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Versions: 00 01 02                                                      
Transport Working Group                                         P. Heist
Internet-Draft                                          20 February 2021
Intended status: Informational
Expires: 24 August 2021


     Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) Deployment Observations
            draft-heist-tsvwg-ecn-deployment-observations-01

Abstract

   This note presents data gathered at an Internet Service Provider's
   gateway on the observed deployment and usage of ECN.  Relevant IP
   counter and flow tracking data was collected and analyzed for TCP and
   other protocols.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 24 August 2021.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.





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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Collection Details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Observations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  ECN Endpoint Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.1.  Client Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.2.  Server Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  RFC3168 AQM Activity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  ECN Codepoints on Non-TCP Protocols . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.3.1.  Tunneled Traffic  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.2.  Use of the ECN Field for Historical Reasons . . . . .   6
       3.3.3.  Use of the ECN Field Inadvertently  . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.3.4.  Use of the ECN Field Maliciously  . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Study Limitations and Recommendations for Future Work . . . .   7
     4.1.  ECN Acceptance Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Not-ECT Counts by IP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.4.  Non-TCP Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.5.  Other Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.6.  NS Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  Abbreviated Output from ecn-stats . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  All IP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  TCP initiated from LAN to WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.3.  Non-TCP conntrack-supported protocols initiated from LAN to
           WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   8.  Affiliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   10. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27

1.  Introduction

   To help guide the evolution of ECN, there is a need for more data on
   current deployment status, and observed usage of the ECN related
   bits, including:

   *  the initiation and acceptance of ECN capable TCP flows

   *  marking via CE, and feedback for TCP via the ECE and CWR flags

   *  codepoints set on packets for protocols other than TCP







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   For several weeks, we gathered data on all traffic through an
   Internet Service Provider's gateway.  Though some of the results are
   informative, we caution that a larger, more widely reviewed and
   geographically distributed survey would be needed to be
   authoritative.

2.  Collection Details

   From December 28, 2020 to January 20, 2021, data was gathered on all
   traffic into and out of the Internet gateway at FreeNet Liberec, a
   cooperative WISP in an urban area of the Czech Republic.  A total of
   122.5 TB of incoming data and 12 TB of outgoing data was seen.

   Around 660 members belong to the ISP, and 861 member IP addresses on
   the LAN were considered active during data collection.  Most member
   IPs are used by a household of users, while others are for individual
   devices and public locations.

   [IPTABLES-ECN] was used to collect and analyze the data.  This
   consists of a script to gather the data using iptables and ipsets in
   Linux, and an analysis program that produces textual output.  An
   abbreviated version of the output is included in Section 5.  See the
   referred to source repository for more details and full output.

3.  Observations

   Our key observations are summarized as follows, and further expanded
   upon in the following sections:

   *  1.44% of TCP flows initiated ECN, across 45% of member IPs.

   *  The acceptance rate for ECN flows was likely >50%.

   *  24% of member IPs that negotiated TCP ECN flows saw apparent AQM
      marking via CE or ECE, with more congestion observed on the
      downstream.

   *  42% of the member IPs that saw CE or ECE were from subnets that
      have known AQM instances in the ISP's backhaul, and the remainder
      appear to be from unknown AQMs.

   *  Nonzero ECN codepoints were observed on 0.053% of non-TCP packets,
      with possible attribution to tunneled ECN and/or misuse of the ECN
      field.







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3.1.  ECN Endpoint Activity

3.1.1.  Client Initiation

   Of 319.5 million TCP SYNs from LAN to WAN, 1.44% indicated ECN
   capability.  Of 861 active member IP addresses, 390 (45.3%) attempted
   initiation for at least one ECN flow.  A large proportion of the ECN
   flows are thought to come from Apple devices.

3.1.2.  Server Acceptance

   While 4.6 million ECN TCP SYNs were seen from LAN to WAN, 3.3 million
   ECN SYN-ACKs were seen in return.  While it's not possible to get an
   exact ECN acceptance rate from this, it appears to be reasonably
   high, likely due to default acceptance on prevailing server operating
   systems like Linux, FreeBSD and recent versions of Windows Server.

3.2.  RFC3168 AQM Activity

   There appears to be evidence of [RFC3168] marking AQMs.  Of 861
   active member IP addresses:

   *  382 member IPs, or 44%, successfully negotiated any TCP ECN flows

   *  90 member IPs, or 24% of those that negotiated ECN, saw any CE or
      ECE marks on negotiated TCP ECN flows

   Two backhaul links have fq_codel [RFC8290] deployed, serving the
   10.45.64.0/24 and 10.45.235.0/24 subnets.  This accounts for 38 of
   the 90 member IP addresses that saw CE or ECE, with the source of the
   remaining CE and ECE marks unknown.  These are presumed to be from
   other [RFC3168] marking AQM instances.

   Note that depending on the position of the marking AQM relative to
   the gateway, CE marks may not be seen on some packets, while TCP ECE
   flags are seen in the opposite direction.  For a number of member IP
   addresses, we saw 0 CE marks downstream, but ECE flags set upstream,
   suggesting an AQM downstream from the gateway marking downstream
   traffic.

3.3.  ECN Codepoints on Non-TCP Protocols

   Referring to the packet counts in the _All IP_ / _Both Directions_
   table in the stats output in Section 5, where M indicates megapackets
   and G, gigapackets:






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        +========+==========+===============+=========+==========+
        |        | TCP      | Conntrack (X) | Other   | Total    |
        +========+==========+===============+=========+==========+
        | All    | 76.60 G  | ->            | 43.52 G | 120.14 G |
        +--------+----------+---------------+---------+----------+
        | CE     | 10031    | 3.38 M        | 813951  | 4.20 M   |
        +--------+----------+---------------+---------+----------+
        | ECT(0) | 523.91 M | 9.66 M        | 2.55 M  | 536.12 M |
        +--------+----------+---------------+---------+----------+
        | ECT(1) | 63       | 6.68 M        | 182928  | 6.86 M   |
        +--------+----------+---------------+---------+----------+

                                 Table 1

   (X) UDP, ICMP, DCCP, SCTP, GRE (Conntrack All packets included in
   Other)

   We note the following:

   *  TCP accounted for 97.7% of the 536 million ECT(0) marks

   *  0.68% of all TCP packets were marked with a nonzero ECN codepoint

   *  0.053% of all non-TCP packets were marked with a nonzero ECN
      codepoint

   *  Non-TCP accounted for 99.8% of the 4.2 million CE marks

   *  Non-TCP accounted for virtually all of the ECT(1) marks

   Possible explanations for ECN marks on non-TCP packets are explored
   further in this section.

