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Versions: 00 01                                                         
     Internet Engineering Task Force                        Mark A. Beadles
     INTERNET-DRAFT                          MCI WorldCom Advanced Networks
     Category: Informational
     <draft-beadles-nas-01.txt>
     12 November 1998
     
     
                           The Network Access Server
     
     
     1.  Status of this Memo
     
     
     This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working docu-
     ments of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),  its  areas,  and
     its  working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute work-
     ing documents as Internet-Drafts.
     
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six  months
     and  may  be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
     time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference   mate-
     rial or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''
     
     To  learn  the  current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
     ``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-Drafts  Shadow
     Directories    on    ftp.ietf.org    (US  East  Coast),  nic.nordu.net
     (Europe), ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim).
     
     The  distribution  of  this memo is unlimited.  It is filed as <draft-
     beadles-nas-01.txt> and expires May 13, 1999. Please send comments  to
     the author.
     
     
     2.  Abstract
     
     
     The  Network Access Server is the initial entry point to a network for
     the majority of users of network services.  It is the first device  in
     the  network to provide services to an end user, and acts as a gateway
     for all further services.  As such, its importance to users  and  ser-
     vice  providers alike is paramount.  However, the concept of a Network
     Access Server has grown up  over  the  years  without  being  formally
     defined or analyzed.  This document offers a framework for the defini-
     tion and analysis of a modern Network Access Server.
     
     
     
     3.  Definition of a Network Access Server
     
     
     A Network Access Server is a device which sits on the edge of  a  net-
     work,  and provides access to services on that network in a controlled
     fashion, based on the identity of the user of the network services  in
     question and on the policy of the provider of these services.  For the
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 1]


     INTERNET-DRAFT                                        12 November 1998
     
     
     purposes of this document, a Network Access Server  is  defined  as  a
     device which accepts multiple point-to-point [PPP] links on one set of
     interfaces, providing access  to  a  routed  network  or  networks  on
     another  set  of  interfaces.   Examples  of  a  network access server
     include:
     
     
          A remote access server which provides access to a private network
          via attached modems which are directly dialed by the user.
     
          A  tunneling  server which sits at the border of a protected net-
          work, and acts as a gateway for users to enter the protected net-
          work from the Internet.
     
          A shared commercial dial access server operated by a Network Ser-
          vice Provider, where incoming users connect via  modems  operated
          by  a  Telephone Service Provider, and access is provided to many
          dissimilar private and public networks.
     
     
     Note that there are many things that a Network Access Server  is  not.
     A NAS is not simply a router, although it will typically include rout-
     ing functionality. However, the boundary between  NAS  and  router  is
     admittedly  fuzzy.    A  NAS  is not necessarily a dial access server,
     although dial access is one common means of network access, and brings
     its own particular set of requirements to NAS's.
     
     A NAS is the first device in the network to provide services to an end
     user, and acts as a gateway for all further services.  It is the point
     at  which  users are authenticated, access policy is enforced, network
     services are authorized, network usage is audited, and  resource  con-
     sumption is tracked.  That is, a NAS often acts as the policy enforce-
     ment point for network AAAA (authentication,  authorization,  account-
     ing,  and auditing) services.  A NAS is typically the first place in a
     network where security measures and policy may be implemented.
     
     
     
     
     4.  Interested parties
     
     
     The following are examples of parties who are concerned with the oper-
     ation of Network Access Servers.  This list is by no means exhaustive.
     
          Network Service Providers (NSPs) who operate  and  manage  NAS's,
          AAAA  servers, policy servers, and networks; and who provide net-
          work services to end users.
     
          End users who gain access to their private  and  public  networks
          through NAS's.
     
          Businesses  and other entities who operate NAS's for their users'
          public and private network access, or who outsource the operation
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 2]


     INTERNET-DRAFT                                        12 November 1998
     
     
          and management of NAS's to a NSP.
     
          Telephone  Service Providers (TSPs) who operate and manage modems
          and telephony networks; and who provide telephony services to end
          users, NSP's, and businesses.
     
