transition to the NotPruned(S,G,rpt)
      state.

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4.5.10.  Background: (*,*,RP) and (S,G,rpt) Interaction

   In Sections 4.5.8 and 4.5.9, the mechanisms for sending periodic and
   triggered (S,G,rpt) messages are described.  The astute reader will
   note that periodic Prune(S,G,rpt) messages are only sent in PIM
   Join/Prune messages containing a Join(*,G), whereas it is possible
   for a triggered Prune(S,G,rpt) message to be sent when the router has
   no (*,G) join state.  This may seem like a contradiction, but in fact
   it is intentional and is a side effect of not optimizing (*,*,RP)
   behavior.

   We first note that reception of a Join(*,*,RP) by itself does not
   cancel (S,G,rpt) prune state on that interface, whereas receiving a
   Join(*,G) by itself does cancel (S,G,rpt) prune state on that
   interface.  Similarly, reception of a Prune(*,G) on an interface with
   (*,*,RP) join state does not by itself prevent forwarding of G using
   the (*,*,RP) state; this is because a Prune(*,G) only serves to
   cancel (*,G) join state.  Conceptually (*,*,RP) state functions
   "above" the normal (*,G) and (S,G) mechanisms, and so neither
   Join(*,*,RP) nor Prune(*,*,RP) messages affect any other state.

   The upshot of this is that to prevent forwarding (S,G) on (*,*,RP)
   state, a Prune(S,G,rpt) must be used.

   We also note that for historical reasons there is no Assert(*,*,RP)
   message, so any forwarding contention is resolved using Assert(*,G)
   messages.

   We now need to consider the interaction between (*,*,RP) state and
   (*,G) state.  If there is a need for an assert between two upstream
   routers on a LAN, we need to ensure that the correct thing happens
   for all combinations of (*,*,RP) and (*,G) forwarding state.  As
   there is no Assert(*,*,RP) message, no router can tell whether the
   assert winner has (*,*,RP) state or (*,G) state.  Thus, a downstream
   router has to treat the two the same and send its periodic
   Prune(S,G,rpt) messages to RPF'(*,G).

   To avoid needing to specify all the complex override rules between
   (*,*,RP), (*,G), and (S,G,rpt), we simply require that to prune (S,G)
   off the (*,*,RP) tree, a Join(*,G) must also be sent.

   If a router is receiving on (*,*,RP) state and has not yet had (*,G)
   state instantiated, it may still need to send a triggered
   Join(S,G,rpt) to override a Prune(S,G,rpt) that it sees directed to
   RPF'(*,G) on its upstream interface.  Hence, triggered (S,G,rpt)
   messages may be sent when JoinDesired(*,G) is false but
   JoinDesired(*,*,RP) is true.

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   Finally, we note that there is an unoptimized case when the upstream
   router on a LAN already has (*,G) join and (S,G,rpt) prune state
   caused by an existing downstream router.  If at this time a new
   Join(*,*,RP) is sent to the upstream router from a different
   downstream router, this will not override the (S,G,rpt) prune state
   at the upstream router.  The override will not occur until the next
   time the original downstream router resends its Prune(S,G,rpt).  This
   case was not considered worth optimizing, as (*,*,RP) state is
   generally very long lived, and so any minor delays in getting traffic
   to a new PMBR seem unimportant.

4.6.  PIM Assert Messages

   Where multiple PIM routers peer over a shared LAN, it is possible for
   more than one upstream router to have valid forwarding state for a
   packet, which can lead to packet duplication (see Section 3.6).  PIM
   does not attempt to prevent this from occurring.  Instead, it detects
   when this has happened and elects a single forwarder amongst the
   upstream routers to prevent further duplication.  This election is
   performed using PIM Assert messages.  Assert messages are also
   received by downstream routers on the LAN, and these cause subsequent
   Join/Prune messages to be sent to the upstream router that won the
   Assert.

   In general, a PIM Assert message should only be accepted for
   processing if it comes from a known PIM neighbor.  A PIM router hears
   about PIM neighbors through PIM Hello messages.  If a router receives
   an Assert message from a particular IP source address and it has not
   seen a PIM Hello message from that source address, then the Assert
   message SHOULD be discarded without further processing.  In addition,
   if the Hello message from a neighbor was authenticated using the
   IPsec Authentication Header (AH) (see Section 6.3), then all Assert
   messages from that neighbor MUST also be authenticated using IPsec
   AH.

   We note that some older PIM implementations incorrectly fail to send
   Hello messages on point-to-point interfaces, so we also RECOMMEND
   that a configuration option be provided to allow interoperation with
   such older routers, but that this configuration option SHOULD NOT be
   enabled by default.

4.6.1.  (S,G) Assert Message State Machine

   The (S,G) Assert state machine for interface I is shown in Figure 10.
   There are three states:

   NoInfo (NI)
      This router has no (S,G) assert state on interface I.

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   I am Assert Winner (W)
      This router has won an (S,G) assert on interface I.  It is now
      responsible for forwarding traffic from S destined for G out of
      interface I.  Irrespective of whether it is the DR for I, while a
      router is the assert winner, it is also responsible for forwarding
      traffic onto I on behalf of local hosts on I that have made
      membership requests that specifically refer to S (and G).

   I am Assert Loser (L)
      This router has lost an (S,G) assert on interface I.  It must not
      forward packets from S destined for G onto interface I.  If it is
      the DR on I, it is no longer responsible for forwarding traffic
      onto I to satisfy local hosts with membership requests that
      specifically refer to S and G.

   In addition, there is also an Assert Timer (AT) that is used to time
   out asserts on the assert losers and to resend asserts on the assert
   winner.

  Figure 10: Per-interface (S,G) Assert State machine in tabular form

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                         In NoInfo (NI) State                         |
+---------------+-------------------+------------------+---------------+
| Receive       |  Receive Assert   |  Data arrives    |  Receive      |
| Inferior      |  with RPTbit      |  from S to G on  |  Acceptable   |
| Assert with   |  set and          |  I and           |  Assert with  |
| RPTbit clear  |  CouldAssert      |  CouldAssert     |  RPTbit clear |
| and           |  (S,G,I)          |  (S,G,I)         |  and AssTrDes |
| CouldAssert   |                   |                  |  (S,G,I)      |
| (S,G,I)       |                   |                  |               |
+---------------+-------------------+------------------+---------------+
| -> W state    |  -> W state       |  -> W state      |  -> L state   |
| [Actions A1]  |  [Actions A1]     |  [Actions A1]    |  [Actions A6] |
+---------------+-------------------+------------------+---------------+

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                   In I Am Assert Winner (W) State                    |
+----------------+------------------+-----------------+----------------+
| Assert Timer   |   Receive        |  Receive        |  CouldAssert   |
| Expires        |   Inferior       |  Preferred      |  (S,G,I) ->    |
|                |   Assert         |  Assert         |  FALSE         |
+----------------+------------------+-----------------+----------------+
| -> W state     |   -> W state     |  -> L state     |  -> NI state   |
| [Actions A3]   |   [Actions A3]   |  [Actions A2]   |  [Actions A4]  |
+----------------+------------------+-----------------+----------------+

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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                   In I Am Assert Loser (L) State                    |
+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
|Receive      |Receive      |Receive      |Assert Timer |Current      |
|Preferred    |Acceptable   |Inferior     |Expires      |Winner's     |
|Assert       |Assert with  |Assert or    |             |GenID        |
|             |RPTbit clear |Assert       |             |Changes or   |
|             |from Current |Cancel from  |             |NLT Expires  |
|             |Winner       |Current      |             |             |
|             |             |Winner       |             |             |
+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
|-> L state   |-> L state   |-> NI state  |-> NI state  |-> NI state  |
|[Actions A2] |[Actions A2] |[Actions A5] |[Actions A5] |[Actions A5] |
+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                    In I Am Assert Loser (L) State                    |
+----------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+
| AssTrDes       |  my_metric ->   |  RPF_interface   |  Receive       |
| (S,G,I) ->     |  better than    |  (S) stops       |  Join(S,G) on  |
| FALSE          |  winner's       |  being I         |  interface I   |
|                |  metric         |                  |                |
+----------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+
| -> NI state    |  -> NI state    |  -> NI state     |  -> NI State   |
| [Actions A5]   |  [Actions A5]   |  [Actions A5]    |  [Actions A5]  |
+----------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+

   Note that for reasons of compactness, "AssTrDes(S,G,I)" is used in
   the state machine table to refer to AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I).

   Terminology:

      A "preferred assert" is one with a better metric than the current
      winner.

      An "acceptable assert" is one that has a better metric than
      my_assert_metric(S,G,I).  An assert is never considered acceptable
      if its metric is infinite.

      An "inferior assert" is one with a worse metric than
      my_assert_metric(S,G,I).  An assert is never considered inferior
      if my_assert_metric(S,G,I) is infinite.

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   The state machine uses the following macros:

CouldAssert(S,G,I) =
     SPTbit(S,G)==TRUE
     AND (RPF_interface(S) != I)
     AND (I in ( ( joins(*,*,RP(G)) (+) joins(*,G) (-) prunes(S,G,rpt) )
                 (+) ( pim_include(*,G) (-) pim_exclude(S,G) )
                 (-) lost_assert(*,G)
                 (+) joins(S,G) (+) pim_include(S,G) ) )

   CouldAssert(S,G,I) is true for downstream interfaces that would be in
   the inherited_olist(S,G) if (S,G) assert information was not taken
   into account.

   AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I) =
        (I in ( ( joins(*,*,RP(G)) (+) joins(*,G) (-) prunes(S,G,rpt) )
                (+) ( pim_include(*,G) (-) pim_exclude(S,G) )
                (-) lost_assert(*,G)
                (+) joins(S,G) ) )
        OR (local_receiver_include(S,G,I) == TRUE
            AND (I_am_DR(I) OR (AssertWinner(S,G,I) == me)))
        OR ((RPF_interface(S) == I) AND (JoinDesired(S,G) == TRUE))
        OR ((RPF_interface(RP(G)) == I) AND (JoinDesired(*,G) == TRUE)
            AND (SPTbit(S,G) == FALSE))

   AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I) is true on any interface in which an
   (S,G) assert might affect our behavior.

   The first three lines of AssertTrackingDesired account for (*,G) join
   and local membership information received on I that might cause the
   router to be interested in asserts on I.

   The 4th line accounts for (S,G) join information received on I that
   might cause the router to be interested in asserts on I.

   The 5th and 6th lines account for (S,G) local membership information
   on I.  Note that we can't use the pim_include(S,G) macro since it
   uses lost_assert(S,G,I) and would result in the router forgetting
   that it lost an assert if the only reason it was interested was local
   membership.  The AssertWinner(S,G,I) check forces an assert winner to
   keep on being responsible for forwarding as long as local receivers
   are present.  Removing this check would make the assert winner give
   up forwarding as soon as the information that originally caused it to
   forward went away, and the task of forwarding for local receivers
   would revert back to the DR.

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   The last three lines account for the fact that a router must keep
   track of assert information on upstream interfaces in order to send
   joins and prunes to the proper neighbor.

   Transitions from NoInfo State

   When in NoInfo state, the following events may trigger transitions:

     Receive Inferior Assert with RPTbit cleared AND
          CouldAssert(S,G,I)==TRUE
          An assert is received for (S,G) with the RPT bit cleared that
          is inferior to our own assert metric.  The RPT bit cleared
          indicates that the sender of the assert had (S,G) forwarding
          state on this interface.  If the assert is inferior to our
          metric, then we must also have (S,G) forwarding state (i.e.,
          CouldAssert(S,G,I)==TRUE) as (S,G) asserts beat (*,G) asserts,
          and so we should be the assert winner.  We transition to the
          "I am Assert Winner" state and perform Actions A1 (below).

     Receive Assert with RPTbit set AND CouldAssert(S,G,I)==TRUE
          An assert is received for (S,G) on I with the RPT bit set
          (it's a (*,G) assert).  CouldAssert(S,G,I) is TRUE only if we
          have (S,G) forwarding state on this interface, so we should be
          the assert winner.  We transition to the "I am Assert Winner"
          state and perform Actions A1 (below).

     An (S,G) data packet arrives on interface I, AND
          CouldAssert(S,G,I)==TRUE
          An (S,G) data packet arrived on an downstream interface that
          is in our (S,G) outgoing interface list.  We optimistically
          assume that we will be the assert winner for this (S,G), and
          so we transition to the "I am Assert Winner" state and perform
          Actions A1 (below), which will initiate the assert negotiation
          for (S,G).

     Receive Acceptable Assert with RPT bit clear AND
          AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I)==TRUE
          We're interested in (S,G) Asserts, either because I is a
          downstream interface for which we have (S,G) or (*,G)
          forwarding state, or because I is the upstream interface for S
          and we have (S,G) forwarding state.  The received assert has a
          better metric than our own, so we do not win the Assert.  We
          transition to "I am Assert Loser" and perform Actions A6
          (below).

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   Transitions from "I am Assert Winner" State

   When in "I am Assert Winner" state, the following events trigger
   transitions:

     Assert Timer Expires
          The (S,G) Assert Timer expires.  As we're in the Winner state,
          we must still have (S,G) forwarding state that is actively
          being kept alive.  We resend the (S,G) Assert and restart the
          Assert Timer (Actions A3 below).  Note that the assert
          winner's Assert Timer is engineered to expire shortly before
          timers on assert losers; this prevents unnecessary thrashing
          of the forwarder and periodic flooding of duplicate packets.

     Receive Inferior Assert
          We receive an (S,G) assert or (*,G) assert mentioning S that
          has a worse metric than our own.  Whoever sent the assert is
          in error, and so we resend an (S,G) Assert and restart the
          Assert Timer (Actions A3 below).

     Receive Preferred Assert
          We receive an (S,G) assert that has a better metric than our
          own.  We transition to "I am Assert Loser" state and perform
          Actions A2 (below).  Note that this may affect the value of
          JoinDesired(S,G) and PruneDesired(S,G,rpt), which could cause
          transitions in the upstream (S,G) or (S,G,rpt) state machines.

