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Versions: 00 01                                                         
Network Working Group                                         M. Bagnulo
Internet-Draft                                                      UC3M
Intended status: Standards Track                             B. Trammell
Expires: August 11, 2013                                      ETH Zurich
                                                        February 7, 2013


                     An LMAP application for IPFIX
                      draft-bagnulo-lmap-ipfix-00

Abstract

   This document explores the possibility of using IPFIX to report test
   results from a Measurement Agent to a Collector, in the context of a
   large measurement platform.

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   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Using IPFIX to report test results  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   3.  Example: UDP latency test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   4.  Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   5.  What standardization is needed for this?  . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   6.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9





































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1.  Introduction

   A Large scale Measurement Platform (LMP) is composed by the following
   fundamental elements: a set of Measurement Agents (MAs), one or more
   Controllers and one or more Collectors.  There may be additional
   elements in any given such of these platforms, but these three
   elements are present in all of them.  The MAs are pieces of code that
   run in specialized hardware (hardware probes) or in general purpose
   devices such as PCs, laptops or mobile phones (software probes).  The
   MA run the tests against other MAs distributed across the Internet.
   Typically most of the MAs are located in end user networks and a few
   MAs are located deep into the ISP network, and typically tests are
   executed from the MAs in the periphery towards MAs located in the
   core.  The Controller is the element that controls the MAs and
   informs the MAs about what tests to do and when to do them.  The
   protocol between the Controller and the MA is called the Control
   protocol.  After performing the tests, the MAs send the data about
   the results of the tests performed to the Collector.  The protocol
   used to report test result data from the MA to the Collector is
   called the Report protocol.  In this document we explore the
   possibility of using IPFIX [RFC5101] as a Report protocol for large
   scale measurement platforms.

   In IPFIX terminology [RFC5470], the MA encompasses both the Metering
   Process (MP) and the Exporting Process (EP), while the Collector is
   the Collecting Process (CP).  IPFIX is used between the EP/MA and the
   Collector/CP.  We propose LMA as an application of IPFIX per
   [I-D.ietf-ipfix-ie-doctors]

   Some considerations about the use of IPFIX for LMP:
   o  Separation between Control and Report Protocols: Within a single
      measurement platform, different protocols can be used for Control
      and Report, though they must share a common vocabulary
      representing the measurements to be performed.  In particular, if
      a platform implements IPFIX as a Report protocol, it must
      implement a different protocol (e.g.  NETCONF or other) as a
      Control protocol.
   o  Report protocol diversity: Some platforms may use IPFIX as a
      Report protocol, while other platforms may decide to use other
      protocols (e.g. the Broadband forum architecture may decide to use
      a different one).  We believe that it is important to support this
      protocol diversity.  A key element to support such diversity is an
      independent metric registry (see
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent] ) where values for
      metric identifiers are recorded independently of the Control
      and/or Report protocol is used.  This affects how we use IPFIX as
      a Report protocol, as presented in this document.




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   o  Minimal versus full IPFIX implementation: A key benefit of IPFIX
      is that, while it was designed to be used in core routers and
      full-featured measurement machines, the unidirectional nature of
      the protocol and simple wire format make minimal implementations
      of Exporting Processes possible.  These minimal implementations
      are well suited to small-scale MAs (such as a mobile app or a
      process running in a home router).  These only need to know about
      the specific Templates supporting the metric(s) to be reported.


2.  Using IPFIX to report test results

   In order to use IPFIX to report test results from the MA to the
   Collector, we need first to understand what information needs to be
   conveyed.  The information transmitted by the MA to the Collector
   when reporting test(s) results is the following:
   o  Information about the MA: in particular a MA identifier
   o  Information about the time of the report: when the report was sent
      (not necessarily when the test was performed)
   o  Information describing the test.  This includes:
      *  An identifier of the metric used for the test (see the Metric
         registry of [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent] )
      *  An identifier of the scheduling strategy used to perform the
         test (see the Scheduling registry of
         [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]) and potential
         input parameters for the schedule, such as the rate.
      *  An identifier of the output format, (see the Output Type
         registry of [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent] )
      *  An identifier of the environment, notably, if cross traffic was
         or not present during the execution of the test. (see the
         Environment registry of
         [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent] )
      *  The input parameters for the test, such as source IP address,
         destination IP address, source and destination ports and so on.
   o  Information describing the test results.  This widely varies with
      each test, but can include time each packet was sent and received,
      number of sent and lost packets or other information.
   We next explore how we can encode this information in IPFIX.