          Manufacturers  of  NAS's,  AAAA  servers, policy servers, modems,
          etc.
     
     
     
     
     5.  Reference Model of a NAS
     
     
     For reference in the following discussion, a diagram  of  a  NAS,  its
     dependencies,  and  its  interfaces  is  given below.  This diagram is
     intended as an abstraction of a NAS as a reference model, and  is  not
     intended to represent any particular NAS implementation.
     
                                Users
                              v v v v v v v
                              | | PSTN  | |
                              | |  or   | |
                              |encapsulated
                           +-----------------+
                           |    (Modems)     |
                           +-----------------+
                              | | | | | | |
                    +--+----------------------------+
                    |  |                            |
                    |N |     Client Interface       |
                    |  |                            |
                    |A +----------Routing ----------+
                    |  |                            |
                    |S |    Network Interface       |
                    |  |                            |
                    +--+----------------------------+
                            /      |     \
                           /       |      \
                          /        |       \
                         /         |        \
       POLICY MANAGEMENT/          |         \  DEVICE MANAGEMENT
       +---------------+           |          +-------------------+
       | Authentication|         _/^\_        |Device Provisioning|
       +---------------+       _/     \_      +-------------------+
       | Authorization |     _/         \_    |Device Monitoring  |
       +---------------+   _/             \_  +-------------------+
       | Accounting    |  /       The       \
       +---------------+  \_   Network(s)  _/
       | Auditing      |    \_           _/
       +---------------+      \_       _/
                                \_   _/
                                  \_/
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 3]


     INTERNET-DRAFT                                        12 November 1998
     
     
     5.1.  Terminology
     
     
     Following is a description of the modules and interfaces in the refer-
     ence model for a NAS given above:
     
     
     Client Interfaces
               A NAS has one or more client interfaces, which  provide  the
               interface  to  the  end  users  who  are  requesting network
               access.  Users may connect to these  client  interfaces  via
               modems over a PSTN, or via tunnels over a data network.  Two
               broad classes of NAS's may be defined, based on  the  nature
               of  the incoming client interfaces, as follows.  Note that a
               single NAS device may serve in both classes:
     
     Dial Access Servers
                    A Dial Access Server is a NAS whose  client  interfaces
                    consist  of  modems,  either local or remote, which are
                    attached to a PSTN.
     
     Tunnel Servers A Tunnel Server is a NAS whose client  interfaces  con-
                    sists  of tunneling enpoints in a protocol such as L2TP
                    [L2TP].
     
     Network Interfaces
               A NAS has one or more network interfaces, which  connect  to
               the networks to which access is being granted.
     
     Routing   If  the network to which access is being granted is a routed
               network, then a NAS will typically include routing function-
               ality.
     
     Policy Management Interface
               A  NAS  provides an interface which allows access to network
               services to be managed on a per-user basis.  This  interface
               may  be a configuration file, a graphical user interface, an
               API, or a protocol such as RADIUS [RADIUS], Diameter [DIAME-
               TER],  or  COPS [COPS].  This interface provides a mechanism
               for granular resource management and policy enforcement.
     
     Authentication
               Authentication refers to the confirmation that a user who is
               requesting  services is a valid user of the network services
               requested.  Authentication is accomplished via the presenta-
               tion  of  an identity and credentials.  Examples of types of
               credentials are passwords, one-time tokens, digital certifi-
               cates, and phone numbers (calling/called).
     
     Authorization
               Authorization  refers  to  the granting of specific types of
               service (including "no service") to a user, based  on  their
               authentication,  what  services they are requesting, and the
               current  system  state.  Authorization  may  be   based   on
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 4]


     INTERNET-DRAFT                                        12 November 1998
     
     
               restrictions, for example time-of-day restrictions, or phys-
               ical location restrictions, or restrictions against multiple
               logins  by  the  same  user.   Authorization  determines the
               nature of the service wich is granted to a  user.   Examples
               of  types  of  service  include,  but are not limited to: IP
               address filtering,  address  assignment,  route  assignment,
               QoS/differential services, bandwidth control/traffic manage-
               ment, compulsory  tunneling  to  a  specific  endpoint,  and
               encryption.
     