     CouldAssert(S,G,I) -> FALSE
          Our (S,G) forwarding state or RPF interface changed so as to
          make CouldAssert(S,G,I) become false.  We can no longer
          perform the actions of the assert winner, and so we transition
          to NoInfo state and perform Actions A4 (below).  This includes
          sending a "canceling assert" with an infinite metric.

   Transitions from "I am Assert Loser" State

   When in "I am Assert Loser" state, the following transitions can
   occur:

     Receive Preferred Assert
          We receive an assert that is better than that of the current
          assert winner.  We stay in Loser state and perform Actions A2
          below.

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     Receive Acceptable Assert with RPTbit clear from Current Winner
          We receive an assert from the current assert winner that is
          better than our own metric for this (S,G) (although the metric
          may be worse than the winner's previous metric).  We stay in
          Loser state and perform Actions A2 below.

     Receive Inferior Assert or Assert Cancel from Current Winner
          We receive an assert from the current assert winner that is
          worse than our own metric for this group (typically, because
          the winner's metric became worse or because it is an assert
          cancel).  We transition to NoInfo state, deleting the (S,G)
          assert information and allowing the normal PIM Join/Prune
          mechanisms to operate.  Usually, we will eventually re-assert
          and win when data packets from S have started flowing again.

     Assert Timer Expires
          The (S,G) Assert Timer expires.  We transition to NoInfo
          state, deleting the (S,G) assert information (Actions A5
          below).

     Current Winner's GenID Changes or NLT Expires
          The Neighbor Liveness Timer associated with the current winner
          expires or we receive a Hello message from the current winner
          reporting a different GenID from the one it previously
          reported.  This indicates that the current winner's interface
          or router has gone down (and may have come back up), and so we
          must assume it no longer knows it was the winner.  We
          transition to the NoInfo state, deleting this (S,G) assert
          information (Actions A5 below).

     AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I)->FALSE
          AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I) becomes FALSE.  Our forwarding
          state has changed so that (S,G) Asserts on interface I are no
          longer of interest to us.  We transition to the NoInfo state,
          deleting the (S,G) assert information.

     My metric becomes better than the assert winner's metric
          my_assert_metric(S,G,I) has changed so that now my assert
          metric for (S,G) is better than the metric we have stored for
          current assert winner.  This might happen when the underlying
          routing metric changes, or when CouldAssert(S,G,I) becomes
          true; for example, when SPTbit(S,G) becomes true.  We
          transition to NoInfo state, delete this (S,G) assert state
          (Actions A5 below), and allow the normal PIM Join/Prune
          mechanisms to operate.  Usually, we will eventually re-assert
          and win when data packets from S have started flowing again.

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     RPF_interface(S) stops being interface I
          Interface I used to be the RPF interface for S, and now it is
          not.  We transition to NoInfo state, deleting this (S,G)
          assert state (Actions A5 below).

     Receive Join(S,G) on Interface I
          We receive a Join(S,G) that has the Upstream Neighbor Address
          field set to my primary IP address on interface I.  The action
          is to transition to NoInfo state, delete this (S,G) assert
          state (Actions A5 below), and allow the normal PIM Join/Prune
          mechanisms to operate.  If whoever sent the Join was in error,
          then the normal assert mechanism will eventually re-apply, and
          we will lose the assert again.  However, whoever sent the
          assert may know that the previous assert winner has died, and
          so we may end up being the new forwarder.

   (S,G) Assert State machine Actions

     A1:  Send Assert(S,G).
          Set Assert Timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval).
          Store self as AssertWinner(S,G,I).
          Store spt_assert_metric(S,I) as AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I).

     A2:  Store new assert winner as AssertWinner(S,G,I) and assert
          winner metric as AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I).
          Set Assert Timer to Assert_Time.

     A3:  Send Assert(S,G).
          Set Assert Timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval).

     A4:  Send AssertCancel(S,G).
          Delete assert info (AssertWinner(S,G,I) and
          AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I) will then return their default
          values).

     A5:  Delete assert info (AssertWinner(S,G,I) and
          AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I) will then return their default
          values).

     A6:  Store new assert winner as AssertWinner(S,G,I) and assert
          winner metric as AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I).
          Set Assert Timer to Assert_Time.
          If (I is RPF_interface(S)) AND (UpstreamJPState(S,G) == true)
          set SPTbit(S,G) to TRUE.

   Note that some of these actions may cause the value of
   JoinDesired(S,G), PruneDesired(S,G,rpt), or RPF'(S,G) to change,
   which could cause further transitions in other state machines.

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4.6.2.  (*,G) Assert Message State Machine

   The (*,G) Assert state machine for interface I is shown in Figure 11.
   There are three states:

   NoInfo (NI)
      This router has no (*,G) assert state on interface I.

   I am Assert Winner (W)
      This router has won an (*,G) assert on interface I.  It is now
      responsible for forwarding traffic destined for G onto interface I
      with the exception of traffic for which it has (S,G) "I am Assert
      Loser" state.  Irrespective of whether it is the DR for I, it is
      also responsible for handling the membership requests for G from
      local hosts on I.

   I am Assert Loser (L)
      This router has lost an (*,G) assert on interface I.  It must not
      forward packets for G onto interface I with the exception of
      traffic from sources for which is has (S,G) "I am Assert Winner"
      state.  If it is the DR, it is no longer responsible for handling
      the membership requests for group G from local hosts on I.

   In addition, there is also an Assert Timer (AT) that is used to time
   out asserts on the assert losers and to resend asserts on the assert
   winner.

   When an Assert message is received with a source address other than
   zero, a PIM implementation must first match it against the possible
   events in the (S,G) assert state machine and process any transitions
   and actions, before considering whether the Assert message matches
   against the (*,G) assert state machine.

   It is important to note that NO TRANSITION CAN OCCUR in the (*,G)
   state machine as a result of receiving an Assert message unless the
   (S,G) assert state machine for the relevant S and G is in the
   "NoInfo" state after the (S,G) state machine has processed the
   message.  Also, NO TRANSITION CAN OCCUR in the (*,G) state machine as
   a result of receiving an assert message if that message triggers any
   change of state in the (S,G) state machine.  Obviously, when the
   source address in the received message is set to zero, an (S,G) state
   machine for the S and G does not exist and can be assumed to be in
   the "NoInfo" state.

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   For example, if both the (S,G) and (*,G) assert state machines are in
   the NoInfo state when an Assert message arrives, and the message
   causes the (S,G) state machine to transition to either "W" or "L"
   state, then the assert will not be processed by the (*,G) assert
   state machine.

   Another example: if the (S,G) assert state machine is in "L" state
   when an assert message is received, and the assert metric in the
   message is worse than my_assert_metric(S,G,I), then the (S,G) assert
   state machine will transition to NoInfo state.  In such a case, if
   the (*,G) assert state machine were in NoInfo state, it might appear
   that it would transition to "W" state, but this is not the case
   because this message already triggered a transition in the (S,G)
   assert state machine.

  Figure 11: Per-interface (*,G) Assert State machine in tabular form

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                         In NoInfo (NI) State                         |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
| Receive Inferior      |  Data arrives for G   |  Receive Acceptable  |
| Assert with RPTbit    |  on I and             |  Assert with RPTbit  |
| set and               |  CouldAssert          |  set and AssTrDes    |
| CouldAssert(*,G,I)    |  (*,G,I)              |  (*,G,I)             |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
| -> W state            |  -> W state           |  -> L state          |
| [Actions A1]          |  [Actions A1]         |  [Actions A2]        |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+

+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                    In I Am Assert Winner (W) State                  |
+----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+
| Assert Timer   |  Receive        |  Receive        |  CouldAssert   |
| Expires        |  Inferior       |  Preferred      |  (*,G,I) ->    |
|                |  Assert         |  Assert         |  FALSE         |
+----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+
| -> W state     |  -> W state     |  -> L state     |  -> NI state   |
| [Actions A3]   |  [Actions A3]   |  [Actions A2]   |  [Actions A4]  |
+----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+

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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                    In I Am Assert Loser (L) State                   |
+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
|Receive      |Receive      |Receive      |Assert Timer |Current      |
|Preferred    |Acceptable   |Inferior     |Expires      |Winner's     |
|Assert with  |Assert from  |Assert or    |             |GenID        |
|RPTbit set   |Current      |Assert       |             |Changes or   |
|             |Winner with  |Cancel from  |             |NLT Expires  |
|             |RPTbit set   |Current      |             |             |
|             |             |Winner       |             |             |
+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
|-> L state   |-> L state   |-> NI state  |-> NI state  |-> NI state  |
|[Actions A2] |[Actions A2] |[Actions A5] |[Actions A5] |[Actions A5] |
+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                    In I Am Assert Loser (L) State                    |
+----------------+----------------+-----------------+------------------+
| AssTrDes       | my_metric ->   |  RPF_interface  |  Receive         |
| (*,G,I) ->     | better than    |  (RP(G)) stops  |  Join(*,G) or    |
| FALSE          | Winner's       |  being I        |  Join            |
|                | metric         |                 |  (*,*,RP(G)) on  |
|                |                |                 |  Interface I     |
+----------------+----------------+-----------------+------------------+
| -> NI state    | -> NI state    |  -> NI state    |  -> NI State     |
| [Actions A5]   | [Actions A5]   |  [Actions A5]   |  [Actions A5]    |
+----------------+----------------+-----------------+------------------+

   The state machine uses the following macros:

   CouldAssert(*,G,I) =
       ( I in ( joins(*,*,RP(G)) (+) joins(*,G)
                (+) pim_include(*,G)) )
       AND (RPF_interface(RP(G)) != I)

   CouldAssert(*,G,I) is true on downstream interfaces for which we have
   (*,*,RP(G)) or (*,G) join state, or local members that requested any
   traffic destined for G.

   AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I) =
       CouldAssert(*,G,I)
       OR (local_receiver_include(*,G,I)==TRUE
           AND (I_am_DR(I) OR AssertWinner(*,G,I) == me))
       OR (RPF_interface(RP(G)) == I AND RPTJoinDesired(G))

   AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I) is true on any interface on which an
   (*,G) assert might affect our behavior.

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   Note that for reasons of compactness, "AssTrDes(*,G,I)" is used in
   the state machine table to refer to AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I).

   Terminology:

      A "preferred assert" is one with a better metric than the current
      winner.

      An "acceptable assert" is one that has a better metric than
      my_assert_metric(*,G,I).  An assert is never considered acceptable
      if its metric is infinite.

      An "inferior assert" is one with a worse metric than
      my_assert_metric(*,G,I).  An assert is never considered inferior
      if my_assert_metric(*,G,I) is infinite.

   Transitions from NoInfo State

   When in NoInfo state, the following events trigger transitions, but
   only if the (S,G) assert state machine is in NoInfo state before and
   after consideration of the received message:

     Receive Inferior Assert with RPTbit set AND
          CouldAssert(*,G,I)==TRUE
          An Inferior (*,G) assert is received for G on Interface I.  If
          CouldAssert(*,G,I) is TRUE, then I is our downstream
          interface, and we have (*,G) forwarding state on this
          interface, so we should be the assert winner.  We transition
          to the "I am Assert Winner" state and perform Actions A1
          (below).

     A data packet destined for G arrives on interface I, AND
          CouldAssert(*,G,I)==TRUE
          A data packet destined for G arrived on a downstream interface
          that is in our (*,G) outgoing interface list.  We therefore
          believe we should be the forwarder for this (*,G), and so we
          transition to the "I am Assert Winner" state and perform
          Actions A1 (below).

     Receive Acceptable Assert with RPT bit set AND
          AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I)==TRUE
          We're interested in (*,G) Asserts, either because I is a
          downstream interface for which we have (*,G) forwarding state,
          or because I is the upstream interface for RP(G) and we have
          (*,G) forwarding state.  We get a (*,G) Assert that has a
          better metric than our own, so we do not win the Assert.  We
          transition to "I am Assert Loser" and perform Actions A2
          (below).

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   Transitions from "I am Assert Winner" State

   When in "I am Assert Winner" state, the following events trigger
   transitions, but only if the (S,G) assert state machine is in NoInfo
   state before and after consideration of the received message:

     Receive Inferior Assert
          We receive a (*,G) assert that has a worse metric than our
          own.  Whoever sent the assert has lost, and so we resend a
          (*,G) Assert and restart the Assert Timer (Actions A3 below).

     Receive Preferred Assert
          We receive a (*,G) assert that has a better metric than our
          own.  We transition to "I am Assert Loser" state and perform
          Actions A2 (below).

   When in "I am Assert Winner" state, the following events trigger
   transitions:

     Assert Timer Expires
          The (*,G) Assert Timer expires.  As we're in the Winner state,
          then we must still have (*,G) forwarding state that is
          actively being kept alive.  To prevent unnecessary thrashing
          of the forwarder and periodic flooding of duplicate packets,
          we resend the (*,G) Assert and restart the Assert Timer
          (Actions A3 below).

     CouldAssert(*,G,I) -> FALSE
          Our (*,G) forwarding state or RPF interface changed so as to
          make CouldAssert(*,G,I) become false.  We can no longer
          perform the actions of the assert winner, and so we transition
          to NoInfo state and perform Actions A4 (below).

   Transitions from "I am Assert Loser" State

   When in "I am Assert Loser" state, the following events trigger
   transitions, but only if the (S,G) assert state machine is in NoInfo
   state before and after consideration of the received message:

     Receive Preferred Assert with RPTbit set
          We receive a (*,G) assert that is better than that of the
          current assert winner.  We stay in Loser state and perform
          Actions A2 below.

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     Receive Acceptable Assert from Current Winner with RPTbit set
          We receive a (*,G) assert from the current assert winner that
          is better than our own metric for this group (although the
          metric may be worse than the winner's previous metric).  We
          stay in Loser state and perform Actions A2 below.