3.3.1.  Tunneled Traffic

   There are several different encapsulation methods used when handling
   the ECN field through tunnels, as per [RFC3168] and [RFC6040]:

   1.  copy the ECN field from the inner to the outer packet

   2.  reset the ECN field on the outer packet to ECT(0)

   3.  set Not-ECT on the outer packet

   When method 3 is used at both ends of a tunnel, we would not expect
   to see ECN codepoint usage in either direction.





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   When methods 1 or 2 are used at both ends of a tunnel, we would
   expect to see ECT(0) on both incoming and outgoing packets.  We would
   also expect a bias towards incoming packets, since more data is
   generally downloaded than uploaded, and pure ACKs do not have ECT(0)
   marks.

   When method 3 is used at only one end of the tunnel, we would expect
   to see ECT(0) on packets in only one direction.

   We note the following:

   *  Bi-directional ECT(0) marks were observed for two member IP / port
      pairs, on UDP port 443 and 60001.

   *  Uni-directional ECT(0) marks were observed for:

      -  UDP port 4500 (IPSec NAT traversal [RFC3948]) with 23 member IP
         addresses downstream, and 1 member IP address upstream.

      -  UDP port 51820 [WIREGUARD] with 2 member IP addresses
         downstream.

      -  Numerous UDP ports in other ranges, mostly on the downstream.

   While it's possible that some of the data observed was from tunneled
   ECN traffic, this can't be established definitively.

3.3.2.  Use of the ECN Field for Historical Reasons

   Some applications may still use historical definitions of the former
   TOS byte.  Although RFC791 reserved the ECN field for future use, the
   now obsolete [RFC1349] defined the TOS field as four bits within the
   Type of Service octet, one of which overlaps with the ECN field.
   This may account for some of the observed usage of ECT(0), since the
   value for "minimize monetary cost" was 0001, shifted to the left one
   bit, coinciding with ECT(0).

3.3.3.  Use of the ECN Field Inadvertently

   Users of operating system's socket APIs wishing to set a DiffServ
   codepoint may be confused as to whether or not they need to shift the
   desired value left two bits before passing it in.  Additionally, OS
   header files have been seen with out-of-date definitions for obsolete
   values in the former Type of Service octet, and obsolete definitions
   from [RFC2481].






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   Another possible source of confusion is the TOS field values listed
   in the now obsolete [RFC1349], without having been shifted.  A casual
   reader could see the value 0001 for "minimize monetary cost" and
   think that they should use this value in the TOS byte, conflicting
   with ECT(1), not realizing that:

   *  [RFC1349] is obsolete

   *  even if it weren't obsolete, the TOS values must be shifted to the
      left *by one bit*

   To reduce incorrect usages of the DS field, OS header files should be
   sanitized, obsolete RFCs more prominently marked as such, and API
   documentation brought up to date.

3.3.4.  Use of the ECN Field Maliciously

   It's possible that some software is using the ECN field to gain an
   advantage in Internet queues or for some other nefarious purpose.
   Further analysis would be needed to determine if this is the case.

4.  Study Limitations and Recommendations for Future Work

4.1.  ECN Acceptance Rate

   While we captured the ratio of ECN SYNs to ECN SYN-ACKs, we do not
   have an exact count of flows that were accepted or rejected.  It may
   be possible to do this more accurately with additional iptables rules
   in [IPTABLES-ECN].

4.2.  Not-ECT Counts by IP

   While we captured the nonzero ECN codepoints by IP address,
   separately for TCP and conntrack-supported protocols, we do not have
   a count of Not-ECT by IP address.  Although it may be possible to
   obtain this, it would require an ipset lookup for every packet
   traversing the gateway.

4.3.  Tunnels

   Tunnel protocols are challenging because of the different
   encapsulation methods and protocols used.  An analysis at the flow
   level, rather than by IP address and destination port pairs, might be
   more useful in identifying the usage of ECN over tunnels.







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4.4.  Non-TCP Protocols

   More research is needed into the reasons for ECN codepoints being set
   on non-TCP traffic.  Given the relatively low volume of this traffic,
   it might be practical to take packet captures of it for further
   analysis.

   Additionally, we are currently not able to differentiate between the
   total number of packets for conntrack-supported and Other protocols.
   This could be improved with some changes to [IPTABLES-ECN].

4.5.  Other Protocols

   While this study looked at signals by IP address for TCP and IP/port
   for conntrack-supported protocols, it does not break down signals for
   Other protocols by IP address.  Among those protocols is IPSec ESP
   packets, using IP protocol 50.  The [IPTABLES-ECN] script could be
   modified to create more ipsets of type hash:ip, parallel to what was
   done for IP traffic as a whole, to further analyze these protocols
   for tunnel activity.

4.6.  NS Flag

   Since [RFC8311] declared that the NS (Nonce Sum) flag is again
   Reserved, after its now historical use by [RFC3540], we could collect
   any observed usages of this flag, to confirm that it's available for
   use in practice.

5.  Abbreviated Output from ecn-stats

   This abbreviated output only includes LAN to WAN flows, and a small
   subset of the non-TCP conntrack protocols by member IP address.  For
   full output, see the [IPTABLES-ECN] repository.

   *Note* the IP addresses shown here have been anonymized within the
   10.0.0.0/8 address space, in a way that retains the subnet structure.

5.1.  All IP













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   Packets, CE, ECT(0) and ECT(1) are packet counts, and use
   units of M, G or T for mega, giga, or terapackets.

