ANIMA WG                                                       T. Eckert
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Standards Track                        October 30, 2017
Expires: May 3, 2018

              DNS-SD compatible service discovery in GRASP


   DNS Service Discovery (DNS-SD) defines the common framework for
   applications to announce and discover services.  This includes
   service names, service instance names, common parameters for
   selecting a service instance (weight, priority) as well as service
   specific parameters.

   GRASP is intended to also be used for service discovery.  Reinventing
   service discovery for GRASP with a similar set of fetures would
   result in duplication of work.  Therefore, this document defines how
   to use GRASP to announce and discover services in a way that inherits
   DNS-SD features and also tries to be compatible in spirit as much as
   possibel while still maintaining the intended simplicity of GRASP.

   The goal of this document is to permit defining service and their
   parameters once and then use that in GRASP, mDNS and (unicast) DNS.
   Future work can also define DNS-SD <-> GRASP gateway functions.

   In support of service discovery, this document also defines name
   discovery and schemes for reuseable elements in GRASP objectives
   which are designed to be extensible so that future work that
   identifies elements required across multiple objectives do not need
   to define a scheme how to do this.

Status of This Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 3, 2018.

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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Specification (Normative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Service and Name Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Objective Value Reuseable Elements Structure  . . . . . .   4
     2.3.  Reuseable Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.3.1.  Sender Loop Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.3.2.  Service Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.3.3.  Name Element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   3.  Explanations (Informative)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.1.  Using GRASP service announcements . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.2.  Further comparison with DNS-SD  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     3.3.  Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Change log [RFC Editor: Please remove]  . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     7.1.  Initial version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Overview

   DNS Service Discovery (DNS-SD) defines the common framework for
   applications to announce and discover services.  This includes
   service names, service instance names, common parameters for
   selecting a service instance (weight, priority) as well as service
   specific parameters.

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   GRASP is intended to also be used for service discovery.  Reinventing
   service discovery for GRASP with a similar set of fetures would
   result in duplication of work.  Therefore, this document defines how
   to use GRASP to announce and discover services in a way that inherits
   DNS-SD features and also tries to be compatible in spirit as much as
   possibel while still maintaining the intended simplicity of GRASP.

   The goal of this document is to permit defining service and their
   parameters once and then use that in GRASP, mDNS and (unicast) DNS.
   Future work can also define DNS-SD <-> GRASP gateway functions.

   GRASP exists as so-called GRASP-Domains, which are networks across
   which GRASP is run.  This document primarily defines how to perform
   service discovery across such a domain leveraging GRASPs options to
   perform unsolicited flooding of announcements or flooding of requests
   and finding the closest service instances.  The initial use case of
   this document is to support what in DNS-SD is done via mDNS but in
   larger networks - GRASP-Domains.  Beside the efficient flooding,
   GRASP provides reliability and security (depending on the so called
   substrate used by GRASP, such as the autonomic control plane - ACP).
   Providing compatibility with existing mDNS service announcer or
   clients is possible, but not described in this version of the

   The encoding of information choosen in this document does not try to
   use GRASP solely as a transport layer, but to also leverage the CBOR
   structure of GRASP messages to natively encode the message elements
   required for services in a way that is most simple - instead of using
   GRASP only as e.g.: an encapsulation of otherwise unchanged DNS
   message encodings.  This is done to minimize the amount of coding
   required (and not require any DNS code unless future gateway
   functions are requireed), to increase the simplicity, minimize the
   amount of data on the wire and allow easier extensibility.  On the
   downside, the mechanisms provided here do not cover the whole slew of
   possible options of DNS/DNS-SD, but instead only those deemed to be
   required.  Others can be added later.

   In support of service discovery, this document also defines name
   discovery and schemes for reuseable elements in GRASP objectives
   which are designed to be extensible so that future work that
   identifies elements required across multiple objectives do not need
   to define a scheme how to do this.

2.  Specification (Normative)

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2.1.  Service and Name Objectives

   Unsolicited, flooded announcements (M_FLOOD) in GRASP and solicited
   flooded discovery (M_DISCOVERY) operate on the unit of GRASP
   objective-names.  Therefore a scheme is required to indicate services
   via objective-names.  Note: future work may wants to reuse the
   encodings related to services (defined below in this document) inside
   other (multicast or unicast only) objective exchanges, in which case
   the service names are not impacted.