     Receive Inferior Assert or Assert Cancel from Current Winner
          We receive an assert from the current assert winner that is
          worse than our own metric for this group (typically because
          the winner's metric became worse or is now an assert cancel).
          We transition to NoInfo state, delete this (*,G) assert state
          (Actions A5), and allow the normal PIM Join/Prune mechanisms
          to operate.  Usually, we will eventually re-assert and win
          when data packets for G have started flowing again.

   When in "I am Assert Loser" state, the following events trigger
   transitions:

     Assert Timer Expires
          The (*,G) Assert Timer expires.  We transition to NoInfo state
          and delete this (*,G) assert info (Actions A5).

     Current Winner's GenID Changes or NLT Expires
          The Neighbor Liveness Timer associated with the current winner
          expires or we receive a Hello message from the current winner
          reporting a different GenID from the one it previously
          reported.  This indicates that the current winner's interface
          or router has gone down (and may have come back up), and so we
          must assume it no longer knows it was the winner.  We
          transition to the NoInfo state, deleting the (*,G) assert
          information (Actions A5).

     AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I)->FALSE
          AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I) becomes FALSE.  Our forwarding
          state has changed so that (*,G) Asserts on interface I are no
          longer of interest to us.  We transition to NoInfo state and
          delete this (*,G) assert info (Actions A5).

     My metric becomes better than the assert winner's metric
          My routing metric, rpt_assert_metric(G,I), has changed so that
          now my assert metric for (*,G) is better than the metric we
          have stored for current assert winner.  We transition to
          NoInfo state, delete this (*,G) assert state (Actions A5), and
          allow the normal PIM Join/Prune mechanisms to operate.
          Usually, we will eventually re-assert and win when data
          packets for G have started flowing again.

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     RPF_interface(RP(G)) stops being interface I
          Interface I used to be the RPF interface for RP(G), and now it
          is not.  We transition to NoInfo state and delete this (*,G)
          assert state (Actions A5).

     Receive Join(*,G) or Join(*,*,RP(G)) on interface I
          We receive a Join(*,G) or a Join(*,*,RP(G)) that has the
          Upstream Neighbor Address field set to my primary IP address
          on interface I.  The action is to transition to NoInfo state,
          delete this (*,G) assert state (Actions A5), and allow the
          normal PIM Join/Prune mechanisms to operate.  If whoever sent
          the Join was in error, then the normal assert mechanism will
          eventually re-apply, and we will lose the assert again.
          However, whoever sent the assert may know that the previous
          assert winner has died, so we may end up being the new
          forwarder.

   (*,G) Assert State machine Actions

     A1:  Send Assert(*,G).
          Set Assert Timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval).
          Store self as AssertWinner(*,G,I).
          Store rpt_assert_metric(G,I) as AssertWinnerMetric(*,G,I).

     A2:  Store new assert winner as AssertWinner(*,G,I) and assert
          winner metric as AssertWinnerMetric(*,G,I).
          Set Assert Timer to Assert_Time.

     A3:  Send Assert(*,G)
          Set Assert Timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval).

     A4:  Send AssertCancel(*,G).
          Delete assert info (AssertWinner(*,G,I) and
          AssertWinnerMetric(*,G,I) will then return their default
          values).

     A5:  Delete assert info (AssertWinner(*,G,I) and
          AssertWinnerMetric(*,G,I) will then return their default
          values).

   Note that some of these actions may cause the value of
   JoinDesired(*,G) or RPF'(*,G)) to change, which could cause further
   transitions in other state machines.

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4.6.3.  Assert Metrics

   Assert metrics are defined as:

     struct assert_metric {
       rpt_bit_flag;
       metric_preference;
       route_metric;
       ip_address;
     };

   When comparing assert_metrics, the rpt_bit_flag, metric_preference,
   and route_metric field are compared in order, where the first lower
   value wins.  If all fields are equal, the primary IP address of the
   router that sourced the Assert message is used as a tie-breaker, with
   the highest IP address winning.

   An assert metric for (S,G) to include in (or compare against) an
   Assert message sent on interface I should be computed using the
   following pseudocode:

     assert_metric
     my_assert_metric(S,G,I) {
         if( CouldAssert(S,G,I) == TRUE ) {
             return spt_assert_metric(S,I)
         } else if( CouldAssert(*,G,I) == TRUE ) {
             return rpt_assert_metric(G,I)
         } else {
             return infinite_assert_metric()
         }
     }

   spt_assert_metric(S,I) gives the assert metric we use if we're
   sending an assert based on active (S,G) forwarding state:

     assert_metric
     spt_assert_metric(S,I) {
        return {0,MRIB.pref(S),MRIB.metric(S),my_ip_address(I)}
     }

   rpt_assert_metric(G,I) gives the assert metric we use if we're
   sending an assert based only on (*,G) forwarding state:

     assert_metric
     rpt_assert_metric(G,I) {
         return {1,MRIB.pref(RP(G)),MRIB.metric(RP(G)),my_ip_address(I)}
     }

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   MRIB.pref(X) and MRIB.metric(X) are the routing preference and
   routing metrics associated with the route to a particular (unicast)
   destination X, as determined by the MRIB.  my_ip_address(I) is simply
   the router's primary IP address that is associated with the local
   interface I.

   infinite_assert_metric() gives the assert metric we need to send an
   assert but don't match either (S,G) or (*,G) forwarding state:

     assert_metric
     infinite_assert_metric() {
          return {1,infinity,infinity,0}
     }

4.6.4.  AssertCancel Messages

   An AssertCancel message is simply an RPT Assert message but with
   infinite metric.  It is sent by the assert winner when it deletes the
   forwarding state that had caused the assert to occur.  Other routers
   will see this metric, and it will cause any other router that has
   forwarding state to send its own assert, and to take over forwarding.

   An AssertCancel(S,G) is an infinite metric assert with the RPT bit
   set that names S as the source.

   An AssertCancel(*,G) is an infinite metric assert with the RPT bit
   set and the source set to zero.

   AssertCancel messages are simply an optimization.  The original
   Assert timeout mechanism will allow a subnet to eventually become
   consistent; the AssertCancel mechanism simply causes faster
   convergence.  No special processing is required for an AssertCancel
   message, since it is simply an Assert message from the current
   winner.

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4.6.5.  Assert State Macros

   The macros lost_assert(S,G,rpt,I), lost_assert(S,G,I), and
   lost_assert(*,G,I) are used in the olist computations of Section 4.1,
   and are defined as:

     bool lost_assert(S,G,rpt,I) {
       if ( RPF_interface(RP(G)) == I  OR
            ( RPF_interface(S) == I AND SPTbit(S,G) == TRUE ) ) {
          return FALSE
       } else {
          return ( AssertWinner(S,G,I) != NULL AND
                   AssertWinner(S,G,I) != me )
       }
     }

     bool lost_assert(S,G,I) {
       if ( RPF_interface(S) == I ) {
          return FALSE
       } else {
          return ( AssertWinner(S,G,I) != NULL AND
                   AssertWinner(S,G,I) != me  AND
                   (AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I) is better
                      than spt_assert_metric(S,I) )
       }
     }

   Note: the term "AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I) is better than
   spt_assert_metric(S,I)" is required to correctly handle the
   transition phase when a router has (S,G) join state, but has not yet
   set the SPT bit.  In this case, it needs to ignore the assert state
   if it will win the assert once the SPTbit is set.

     bool lost_assert(*,G,I) {
       if ( RPF_interface(RP(G)) == I ) {
          return FALSE
       } else {
          return ( AssertWinner(*,G,I) != NULL AND
                   AssertWinner(*,G,I) != me )
       }
     }

   AssertWinner(S,G,I) is the IP source address of the Assert(S,G)
   packet that won an Assert.

   AssertWinner(*,G,I) is the IP source address of the Assert(*,G)
   packet that won an Assert.

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   AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I) is the Assert metric of the Assert(S,G)
   packet that won an Assert.

   AssertWinnerMetric(*,G,I) is the Assert metric of the Assert(*,G)
   packet that won an Assert.

   AssertWinner(S,G,I) defaults to NULL and AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I)
   defaults to Infinity when in the NoInfo state.

   Summary of Assert Rules and Rationale

   This section summarizes the key rules for sending and reacting to
   asserts and the rationale for these rules.  This section is not
   intended to be and should not be treated as a definitive
   specification of protocol behavior.  The state machines and
   pseudocode should be consulted for that purpose.  Rather, this
   section is intended to document important aspects of the Assert
   protocol behavior and to provide information that may prove helpful
   to the reader in understanding and implementing this part of the
   protocol.

   1.  Behavior: Downstream neighbors send Join(*,G) and Join(S,G)
       periodic messages to the appropriate RPF' neighbor, i.e., the RPF
       neighbor as modified by the assert process.  They are not always
       sent to the RPF neighbor as indicated by the MRIB.  Normal
       suppression and override rules apply.

       Rationale: By sending the periodic and triggered Join messages to
       the RPF' neighbor instead of to the RPF neighbor, the downstream
       router avoids re-triggering the Assert process with every Join.
       A side effect of sending Joins to the Assert winner is that
       traffic will not switch back to the "normal" RPF neighbor until
       the Assert times out.  This will not happen until data stops
       flowing, if item 8, below, is implemented.

   2.  Behavior: The assert winner for (*,G) acts as the local DR for
       (*,G) on behalf of IGMP/MLD members.

       Rationale: This is required to allow a single router to merge PIM
       and IGMP/MLD joins and leaves.  Without this, overrides don't
       work.

   3.  Behavior: The assert winner for (S,G) acts as the local DR for
       (S,G) on behalf of IGMPv3 members.

       Rationale: Same rationale as for item 2.

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   4.  Behavior: (S,G) and (*,G) prune overrides are sent to the RPF'
       neighbor and not to the regular RPF neighbor.

       Rationale: Same rationale as for item 1.

   5.  Behavior: An (S,G,rpt) prune override is not sent (at all) if
       RPF'(S,G,rpt) != RPF'(*,G).

       Rationale: This avoids keeping state alive on the (S,G) tree when
       only (*,G) downstream members are left.  Also, it avoids sending
       (S,G,rpt) joins to a router that is not on the (*,G) tree.  This
       behavior might be confusing although this specification does
       indicate that such a join should be dropped.

   6.  Behavior: An assert loser that receives a Join(S,G) with an
       Upstream Neighbor Address that is its primary IP address on that
       interface cancels the (S,G) Assert Timer.

       Rationale: This is necessary in order to have rapid convergence
       in the event that the downstream router that initially sent a
       join to the prior Assert winner has undergone a topology change.

   7.  Behavior: An assert loser that receives a Join(*,G) or a
       Join(*,*,RP(G)) with an Upstream Neighbor Address that is its
       primary IP address on that interface cancels the (*,G) Assert
       Timer and all (S,G) assert timers that do not have corresponding
       Prune(S,G,rpt) messages in the compound Join/Prune message.

       Rationale: Same rationale as for item 6.

   8.  Behavior: An assert winner for (*,G) or (S,G) sends a canceling
       assert when it is about to stop forwarding on a (*,G) or an (S,G)
       entry.  This behavior does not apply to (S,G,rpt).

       Rationale: This allows switching back to the shared tree after
       the last SPT router on the LAN leaves.  Doing this prevents
       downstream routers on the shared tree from keeping SPT state
       alive.

   9.  Behavior: Resend the assert messages before timing out an assert.
       (This behavior is optional.)

       Rationale: This prevents the periodic duplicates that would
       otherwise occur each time that an assert times out and is then
       re-established.

   10. Behavior: When RPF'(S,G,rpt) changes to be the same as RPF'(*,G)
       we need to trigger a Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(*,G).

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       Rationale: This allows switching back to the RPT after the last
       SPT member leaves.

4.7.  PIM Bootstrap and RP Discovery

   For correct operation, every PIM router within a PIM domain must be
   able to map a particular multicast group address to the same RP.  If
   this is not the case, then black holes may appear, where some
   receivers in the domain cannot receive some groups.  A domain in this
   context is a contiguous set of routers that all implement PIM and are
   configured to operate within a common boundary.

   A notable exception to this is where a PIM domain is broken up into
   multiple administrative scope regions; these are regions where a
   border has been configured so that a range of multicast groups will
   not be forwarded across that border.  For more information on
   Administratively Scoped IP Multicast, see RFC 2365.  The modified
   criteria for admin-scoped regions are that the region is convex with
   respect to forwarding based on the MRIB, and that all PIM routers
   within the scope region map scoped groups to the same RP within that
   region.

   This specification does not mandate the use of a single mechanism to
   provide routers with the information to perform the group-to-RP
   mapping.  Currently four mechanisms are possible, and all four have
   associated problems:

   Static Configuration
        A PIM router MUST support the static configuration of group-to-
        RP mappings.  Such a mechanism is not robust to failures, but
        does at least provide a basic interoperability mechanism.

   Embedded-RP
        Embedded-RP defines an address allocation policy in which the
        address of the Rendezvous Point (RP) is encoded in an IPv6
        multicast group address [17].

   Cisco's Auto-RP
        Auto-RP uses a PIM Dense-Mode multicast group to announce
        group-to-RP mappings from a central location.  This mechanism is
        not useful if PIM Dense-Mode is not being run in parallel with
        PIM Sparse-Mode, and was only intended for use with PIM Sparse-
        Mode Version 1.  No standard specification currently exists.

   BootStrap Router (BSR)
        RFC 2362 specifies a bootstrap mechanism based on the automatic
        election of a bootstrap router (BSR).  Any router in the domain
        that is configured to be a possible RP reports its candidacy to

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        the BSR, and then a domain-wide flooding mechanism distributes
        the BSR's chosen set of RPs throughout the domain.  As specified
        in RFC 2362, BSR is flawed in its handling of admin-scoped
        regions that are smaller than a PIM domain, but the mechanism
        does work for global-scoped groups.

   As far as PIM-SM is concerned, the only important requirement is that
   all routers in the domain (or admin scope zone for scoped regions)
   receive the same set of group-range-to-RP mappings.  This may be
   achieved through the use of any of these mechanisms, or through
   alternative mechanisms not currently specified.