   In order to convey test information using IPFIX we will naturally use
   the IPFIX message format and we will define a Template describing the
   records containing the test result data.  We will re-use as many
   already defined Information Elements (IEs) as possible and we will
   identify new IEs that are needed.

   Part of the information can be conveyed using the fields in the IPFIX
   header, namely:




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   o  Information about the MA: In order to convey the MA identifier we
      can use the Observation Domain field present in the IPFIX header.
      This would allow to have up to 2^32 MA, which seems sufficient.
   o  Information about the time of the report: The IPFIX header
      contains an Export Time field that can be used to convey this
      information.

   The information describing the test is included in a Template set
   that contains multiple IEs for each of the different pieces of
   information we need to convey.  This includes:
   o  An identifier of the metric used for the test.  In order to convey
      that we need to define a new IE, let's call it metricIdentifier.
      The values for this element will be the values registered in the
      Metric registry of [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent].
   o  An identifier of the scheduling strategy used to perform the test.
      Again, this will be a new IE, called testSchedule and its values
      will be the values defined in the Scheduling registry of
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent].  The potential input
      parameters for the schedule, such as the rate, we probably need a
      new IE for each of these.  Usual scheduling distributions only
      require a rate, so we can define a new IE called scheduleRate
      which value will contain the rate for the requested distribution.
      *  NOTE: The distribution in some cases could be extracted from
         the results, for example, if the results contain each packet
         sent, it would be easy to spot a periodic scheduling.  Probably
         not so obvious for the Poisson one.  Maybe this would be an
         optional element to be carried when it is not possible to
         extract it from the test results.
   o  An identifier of the output format.  A new IE outputType is needed
      for this and it would take values out of the ones in the Output
      Type registry of [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent].
      Some of the output formats require an additional input, like the
      percentile used to trim the outliers when performing means.  There
      are two approaches here.  One approach is that the the Output Type
      registry creates different entries for the different percentiles,
      which would result in more entries in the Output Type registry
      (e.g. one entry for the 95th percentile mean and another one for
      the 90th percentile mean).  This may cause an increase number of
      entries in the Output Type registry, but since there are not too
      many usual values, it is likely to be manageable.  The other
      approach is to define an additional IE, for instance, the
      percentile IE that will have the values for the different
      percentiles used in the output.
   o  An identifier of the environment, notably, if cross traffic was or
      not present during the execution of the test.  Again, a new IE is
      needed for this testEnvironment.  It will take values of the the
      Environment registry of
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent].



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   o  The input parameters for the test.  Most of these can be expressed
      using existing IEs, such as sourceIPv4Address,
      destinationIPv4Address, etc.

   Information describing the test results.  This widely varies with
   each test, but can include time each packet was sent and received,
   number of sent and lost packets or other information.  Again most of
   these can be expressed using existent IEs, and some new ones can be
   defined if needed for a particular test.


3.  Example: UDP latency test

   Let's consider the example of UDP latency.  Suppose a MA wants to
   report the results of a UDP latency test, performed from its own IP
   address (e.g. 192.0.2.1) to a destination IP address (e.g.
   203.0.113.1), using source port 23677 and destination port 34567.
   The test is performed using a periodic scheduling with a rate of 1
   packet per second during 3 seconds and starts at 10:00 CEST.  The
   test was performed without cross-traffic and the output type is raw.