   When an objective is meant to be solely about a service name as
   defined and registered according to RFC6335, the objective MUST uses
   an objective-name of SRV.<service-name>.  This naming scheme allows
   to avoid creating duplicate and potentially inconsistent registration
   of names for those objectives vs.  registrations done for example for
   DNS-SD.  The primary use case for this naming scheme are therefore
   service names that are intended to be used in both DNS-SD and GRASP.

   When an objective is meant announcement and discovery of a DNS
   compatible <name> such as "www-internal" in "www-", the objective SHOULD use an objective-name of
   NAME.<name>.  See Section 2.3.3for more details.

   See Section 5 for the detailled IANA asks relating to these

2.2.  Objective Value Reuseable Elements Structure

   Because service discovery, as explained in the prior section, needs
   to utilize different objectives, it requires cross-objective
   standardized encoding of the elements of services.  GRASP did not
   define standardized message elements for the message body (called
   "objective-value") of GRASP messages.  Therefore, this document
   introduces such a feature.

   [RFC-editor: please remove all occurances of XXXX in rfcXXXX with the
   RFC number assigned to this document and remove this edit note.]

   objective-value  /= { 1*elements }
   elements        //= ( @rfcXXXX: { 1*relement } )

   relement  = ( relement-codepoint => relement-value )
   relement-codepoint = uint
   relement-value     = any

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   If an objective wants to use reuseable elements, the objective-value
   MUST be a CBOR map and the reuseable elements are found under the key
   "@rfcXXXX".  Objectives that do not want reuseable elements as
   defined here can use any objective-value format including a CBOR map,
   but they can not use the "@rfcXXXX" key if they use a map.  This
   approach was choosen as the hopefully least intrusive mechanism given
   how by nature all of "objective-value" is meant to be defined by
   individual objective definitions.

   The value of "@rfcXXXX" is a map of reuseable elements.  Each
   relement has an IANA registered element-name and codepoint (see
   Section 5).  The element-name is for documentation purposes only,
   CBOR encodings only use the numeric codepoint for encoding efficiency
   to minimize the risk for this solution to not be applicable to low-
   bitrate neworks such as in IoT.

   Format and semantic of the relement-value is determined by the
   specification of the reuseable element as is the fact whether more
   than one instances of the same reuseable element are permitted.

   Reuseable elements SHOULD be defined to be extensible.  The methods
   used depend on the complexity of the element and the likely need to
   extend/modify the element with backward or non-backward compatible
   information.  The following is a set of initial options to choose

   Element values that are a map MUST permit and reserve key value 0
   (numerical) for private extensions of the element defined by the
   individual objective.

   Element values that are a map MUST NOT use bareword key values
   starting with a "_".  These too are for private extensions defined by
   the individual objective.

   Element values SHOULD be defined so that additional keys in maps and
   additional elements at the end of arrays can be ignored by prior
   versions of the definition.  Whenever a newer definition is made for
   an element where this rule is violated, the element SHOULD be changed
   in a way for older version recipients to recognize that it is not
   compatible with it.

   One method to indicate compatibility is a traditional version
   "<mayor>.<minor>".  Within the same <mayor> version number,
   increasing <minor> version numbers must be backward compatible.
   Different <mayor> version numbers are not expected to be compatible
   with each other.  If they are, then this can be indicated by
   including multiple version numbers.

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   A compressed form of version compatibility information is the use of
   a simple bitmask element where each bit indicates a version that the
   represented data is compatible with.

2.3.  Reuseable Elements

2.3.1.  Sender Loop Count

   relement-codepoint //= ( &(sender-loop-count:1) => 1..255 )

   Sender-loop-count is set by the sender of an objective message to the
   same value as the loop-count of the message.  On receipt, distance =
   ( sender-loop-count - loop-count ) is the distance of the sender from
   the receiver in hops.  This element can be used for informational
   purposes in M_FLOOD and M_DISCOVERY messages and may be required to
   be used in these messages by the specification of other elements
   (such as the service element described below).  This element MUST
   occur at most once.  If a receiver expects to use the distance but
   sender-loop-count was not announced, then distance SHOULD be assumed
   to be 255 by the receiver.