   Total (both directions):

                  TCP         Conntrack [*]   Other      Total
                  ---         -------------   -----      -----
       Bytes      101.22 TB   ->              33.22 TB   134.46 TB
       Packets    76.60 G     ->              43.52 G    120.14 G
       |-CE       10031       3.38 M          813951     4.20 M
       |-ECT(0)   523.91 M    9.66 M          2.55 M     536.12 M
       |-ECT(1)   63          6.68 M          182928     6.86 M

   WAN to LAN:

                  TCP        Conntrack [*]   Other      Total
                  ---        -------------   -----      -----
       Bytes      95.79 TB   ->              26.65 TB   122.45 TB
       Packets    41.43 G    ->              30.29 G    71.72 G
       |-CE       9298       3.38 M          721002     4.11 M
       |-ECT(0)   480.35 M   9.62 M          1.93 M     491.91 M
       |-ECT(1)   62         6.68 M          65111      6.74 M

   LAN to WAN:

                  TCP       Conntrack [*]   Other     Total
                  ---       -------------   -----     -----
       Bytes      5.43 TB   ->              6.57 TB   12.00 TB
       Packets    35.17 G   ->              13.23 G   48.41 G
       |-CE       733       60              92949     93742
       |-ECT(0)   43.56 M   40366           614623    44.21 M
       |-ECT(1)   1         28              117817    117846

       [*] Conntrack protocols: UDP, ICMP, DCCP, SCTP, GRE
           Conntrack total Bytes and Packets included in Other

5.2.  TCP initiated from LAN to WAN

   IP address counts with TCP and ECN activity:

       Active (sent >= 10 SYNs):  861 (of 1195)
       Initiated any ECN flows:   390 (45.3%)
       Negotiated any ECN flows:  382 (44.4%)
       Saw CE or ECE on ECN flow: 90 (23.6% of ECN, 10.5% of all)
       Saw ECT(1) on ECN flow:    5

   SYN packet count totals for active IPs:




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       All SYNs:     319560652
       ECN SYNs:     4601118 (1.44% of all)
       ECN SYN/ACKs: 3273815 (71.15% of ECN SYNs)

   ECN packet count totals for active IPs:

       Direction CE   ECE    ECT(0)    ECT(1)
       --------- --   ---    ------    ------
       From LAN  733  502985 42903861  1
       From WAN  9298 19367  479756419 62

   ECN codepoint packet counts by active IP, for nonzero CE or ECE:

                     ECT(0)   CE   ECE    ECT(0)  CE   ECE
                     from     from from   from    from from
       IP            WAN      WAN  LAN    LAN     LAN  WAN
       --            ---      ---  ---    ---     ---  ---
       10.45.9.88    17970    0    0      0       0    431
       10.45.64.3    2909975  36   13348  245614  0    45
       10.45.64.4    228451   0    2192   60531   0    0
       10.45.64.7    1119810  28   4610   15970   0    35
       10.45.64.11   158206   0    335    52721   0    0
       10.45.64.12   466173   0    14955  28006   3    0
       10.45.64.13   287196   0    223    17277   0    0
       10.45.64.14   2264292  13   20863  362708  0    23
       10.45.64.15   46467    0    9      33894   0    0
       10.45.64.16   12238    0    1396   3339    0    0
       10.45.64.17   1058702  0    464    10578   0    0
       10.45.64.31   1137817  0    46740  114016  12   0
       10.45.64.39   519279   0    11019  44094   0    0
       10.45.64.45   229911   0    363    297811  0    0
       10.45.64.47   1257622  0    15731  410234  321  6041
       10.45.64.59   186455   0    44     71189   0    0
       10.45.64.85   4958     0    57     1069    0    0
       10.45.64.93   604641   0    16530  89847   0    0
       10.45.64.103  660575   0    10649  129808  0    0
       10.45.64.105  407561   0    2046   28347   0    0
       10.45.64.112  2007755  0    1135   58168   1    1
       10.45.64.116  427696   0    1042   30081   0    0
       10.45.64.118  275449   163  710    94141   0    170
       10.45.64.123  461008   0    3118   29852   0    0
       10.45.64.125  540511   0    52960  57523   49   0
       10.45.64.126  686366   0    12579  57480   122  0
       10.45.65.7    959608   0    176    94920   0    0
       10.45.65.16   1392760  0    4483   157057  0    0
       10.45.65.110  694373   0    1530   44914   0    0
       10.45.65.112  1140897  0    2313   171205  0    0
       10.45.65.124  73846    5    6      24228   0    9



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       10.45.86.39   823913   1    13     135427  0    0
       10.45.86.41   6872888  72   3228   1116750 0    0
       10.45.87.32   62967    0    64     33255   0    0
       10.45.87.45   2052604  1    0      225774  0    0
       10.45.87.50   2500669  3    3      134178  0    0
       10.45.87.127  527732   17   22     58020   0    39
       10.45.101.96  1883157  155  156    270789  0    151
       10.45.104.24  1837837  55   63     416284  0    77
       10.45.107.73  1851297  400  416    463753  0    430
       10.45.108.24  230952   0    0      33749   0    36
       10.45.113.6   10491356 168  191    253856  0    174
       10.45.113.106 638565   34   37     173265  0    40
       10.45.114.98  1370882  1619 1792   309940  0    1739
       10.45.138.66  479880   43   56     95577   0    47
       10.45.140.73  6036     510  551    1918    0    520
       10.45.140.74  5396418  39   46     336854  0    38
       10.45.141.85  450018   39   50     157585  0    85
       10.45.145.2   118843   10   15     19309   0    25
       10.45.145.73  3484464  1    0      153147  0    0
       10.45.153.10  714256   6    11     80712   0    0
       10.45.154.82  2355299  22   25     263636  0    44
       10.45.155.68  1849086  1    1      349722  0    0
       10.45.155.71  9089268  144  143    660457  1    152
       10.45.158.197 17618743 493  53     369921  0    0
       10.45.158.198 1019414  13   13     222440  0    25
       10.45.176.114 736022   32   46     88713   0    62
       10.45.176.119 2393601  38   47     167329  0    68
       10.45.177.68  17191899 22   24     201187  0    27
       10.45.182.75  615134   6    7      100995  0    13
       10.45.183.117 199726   131  145    52876   6    152
       10.45.183.204 2729641  8    10     851838  0    0
       10.45.212.82  2497321  18   23     213484  0    48
       10.45.229.81  1043941  268  2104   36517   1    0
       10.45.230.25  4560825  3132 18481  290819  0    0
       10.45.230.204 28514121 1    1      321299  0    0
       10.45.231.31  62246    16   9      12782   0    30
       10.45.234.197 265034   188  225    98664   0    153
       10.45.235.6   140242   0    217    42778   0    0
       10.45.235.24  213822   0    388    50485   0    0
       10.45.235.59  1017759  16   897    121453  0    30
       10.45.235.89  8066090  56   31899  637830  176  5630
       10.45.235.90  3878916  727  4278   460048  0    709
       10.45.235.92  15410232 151  169965 1030037 41   1784
       10.45.235.94  344002   0    1394   3913608 0    0
       10.45.235.196 2234     0    157    1323    0    0
       10.45.235.199 2166     0    56     676     0    0
       10.45.235.200 5279     0    220    2311    0    0
       10.45.235.203 2966     0    234    1765    0    0