   It must be operationally ensured that any RP address configured,
   learned, or advertised is reachable from all routers in the PIM
   domain.

4.7.1.  Group-to-RP Mapping

   Using one of the mechanisms described above, a PIM router receives
   one or more possible group-range-to-RP mappings.  Each mapping
   specifies a range of multicast groups (expressed as a group and mask)
   and the RP to which such groups should be mapped.  Each mapping may
   also have an associated priority.  It is possible to receive multiple
   mappings, all of which might match the same multicast group; this is
   the common case with BSR.  The algorithm for performing the group-
   to-RP mapping is as follows:

   1.  Perform longest match on group-range to obtain a list of RPs.

   2.  From this list of matching RPs, find the one with highest
       priority.  Eliminate any RPs from the list that have lower
       priorities.

   3.  If only one RP remains in the list, use that RP.

   4.  If multiple RPs are in the list, use the PIM hash function to
       choose one.

   Thus, if two or more group-range-to-RP mappings cover a particular
   group, the one with the longest mask is the mapping to use.  If the
   mappings have the same mask length, then the one with the highest
   priority is chosen.  If there is more than one matching entry with
   the same longest mask and the priorities are identical, then a hash
   function (see Section 4.7.2) is applied to choose the RP.

   This algorithm is invoked by a DR when it needs to determine an RP
   for a given group, e.g., upon reception of a packet or IGMP/MLD
   membership indication for a group for which the DR does not know the

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   RP.  It is invoked by any router that has (*,*,RP) state when a
   packet is received for which there is no corresponding (S,G) or (*,G)
   entry.  Furthermore, the mapping function is invoked by all routers
   upon receiving a (*,G) or (*,*,RP) Join/Prune message.

   Note that if the set of possible group-range-to-RP mappings changes,
   each router will need to check whether any existing groups are
   affected.  This may, for example, cause a DR or acting DR to re-join
   a group, or cause it to restart register encapsulation to the new RP.

     Implementation note: the bootstrap mechanism described in RFC 2362
     omitted step 1 above.  However, of the implementations we are aware
     of, approximately half performed step 1 anyway.  Note that
     implementations of BSR that omit step 1 will not correctly
     interoperate with implementations of this specification when used
     with the BSR mechanism described in [11].

4.7.2.  Hash Function

   The hash function is used by all routers within a domain, to map a
   group to one of the RPs from the matching set of group-range-to-RP
   mappings (this set all have the same longest mask length and same
   highest priority).  The algorithm takes as input the group address,
   and the addresses of the candidate RPs from the mappings, and gives
   as output one RP address to be used.

   The protocol requires that all routers hash to the same RP within a
   domain (except for transients).  The following hash function must be
   used in each router:

   1.  For RP addresses in the matching group-range-to-RP mappings,
       compute a value:

   Value(G,M,C(i))=
   (1103515245 * ((1103515245 * (G&M)+12345) XOR C(i)) + 12345) mod 2^31

       where C(i) is the RP address and M is a hash-mask.  If BSR is
       being used, the hash-mask is given in the Bootstrap messages.  If
       BSR is not being used, the alternative mechanism that supplies
       the group-range-to-RP mappings may supply the value, or else it
       defaults to a mask with the most significant 30 bits being one
       for IPv4 and the most significant 126 bits being one for IPv6.
       The hash-mask allows a small number of consecutive groups (e.g.,
       4) to always hash to the same RP.  For instance, hierarchically-
       encoded data can be sent on consecutive group addresses to get
       the same delay and fate-sharing characteristics.

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       For address families other than IPv4, a 32-bit digest to be used
       as C(i) and G must first be derived from the actual RP or group
       address.  Such a digest method must be used consistently
       throughout the PIM domain.  For IPv6 addresses, we recommend
       using the equivalent IPv4 address for an IPv4-compatible address,
       and the exclusive-or of each 32-bit segment of the address for
       all other IPv6 addresses.  For example, the digest of the IPv6
       address 3ffe:b00:c18:1::10 would be computed as 0x3ffe0b00 ^
       0x0c180001 ^ 0x00000000 ^ 0x00000010, where ^ represents the
       exclusive-or operation.

   2.  The candidate RP with the highest resulting hash value is then
       the RP chosen by this Hash Function.  If more than one RP has the
       same highest hash value, the RP with the highest IP address is
       chosen.

4.8.  Source-Specific Multicast

   The Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) service model [6] can be
   implemented with a strict subset of the PIM-SM protocol mechanisms.
   Both regular IP Multicast and SSM semantics can coexist on a single
   router, and both can be implemented using the PIM-SM protocol.  A
   range of multicast addresses, currently 232.0.0.0/8 in IPv4 and
   FF3x::/32 for IPv6, is reserved for SSM, and the choice of semantics
   is determined by the multicast group address in both data packets and
   PIM messages.

4.8.1.  Protocol Modifications for SSM Destination Addresses

   The following rules override the normal PIM-SM behavior for a
   multicast address G in the SSM range:

   o A router MUST NOT send a (*,G) Join/Prune message for any reason.

   o A router MUST NOT send an (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune message for any
   reason.

   o A router MUST NOT send a Register message for any packet that is
     destined to an SSM address.

   o A router MUST NOT forward packets based on (*,G) or (S,G,rpt)
     state.  The (*,G)- and (S,G,rpt)-related state summarization macros
     are NULL for any SSM address, for the purposes of packet
     forwarding.

   o A router acting as an RP MUST NOT forward any Register-encapsulated
     packet that has an SSM destination address.

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   The last two rules are present to deal with "legacy" routers unaware
   of SSM that may be sending (*,G) and (S,G,rpt) Join/Prunes, or
   Register messages for SSM destination addresses.

   Additionally:

   o A router MAY be configured to advertise itself as a Candidate RP
     for an SSM address.  If so, it SHOULD respond with a Register-Stop
     message to any Register message containing a packet destined for an
     SSM address.

   o A router MAY optimize out the creation and maintenance of (S,G,rpt)
     and (*,G) state for SSM destination addresses -- this state is not
     needed for SSM packets.

4.8.2.  PIM-SSM-Only Routers

   An implementer may choose to implement only the subset of PIM
   Sparse-Mode that provides SSM forwarding semantics.

   A PIM-SSM-only router MUST implement the following portions of this
   specification:

   o Upstream (S,G) state machine (Section 4.5.7)

   o Downstream (S,G) state machine (Section 4.5.3)

   o (S,G) Assert state machine (Section 4.6.1)

   o Hello messages, neighbor discovery, and DR election (Section 4.3)

   o Packet forwarding rules (Section 4.2)

   A PIM-SSM-only router does not need to implement the following
   protocol elements:

   o Register state machine (Section 4.4)

   o (*,G), (S,G,rpt), and (*,*,RP) Downstream state machines (Sections
     4.5.2, 4.5.4, and 4.5.1)

   o (*,G), (S,G,rpt), and (*,*,RP) Upstream state machines (Sections
     4.5.6, 4.5.8, and 4.5.5)

   o (*,G) Assert state machine (Section 4.6.2)

   o Bootstrap RP Election (Section 4.7)

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   o Keepalive Timer

   o SPTbit (Section 4.2.2)

   The Keepalive Timer should be treated as always running, and SPTbit
   should be treated as always being set for an SSM address.
   Additionally, the Packet forwarding rules of Section 4.2 can be
   simplified in a PIM-SSM-only router:

     if( iif == RPF_interface(S) AND UpstreamJPState(S,G) == Joined ) {
         oiflist = inherited_olist(S,G)
     } else if( iif is in inherited_olist(S,G) ) {
         send Assert(S,G) on iif
     }

     oiflist = oiflist (-) iif
     forward packet on all interfaces in oiflist

   This is nothing more than the reduction of the normal PIM-SM
   forwarding rule, with all (S,G,rpt) and (*,G) clauses replaced with
   NULL.

4.9.  PIM Packet Formats

   This section describes the details of the packet formats for PIM
   control messages.

   All PIM control messages have IP protocol number 103.

   PIM messages are either unicast (e.g., Registers and Register-Stop)
   or multicast with TTL 1 to the 'ALL-PIM-ROUTERS' group (e.g.,
   Join/Prune, Asserts, etc.).  The source address used for unicast
   messages is a domain-wide reachable address; the source address used
   for multicast messages is the link-local address of the interface on
   which the message is being sent.

   The IPv4 'ALL-PIM-ROUTERS' group is '224.0.0.13'.  The IPv6 'ALL-PIM-
   ROUTERS' group is 'ff02::d'.

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   The PIM header common to all PIM messages is:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |PIM Ver| Type  |   Reserved    |           Checksum            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   PIM Ver
        PIM Version number is 2.

   Type Types for specific PIM messages.  PIM Types are:

   Message Type                          Destination
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------
   0 = Hello                             Multicast to ALL-PIM-ROUTERS
   1 = Register                          Unicast to RP
   2 = Register-Stop                     Unicast to source of Register
                                            packet
   3 = Join/Prune                        Multicast to ALL-PIM-ROUTERS
   4 = Bootstrap                         Multicast to ALL-PIM-ROUTERS
   5 = Assert                            Multicast to ALL-PIM-ROUTERS
   6 = Graft (used in PIM-DM only)       Unicast to RPF'(S)
   7 = Graft-Ack (used in PIM-DM only)   Unicast to source of Graft
                                            packet
   8 = Candidate-RP-Advertisement        Unicast to Domain's BSR

   Reserved
        Set to zero on transmission.  Ignored upon receipt.

   Checksum
        The checksum is a standard IP checksum, i.e., the 16-bit one's
        complement of the one's complement sum of the entire PIM
        message, excluding the "Multicast data packet" section of the
        Register message.  For computing the checksum, the checksum
        field is zeroed.  If the packet's length is not an integral
        number of 16-bit words, the packet is padded with a trailing
        byte of zero before performing the checksum.

        For IPv6, the checksum also includes the IPv6 "pseudo-header",
        as specified in RFC 2460, Section 8.1 [5].  This "pseudo-header"
        is prepended to the PIM header for the purposes of calculating
        the checksum.  The "Upper-Layer Packet Length" in the pseudo-
        header is set to the length of the PIM message, except in
        Register messages where it is set to the length of the PIM
        register header (8).  The Next Header value used in the pseudo-
        header is 103.

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   If a message is received with an unrecognized PIM Ver or Type field,
   or if a message's destination does not correspond to the table above,
   the message MUST be discarded, and an error message SHOULD be logged
   to the administrator in a rate-limited manner.

4.9.1.  Encoded Source and Group Address Formats

   Encoded-Unicast Address

   An Encoded-Unicast address takes the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Addr Family  | Encoding Type |     Unicast Address
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...

   Addr Family
        The PIM address family of the 'Unicast Address' field of this
        address.

        Values 0-127 are as assigned by the IANA for Internet Address
        Families in [7].  Values 128-250 are reserved to be assigned by
        the IANA for PIM-specific Address Families.  Values 251 though
        255 are designated for private use.  As there is no assignment
        authority for this space, collisions should be expected.

   Encoding Type
        The type of encoding used within a specific Address Family.  The
        value '0' is reserved for this field and represents the native
        encoding of the Address Family.

   Unicast Address
        The unicast address as represented by the given Address Family
        and Encoding Type.

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   Encoded-Group Address

   Encoded-Group addresses take the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Addr Family  | Encoding Type |B| Reserved  |Z|  Mask Len     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                Group multicast Address
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...

   Addr Family
        Described above.

   Encoding Type
        Described above.

   [B]idirectional PIM
        Indicates the group range should use Bidirectional PIM [13].
        For PIM-SM defined in this specification, this bit MUST be zero.

   Reserved
        Transmitted as zero.  Ignored upon receipt.

   Admin Scope [Z]one
        indicates the group range is an admin scope zone.  This is used
        in the Bootstrap Router Mechanism [11] only.  For all other
        purposes, this bit is set to zero and ignored on receipt.

   Mask Len
        The Mask length field is 8 bits.  The value is the number of
        contiguous one bits that are left justified and used as a mask;
        when combined with the group address, it describes a range of
        groups.  It is less than or equal to the address length in bits
        for the given Address Family and Encoding Type.  If the message
        is sent for a single group, then the Mask length must equal the
        address length in bits for the given Address Family and Encoding
        Type (e.g., 32 for IPv4 native encoding, 128 for IPv6 native
        encoding).

   Group multicast Address
        Contains the group address.

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   Encoded-Source Address

   Encoded-Source address takes the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Addr Family   | Encoding Type | Rsrvd   |S|W|R|  Mask Len     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Source Address
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...

   Addr Family
        Described above.

   Encoding Type
        Described above.

   Reserved
        Transmitted as zero, ignored on receipt.

   S    The Sparse bit is a 1-bit value, set to 1 for PIM-SM.  It is
        used for PIM version 1 compatibility.

   W    The WC (or WildCard) bit is a 1-bit value for use with PIM
        Join/Prune messages (see Section 4.9.5.1).

   R    The RPT (or Rendezvous Point Tree) bit is a 1-bit value for use
        with PIM Join/Prune messages (see Section 4.9.5.1).  If the WC
        bit is 1, the RPT bit MUST be 1.

   Mask Len
        The mask length field is 8 bits.  The value is the number of
        contiguous one bits left justified used as a mask which,
        combined with the Source Address, describes a source subnet.
        The mask length MUST be equal to the mask length in bits for the
        given Address Family and Encoding Type (32 for IPv4 native and
        128 for IPv6 native).  A router SHOULD ignore any messages
        received with any other mask length.

   Source Address
        The source address.

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4.9.2.  Hello Message Format

   It is sent periodically by routers on all interfaces.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |PIM Ver| Type  |   Reserved    |           Checksum            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          OptionType           |         OptionLength          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          OptionValue                          |
   |                              ...                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               .                               |
   |                               .                               |
   |                               .                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          OptionType           |         OptionLength          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          OptionValue                          |
   |                              ...                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
        Described in Section 4.9.