2.3.2.  Service Element

   The srv-element (service element) is a reuseable element to request
   or announce a service instance or to request and list service
   instance names.

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   relement-codepoint //= ( &(srv-element:2) => context-element )

   context-element  =  {
        ?( &(private:0)      => any),
        ?( &(msg-type:1      => msg-type),
        ?( &(service:2)      => tstr),
        *( &(instance:3)     => tstr),
        ?( &(domain:4)       => tstr),
        ?( &(priority:5)     => 0..65535 ),
        ?( &(weight:6)       => 0..65535 ),
        *( &(kvpairs:7)      => { *(tstr: any) },
        ?( &(range:8)        => 0..255 ),
        *( &(clocator:9)     => clocator),
   clocator = [ context, locator-option ]
   context = cstr
   locator-option = ; from GRASP

   msg-type = &( describe: 0, describe-request:1,
                enumerate:2, enumerate-request:3 )

   Service:  A service name registered according to RFC6335.  If it is
      not present, then objective-name MUST be SRV.<service-name> where
      <service-name> is the service-name.

   Instance:  The <Instance> of a DNS-SD Service Instance Name (
      <Instance> .  <Service> . <Domain>).  It is optional, see
      Section 3.2.

   Domain:  The equivalent of the <Domain> field of a DNS-SD Service
      Instance Name.  If domain is not present, this is equivalent to
      ".local" in DNS (as introduced by mDNS) and implies the unnamed
      "local" domain, which is the GRASP domain across which the message
      is transmitted.

   Priority, Weight:  Service Instance selection criteria as defined in
      RFC2782.  If either one is not present, its value defaults to 0.

   Kvpairs:  Map of key/value pairs that are service parameters in the
      same format as the key/value pairs in TXT field(s) of DNS-SD TXT
      records as defined in RFC6763, section 6.3.

   Range:  Allows to flexibly combine distance and priority/weight based
      service selection according to the definition of distance in
      Section 2.3.1.

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      If min-distance is the distance of the closest service announcer,
      and min-range the range announced by it, then the recipient MUST
      consider the priority/weight of all service announcers that are
      not further away than (min-distance + min-range).  If not
      included, range defaults to 255.

      If range is announced, the sender-loop-count element MUST also be

   Clocator:  The "contextual locator" allows to indicate zero or more
      locators for the indicated service instance.  The context element
      indicates in which context the locator-option is to be resolved.
      The reserved context value of "" (empty string) indicates the
      GRASP domain used, aka: the "local" context in which the service
      announcement is made.  The reserved context value of "0" indicates
      the default routing context of the announcing node.  This is often
      called "global table", "VRF 0" or "default VRF" on nodes using the
      "VRF" abtraction.  Any other value is a string specifying a
      context such as another VRF.

      The mechanism by which originator and recipient of the srv-element
      agree on common naming for contexts is outside the scope of this
      specification.  The context therefore allows to indicate locators
      both for the context through which the GRASP message distributed
      the srv-element (GRASP domain) as well as that for other contexts.
      Assume the GRASP domain is the ACP, then clocators in ACP would
      have a context of "", clocators in the global routing table (part
      of the data-plane) a context of "0", and clocators on other VRFs
      (also part of data-plane) a clocator that is their sring name.

      If no locators are indicated, then the locator of the service(s)
      is the optional locator-option of the GRASP message in which the
      objective is contained meant to be used for the service(s)
      indicated and the clocator implied is "".

      If locator(s) are indicated, the messages location-option must be
      ignored for the service (but may be necessary to be present for
      other purposes of the objective).

   Msg-type  Type (aka: intention) of the srv-element.  If not present,
      it is assumed to be "describe".