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       10.45.235.206 154701   0    3484   333     0    0
       10.45.235.208 5076     0    378    3240    0    0
       10.45.238.75  4916805  196  262    942367  0    229
       10.45.241.101 2838055  0    740    303980  0    0
       10.45.242.72  81526    5    5      36884   0    11
       10.45.242.146 894737   21   25     85268   0    44
       10.45.243.69  1946622  2    3      64838   0    0
       10.45.249.6   621444   0    2461   75061   0    0
       10.45.249.34  180747   0    2260   128409  0    0
       10.45.251.37  455964   39   171    18996   0    0
       10.45.251.114 14208298 134  13794  946610  0    0

5.3.  Non-TCP conntrack-supported protocols initiated from LAN to WAN

   Protocols included:

       UDP, ICMP, DCCP, SCTP, GRE

   Active IPs:

       Active IPs with ECN signals:              420
       Active IP/dstport pairs with ECN signals: 24972

   ECN packet count totals for active IPs:

       Direction CE      ECT(0)  ECT(1)
       --------- --      ------  ------
       From LAN  59      26692   28
       From WAN  2838929 9562002 6632561

   ECN codepoint packet counts by client IP, with selected ports:
       (ports with '*' had >100 ECT(0) marks)

                              ECT(0)  CE      ECT(1)  ECT(0) CE   ECT(1)
                              from    from    from    from   from from
       IP/Port                WAN     WAN     WAN     LAN    LAN  LAN
       -------                ---     ---     ---     ---    ---  ---
       10.45.10.0             0       0       0       201    0    0
       10.45.10.4             0       0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.10.5             0       0       0       20     0    0
       10.45.10.6             0       0       0       9      0    0
       10.45.10.7             0       0       0       8      0    0
       10.45.10.8             0       0       0       39     0    0
       10.45.10.11            0       0       0       8      0    0
       10.45.10.12            0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.10.42            0       0       0       6      0    0
       10.45.10.61            0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.10.70            0       0       0       44     0    0



Heist                    Expires 24 August 2021                [Page 12]


Internet-Draft                   ecndep                    February 2021


       10.45.10.71            0       0       0       5      0    0
       10.45.10.73            0       0       0       7      0    0
       10.45.10.77            0       0       0       13     0    0
       10.45.10.81            0       0       0       10     0    0
       10.45.10.82            0       0       0       8      0    0
       10.45.10.83            0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.10.95            0       0       0       59     0    0
       10.45.10.96            0       0       0       39     0    0
       10.45.10.129           0       403     1       0      0    0
       10.45.10.196           0       0       0       80     0    0
       10.45.10.197           0       0       0       63     0    0
       10.45.10.201           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.10.204           0       0       0       25     0    0
       10.45.10.227           0       0       0       40     0    0
       10.45.10.228           0       0       0       7      0    0
       10.45.10.244           0       0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.10.245           0       0       0       7      0    0
       10.45.64.3             0       0       0       100    0    0
       10.45.64.4             0       0       0       31     0    0
       10.45.64.6             0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.64.7             12      126     20      8      0    0
       10.45.64.10            0       0       0       29     0    0
       10.45.64.11            0       0       0       67     0    0
       10.45.64.12            0       0       0       6      0    0
       10.45.64.13            0       0       0       35     0    0
       10.45.64.14            0       0       0       121    0    0
       10.45.64.15            0       0       0       52     0    0
       10.45.64.16            0       0       0       18     0    0
       10.45.64.19            16      0       0       0      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 11      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.64.31            34129   2468    58304   27     0    0
         udp:37658            0       0       4346    0      0    0
       * udp:38129            24957   2468    15281   0      0    0
         udp:38884            0       0       10409   0      0    0
       * udp:40871            288     0       2269    0      0    0
       * udp:41621            3057    0       14609   0      0    0
       * udp:41744            171     0       61      0      0    0
         udp:43588            0       0       6746    0      0    0
         udp:45444            0       0       1292    0      0    0
       * udp:45465            866     0       0       0      0    0
         udp:45483            0       0       1838    0      0    0
       * udp:45522            4764    0       708     0      0    0
       10.45.64.39            0       0       0       75     0    0
       10.45.64.45            0       0       0       50     0    0
       10.45.64.47            0       0       0       11     0    0
       10.45.64.51            0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.64.59            56      1624    10      593    0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      56      1624    10      0      0    0



Heist                    Expires 24 August 2021                [Page 13]


Internet-Draft                   ecndep                    February 2021


       10.45.64.85            0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.64.86            7       434404  3       9      0    0
         udp:4400 (ds-srv)    0       29065   0       0      0    0
         udp:14757            0       97175   0       0      0    0
         udp:24173            0       35437   0       0      0    0
         udp:29493            0       120959  0       0      0    0
         udp:44495            0       41547   0       0      0    0
         udp:53678            0       109978  0       0      0    0
       10.45.64.89            7       50      0       4      0    0
       10.45.64.93            598     2971    341     75     0    0
       * udp:3478 (stun)      598     2971    341     0      0    0
       10.45.64.98            0       0       32780   0      0    0
         udp:6008             0       0       9234    0      0    0
         udp:7008 (afs3-upd.. 0       0       23546   0      0    0
       10.45.64.99            132     2094    73      0      0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       3       0       0      0    0
       10.45.64.103           0       0       0       47     0    0
       10.45.64.104           70      293     31      1      0    0
       10.45.64.105           213     33440   0       7      0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      213     33440   0       0      0    0
       10.45.64.107           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.64.108           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.64.111           1       1       0       0      0    0
       10.45.64.112           0       421     0       48     0    0
       10.45.64.116           4       143     8       64     0    8
       10.45.64.118           0       0       0       77     0    0
       10.45.64.121           0       2107    0       0      0    0
         udp:38603            0       2100    0       0      0    0
       10.45.64.123           0       0       0       13     0    0
       10.45.64.124           6       0       0       0      0    0
         udp:443 (https)      6       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.64.125           0       0       0       22     0    0
       10.45.64.126           1       10      0       37     0    0
       10.45.65.0             0       0       0       42     0    0
       10.45.65.1             0       0       0       45     0    0
       10.45.65.5             0       0       0       17     0    0
       10.45.65.7             0       0       0       30     0    0
       10.45.65.11            0       0       0       6      0    0
       10.45.65.16            1686    40141   36888   505    0    0
       * udp:3478 (stun)      1595    22049   4       0      0    0
         udp:26808            0       0       36805   0      0    0
         udp:62348            0       15738   0       0      0    0
       10.45.65.17            0       4       0       0      0    0
       10.45.65.66            0       17      0       94     0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       17      0       0      0    0
       10.45.65.94            319     0       1       25     0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       0       1       0      0    0
       10.45.65.95            0       0       0       8      0    0