   OptionType
        The type of the option given in the following OptionValue field.

   OptionLength
        The length of the OptionValue field in bytes.

   OptionValue
        A variable length field, carrying the value of the option.

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   The Option fields may contain the following values:

   o OptionType 1: Holdtime

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 1             |         Length = 2            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Holdtime             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Holdtime is the amount of time a receiver must keep the neighbor
     reachable, in seconds.  If the Holdtime is set to '0xffff', the
     receiver of this message never times out the neighbor.  This may be
     used with dial-on-demand links, to avoid keeping the link up with
     periodic Hello messages.

     Hello messages with a Holdtime value set to '0' are also sent by a
     router on an interface about to go down or changing IP address (see
     Section 4.3.1).  These are effectively goodbye messages, and the
     receiving routers should immediately time out the neighbor
     information for the sender.

   o OptionType 2: LAN Prune Delay

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 2             |          Length = 4           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |T|      Propagation_Delay      |      Override_Interval        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     The LAN Prune Delay option is used to tune the prune propagation
     delay on multi-access LANs.  The T bit specifies the ability of the
     sending router to disable joins suppression.  Propagation_Delay and
     Override_Interval are time intervals in units of milliseconds.  A
     router originating a LAN Prune Delay option on interface I sets the
     Propagation_Delay field to the configured value of
     Propagation_Delay(I) and the value of the Override_Interval field
     to the value of Override_Interval(I).  On a receiving router, the
     values of the fields are used to tune the value of the
     Effective_Override_Interval(I) and its derived timer values.
     Section 4.3.3 describes how these values affect the behavior of a
     router.

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   o OptionType 3 to 16: reserved to be defined in future versions of
     this document.

   o OptionType 18: deprecated and should not be used.

   o OptionType 19: DR Priority

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 19            |          Length = 4           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         DR Priority                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     DR Priority is a 32-bit unsigned number and should be considered in
     the DR election as described in Section 4.3.2.

   o OptionType 20: Generation ID

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 20            |          Length = 4           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                       Generation ID                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Generation ID is a random 32-bit value for the interface on which
     the Hello message is sent.  The Generation ID is regenerated
     whenever PIM forwarding is started or restarted on the interface.

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   o OptionType 24: Address List

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Type = 24            |      Length = <Variable>      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Secondary Address 1 (Encoded-Unicast format)          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                    ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Secondary Address N (Encoded-Unicast format)          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     The contents of the Address List Hello option are described in
     Section 4.3.4. All addresses within a single Address List must
     belong to the same address family.

   OptionTypes 17 through 65000 are assigned by the IANA.  OptionTypes
   65001 through 65535 are reserved for Private Use, as defined in [9].

   Unknown options MUST be ignored and MUST NOT prevent a neighbor
   relationship from being formed.  The "Holdtime" option MUST be
   implemented; the "DR Priority" and "Generation ID" options SHOULD be
   implemented.  The "Address List" option MUST be implemented for IPv6.

4.9.3.  Register Message Format

   A Register message is sent by the DR or a PMBR to the RP when a
   multicast packet needs to be transmitted on the RP-tree.  The IP
   source address is set to the address of the DR, the destination
   address to the RP's address.  The IP TTL of the PIM packet is the
   system's normal unicast TTL.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |PIM Ver| Type  |   Reserved    |           Checksum            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |B|N|                       Reserved2                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   .                     Multicast data packet                     .
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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   PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
        Described in Section 4.9. Note that in order to reduce
        encapsulation overhead, the checksum for Registers is done only
        on the first 8 bytes of the packet, including the PIM header and
        the next 4 bytes, excluding the data packet portion.  For
        interoperability reasons, a message carrying a checksum
        calculated over the entire PIM Register message should also be
        accepted.  When calculating the checksum, the IPv6 pseudoheader
        "Upper-Layer Packet Length" is set to 8.

   B    The Border bit.  If the router is a DR for a source that it is
        directly connected to, it sets the B bit to 0.  If the router is
        a PMBR for a source in a directly connected cloud, it sets the B
        bit to 1.

   N    The Null-Register bit.  Set to 1 by a DR that is probing the RP
        before expiring its local Register-Suppression Timer.  Set to 0
        otherwise.

   Reserved2
        Transmitted as zero, ignored on receipt.

   Multicast data packet
        The original packet sent by the source.  This packet must be of
        the same address family as the encapsulating PIM packet, e.g.,
        an IPv6 data packet must be encapsulated in an IPv6 PIM packet.
        Note that the TTL of the original packet is decremented before
        encapsulation, just like any other packet that is forwarded.  In
        addition, the RP decrements the TTL after decapsulating, before
        forwarding the packet down the shared tree.

        For (S,G) Null-Registers, the Multicast data packet portion
        contains a dummy IP header with S as the source address, G as
        the destination address.  When generating an IPv4 Null-Register
        message, the fields in the dummy IPv4 header SHOULD be filled in
        according to the following table.  Other IPv4 header fields may
        contain any value that is valid for that field.

        Field                  Value
        ---------------------------------------
        IP Version             4
        Header Length          5
        Checksum               Header checksum
        Fragmentation offset   0
        More Fragments         0
        Total Length           20
        IP Protocol            103 (PIM)

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        On receipt of an (S,G) Null-Register, if the Header Checksum
        field is non-zero, the recipient SHOULD check the checksum and
        discard null registers that have a bad checksum.  The recipient
        SHOULD NOT check the value of any individual fields; a correct
        IP header checksum is sufficient.  If the Header Checksum field
        is zero, the recipient MUST NOT check the checksum.

        With IPv6, an implementation generates a dummy IP header
        followed by a dummy PIM header with values according to the
        following table in addition to the source and group.  Other IPv6
        header fields may contain any value that is valid for that
        field.

        Header Field   Value
        --------------------------------------
        IP Version     6
        Next Header    103 (PIM)
        Length         4
        PIM Version    0
        PIM Type       0
        PIM Reserved   0
        PIM Checksum   PIM checksum including
                       IPv6 "pseudo-header";
                       see Section 4.9

        On receipt of an IPv6 (S,G) Null-Register, if the dummy PIM
        header is present, the recipient SHOULD check the checksum and
        discard Null-Registers that have a bad checksum.

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4.9.4.  Register-Stop Message Format

   A Register-Stop is unicast from the RP to the sender of the Register
   message.  The IP source address is the address to which the register
   was addressed.  The IP destination address is the source address of
   the register message.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |PIM Ver| Type  |   Reserved    |           Checksum            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             Group Address (Encoded-Group format)              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Source Address (Encoded-Unicast format)            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
        Described in Section 4.9.

   Group Address
        The group address from the multicast data packet in the
        Register.  Format described in Section 4.9.1. Note that for
        Register-Stops the Mask Len field contains the full address
        length * 8 (e.g., 32 for IPv4 native encoding), if the message
        is sent for a single group.

   Source Address
        The host address of the source from the multicast data packet in
        the register.  The format for this address is given in the
        Encoded-Unicast address in Section 4.9.1. A special wild card
        value consisting of an address field of all zeros can be used to
        indicate any source.

4.9.5.  Join/Prune Message Format

   A Join/Prune message is sent by routers towards upstream sources and
   RPs.  Joins are sent to build shared trees (RP trees) or source trees
   (SPT).  Prunes are sent to prune source trees when members leave
   groups as well as sources that do not use the shared tree.

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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |PIM Ver| Type  |   Reserved    |           Checksum            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Upstream Neighbor Address (Encoded-Unicast format)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Reserved     | Num groups    |          Holdtime             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Multicast Group Address 1 (Encoded-Group format)      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Number of Joined Sources    |   Number of Pruned Sources    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Joined Source Address 1 (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             .                                 |
   |                             .                                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Joined Source Address n (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Pruned Source Address 1 (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             .                                 |
   |                             .                                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Pruned Source Address n (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           .                                   |
   |                           .                                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Multicast Group Address m (Encoded-Group format)      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Number of Joined Sources    |   Number of Pruned Sources    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Joined Source Address 1 (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             .                                 |
   |                             .                                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Joined Source Address n (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Pruned Source Address 1 (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             .                                 |
   |                             .                                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Pruned Source Address n (Encoded-Source format)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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   PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
        Described in Section 4.9.

   Unicast Upstream Neighbor Address
        The address of the upstream neighbor that is the target of the
        message.  The format for this address is given in the Encoded-
        Unicast address in Section 4.9.1. For IPv6 the source address
        used for multicast messages is the link-local address of the
        interface on which the message is being sent.  For IPv4, the
        source address is the primary address associated with that
        interface.

   Reserved
        Transmitted as zero, ignored on receipt.

   Holdtime
        The amount of time a receiver must keep the Join/Prune state
        alive, in seconds.  If the Holdtime is set to '0xffff', the
        receiver of this message should hold the state until canceled by
        the appropriate canceling Join/Prune message, or timed out
        according to local policy.  This may be used with dial-on-demand
        links, to avoid keeping the link up with periodic Join/Prune
        messages.

        Note that the HoldTime must be larger than the
        J/P_Override_Interval(I).

   Number of Groups
        The number of multicast group sets contained in the message.

   Multicast group address
        For format description, see Section 4.9.1.

   Number of Joined Sources
        Number of joined source addresses listed for a given group.

   Joined Source Address 1 .. n
        This list contains the sources for a given group that the
        sending router will forward multicast datagrams from if received
        on the interface on which the Join/Prune message is sent.

        See Encoded-Source-Address format in Section 4.9.1.

   Number of Pruned Sources
        Number of pruned source addresses listed for a group.

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   Pruned Source Address 1 .. n
        This list contains the sources for a given group that the
        sending router does not want to forward multicast datagrams from
        when received on the interface on which the Join/Prune message
        is sent.

   Within one PIM Join/Prune message, all the Multicast Group Addresses,
   Joined Source addresses, and Pruned Source addresses MUST be of the
   same address family.  It is NOT PERMITTED to mix IPv4 and IPv6
   addresses within the same message.  In addition, the address family
   of the fields in the message SHOULD be the same as the IP source and
   destination addresses of the packet.  This permits maximum
   implementation flexibility for dual-stack IPv4/IPv6 routers.  If a
   router receives a message with mixed family addresses, it SHOULD only
   process the addresses that are of the same family as the unicast
   upstream neighbor address.

4.9.5.1.  Group Set Source List Rules

   As described above, Join/Prune messages are composed of one or more
   group sets.  Each set contains two source lists, the Joined Sources
   and the Pruned Sources.  This section describes the different types
   of group sets and source list entries that can exist in a Join/Prune
   message.

   There are two valid group set types:

   Wildcard Group Set
        The wildcard group set is represented by the entire multicast
        range:  the beginning of the multicast address range in the
        group address field and the prefix length of the multicast
        address range in the mask length field of the Multicast Group
        Address (i.e., '224.0.0.0/4' for IPv4 or 'ff00::/8' for IPv6).
        Each Join/Prune message SHOULD contain at most one wildcard
        group set.  Each wildcard group set may contain one or more
        (*,*,RP) source list entries in either the Joined or Pruned
        lists.

        A (*,*,RP) source list entry may only exist in a wildcard group
        set.  When added to a Joined source list, this type of source
        entry expresses the router's interest in receiving traffic for
        all groups mapping to the specified RP.  When added to a Pruned
        source list a (*,*,RP) entry expresses the router's interest to
        stop receiving such traffic.  Note that as indicated by the
        Join/Prune state machines, such a Join or Prune will NOT
        override Join/Prune state created using a Group-Specific Set
        (see below).

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        (*,*,RP) source list entries have the Source-Address set to the
        address of the RP, the Source-Address Mask-Len set to the full
        length of the IP address, and both the WC and RPT bits of the
        Source-Address set to 1.

   Group-Specific Set
        A Group-Specific Set is represented by a valid IP multicast
        address in the group address field and the full length of the IP
        address in the mask length field of the Multicast Group Address.
        Each Join/Prune message SHOULD NOT contain more than one group-
        specific set for the same IP multicast address.  Each group-
        specific set may contain (*,G), (S,G,rpt), and (S,G) source list
        entries in the Joined or Pruned lists.

     (*,G)
          The (*,G) source list entry is used in Join/Prune messages
          sent towards the RP for the specified group.  It expresses
          interest (or lack thereof) in receiving traffic sent to the
          group through the Rendezvous-Point shared tree.  There may
          only be one such entry in both the Joined and Pruned lists of
          a group-specific set.

          (*,G) source list entries have the Source-Address set to the
          address of the RP for group G, the Source-Address Mask-Len set
          to the full length of the IP address, and both the WC and RPT
          bits of the Encoded-Source-Address set.

     (S,G,rpt)
          The (S,G,rpt) source list entry is used in Join/Prune messages
          sent towards the RP for the specified group.  It expresses
          interest (or lack thereof) in receiving traffic through the
          shared tree sent by the specified source to this group.  For
          each source address, the entry may exist in only one of the
          Joined and Pruned source lists of a group-specific set, but
          not both.

          (S,G,rpt) source list entries have the Source-Address set to
          the address of the source S, the Source-Address Mask-Len set
          to the full length of the IP address, and the WC bit cleared
          and the RPT bit set in the Encoded-Source-Address.

     (S,G)
          The (S,G) source list entry is used in Join/Prune messages
          sent towards the specified source.  It expresses interest (or
          lack thereof) in receiving traffic through the shortest path
          tree sent by the source to the specified group.  For each
          source address, the entry may exist in only one of the Joined
          and Pruned source lists of a group-specific set, but not both.

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          (S,G) source list entries have the Source-Address set to the
          address of the source S, the Source-Address Mask-Len set to
          the full length of the IP address, and both the WC and RPT
          bits of the Encoded-Source-Address cleared.