   Describe:  Describes one service instance.  At least one clocator is
      required for a positive response, all other fields are permitted,
      but optional.  "Describe" is used in M_FLOOD for unsolicited
      announcements of services (flooded), in M_RESPONSE messages for
      solicited announcements of a service and in M_NEGOTIATE for
      negotiated announcements (both unicasted).  If clocator is not

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      included, then all fields except service and instance (and msg-
      type and private) must not be included and the srv-element
      provides a negative reply: No information about this service/
      service instance.  This is only permitted in unicasted "describe"

   Describe-request:  Request for a "describe" reply.  It is used in
      M_DISCOVERY (flooded) for solicited discovery of services or in
      M_REQ_SYN (unicasted) for negotiated discovery of service
      instance(s).  In "describe-request", only service is mandatory
      (but can be provided via the objective-name field of the message),
      and domain is optional.  "Instance" is optional.  If provided,
      then the recipient is asked to provide information about the named
      instance only.  All other fields of srv-element are to be ignored
      by the receiver in this specification, but a semantic for setting
      them may be introduced in followup work, specifically to filter
      replies by the indiciated fields.

      "Describe-request" without instance MAY be answered by "Enumerate"
      (see below) if the responder has so many instances that it thinks
      the initiator should rather first select one or fewer instances
      and ask for their description.  The sender of te "Describe-
      request" MUST be prepared to accept that answer and as necessary
      follow up with "Describe-request" with the instance names of

   Enumerate:  Used in the same GRASP messages as "describe", but
      instead of providing information about one service instance, it is
      listing service instance names.  The purpose of enumerate is the
      same as browsing a service in DNS-SD.  It would be followed by
      some human or automated selection of one or more instances and
      then a "describe" M_REQ_SYN request for those instances sent to
      the source of the "enumerate" to learn about the locators and
      other parameters of the service instances.

      In this specification, all fields other than service, instance and
      domain (and msg-type and private) must be unset in "enumerate".

   Enumerate-request:  Requests an "enumerate" reply.  It is used in the
      same way as "Describe-request" except that instance would usually
      not be set (because in that case it is more useful to send a

2.3.3.  Name Element

   The NAME,<name> elements is meant to provide basic name resolution
   comparable to mDNS name resolution for GRASP domains where this is

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   desirable and no better name resolution exist - for example in the
   ACP where there is no requirement for DNS.

   Because the GRASP service lookup (unlike) DNS does not mandate that
   nodes have names (not even service instance names), the use of names
   is primarily meant to support legacy software.  New designs should
   instead look up only services and service instance names, and nodes
   should announce their names as service instance names for the
   services they offer:

   For example consider a GRASP (ACP) domain of "".  The node
   providing some "www" service could have a name "www-internal" which
   means GRASP objective NAME.www-internal, that objective value would
   include primarily the nodes IP address(es) and the port number for
   the www service would have to be guessed (80).  Better, the node
   would announce GRASP objective SRV.www and the objective value would
   include the service instance name www-internal and the (TCP) port
   information (80 or a non-default port).

   relement-codepoint //= ( &(name-element:3) => context-element )

   context-element //= {
        *( &name:10)         => tstr),

   ipv6-address-option = [O_IPv4_ADDRESS, ipv6-address]
   ipv4-address-option = [O_IPv6_ADDRESS, ipv6-address]
   locator-option /= ipv4-address-option
   locator-option /= ipv6-address-option

   Name information is carried in the name-element relement.  It is a
   context-element like the one used for srv-element except that it adds
   the name component and that it does not permit the service and
   instance components and that it allows only describe and describe-
   request values in the msg-type.  Clocators MUST use the ipv6-address-
   option or ipv4-address-option in the locator-option component.

   TBD: Unclear if/how we should best formalize the differences in the
   context element permitted information between services and names.
   The above is quite informal.

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   Priority, weight, kvpairs, range (and of course private) MAY be used
   in describe messages to support multiple instances of the same name,
   as used for name anycast/prioritycast.

   Nodes may have multiple names.  These can be listed in the name
   component.  If a nodes names have the notion of a primary name and
   secondary names then the primary name should be the first in the list
   of names.  In DNS-SD, the name pointed to by CNAME RRs can be
   considered to be the primary name.  A describe-request for a non-
   primary name SHOULD return in the list of names the requested name
   and the primary name.

   Note that there is no reverse lookup defined in this version of the
   document (no lookup from IP address to name).

3.  Explanations (Informative)

3.1.  Using GRASP service announcements

   TBD: This section contains a range of details that should become
   normative in later versions.

   This section provides a step by step walk-through of how to use GRASP
   service announcements and compares it to DNS-SD.