   The Template Set for this would be:
      metricIdentifier
      testSchedule
      scheduleRate
      outputType
      testEnvironment
      sourceIPv4Address
      destinationIPv4Address
      sourceTransportPort
      destinationTransportPort
      flowStartMilliseconds
      flowEndMilliseconds

   The data set following this template for the example would be:
      metricIdentifier = UDP_Latency as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      testSchedule = Periodic as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      scheduleRate = 1
      outputType = Raw as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      testEnvironment = No-cross-traffic as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      sourceIPv4Address = 192.0.2.1
      destinationIPv4Address = 203.0.113.1





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      sourceTransportPort = 23677
      destinationTransportPort = 34567
      flowStartMilliseconds = the timestamp corresponding to 10:00 CET
      flowEndMilliseconds = the timestamp corresponding to 10:00 CET
      plus 1 millisecond (Assuming 1 ms of delay)
      ---------------------------
      metricIdentifier = UDP_Latency as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      testSchedule = Periodic as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      scheduleRate = 1
      outputType = Raw as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      testEnvironment = No-cross-traffic as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      sourceIPv4Address = 192.0.2.1
      destinationIPv4Address = 203.0.113.1
      sourceTransportPort = 23677
      destinationTransportPort = 34567
      flowStartMilliseconds = the timestamp corresponding to 10:00 CET
      plus one second
      flowEndMilliseconds = the timestamp corresponding to 10:00 CET
      plus one second plus 2 millisecond (Assuming 2 ms of delay)
      ---------------------------
      metricIdentifier = UDP_Latency as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      testSchedule = Periodic as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      scheduleRate = 1
      outputType = Raw as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      testEnvironment = No-cross-traffic as per
      [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
      sourceIPv4Address = 192.0.2.1
      destinationIPv4Address = 203.0.113.1
      sourceTransportPort = 23677
      destinationTransportPort = 34567
      flowStartMilliseconds = the timestamp corresponding to 10:00 CET
      plus two seconds
      flowEndMilliseconds = the timestamp corresponding to 10:00 CET
      plus two seconds plus 1 millisecond (Assuming 1 ms of delay)
      ---------------------------


4.  Discussion

   Overhead.  As noted in the previous example, all the data describing
   the test itself is repeated in every Data set resulting in increased



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   overhead.  Since the data describing the test can be considered
   metadata about the test results, it would be possible to explore the
   possibility of encoding it in Options Templates.


5.  What standardization is needed for this?

   So, in order to enable the use of IPFIX for LMP, the following pieces
   of standardization would be required.
   o  The definition of the metric registry.  This is not specific for
      IPFIX as any other Report protocol is likely to require this, but
      having an independent registry enables multiple report protocols.
   o  The definition of new IEs.  Some of them are identified above,
      some other are likely to be needed as well.
   o  The definition of the Templates sets for each of the tests to be
      performed.  This is necessary to have a defined Template that
      different vendors can implement and can use the IPFIX format in
      the wire, but they don't need to fully implement IPFIX parsing to
      read arbitrary Template sets, just the ones associated with the
      relevant metrics.


6.  Security considerations

   TBD


7.  IANA Considerations

   TBD


8.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Sam Crawford and Al Morton for input on early
   discussions for this draft.


9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC5101]  Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information
              Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
              Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 2008.

   [RFC5470]  Sadasivan, G., Brownlee, N., Claise, B., and J. Quittek,
              "Architecture for IP Flow Information Export", RFC 5470,



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              March 2009.

   [I-D.bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent]
              Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Crawford, S., Eardley, P., and
              A. Morton, "A registry for commonly used metrics.
              Independent registries",
              draft-bagnulo-ippm-new-registry-independent-00 (work in
              progress), January 2013.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-ipfix-ie-doctors]
              Trammell, B. and B. Claise, "Guidelines for Authors and
              Reviewers of IPFIX Information Elements",
              draft-ietf-ipfix-ie-doctors-07 (work in progress),
              October 2012.


Authors' Addresses

   Marcelo Bagnulo
   Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
   Av. Universidad 30
   Leganes, Madrid  28911
   SPAIN

   Phone: 34 91 6249500
   Email: marcelo@it.uc3m.es
   URI:   http://www.it.uc3m.es


   Brian Trammell
   Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
   Gloriastrasse 35
   8092 Zurich
   Switzerland

   Email: trammell@tik.ee.ethz.ch













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