   The rules described above are sufficient to prevent invalid
   combinations of source list entries in group-specific sets.  There
   are, however, a number of combinations that have a valid
   interpretation but that are not generated by the protocol as
   described in this specification:

   o Combining a (*,G) Join and a (S,G,rpt) Join entry in the same
     message is redundant as the (*,G) entry covers the information
     provided by the (S,G,rpt) entry.

   o The same applies for a (*,G) Prunes and (S,G,rpt) Prunes.

   o The combination of a (*,G) Prune and a (S,G,rpt) Join is also not
     generated.  (S,G,rpt) Joins are only sent when the router is
     receiving all traffic for a group on the shared tree and it wishes
     to indicate a change for the particular source.  As a (*,G) prune
     indicates that the router no longer wishes to receive shared tree
     traffic, the (S,G,rpt) Join would be meaningless.

   o As Join/Prune messages are targeted to a single PIM neighbor,
     including both a (S,G) Join and a (S,G,rpt) Prune in the same
     message is usually redundant.  The (S,G) Join informs the neighbor
     that the sender wishes to receive the particular source on the
     shortest path tree.  It is therefore unnecessary for the router to
     say that it no longer wishes to receive it on the shared tree.
     However, there is a valid interpretation for this combination of
     entries.  A downstream router may have to instruct its upstream
     only to start forwarding a specific source once it has started
     receiving the source on the shortest-path tree.

   o The combination of a (S,G) Prune and a (S,G,rpt) Join could
     possibly be used by a router to switch from receiving a particular
     source on the shortest-path tree back to receiving it on the shared
     tree (provided that the RPF neighbor for the shortest-path and
     shared trees is common).  However, Sparse-Mode PIM does not provide
     a mechanism for explicitly switching back to the shared tree.

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   The rules are summarized in the tables below.

   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+
   |          ||Join  | Prune | Join      | Prune     | Join  | Prune |
   |          ||(*,G) | (*,G) | (S,G,rpt) | (S,G,rpt) | (S,G) | (S,G) |
   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+
   |Join      ||-     | no    | ?         | yes       | yes   | yes   |
   |(*,G)     ||      |       |           |           |       |       |
   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+
   |Prune     ||no    | -     | ?         | ?         | yes   | yes   |
   |(*,G)     ||      |       |           |           |       |       |
   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+
   |Join      ||?     | ?     | -         | no        | yes   | ?     |
   |(S,G,rpt) ||      |       |           |           |       |       |
   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+
   |Prune     ||yes   | ?     | no        | -         | yes   | ?     |
   |(S,G,rpt) ||      |       |           |           |       |       |
   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+
   |Join      ||yes   | yes   | yes       | yes       | -     | no    |
   |(S,G)     ||      |       |           |           |       |       |
   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+
   |Prune     ||yes   | yes   | ?         | ?         | no    | -     |
   |(S,G)     ||      |       |           |           |       |       |
   +----------++------+-------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+

   +---------------++--------------+----------------+------------+
   |               ||Join (*,*,RP) | Prune (*,*,RP) | all others |
   +---------------++--------------+----------------+------------+
   |Join (*,*,RP)  ||-             | no             | yes        |
   +---------------++--------------+----------------+------------+
   |Prune (*,*,RP) ||no            | -              | yes        |
   +---------------++--------------+----------------+------------+
   |all others     ||yes           | yes            | see above  |
   +---------------++--------------+----------------+------------+

   yes  Allowed and expected.

   no   Combination is not allowed by the protocol and MUST NOT be
        generated by a router.  A router MAY accept these messages, but
        the result is undefined.  An error message MAY be logged to the
        administrator in a rate-limited manner.

   ?    Combination not expected by the protocol, but well-defined.  A
        router MAY accept it but SHOULD NOT generate it.

   The order of source list entries in a group set source list is not
   important, except where limited by the packet format itself.

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4.9.5.2.  Group Set Fragmentation

   When building a Join/Prune for a particular neighbor, a router should
   try to include in the message as much of the information it needs to
   convey to the neighbor as possible.  This implies adding one group
   set for each multicast group that has information pending
   transmission and within each set including all relevant source list
   entries.

   On a router with a large amount of multicast state, the number of
   entries that must be included may result in packets that are larger
   than the maximum IP packet size.  In most such cases, the information
   may be split into multiple messages.

   There is an exception with group sets that contain a (*,G) Joined
   source list entry.  The group set expresses the router's interest in
   receiving all traffic for the specified group on the shared tree, and
   it MUST include an (S,G,rpt) Pruned source list entry for every
   source that the router does not wish to receive.  This list of
   (S,G,rpt) Pruned source-list entries MUST not be split in multiple
   messages.

   If only N (S,G,rpt) Prune entries fit into a maximum-sized Join/Prune
   message, but the router has more than N (S,G,rpt) Prunes to add, then
   the router MUST choose to include the first N (numerically smallest
   in network byte order) IP addresses.

4.9.6.  Assert Message Format

   The Assert message is used to resolve forwarder conflicts between
   routers on a link.  It is sent when a router receives a multicast
   data packet on an interface on which the router would normally have
   forwarded that packet.  Assert messages may also be sent in response
   to an Assert message from another router.

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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |PIM Ver| Type  |   Reserved    |           Checksum            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Group Address (Encoded-Group format)             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Source Address (Encoded-Unicast format)            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |R|                      Metric Preference                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Metric                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
        Described in Section 4.9.

   Group Address
        The group address for which the router wishes to resolve the
        forwarding conflict.  This is an Encoded-Group address, as
        specified in Section 4.9.1.

   Source Address
        Source address for which the router wishes to resolve the
        forwarding conflict.  The source address MAY be set to zero for
        (*,G) asserts (see below).  The format for this address is given
        in Encoded-Unicast-Address in Section 4.9.1.

   R    RPT-bit is a 1-bit value.  The RPT-bit is set to 1 for
        Assert(*,G) messages and 0 for Assert(S,G) messages.

   Metric Preference
        Preference value assigned to the unicast routing protocol that
        provided the route to the multicast source or Rendezvous-Point.

   Metric
        The unicast routing table metric associated with the route used
        to reach the multicast source or Rendezvous-Point.  The metric
        is in units applicable to the unicast routing protocol used.

   Assert messages can be sent to resolve a forwarding conflict for all
   traffic to a given group or for a specific source and group.

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   Assert(S,G)
        Source-specific asserts are sent by routers forwarding a
        specific source on the shortest-path tree (SPTbit is TRUE).
        (S,G) Asserts have the Group-Address field set to the group G
        and the Source-Address field set to the source S.  The RPT-bit
        is set to 0, the Metric-Preference is set to MRIB.pref(S) and
        the Metric is set to MRIB.metric(S).

   Assert(*,G)
        Group-specific asserts are sent by routers forwarding data for
        the group and source(s) under contention on the shared tree.
        (*,G) asserts have the Group-Address field set to the group G.
        For data-triggered Asserts, the Source-Address field MAY be set
        to the IP source address of the data packet that triggered the
        Assert and is set to zero otherwise.  The RPT-bit is set to 1,
        the Metric-Preference is set to MRIB.pref(RP(G)), and the Metric
        is set to MRIB.metric(RP(G)).

4.10.  PIM Timers

   PIM-SM maintains the following timers, as discussed in Section 4.1.
   All timers are countdown timers; they are set to a value and count
   down to zero, at which point they typically trigger an action.  Of
   course they can just as easily be implemented as count-up timers,
   where the absolute expiry time is stored and compared against a
   real-time clock, but the language in this specification assumes that
   they count downwards to zero.

   Global Timers

   Per interface (I):

        Hello Timer: HT(I)

        Per neighbor (N):

             Neighbor Liveness Timer: NLT(N,I)

        Per active RP (RP):

             (*,*,RP) Join Expiry Timer: ET(*,*,RP,I)

             (*,*,RP) Prune-Pending Timer: PPT(*,*,RP,I)

        Per Group (G):

             (*,G) Join Expiry Timer: ET(*,G,I)

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             (*,G) Prune-Pending Timer: PPT(*,G,I)

             (*,G) Assert Timer: AT(*,G,I)

             Per Source (S):

                  (S,G) Join Expiry Timer: ET(S,G,I)

                  (S,G) Prune-Pending Timer: PPT(S,G,I)

                  (S,G) Assert Timer: AT(S,G,I)

                  (S,G,rpt) Prune Expiry Timer: ET(S,G,rpt,I)

                  (S,G,rpt) Prune-Pending Timer: PPT(S,G,rpt,I)

   Per active RP (RP):

        (*,*,RP) Upstream Join Timer: JT(*,*,RP)

   Per Group (G):

        (*,G) Upstream Join Timer: JT(*,G)

        Per Source (S):

             (S,G) Upstream Join Timer: JT(S,G)

             (S,G) Keepalive Timer: KAT(S,G)

             (S,G,rpt) Upstream Override Timer: OT(S,G,rpt)

   At the DRs or relevant Assert Winners only:

        Per Source,Group pair (S,G):

             Register-Stop Timer: RST(S,G)

4.11.  Timer Values

   When timers are started or restarted, they are set to default values.
   This section summarizes those default values.

   Note that protocol events or configuration may change the default
   value of a timer on a specific interface.  When timers are
   initialized in this document, the value specific to the interface in
   context must be used.

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   Some of the timers listed below (Prune-Pending, Upstream Join,
   Upstream Override) can be set to values that depend on the settings
   of the Propagation_Delay and Override_Interval of the corresponding
   interface.  The default values for these are given below.

   Variable Name: Propagation_Delay(I)

+-------------------------------+--------------+----------------------+
|  Value Name                   |  Value       |  Explanation         |
+-------------------------------+--------------+----------------------+
|  Propagation_delay_default    |  0.5 secs    |  Expected            |
|                               |              |  propagation delay   |
|                               |              |  over the local      |
|                               |              |  link.               |
+-------------------------------+--------------+----------------------+

   The default value of the Propagation_delay_default is chosen to be
   relatively large to provide compatibility with older PIM
   implementations.

   Variable Name: Override_Interval(I)

+--------------------------+-----------------+-------------------------+
|  Value Name              |    Value        |    Explanation          |
+--------------------------+-----------------+-------------------------+
|  t_override_default      |    2.5 secs     |    Default delay        |
|                          |                 |    interval over        |
|                          |                 |    which to randomize   |
|                          |                 |    when scheduling a    |
|                          |                 |    delayed Join         |
|                          |                 |    message.             |
+--------------------------+-----------------+-------------------------+

   Timer Name: Hello Timer (HT(I))

+---------------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
|Value Name           | Value  | Explanation                           |
+---------------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
|Hello_Period         | 30 secs| Periodic interval for Hello messages. |
+---------------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
|Triggered_Hello_Delay| 5 secs | Randomized interval for initial Hello |
|                     |        | message on bootup or triggered Hello  |
|                     |        | message to a rebooting neighbor.      |
+---------------------+--------+---------------------------------------+

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   At system power-up, the timer is initialized to rand(0,
   Triggered_Hello_Delay) to prevent synchronization.  When a new or
   rebooting neighbor is detected, a responding Hello is sent within
   rand(0, Triggered_Hello_Delay).

   Timer Name: Neighbor Liveness Timer (NLT(N,I))

+--------------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| Value Name               |  Value               |  Explanation       |
+--------------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| Default_Hello_Holdtime   |  3.5 * Hello_Period  |  Default holdtime  |
|                          |                      |  to keep neighbor  |
|                          |                      |  state alive       |
+--------------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| Hello_Holdtime           |  from message        |  Holdtime from     |
|                          |                      |  Hello Message     |
|                          |                      |  Holdtime option.  |
+--------------------------+----------------------+--------------------+

   The Holdtime in a Hello Message should be set to (3.5 *
   Hello_Period), giving a default value of 105 seconds.

   Timer Names: Expiry Timer (ET(*,*,RP,I), ET(*,G,I), ET(S,G,I),
   ET(S,G,rpt,I))

+----------------+----------------+------------------------------------+
| Value Name     |  Value         |  Explanation                       |
+----------------+----------------+------------------------------------+
| J/P_HoldTime   |  from message  |  Holdtime from Join/Prune Message  |
+----------------+----------------+------------------------------------+

   See details of JT(*,G) for the Holdtime that is included in
   Join/Prune Messages.

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   Timer Names: Prune-Pending Timer (PPT(*,*,RP,I), PPT(*,G,I),
   PPT(S,G,I), PPT(S,G,rpt,I))

+--------------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
|Value Name                | Value               | Explanation         |
+--------------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
|J/P_Override_Interval(I)  | Default:            | Short period after  |
|                          | Effective_          | a join or prune to  |
|                          | Propagation_        | allow other         |
|                          | Delay(I) +          | routers on the LAN  |
|                          | EffectiveOverride_  | to override the     |
|                          | Interval(I)         | join or prune       |
+--------------------------+---------------------+---------------------+

   Note that both the Effective_Propagation_Delay(I) and the
   Effective_Override_Interval(I) are interface-specific values that may
   change when Hello messages are received (see Section 4.3.3).

   Timer Names: Assert Timer (AT(*,G,I), AT(S,G,I))

+---------------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| Value Name                | Value               | Explanation        |
+---------------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| Assert_Override_Interval  | Default: 3 secs     | Short interval     |
|                           |                     | before an assert   |
|                           |                     | times out where    |
|                           |                     | the assert winner  |
|                           |                     | resends an Assert  |
|                           |                     | message            |
+---------------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| Assert_Time               | Default: 180 secs   | Period after last  |
|                           |                     | assert before      |
|                           |                     | assert state is    |
|                           |                     | timed out          |
+---------------------------+---------------------+--------------------+

   Note that for historical reasons, the Assert message lacks a Holdtime
   field.  Thus, changing the Assert Time from the default value is not
   recommended.