Heist                    Expires 24 August 2021                [Page 14]


Internet-Draft                   ecndep                    February 2021


       10.45.65.104           0       0       0       41     0    0
       10.45.65.107           12      77      2       5      0    0
       10.45.65.110           0       0       0       38     0    0
       10.45.65.112           39      1168    18      75     0    0
       10.45.65.122           2       5       0       0      0    0
       10.45.65.123           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.65.124           0       0       0       11     0    0
       10.45.65.127           0       0       0       5      0    0
       10.45.75.90            0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.80.28            2       8       1       0      0    0
       10.45.80.79            4       7       0       2      0    0
       10.45.80.85            0       0       0       10     0    0
       10.45.80.99            0       0       0       11     0    0
       10.45.83.76            0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.83.80            28      51      11      0      0    0
       10.45.85.127           301     174     30747   68     0    0
       * udp:599 (acp)        222     174     45      0      0    0
         udp:6008             0       0       30702   0      0    0
       * udp:60001            49      0       0       65     0    0
       10.45.86.16            13      0       0       2      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 8       0       0       0      0    0
         udp:51820 (wiregua.. 5       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.86.36            0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.86.39            205     37619   107     50     0    0
         udp:29492            0       2512    0       0      0    0
         udp:64733            0       30711   0       0      0    0
       10.45.86.40            2       0       0       0      0    0
         udp:443 (https)      2       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.86.43            0       11      0       532    0    0
       10.45.86.68            760     3528    614     325    0    0
         udp:80 (http)        0       2       0       0      0    0
       10.45.87.32            12      0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.87.44            709     4963    623     0      0    0
         udp:80 (http)        0       1       0       0      0    0
         udp:6881             3       1313    43      0      0    0
       10.45.87.45            0       0       0       185    0    0
       10.45.87.48            0       0       0       82     0    0
       10.45.87.50            3       0       9       68     0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 3       0       9       0      0    0
       10.45.87.103           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.87.112           0       1       0       0      0    0
       10.45.87.113           0       0       0       33     0    0
       10.45.87.127           0       0       0       44     0    0
       10.45.92.74            31      0       1       2      0    0
       10.45.93.69            15      122     6       0      0    0
       10.45.93.75            361     2945    278     4      0    0
       10.45.93.79            0       0       0       8      0    0
       10.45.98.71            2       8       0       0      0    0



Heist                    Expires 24 August 2021                [Page 15]


Internet-Draft                   ecndep                    February 2021


       10.45.98.72            0       1       0       40     0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       1       0       0      0    0
       10.45.101.96           0       0       0       140    0    0
       10.45.101.100          0       0       0       12     0    0
       10.45.101.101          2       10      7       0      0    0
       10.45.101.103          21      21899   15      0      0    0
         udp:58479            0       21372   0       0      0    0
       10.45.101.104          0       0       10      33     0    0
       10.45.104.24           0       0       0       324    0    0
       10.45.104.104          16      72      2       60     0    0
       10.45.107.73           32      0       1       58     0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 32      0       1       0      0    0
       10.45.107.79           34      0       0       70     0    0
         udp:443 (https)      34      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.107.81           0       4421    0       3      0    0
         udp:61094            0       4421    0       0      0    0
       10.45.108.3            0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.108.4            33      5079    90      1      0    0
         udp:33027            0       2978    0       0      0    0
       10.45.108.13           0       0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.108.24           799     5543    1059    117    0    0
       * udp:40211            107     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.108.25           1       2       1       799    0    0
       10.45.108.66           0       0       0       0      0    1
       10.45.108.69           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.108.71           28      12830   0       0      0    0
         udp:34665            0       12462   0       0      0    0
       10.45.108.75           0       0       6395176 38     0    0
         udp:6008             0       0       1755476 0      0    0
         udp:7008 (afs3-upd.. 0       0       1827173 0      0    0
         udp:8008 (http-alt)  0       0       740987  0      0    0
         udp:9008             0       0       809024  0      0    0
         udp:10008 (octopus)  0       0       380001  0      0    0
         udp:11008            0       0       578400  0      0    0
         udp:12008 (accurac.. 0       0       231619  0      0    0
         udp:13008            0       0       72496   0      0    0
       10.45.108.76           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.108.77           0       0       0       31     0    0
       10.45.108.80           337     1566    173     10     0    0
       10.45.108.95           1       5       0       283    0    0
       10.45.108.126          0       0       0       12     0    0
       10.45.112.74           9       95      4       371    0    0
       10.45.112.102          0       0       0       29     0    0
       10.45.112.139          0       0       0       5      0    0
       10.45.112.154          0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.112.165          0       0       0       24     0    0
       10.45.112.172          6333    0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      6333    0       0       0      0    0



Heist                    Expires 24 August 2021                [Page 16]