     Accounting
               Accounting  refers to the tracking of the consumption of NAS
               resources by users.  This information may be used  for  man-
               agement,  planning,  billing,  or other purposes.  Real-time
               accounting refers to accounting information that  is  deliv-
               ered  concurrently  with  the  consumption of the resources.
               Batch accounting refers to accounting  information  that  is
               saved until it is delivered at a later time.  Typical infor-
               mation that is gathered in accounting is the identity of the
               user,  the nature of the service delivered, when the service
               began, and when it ended.
     
     Auditing  Auditing refers to the tracking of activity  by  users.   As
               opposed  to  accounting,  where the purpose is to track con-
               sumption of resources, the purpose of auditing is to  deter-
               mine  the  nature of a user's network activity.  Examples of
               auditing information include the identity of the  user,  the
               nature  of the services used, what hosts were accessed when,
               what protocols were used, etc.
     
     AAAA Server
               An AAAA Server is a server or servers that provide authenti-
               cation,  authorization,  accounting,  and auditing services.
               These may be colocated with the NAS, or more typically,  are
               located  on a seperate server and communicate with the NAS's
               User Management Interface via an AAAA  protocol.   The  four
               AAAA  functions may be located on a single server, or may be
               broken up among multiple servers.
     
     Device Management Interface
               A NAS is a network device which is owned, operated, and man-
               aged  by  some  entity.  This interface provides a means for
               this entity to operate and manage the NAS.   This  interface
               may  be a configuration file, a graphical user interface, an
               API, or a protocol such as SNMP [SNMP].
     
     Device Monitoring
               Device monitoring refers to the tracking of  status,  activ-
               ity, and usage of the NAS as a network device.
     
     Device Provisioning
               Device  provisioning refers to the configurations, settings,
               and control of the NAS as a network device.
     
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 5]


     INTERNET-DRAFT                                        12 November 1998
     
     
     5.2.  Analysis
     
     
     Following is an analysis of the functions of a NAS using the reference
     model above:
     
     
     5.2.1.  Authentication and Security
     
     
     NAS's  serve  as  the first point of authentication for network users,
     providing security to user sessions.  This security is typically  per-
     formed  by  checking  credentials such as a PPP PAP user name/password
     pair or a PPP CHAP  user  name  and  challenge/response,  but  may  be
     extended  to  authentication via telephone number information, digital
     certificates, or biometrics.  NAS's also may  authenticate  themselves
     to  users.   Since  a  NAS may be shared among multiple administrative
     entities, authentication may actually  be  performed  via  a  back-end
     proxy, referral, or brokering process.
     
     In  addition  to  user  security,  NAS's may themselves be operated as
     secure devices.  This may include secure  methods  of  management  and
     monitoring,  use  of  IP  Security [IPSEC] and even participation in a
     Public Key Infrastcture.
     
     
     5.2.2.  Authorization and Policy
     
     
     NAS's are the first  point  of  authorization  for  usage  of  network
     resources,  and  NAS's serve as policy enforcement points for the ser-
     vices that they deliver to users.  NAS's may provision these  services
     to  users in a statically or dynamically configured fashion.  Resource
     management can be performed at a NAS by  granting  specific  types  of
     service  based  on  the  current network state.  In the case of shared
     operation, NAS policy may be determined based on the policy of  multi-
     ple end systems.
     