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   Timer Names: Upstream Join Timer (JT(*,*,RP), JT(*,G), JT(S,G))

+-------------+--------------------+-----------------------------------+
|Value Name   | Value              | Explanation                       |
+-------------+--------------------+-----------------------------------+
|t_periodic   | Default: 60 secs   | Period between Join/Prune Messages|
+-------------+--------------------+-----------------------------------+
|t_suppressed | rand(1.1 *         | Suppression period when someone   |
|             | t_periodic, 1.4 *  | else sends a J/P message so we    |
|             | t_periodic) when   | don't need to do so.              |
|             | Suppression_       |                                   |
|             | Enabled(I) is      |                                   |
|             | true, 0 otherwise  |                                   |
+-------------+--------------------+-----------------------------------+
|t_override   | rand(0, Effective_ | Randomized delay to prevent       |
|             | Override_          | response implosion when sending a |
|             | Interval(I))       | join message to override someone  |
|             |                    | else's Prune message.             |
+-------------+--------------------+-----------------------------------+

   t_periodic may be set to take into account such things as the
   configured bandwidth and expected average number of multicast route
   entries for the attached network or link (e.g., the period would be
   longer for lower-speed links, or for routers in the center of the
   network that expect to have a larger number of entries).  If the
   Join/Prune-Period is modified during operation, these changes should
   be made relatively infrequently, and the router should continue to
   refresh at its previous Join/Prune-Period for at least Join/Prune-
   Holdtime, in order to allow the upstream router to adapt.

   The holdtime specified in a Join/Prune message should be set to (3.5
   * t_periodic).

   t_override depends on the Effective_Override_Interval of the upstream
   interface, which may change when Hello messages are received.

   t_suppressed depends on the Suppression State of the upstream
   interface (Section 4.3.3) and becomes zero when suppression is
   disabled.

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   Timer Name: Upstream Override Timer (OT(S,G,rpt))

+---------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
| Value Name    | Value                    |  Explanation              |
+---------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
| t_override    | see Upstream Join Timer  |  see Upstream Join Timer  |
+---------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+

   The upstream Override Timer is only ever set to t_override; this
   value is defined in the section on Upstream Join Timers.

   Timer Name: Keepalive Timer (KAT(S,G))

+-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
| Value Name            |  Value                |  Explanation         |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
| Keepalive_Period      |  Default: 210 secs    |  Period after last   |
|                       |                       |  (S,G) data packet   |
|                       |                       |  during which (S,G)  |
|                       |                       |  Join state will be  |
|                       |                       |  maintained even in  |
|                       |                       |  the absence of      |
|                       |                       |  (S,G) Join          |
|                       |                       |  messages.           |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+
| RP_Keepalive_Period   |  ( 3 * Register_      |  As                  |
|                       |  Suppression_Time )   |  Keepalive_Period,   |
|                       |  + Register_          |  but at the RP when  |
|                       |  Probe_Time           |  a Register-Stop is  |
|                       |                       |  sent.               |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------+

   The normal keepalive period for the KAT(S,G) defaults to 210 seconds.
   However, at the RP, the keepalive period must be at least the
   Register_Suppression_Time, or the RP may time out the (S,G) state
   before the next Null-Register arrives.  Thus, the KAT(S,G) is set to
   max(Keepalive_Period, RP_Keepalive_Period) when a Register-Stop is
   sent.

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   Timer Name: Register-Stop Timer (RST(S,G))

+---------------------------+--------------------+---------------------+
|Value Name                 | Value              | Explanation         |
+---------------------------+--------------------+---------------------+
|Register_Suppression_Time  | Default: 60 secs   | Period during       |
|                           |                    | which a DR stops    |
|                           |                    | sending Register-   |
|                           |                    | encapsulated data   |
|                           |                    | to the RP after     |
|                           |                    | receiving a         |
|                           |                    | Register-Stop       |
|                           |                    | message.            |
+---------------------------+--------------------+---------------------+
|Register_Probe_Time        | Default: 5 secs    | Time before RST     |
|                           |                    | expires when a DR   |
|                           |                    | may send a Null-    |
|                           |                    | Register to the RP  |
|                           |                    | to cause it to      |
|                           |                    | resend a Register-  |
|                           |                    | Stop message.       |
+---------------------------+--------------------+---------------------+

   If the Register_Suppression_Time or the Register_Probe_Time are
   configured to values other than the defaults, it MUST be ensured that
   the value of the Register_Probe_Time is less than half the value of
   the Register_Suppression_Time to prevent a possible negative value in
   the setting of the Register-Stop Timer.

5.  IANA Considerations

5.1.  PIM Address Family

   The PIM Address Family field was chosen to be 8 bits as a tradeoff
   between packet format and use of the IANA assigned numbers.  Because
   when the PIM packet format was designed only 15 values were assigned
   for Address Families, and large numbers of new Address Family values
   were not envisioned, 8 bits seemed large enough.  However, the IANA
   assigns Address Families in a 16-bit field.  Therefore, the PIM
   Address Family is allocated as follows:

     Values 0 through 127 are designated to have the same meaning as
     IANA-assigned Address Family Numbers [7].

     Values 128 through 250 are designated to be assigned for PIM by the
     IANA based upon IESG Approval, as defined in [9].

     Values 251 through 255 are designated for Private Use, as defined

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     in [9].

5.2.  PIM Hello Options

   Values 17 through 65000 are to be assigned by the IANA.  Since the
   space is large, they may be assigned as First Come First Served as
   defined in [9].  Such assignments are valid for one year and may be
   renewed.  Permanent assignments require a specification (see
   "Specification Required" in [9].)

6.  Security Considerations

   This section describes various possible security concerns related to
   the PIM-SM protocol, including a description of how to use IPsec to
   secure the protocol.  The reader is referred to [15] and [16] for
   further discussion of PIM-SM and multicast security.  The IPsec
   authentication header [8] MAY be used to provide data integrity
   protection and groupwise data origin authentication of PIM protocol
   messages.  Authentication of PIM messages can protect against
   unwanted behaviors caused by unauthorized or altered PIM messages.

6.1.  Attacks Based on Forged Messages

   The extent of possible damage depends on the type of counterfeit
   messages accepted.  We next consider the impact of possible
   forgeries, including forged link-local (Join/Prune, Hello, and
   Assert) and forged unicast (Register and Register-Stop) messages.

6.1.1.  Forged Link-Local Messages

   Join/Prune, Hello, and Assert messages are all sent to the link-local
   ALL_PIM_ROUTERS multicast addresses and thus are not forwarded by a
   compliant router.  A forged message of this type can only reach a LAN
   if it was sent by a local host or if it was allowed onto the LAN by a
   compromised or non-compliant router.

   1.  A forged Join/Prune message can cause multicast traffic to be
       delivered to links where there are no legitimate requesters,
       potentially wasting bandwidth on that link.  A forged leave
       message on a multi-access LAN is generally not a significant
       attack in PIM, because any legitimately joined router on the LAN
       would override the leave with a join before the upstream router
       stops forwarding data to the LAN.

   2.  By forging a Hello message, an unauthorized router can cause
       itself to be elected as the designated router on a LAN.  The
       designated router on a LAN is (in the absence of asserts)
       responsible for forwarding traffic to that LAN on behalf of any

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       local members.  The designated router is also responsible for
       register-encapsulating to the RP any packets that are originated
       by hosts on the LAN.  Thus, the ability of local hosts to send
       and receive multicast traffic may be compromised by a forged
       Hello message.

   3.  By forging an Assert message on a multi-access LAN, an attacker
       could cause the legitimate designated forwarder to stop
       forwarding traffic to the LAN.  Such a forgery would prevent any
       hosts downstream of that LAN from receiving traffic.

6.1.2.  Forged Unicast Messages

   Register messages and Register-Stop messages are forwarded by
   intermediate routers to their destination using normal IP forwarding.
   Without data origin authentication, an attacker who is located
   anywhere in the network may be able to forge a Register or Register-
   Stop message.  We consider the effect of a forgery of each of these
   messages next.

   1.  By forging a Register message, an attacker can cause the RP to
       inject forged traffic onto the shared multicast tree.

   2.  By forging a Register-stop message, an attacker can prevent a
       legitimate DR from Registering packets to the RP.  This can
       prevent local hosts on that LAN from sending multicast packets.

   The above two PIM messages are not changed by intermediate routers
   and need only be examined by the intended receiver.  Thus, these
   messages can be authenticated end-to-end, using AH.  Attacks on
   Register and Register-Stop messages do not apply to a PIM-SSM-only
   implementation, as these messages are not required for PIM-SSM.

6.2.  Non-Cryptographic Authentication Mechanisms

   A PIM router SHOULD provide an option to limit the set of neighbors
   from which it will accept Join/Prune, Assert, and Hello messages.
   Either static configuration of IP addresses or an IPsec security
   association may be used.  Furthermore, a PIM router SHOULD NOT accept
   protocol messages from a router from which it has not yet received a
   valid Hello message.

   A Designated Router MUST NOT register-encapsulate a packet and send
   it to the RP unless the source address of the packet is a legal
   address for the subnet on which the packet was received.  Similarly,
   a Designated Router SHOULD NOT accept a Register-Stop packet whose IP
   source address is not a valid RP address for the local domain.

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   An implementation SHOULD provide a mechanism to allow an RP to
   restrict the range of source addresses from which it accepts
   Register-encapsulated packets.

   All options that restrict the range of addresses from which packets
   are accepted MUST default to allowing all packets.

6.3.  Authentication Using IPsec

   The IPsec [8] transport mode using the Authentication Header (AH) is
   the recommended method to prevent the above attacks against PIM.  The
   specific AH authentication algorithm and parameters, including the
   choice of authentication algorithm and the choice of key, are
   configured by the network administrator.  When IPsec authentication
   is used, a PIM router should reject (drop without processing) any
   unauthorized PIM protocol messages.

   To use IPsec, the administrator of a PIM network configures each PIM
   router with one or more security associations (SAs) and associated
   Security Parameter Indexes (SPIs) that are used by senders to
   authenticate PIM protocol messages and are used by receivers to
   authenticate received PIM protocol messages.  This document does not
   describe protocols for establishing SAs.  It assumes that manual
   configuration of SAs is performed, but it does not preclude the use
   of a negotiation protocol such as the Internet Key Exchange [14] to
   establish SAs.

   IPsec [8] provides protection against replayed unicast and multicast
   messages.  The anti-replay option for IPsec SHOULD be enabled on all
   SAs.

   The following sections describe the SAs required to protect PIM
   protocol messages.

6.3.1.  Protecting Link-Local Multicast Messages

   The network administrator defines an SA and SPI that are to be used
   to authenticate all link-local PIM protocol messages (Hello,
   Join/Prune, and Assert) on each link in a PIM domain.

   IPsec [8] allows (but does not require) different Security Policy
   Databases (SPD) for each router interface.  If available, it may be
   desirable to configure the Security Policy Database at a PIM router
   such that all incoming and outgoing Join/Prune, Assert, and Hello
   packets use a different SA for each incoming or outgoing interface.

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6.3.2.  Protecting Unicast Messages

   IPsec can also be used to provide data origin authentication and data
   integrity protection for the Register and Register-Stop unicast
   messages.

6.3.2.1.  Register Messages

   The Security Policy Database at every PIM router is configured to
   select an SA to use when sending PIM Register packets to each
   rendezvous point.

   In the most general mode of operation, the Security Policy Database
   at each DR is configured to select a unique SA and SPI for traffic
   sent to each RP.  This allows each DR to have a different
   authentication algorithm and key to talk to the RP.  However, this
   creates a daunting key management and distribution problem for the
   network administrator.  Therefore, it may be preferable in PIM
   domains where all Designated Routers are under a single
   administrative control that the same authentication algorithm
   parameters (including the key) be used for all Registered packets in
   a domain, regardless of who are the RP and the DR.

   In this "single shared key" mode of operation, the network
   administrator must choose an SPI for each DR that will be used to
   send it PIM protocol packets.  The Security Policy Database at every
   DR is configured to select an SA (including the authentication
   algorithm, authentication parameters, and this SPI) when sending
   Register messages to this RP.

   By using a single authentication algorithm and associated parameters,
   the key distribution problem is simplified.  Note, however, that this
   method has the property that, in order to change the authentication
   method or authentication key used, all routers in the domain must be
   updated.

6.3.2.2.  Register-Stop Messages

   Similarly, the Security Policy Database at each Rendezvous Point
   should be configured to choose an SA to use when sending Register-
   Stop messages.  Because Register-Stop messages are unicast to the
   destination DR, a different SA and a potentially unique SPI are
   required for each DR.

   In order to simplify the management problem, it may be acceptable to
   use the same authentication algorithm and authentication parameters,
   regardless of the sending RP and regardless of the destination DR.
   Although a unique SA is needed for each DR, the same authentication

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   algorithm and authentication algorithm parameters (secret key) can be
   shared by all DRs and by all RPs.

6.4.  Denial-of-Service Attacks

   There are a number of possible denial-of-service attacks against PIM
   that can be caused by generating false PIM protocol messages or even
   by generating data false traffic.  Authenticating PIM protocol
   traffic prevents some, but not all, of these attacks.  Three of the
   possible attacks include:

   -  Sending packets to many different group addresses quickly can be a
      denial-of-service attack in and of itself.  This will cause many
      register-encapsulated packets, loading the DR, the RP, and the
      routers between the DR and the RP.

   -  Forging Join messages can cause a multicast tree to get set up.  A
      large number of forged joins can consume router resources and
      result in denial of service.

   -  Forging a (*,*,RP) join presents a possibility for a denial-of-
      service attack by causing all traffic in the domain to flow to the
      PMBR issuing the join.  (*,*,RP) behavior is included here
      primarily for backwards compatibility with prior revisions of the
      spec.  However, the implementation of (*,*,RP) and PMBR is
      optional.  When using (*,*,RP), the security concerns should be
      carefully considered.

7.  Acknowledgements

   PIM-SM was designed over many years by a large group of people,
   including ideas, comments, and corrections from Deborah Estrin, Dino
   Farinacci, Ahmed Helmy, David Thaler, Steve Deering, Van Jacobson, C.
   Liu, Puneet Sharma, Liming Wei, Tom Pusateri, Tony Ballardie, Scott
   Brim, Jon Crowcroft, Paul Francis, Joel Halpern, Horst Hodel, Polly
   Huang, Stephen Ostrowski, Lixia Zhang, Girish Chandranmenon, Brian
   Haberman, Hal Sandick, Mike Mroz, Garry Kump, Pavlin Radoslavov, Mike
   Davison, James Huang, Christopher Thomas Brown, and James Lingard.