Internet-Draft                   ecndep                    February 2021


       10.45.112.216          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.113.6            147184  0       0       136    0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 147184  0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.113.7            453     0       10      52     0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      309     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 144     0       10      0      0    0
       10.45.113.9            0       0       0       60     0    0
       10.45.113.11           0       0       0       187    0    0
       10.45.113.27           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.113.30           0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.113.33           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.113.34           0       0       0       58     0    0
       10.45.113.35           0       0       0       6      0    0
       10.45.113.36           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.113.66           1       11      0       0      0    0
       10.45.113.90           0       0       0       163    0    0
       10.45.113.94           17      62      2       0      0    0
       10.45.113.97           0       0       0       19     0    0
       10.45.113.99           11      76      12      15     0    0
       10.45.113.104          818     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 818     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.113.106          0       0       0       10     0    0
       10.45.113.119          0       178     0       313    0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       178     0       0      0    0
       10.45.113.122          36      0       0       0      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 36      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.113.124          0       0       0       201    0    0
       10.45.114.8            0       3       0       0      0    0
       10.45.114.10           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.114.42           286     12      67      3      0    0
       * udp:51820 (wiregua.. 286     0       66      0      0    0
       10.45.114.98           0       0       0       10     0    0
       10.45.120.25           0       0       0       53     0    0
       10.45.120.34           0       0       0       12     0    0
       10.45.120.78           0       0       0       715    0    0
       10.45.122.51           686     28190   122     66     0    0
         udp:45622            0       5782    0       0      0    0
         udp:59437            0       17791   0       0      0    0
       10.45.124.31           1720    5946    16897   105    0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       6       0       0      0    0
       * udp:50451            1720    0       15875   0      0    0
         udp:50919            0       2428    0       0      0    0
         udp:50996            0       0       1016    0      0    0
         udp:57403            0       1944    0       0      0    0
       10.45.124.43           0       0       0       12     0    0
       10.45.124.73           37      0       0       0      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 37      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.124.74           0       0       0       1      0    0



Heist                    Expires 24 August 2021                [Page 17]


Internet-Draft                   ecndep                    February 2021


       10.45.124.89           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.124.107          142     626895  83      0      0    0
         udp:24616            0       501142  0       0      0    0
         udp:51123            0       124060  0       0      0    0
       10.45.124.111          0       1538    166     0      0    0
         udp:4748             0       1491    166     0      0    0
       10.45.124.117          0       0       0       248    0    0
       10.45.125.97           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.125.99           130     6235    29      1      0    0
         udp:8609 (canon-cp.. 0       3002    0       0      0    0
       10.45.125.104          0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.125.105          0       0       0       7      0    0
       10.45.136.82           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.136.198          0       0       0       8      0    0
       10.45.136.199          68      3210    7       0      0    0
         udp:22312            0       2452    0       0      0    0
       10.45.136.200          0       44      1       0      0    0
       10.45.137.4            4603    0       0       1882   0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      4603    0       0       1882   0    0
       10.45.137.21           0       0       0       118    0    0
       10.45.137.27           4       0       0       63     0    0
       10.45.137.29           0       0       0       0      0    1
       10.45.137.46           9       154     0       6      0    0
         udp:443 (https)      9       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.137.53           0       0       0       7      0    0
       10.45.137.55           0       0       1       37     0    0
       10.45.137.62           5       29      1       14     0    0
         udp:443 (https)      2       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.137.119          16      203825  12      4      0    0
         udp:16772            0       55846   0       0      0    0
         udp:25135            0       24694   0       0      0    0
         udp:25476            0       66965   0       0      0    0
         udp:51123            0       54265   0       0      0    0
         udp:55430            0       1138    0       0      0    0
       10.45.137.123          2       4190    1       1      0    0
         udp:29363            0       3283    0       0      0    0
       10.45.138.52           3093    18938   0       0      0    0
       * udp:42420            3087    18871   0       0      0    0
       10.45.138.66           0       0       0       249    0    0
       10.45.138.88           43      107     10      0      0    0
       10.45.138.95           0       0       0       20     0    0
       10.45.140.0            0       0       0       84     0    0
       10.45.140.5            0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.140.28           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.140.74           0       0       0       12     0    0
       10.45.140.81           0       0       0       26     0    0
       10.45.140.100          143     465     37      0      0    0
       10.45.140.103          0       0       0       16     0    0



Heist                    Expires 24 August 2021                [Page 18]


Internet-Draft                   ecndep                    February 2021


       10.45.140.104          0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.140.109          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.140.118          0       0       0       27     0    0
       10.45.140.121          0       7032    0       17     0    0
         udp:49710            0       1160    0       0      0    0
         udp:53984            0       2694    0       0      0    0
         udp:58704            0       1597    0       0      0    0
       10.45.140.122          0       3       0       0      0    0
       10.45.140.123          0       0       4       0      0    0
       10.45.140.127          0       0       0       15     0    0
       10.45.140.133          0       0       0       0      1    0
       10.45.140.169          0       0       0       59     0    0
       10.45.140.171          0       0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.141.2            91      0       0       12     0    0
         udp:443 (https)      91      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.141.6            0       0       0       24     0    0
       10.45.141.14           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.141.17           2       37      1       17     0    0
       10.45.141.19           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.141.82           579     0       0       21     0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      579     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.141.83           0       0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.141.84           0       0       0       90     0    0
       10.45.141.85           0       0       0       518    0    0
       10.45.141.86           0       0       0       6      0    0
       10.45.141.87           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.141.103          0       0       0       57     0    0
       10.45.141.106          7       190     3947    1079   0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       24      12      0      0    0
       * udp:5001 (commplex.. 0       0       0       1072   0    0
         udp:40208            0       0       3932    0      0    0
       10.45.141.125          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.144.20           2       6       2       1      0    0
       10.45.144.43           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.144.55           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.144.68           0       0       0       363    0    0
       10.45.144.73           0       0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.144.75           0       0       3       51     0    0
       10.45.144.77           51      289     35      24     0    0
       10.45.144.105          413     0       11      1      0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 413     0       11      0      0    0
       10.45.144.139          1496    0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      1496    0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.144.197          0       0       0       102    0    0
       10.45.145.2            0       0       0       15     0    0
       10.45.145.26           0       0       0       44     0    0
       10.45.145.39           2503039 0       0       11     0    0
         udp:443 (https)      4       0       0       0      0    0