     
     5.2.3.  Accounting and Auditing
     
     
     Since  NAS  services  are consumable resources, usage information must
     often be collected for for the purposes  of  soft  policy  management,
     reporting, planning, and accounting.  A dynamic, real-time view of NAS
     usage is often required for network auditing purposes.   Since  a  NAS
     may  be  shared among multiple administrative entities, usage informa-
     tion must often be delivered to  multiple  endpoints.   Accounting  is
     performed using such protocols as RADIUS [RADIUS-ACCT].
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 6]


     INTERNET-DRAFT                                        12 November 1998
     
     
     5.2.4.  Resource Management
     
     
     NAS's  deliver  resources to users, often in a dynamic fashion.  Exam-
     ples of the types of resources doled out by NAS's  are  IP  addresses,
     network  names and name server identities, tunnels, and PSTN resources
     such as phone lines and numbers.  Note that NAS's may be operated in a
     outsourcing  model, where multiple entities are competing for the same
     resources.
     
     
     
     5.2.5.  Virtual Private Networks (VPN's)
     
     
     NAS's often participate in VPN's, and may serve as the means by  which
     VPN's  are  implemented.   Examples  of the use of NAS's in VPN's are:
     Dial Access Servers that build compulsory tunnels, Dial Access Servers
     that  provide services to voluntary tunnelers, and Tunnel Servers that
     provide tunnel termination services.  NAS's may simultaneously provide
     VPN  and  public  network services to different users, based on policy
     and identity.
     
     
     
     5.2.6.  Service Quality
     
     
     A NAS may delivery different qualities, types, or levels of service to
     different users based on policy and identity.  NAS's may perform band-
     width management, allow differential speeds or methods of  access,  or
     even  participate  in provisioned or signaled Quality of Service (QoS)
     networks.
     
     
     
     5.2.7.  Roaming
     
     
     NAS's are often operated in a shared or outsourced manner,  or  a  NAS
     operator  may  enter  into  agreements with other service providers to
     grant access to  users  from  these  providers  (roaming  operations).
     NAS's often are operated as part of a global network.  All these imply
     that a NAS often provides services to users from multiple  administra-
     tive  domains  simultaneously.  The features of NAS's may therefore be
     driven by requirements of roaming [ROAMREQ].
     
     
     6.  Acknowledgements
     
     
     Thanks to Dave Mitton (Nortel Networks), John Vollbrecht (Merit),  and
     Rich  Petke  (MCI  WorldCom)  for  useful  discussions of this problem
     space.
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 7]


     INTERNET-DRAFT                                        12 November 1998
     
     
     7.  References
     
     
     [RADIUS]  Rigney, Rubens, Simpson,  Willens.   "Remote  Authentication
     Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2138, April 1997.
     
     [RADIUS-ACCT]  Rigney,  et.  al.  "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2139, April
     1977.
     
     [SNMP]  Case, Fedor, Schoffstall, and Davin. "A Simple Network Manage-
     ment Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 1157, May 1990.
     
     [DIAMETER]  Calhoun, Rubens.  "DIAMETER Base Protocol", draft-calhoun-
     diameter-06.txt, October 1998.
     
     [PPP] Simpson, Editor. "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)", RFC  1661,
     July 1994.
     
     [COPS]   Boyle, Cohen, Durham, Herzog, Raja, Sastry. "The COPS (Common
     Open Policy Service)  Protocol",           draft-ietf-rap-cops-02.txt,
     August 1998.
     
     [L2TP]  Hamzeh,  Kolar, Littlewood, Singh Pall, Taarud, Valencia, Ver-
     thein,  Townsley,  Palter,  Rubens.  "Layer  Two  Tunneling   Protocol
     (L2TP)", draft-ietf-pppext-l2tp-12.txt, October 1998.
     
     [IPSEC] Atkinson, Kent. "Security Architecture for the Internet Proto-
     col", draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.
     
     [ROAMREQ] Aboba, Zorn.   "Roaming  Requirements",  draft-ietf-roamops-
     romreq-10.txt, August 1998.
     
     
     8.  Author's Address
     
     
     
     Mark A. Beadles
     MCI WorldCom Advanced Networks
     5000 Britton Rd.
     Hilliard, OH 43026
     
     Phone: 614-723-1941
     EMail: mbeadles@wcom.net
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     Beadles                                                       [Page 8]