   The most simple method to use GRASP service discovery is to select
   (and if still neessary, register) a <service-name> and start one or
   more agents (e.g.: ASAs) announcing their service instance(s) via
   GRASP.  At minimum, an agent should periodically (default 60 seconds)
   announce the service instance via GRASP M_FLOOD messages as an
   objective SRV.<service-name> with a srv-element and a sender-loop-
   count element (default 255).  The ttl of the GRASP message should be
   3.5 times the announcement period, e.g.: 210000 msec.

   Consumers of the service will use GRASP to learn of the service
   instances and select one.  This approach is most similar to the use
   of DNS-SD with mDNS except that the scope of the announcement is a
   whole GRASP domain (such as the ACP) as opposed to a single IP subnet
   in mDNS and that mDNS primarily relies on request & reply but in its
   standard not on periodic unsolicited announcements.  We describe here
   the unsolicited flooding option via M_FLOOD first because it is
   recommended for services with a dense population of service consumers
   and it is most simple to describe.

   On the service announcer, the parameters priority, weight and range
   of the service instance can be selected from intent or configuration
   - or left at default.  The default range 255 will result in selection
   of a random target of the service like in DNS-SD.  Setting priority/

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   weight allows to prioritize and weigh the selection as in DNS-SD.
   Setting range to 0 allows to select the closest target, priority/
   weight are only compared between targets of the same shortest
   distance.  Distance based options are not available in DNS-SD because
   it does not expect that network distance is available to arbitrary
   DNS-SD client.  It is available to GRASP clients though.  Using 0 <
   range < 255 allows for a hybrid priority/weight and distance based
   service selection (e.g.: Select the highest priority instance within
   a range of 5 hops).

   If the service is a non-GRASP service, then the result of the service
   discovery has to be a transport locator to which the client can open
   a connection and talk the protocol implied by the service.  This
   transport locator(s) have to be put into the clocator parameter.  The
   context of the clocator would normally be "", aka: the transport
   locator is in the IP reachability associated with the GRASP domain
   (e.g.: IPv6 of the ACP for ACP GRASP domain).

   If an ACP service is announced via ACP GRASP, then the locator(s) can
   be O_IPv6_LOCATOR or O_FQDN_LOCATOR.  The O_IPv6_LOCATOR is used if
   the service is defined to be available via some transport layer port
   (TCP, UDP or other).  The determination of the actual transport
   connection to be used is the same as in DNS-SD: If the transport
   protocol is not TCP or UDP, it has to be implied by the specification
   of <service-name> or can be detailled in kvpairs which carries the
   same information as DNS-TXT TXT RRs of the service.  Alternatively,
   the transport-proto field of the locator can contain any valid IP
   protocol directly (TBD), which is not possible in DNS-SD.

   Like DNS-SD, service discovery via GRASP does not require allocation
   and use of well-known ports for services.  Unlike DNS-SD, there is no
   need in GRASP to define service instance names or target names.  In
   DNS SD, PTR RRs resolve from a service name to a set of service
   instance named.  SRV and TXT RRs resolve from service instance names
   to service instance parameters including the target.  A target is the
   DNS host name of the service instance.  It gets resolved via A/AAAA
   RRs to IPv4/IPv6 addresses of the targ.  In GRASP service discovery,
   host names are not used.  Service instance names are optional too.
   Service instance names are useful for human diagnostics and human
   selection of service instances.  In fully automated environments,
   they can be are less important.  For diagnostic purposes, it is
   recommended to give service instances service instance names in GRASP
   service announcements.

   A locator with O_URI_LOCATOR type can be used in GRASP to indicate a
   URI for the transport method for a service instance.  If the URI
   includes a host part, care must be taken to use only IP addresses in
   the host part if the context of the GRASP domain does not support

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   host name resolution - such as the ACP - or to use the GRASP name
   resolution mechanisms described elsewhere in this document.  And that
   the addresses indicated are also reachable in the GRASP domain.  For
   example, in service announcemenets across a DULL GRASP domain, only
   the IPv6 link-local addresses on that subnet must be used (this
   applies equally when using the O_IPv6_LOCATOR).