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       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 2503035 0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.145.56           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.145.72           0       0       0       32     0    0
       10.45.145.75           3024    0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      3024    0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.145.81           8691    107114  8245    292    0    0
         udp:80 (http)        0       2       0       0      0    0
       * udp:6881             355     8092    672     0      0    0
         udp:19517            0       1097    0       0      0    0
         udp:22784            0       3441    0       0      0    0
       * udp:25223            110     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:37526            139     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:40631            191     0       0       0      0    0
         udp:40990            0       33415   0       0      0    0
         udp:51820 (wiregua.. 0       3       0       0      0    0
       10.45.145.96           0       0       0       7      0    0
       10.45.145.98           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.145.107          0       9       0       0      0    0
       10.45.145.109          0       0       0       9      35   0
       10.45.145.115          0       0       0       11     0    0
       10.45.146.66           52      88      7       26     0    0
       10.45.146.195          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.146.200          1471    0       0       49     0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 1471    0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.146.201          0       0       0       9      0    0
       10.45.153.10           0       0       0       33     0    0
       10.45.153.194          2       86      2       0      0    0
       10.45.154.6            0       0       0       9      0    0
       10.45.154.81           0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.154.82           0       0       0       140    0    0
       10.45.154.100          0       0       0       14     0    0
       10.45.154.105          0       0       0       17     0    0
       10.45.154.112          0       0       0       5      0    0
       10.45.154.113          1       88      2       3      0    0
       10.45.154.115          0       0       0       224    0    0
       10.45.155.12           0       0       0       11     0    0
       10.45.155.67           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.155.68           0       0       0       237    0    0
       10.45.155.69           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.155.71           0       0       0       246    0    0
       10.45.155.73           0       0       0       72     0    0
       10.45.155.74           0       1       0       0      0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      0       1       0       0      0    0
       10.45.155.75           0       4       0       0      0    0
       10.45.155.76           0       1       0       0      0    0
       10.45.155.217          0       0       0       15     0    0
       10.45.155.229          4       42      6       48     0    0
       10.45.156.94           25      152     8       0      0    0



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       10.45.156.105          0       5362    0       19     0    0
         udp:58796            0       5362    0       0      0    0
       10.45.156.127          0       0       0       22     0    0
       10.45.158.115          0       0       0       402    0    0
       10.45.158.124          0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.158.127          0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.158.195          0       1630    3       25     0    0
         udp:6881             0       1610    0       0      0    0
       10.45.158.197          0       0       0       82     0    0
       10.45.158.198          0       0       0       204    0    0
       10.45.158.204          0       0       0       118    0    0
       10.45.158.206          9       32      2       0      0    0
       10.45.176.114          0       0       0       68     0    0
       10.45.176.116          188     1702    191     1      0    0
       10.45.176.117          0       0       0       35     0    0
       10.45.176.119          9320    1028270 11302   218    0    0
         udp:6881             0       91498   83      0      0    0
       * udp:6900             322     0       0       0      0    0
         udp:8999 (bctp)      0       405853  3       0      0    0
       * udp:10556            741     0       0       0      0    0
         udp:11778            0       311705  0       0      0    0
       * udp:12111            274     0       0       0      0    0
         udp:21606            0       5678    0       0      0    0
         udp:23578            0       4281    0       0      0    0
         udp:24488            0       2140    0       0      0    0
         udp:35849            0       2632    0       0      0    0
       * udp:37758            212     721     0       0      0    0
         udp:40954            0       27113   0       0      0    0
       * udp:42012            380     26      101     0      0    0
         udp:48235            0       3182    0       0      0    0
       * udp:50321            2066    14226   5982    0      0    0
       * udp:50838            389     0       0       0      0    0
         udp:50884            0       0       2743    0      0    0
         udp:51413            39      1712    0       0      0    0
         udp:54457            0       3504    0       0      0    0
         udp:56769            0       23761   0       0      0    0
         udp:59025            0       3034    0       0      0    0
       * udp:60050            3000    3961    1478    0      0    0
         udp:60062            0       13672   0       0      0    0
         udp:64329            0       75590   0       0      0    0
       10.45.176.120          0       0       0       73     21   18
       10.45.176.206          37      689     3       34     0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      37      685     3       0      0    0
       10.45.176.207          8       143     0       5      0    0
       10.45.176.209          12      88      1       11     0    0
       10.45.176.210          10      32      4       1      0    0
       10.45.176.214          25      8900    0       18     0    0
         udp:6672 (vision-s.. 23      8900    0       0      0    0



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       10.45.176.224          1       0       0       114    0    0
       10.45.176.225          120     786     137     1      0    0
       10.45.176.226          0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.176.237          4       0       0       0      0    0
         udp:443 (https)      4       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.177.66           9       213     8349    0      0    0
         udp:6672 (vision-s.. 0       0       8334    0      0    0
       10.45.177.68           12      64      8       124    0    0
       10.45.177.75           0       2       0       66     0    0
       10.45.177.197          0       2       1       0      0    0
       10.45.182.75           44      71      17      25     0    0
       10.45.182.85           41      2612    5024    0      0    0
         udp:45864            0       0       4985    0      0    0
       10.45.182.136          0       0       0       8      0    0
       10.45.183.117          0       0       0       15     0    0
       10.45.183.199          45      1579    0       8      0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      45      1578    0       0      0    0
       10.45.183.204          0       9478    0       731    0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 0       0       0       237    0    0
         udp:22885            0       9404    0       0      0    0
       10.45.183.205          0       0       1       3      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 0       0       1       0      0    0
       10.45.183.209          3       1       0       280    0    0
       10.45.183.219          0       0       0       61     0    0
       10.45.203.6            0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.212.17           10472   25127   16430   0      0    0
       * udp:62503            10452   23528   16423   0      0    0
       10.45.212.27           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.212.29           0       0       0       30     0    0
       10.45.212.51           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.212.82           0       1       1       28     0    0
       10.45.212.84           0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.212.199          0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.212.202          0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.212.205          0       0       0       299    0    0
       10.45.212.207          0       0       0       85     0    0
       10.45.229.75           3       0       0       0      0    0
         udp:443 (https)      3       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.229.78           6694314 0       0       113    0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 6694314 0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.229.79           0       0       0       27     0    0
       10.45.229.81           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.229.101          0       0       0       69     0    0
       10.45.229.104          128     525     128     0      0    0
       10.45.229.119          0       0       0       20     0    0
       10.45.230.20           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.230.25           10      0       72      32     0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 10      0       72      0      0    0