   Thanks are due to the American Licorice Company, for its obscure but
   possibly essential role in the creation of this document.

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8.  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
        Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3",
        RFC 3376, October 2002.

   [3]  Deering, S., "Host extensions for IP multicasting", STD 5, RFC
        1112, August 1989.

   [4]  Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast Listener
        Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, October 1999.

   [5]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
        Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [6]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for IP",
        RFC 4507, August 2006.

   [7]  IANA, "Address Family Numbers",
        <http://www.iana.org/assignments/address-family-numbers>.

   [8]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the Internet
        Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [9]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
        Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998.

9.  Informative References

   [10] Bates, T., Rekhter, Y., Chandra, R., and D. Katz, "Multiprotocol
        Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 2858, June 2000.

   [11] Bhaskar, N., Gall, A., Lingard, J., and S. Venaas, "Bootstrap
        Router (BSR) Mechanism for PIM Sparse Mode", Work in Progress,
        May 2006.

   [12] Black, D., "Differentiated Services and Tunnels", RFC 2983,
        October 2000.

   [13] Handley, M., Kouvelas, I., Speakman, T., and L. Vicisano, "Bi-
        directional Protocol Independent Multicast", Work in Progress,
        October 2005.

   [14] Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC 4306,
        December 2005.

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   [15] Savola, P., Lehtonen, R., and D. Meyer, "Protocol Independent
        Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) Multicast Routing Security
        Issues and Enhancements", RFC 4609, August 2006.

   [16] Savola, P. and J. Lingard, "Last-hop Threats to Protocol
        Independent Multicast (PIM)", Work in Progress, January 2005.

   [17] Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous Point (RP)
        Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address", RFC 3956, November 2004.

   [18] Thaler, D., "Interoperability Rules for Multicast Routing
        Protocols", RFC 2715, October 1999.

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Appendix A.  PIM Multicast Border Router Behavior

   In some cases, PIM-SM domains will interconnect with non-PIM
   multicast domains.  In these cases, the border routers of the PIM
   domain speak PIM-SM on some interfaces and speak other multicast
   routing protocols on other interfaces.  Such routers are termed PIM
   Multicast Border Routers (PMBRs).  In general, RFC 2715 [18] provides
   rules for interoperability between different multicast routing
   protocols.  In this appendix, we specify how PMBRs differ from
   regular PIM-SM routers.

   From the point of view of PIM-SM, a PMBR has two tasks:

   o To ensure that traffic from sources outside the PIM-SM domain
     reaches receivers inside the domain.

   o To ensure that traffic from sources inside the PIM-SM domain
     reaches receivers outside the domain.

   We note that multiple PIM-SM domains are sometimes connected together
   using protocols such as Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP),
   which provides information about active external sources, but does
   not follow RFC 2715.  In such cases, the domains are not connected
   via PMBRs because Join(S,G) messages traverse the border between
   domains.  A PMBR is required when no PIM messages can traverse the
   border.

A.1.  Sources External to the PIM-SM Domain

   A PMBR needs to ensure that traffic from multicast sources external
   to the PIM-SM domain reaches receivers inside the domain.  The PMBR
   will follow the rules in RFC 2715, such that traffic from external
   sources reaches the PMBR itself.

   According to RFC 2715, the PIM-SM component of the PMBR will receive
   an (S,G) Creation event when data from an (S,G) data packet from an
   external source first reaches the PMBR.  If RPF_interface(S) is an
   interface in the PIM-SM domain, the packet cannot be originated into
   the PIM domain at this router, and the PIM-SM component of the PMBR
   will not process the packet.  Otherwise, the PMBR will then act
   exactly as if it were the DR for this source (see Section 4.4.1),
   with the following modifications:

   o The Border-bit is set in all PIM Register messages sent for these
     sources.

   o DirectlyConnected(S) is treated as being TRUE for these sources.

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   o The PIM-SM forwarding rule "iif == RPF_interface(S)" is relaxed to
     be TRUE if iif is any interface that is not part of the PIM-SM
     component of the PMBR (see Section 4.2).

A.2.  Sources Internal to the PIM-SM Domain

   A PMBR needs to ensure that traffic from sources inside the PIM-SM
   domain reaches receivers outside the domain.  Using terminology from
   RFC 2715, there are two possible scenarios for this:

   o Another component of the PMBR is a wildcard receiver.  In this
     case, the PIM-SM component of the PMBR must ensure that traffic
     from all internal sources reaches the PMBR until it is informed
     otherwise.

     Note that certain profiles of PIM-SM (e.g., PIM-SSM, PIM-SM with
     Embedded RP) cannot interoperate with a neighboring wildcard
     receiver domain.

   o No other component of the PMBR is a wildcard receiver.  In this
     case the PMBR will receive explicit information as to which groups
     or (source,group) pairs the external domains wish to receive.

   In the former case, the PMBR will need to send a Join(*,*,RP) to all
   the active RPs in the PIM-SM domain.  It may also send a Join(*,*,RP)
   to all the candidate RPs in the PIM-SM domain.  This will cause all
   traffic in the domain to reach the PMBR.  The PMBR may then act as if
   it were a DR with directly connected receivers and trigger the
   transition to a shortest path tree (see Section 4.2.1).

   In the latter case, the PMBR will not need to send Join(*,*,RP)
   messages.  However, the PMBR will still need to act as a DR with
   directly connected receivers on behalf of the external receivers in
   terms of being able to switch to the shortest-path tree for
   internally-reached sources.

   According to RFC 2715, the PIM-SM component of the PMBR may receive a
   number of alerts generated by events in the external routing
   components.  To implement the above behavior, one reasonable way to
   map these alerts into PIM-SM state is as follows:

   o When a PIM-SM component receives an (S,G) Prune alert, it sets
     local_receiver_include(S,G,I) to FALSE for the discard interface.

   o When a PIM-SM component receives a (*,G) Prune alert, it sets
     local_receiver_include(*,G,I) to FALSE for the discard interface.

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   o When a PIM-SM component receives an (S,G) Join alert, it sets
     local_receiver_include(S,G,I) to TRUE for the discard interface.

   o When a PIM-SM component receives a (*,G) Join alert, it sets
     local_receiver_include(*,G,I) to TRUE for the discard interface.

   o When a PIM-SM component receives a (*,*) Join alert, it sets
     DownstreamJPState(*,*,RP,I) to Join state on the discard interface
     for all RPs in the PIM-SM domain.

   o When a PIM-SM component receives a (*,*) Prune alert, it sets
     DownstreamJPState(*,*,RP,I) to NoInfo state on the discard
     interface for all RPs in the PIM-SM domain.

   We refer above to the discard interface because the macros and state
   machines are interface specific, but we need to have PIM state that
   is not associated with any actual PIM-SM interface.  Implementers are
   free to implement this in any reasonable manner.

   Note that these state changes will then cause additional PIM-SM state
   machine transitions in the normal way.

   These rules are, however, not sufficient to allow pruning off the
   (*,*,RP) tree.  Some additional rules provide guidance as to one way
   this may be done:

   o If the PMBR has joined on the (*,*,RP) tree, then it should set
     DownstreamJPState(*,G,I) to JOIN on the discard interface for all
     active groups.

   o If the router receives a (S,G) prune alert, it will need to set
     DownstreamJPState(S,G,rpt,I) to PRUNE on the discard interface.

   o If the router receives a (*,G) prune alert, it will need to set
     DownstreamJPState(S,G,rpt,I) to PRUNE on the discard interface for
     all active sources sending to G.

   The rationale for this is that there is no way in PIM-SM to prune
   traffic off the (*,*,RP) tree, except by Joining the (*,G) tree and
   then pruning each source individually.

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Appendix B.  Index

   Address_List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   Assert(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27,128
   Assert(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27,128
   AssertCancel(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97,99
   AssertCancel(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80,90,99
   AssertTimer(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16,24,91,132
   AssertTimer(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18,24,84,132
   AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93,94,96
   AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85,86,87,89
   AssertWinner(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16,22,24,93,97,100
   AssertWinner(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18,22,24,86,90,100,100
   AssertWinnerMetric(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,97,101
   AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,90,101
   assert_metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98
   Assert_Override_Interval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90,97,132
   Assert_Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90,97,132
   AT(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16,24,91,129,132
   AT(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18,24,84,129,132
   CheckSwitchToSpt(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27,28
   CouldAssert(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92,93,94,95,98
   CouldAssert(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84,86,87,88,89,98
   CouldRegister(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39,41
   Default_Hello_Holdtime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   DirectlyConnected(S). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27,27,29,41,143
   DownstreamJPState(*,*,RP,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23,145
   DownstreamJPState(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   DownstreamJPState(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,40
   DownstreamJPState(S,G,rpt,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   DR(I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   dr_is_better(a,b,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,33
   DR_Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31,32,33
   Effective_Override_Interval(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36,114,132
   Effective_Propagation_Delay(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35,132
   ET(*,*,RP,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,46,128,131
   ET(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,50,128,131
   ET(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,53,129,131
   ET(S,G,rpt,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,57,59,129,131
   GenID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,17,19,31,64,68,70,73,85,93
   Hash_Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,105
   Hello_Holdtime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33,131
   Hello_Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31,130
   HT(I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31,130
   IGMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,8,17,23,101,105
   immediate_olist(*,*,RP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,64
   immediate_olist(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,68
   immediate_olist(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22,40,73

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RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

   infinite_assert_metric(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  99
   inherited_olist(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,27,40,43,73,86,108
   inherited_olist(S,G,rpt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,27,29,76,79,81
   I_Am_Assert_Loser(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   I_Am_Assert_Loser(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   I_am_DR(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22,33,41,86,93
   I_am_RP(G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,44
   J/P_Holdtime. . . . . . . . . . . . .47,51,55,59,65,69,74,121,131,133
   J/P_Override_Interval(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,51,55,59,121,132
   JoinDesired(*,*,RP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64,79
   JoinDesired(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17,68,79,86,97
   JoinDesired(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,29,73,86,88,90
   joins(*,*,RP(G)). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   joins(*,*,RP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,23,86,93
   joins(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,23,86,93
   joins(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22,23,86
   JT(*,*,RP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,62,129,133
   JT(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,67,129,133
   JT(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,71,129,133
   KAT(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18,26,27,28,41,43,73,108,129,134
   KeepaliveTimer(S,G) . . . . . . . 18,26,27,27,28,41,43,73,108,129,134
   Keepalive_Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27,134
   lan_delay_enabled(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35,36
   LAN_Prune_Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   local_receiver_exclude(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   local_receiver_include(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,93,144
   local_receiver_include(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,86
   local_receiver_include(S,G,I).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
   lost_assert(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22,24,86
   lost_assert(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,24,100
   lost_assert(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,24
   lost_assert(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,24,100
   lost_assert(S,G,rpt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   lost_assert(S,G,rpt,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24,100
   MBGP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,7
   MFIB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6,13
   MLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,8,17,23,101,105
   MRIB. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6,7,11,15,19,25,62,66,66,75,98,103,128
   MRIB.next_hop(host) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,25,62,64
   my_assert_metric(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
   my_assert_metric(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85,89,92,98
   NBR(Interface,IP_address) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25,37,62,64,66
   NLT(N,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,33,128,131
   OT(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,77,129,134
   Override_Interval(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,31,34,36,114,130,132
   packet_arrives_on_rp_tunnel(pkt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   pim_exclude(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,22,28,86
   pim_include(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,22,22,28,86,93

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RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

   pim_include(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,22,22,28,86
   PPT(*,*,RP,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,46,128,132
   PPT(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,50,129,132
   PPT(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,53,129,132
   PPT(S,G,rpt,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,57,59,129,132
   Propagation_Delay(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,35,130,132
   Propagation_delay_default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35,130
   PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79,80,88,90
   prunes(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22,23,86
   Register-Stop(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   Register-Stop(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   Register-StopTimer(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38,39,129,135
   Register_Probe_Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39,44,135
   Register_Suppression_Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39,44,135
   RP(G) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,22,24,40,43,49,68,77,86,93,99,102,128
   RPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   RPF'(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,29,67,68,70,76,79,97,101
   RPF'(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,29,71,76,79,90,101
   RPF'(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24,76,79,102
   RPF_interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
   RPF_interface(host) . . . . . .24,27,29,41,68,69,74,86,93,100,108,143
   RPTJoinDesired(G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79,81,93
   rpt_assert_metric(G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96,97,99
   RST(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38,39,129,135
   SPTbit(S,G) . . . . . . . 19,27,29,43,53,74,76,79,86,86,89,90,100,108
   spt_assert_metric(S,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90,98,100
   SSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10,106
   Suppression_Enabled(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36,133
   SwitchToSptDesired(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28,28,43
   TIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,13,26
   Triggered_Hello_Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,32,130
   t_joinsuppress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64,65,68,69,74
   t_override. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64,68,73,78,133,134
   t_override_default. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36,130
   t_periodic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64,68,73,133
   t_suppressed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36,65,69,73,74,133
   Update_SPTbit(S,G,iif). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27,29
   UpstreamJPState(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27,108

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RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

Authors' Addresses

   Bill Fenner
   AT&T Labs - Research
   1 River Oaks Place
   San Jose, CA 95134

   EMail: fenner@research.att.com

   Mark Handley
   Department of Computer Science
   University College London
   Gower Street
   London WC1E 6BT
   United Kingdom

   EMail: M.Handley@cs.ucl.ac.uk

   Hugh Holbrook
   Arastra, Inc.
   P.O. Box 10905
   Palo Alto, CA 94303

   EMail: holbrook@arastra.com

   Isidor Kouvelas
   Cisco Systems
   170 W. Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA 95134

   EMail: kouvelas@cisco.com

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RFC 4601                  PIM-SM Specification               August 2006

Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).

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