   Instead of using M_FLOOD to periodically announce service instances,
   M_DISCOVERY can be used to actively query for service instances.  The
   msg-type type must then be "describe-request".  Because no periodic
   flooding is necessary, this solution is more lightweight for the
   network when the number of requesting clients is small.  Note though
   that the M_DISCOVERY will terminate as soon as a provider of the
   objective is found, so the service instances found will be based on
   distance and therefore selection of instance by priority and weight
   will not work equally well as with M_FLOOD.  Consider for example a
   central service instance in the NOC that should always be used (for
   example for centralized operational diagnostics) unless the WAN
   connection is broken, in which case distributed backup service
   instances should be used.  With the current logic of M_DISCOVERY this
   is not possible.

3.2.  Further comparison with DNS-SD

   Neither the GRASP SRV.* objective-name, the service name nor any
   other parameter explicitly indicate the second label "_tcp" or "_udp"
   of DNS-SD entries.  DNS-SD, RFC6763 explains how this is an
   unnecessary, historic artefact.

   This version of the document does not define an equivalent to "_sub"
   structuring of service enumeration.

   This version of the document does not define mechanisms for reverse
   resolution of arbitrary services: An inquirer may unicast M_SYNC_REC
   to a node with a series of objectives with specific service names of
   interest and describe-request, but there is no indication of "ANY"

3.3.  Open Issues

   TBD: Examine limitations mentioned in "in this version of the text/

   TBD: The GRASP specification does currently only permit TCP and UDP
   for the transport-proto element.  This draft should expand the GRASP
   definitions to permit any valid IP protocol.  We just need to decide
   whether this should only apply to the locator in the srv element or

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   also retroative to the locator-option in GRASP messages (maybe not
   there ?).

   TBD: A fitting CBOR representation for a kvpair key without value
   needs to be specified so that it can be distinguished from an empty
   value as outlined in RFC6763 section 6.4.

   TBD: In this version, every service/service-instance is an element by
   itself.  Future versions of this document may add more encoding
   options to allow more compact encoding of recurring fields.

   TBD: Is there a way in CDDL to formally define the string names of
   the relement-codepoint's ?

4.  Security Considerations


5.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests a new "GRASP Objective Value Standard
   Elements" table in the GRASP Parameter Registrar.  The values in this
   table are names and a unique numerical value assigned to each name.
   Future values MUST be assigned using the RFC Required policy defined
   by [RFC8126].  The numerical value is simply to be assigned
   sequentially.  The following initial values are assigned by this

   sender-loop-count 1 [defined in rfcXXXX]

   srv-element 2 [defined in rfcXXXX]

   name-element 3 [defined in rfcXXXX]

   This document updates the handling of the "GRASP Objective Names"
   Table introduced in the GRASP IANA considerations as follows:

   Assignments for objective-names of the form "SRV.<text>" and
   "NAME.<text>" are special.

   Assignment of "SRV.<text>" can only be requested if <text> is also a
   registered service-name according to RFC6335.  The specification
   required for registration of a "GRASP Objective Name" MUST declare
   that the intended use of the objective name in GRASP is intended to
   be compatible with the indended use of the registered service name.

   Registration of "SRV.<text>" in the "GRASP Objective Name" table is
   optional, but recommended for all new service-names that are meant to

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   be used with GRASP.  Non-registration can for example happen with
   DNS-SD <-> GRASP gateways that inject pre-existing service-names into
   GRASP.  Note that according to the GRASP RFC, registration is
   mandatory, so this exemption for "SRV.<text>" is also an update to
   that specification.

   There MUST NOT be any assignment for objective names of the form
   "NAME.<text>".  These names are simply used by GRASP nodes without
   registration (just like names in mDNS).

6.  Acknowledgements

7.  Change log [RFC Editor: Please remove]

7.1.  Initial version

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

              Bormann, C., Carpenter, B., and B. Liu, "A Generic
              Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP)", draft-ietf-anima-
              grasp-15 (work in progress), July 2017.

   [RFC6763]  Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", RFC 6763, DOI 10.17487/RFC6763, February 2013,

8.2.  Informative References

              Behringer, M., Eckert, T., and S. Bjarnason, "An Autonomic
              Control Plane (ACP)", draft-ietf-anima-autonomic-control-
              plane-12 (work in progress), October 2017.

Author's Address

   Toerless Eckert
   Futurewei Technologies Inc.
   2330 Central Expy
   Santa Clara  95050


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