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       10.45.230.89           495     3537    296     4      0    0
       10.45.230.99           7       0       5       2      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 7       0       5       0      0    0
       10.45.230.204          9       57      18      110    0    0
       10.45.230.207          18      33      1       1      0    0
       10.45.230.212          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.230.223          0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.230.224          27927   93      13      0      0    0
       * udp:50323            322     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:50361            128     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:52065            409     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:55236            257     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:57072            142     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:58494            170     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:59465            160     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:59659            445     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:60874            129     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:60898            102     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:61122            302     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:61312            137     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:61669            124     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:62889            24738   0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:63354            122     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:63474            107     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.230.226          0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.230.228          0       45      0       0      1    0
       10.45.230.229          682     21      3       0      0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 682     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.231.16           433     0       0       24     0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 433     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.231.21           40      256     81      0      0    0
       10.45.231.31           0       0       0       32     0    0
       10.45.231.53           2       46      0       0      0    0
       10.45.231.61           4151    0       1       13     0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 4151    0       1       0      0    0
       10.45.231.80           0       0       0       6      0    0
       10.45.231.99           0       0       0       40     0    0
       10.45.231.102          0       0       0       11     0    0
       10.45.231.114          0       0       0       47     0    0
       10.45.233.16           0       0       0       55     0    0
       10.45.233.39           1       13      2       1      0    0
       10.45.233.41           0       0       3       4      0    0
       10.45.233.42           0       0       0       115    0    0
       10.45.233.47           0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.233.55           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.234.197          320     0       11      2      0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 320     0       11      0      0    0
       10.45.235.6            107     454     62      6      0    0



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       10.45.235.11           250     0       0       0      0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      249     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.235.13           0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.235.16           24      56      3       0      0    0
       10.45.235.19           0       0       0       3      0    0
       10.45.235.24           0       2       0       33     0    0
       10.45.235.25           2310    28152   68      17     0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      2214    0       0       0      0    0
         udp:6881             0       13339   0       0      0    0
         udp:31708            0       4595    0       0      0    0
         udp:51413            0       5367    0       0      0    0
         udp:52372            0       3975    0       0      0    0
       10.45.235.49           672     3165    14      0      0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      672     79      0       0      0    0
         udp:59418            0       3078    0       0      0    0
       10.45.235.52           23      0       0       0      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 23      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.235.59           0       0       0       58     0    0
       10.45.235.66           0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.235.89           165     2580    23      582    0    0
       * udp:3478 (stun)      165     2580    23      0      0    0
       10.45.235.90           0       0       0       332    0    0
       10.45.235.92           0       0       0       1007   0    0
       10.45.235.93           229     3272    306     13     0    0
       10.45.235.94           0       0       0       10     0    0
       10.45.238.75           0       0       0       1744   0    0
       10.45.238.104          0       2576    0       7      0    0
         udp:443 (https)      0       2576    0       0      0    0
       10.45.239.66           40      0       5       0      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 40      0       5       0      0    0
       10.45.239.219          1       0       0       18     0    0
         udp:443 (https)      1       0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.240.86           0       0       0       5      0    0
       10.45.241.57           216     66079   437     0      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 0       0       21      0      0    0
         udp:33522            0       37844   0       0      0    0
         udp:37859            0       27536   0       0      0    0
       10.45.241.94           0       0       0       44     0    0
       10.45.241.98           0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.241.101          68946   10      2       120    0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 68942   0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.241.121          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.242.72           0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.242.81           0       0       0       14     1    0
       10.45.242.144          0       0       0       5      0    0
       10.45.242.146          0       0       0       30     0    0
       10.45.242.161          143     134     2297    139    0    0
       * udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 115     0       4       0      0    0



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         udp:27032            0       78      2293    0      0    0
       10.45.243.13           13877   63      1       0      0    0
       * udp:20911            13853   0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.243.41           12      0       0       14     0    0
         udp:443 (https)      12      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.243.69           0       0       0       66     0    0
       10.45.243.71           0       28      0       2      0    0
         udp:80 (http)        0       28      0       0      0    0
       10.45.243.109          0       2008    0       7      0    0
         udp:41697            0       2002    0       0      0    0
       10.45.248.33           2       8       0       10     0    0
         udp:3478 (stun)      2       8       0       0      0    0
       10.45.248.94           0       0       0       11     0    0
       10.45.248.118          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.249.6            0       0       0       1502   0    0
       10.45.249.34           25      0       0       154    0    0
         udp:443 (https)      25      0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.249.99           68      558     88      0      0    0
       10.45.249.104          0       0       0       7      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 0       0       0       6      0    0
       10.45.250.89           0       0       0       5      0    0
       10.45.251.37           0       0       0       19     0    0
       10.45.251.110          9       72      1       0      0    0
       10.45.251.119          0       0       0       23     0    0
       10.45.253.59           0       0       0       1      0    0
         udp:4500 (ipsec-na.. 0       0       0       1      0    0
       10.45.253.61           0       0       0       53     0    0
       10.45.253.84           121     0       0       16     0    0
       * udp:443 (https)      121     0       0       0      0    0
       10.45.253.93           0       0       0       4      0    0
       10.45.253.100          0       0       0       142    0    0
       10.45.253.121          0       0       0       2      0    0
       10.45.254.94           0       0       0       12     0    0
       10.45.255.90           1       125     0       0      0    0
       10.45.255.97           0       0       0       36     0    0

   ECN codepoint packet counts for selected ports:

                              ECT(0)  CE      ECT(1)  ECT(0) CE   ECT(1)
                              from    from    from    from   from from
       Port                   WAN     WAN     WAN     LAN    LAN  LAN
       ----                   ---     ---     ---     ---    ---  ---
       icmp:network-unreach.. 321     4       0       0      0    0
       icmp:host-unreachable  1171    2575    43      22990  0    0
       icmp:port-unreachable  6632    40795   3539    404    0    0
       icmp:ttl-zero-during.. 65      2       66      0      0    0
       ipencap:0              0       0       0       1      0    0
       udp:53 (domain)        0       403     1       0      0    0



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       udp:80 (http)          0       33      0       0      0    0
       udp:443 (https)        20006   36095   0       1882   0    0
       udp:599 (acp)          238     261     59      0      0    0
       udp:1024-3457 [81]     100     618     9       34     59   28
       udp:3478 (stun)        2498    31725   394     0      0    0
       udp:3553-4492 [19]     1       29449   0       0      0    0
       udp:4500 (ipsec-nat-t) 9422229 0       151     244    0    0
       udp:4548-51819 [8177]  62692   2291117 6604184 1072   0    0
       udp:51820 (wireguard)  291     3       66      0      0    0
       udp:51821-65535 [9371] 45758   405849  24049   65     0    0

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

7.  Security Considerations

   There are no known security considerations introduced by this note.

8.  Affiliation

   The author wrote the script used to deploy fq_codel to the two
   backhaul subnets mentioned in Section 3.2.

9.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks go to:

   *  Adam Pribyl, for gathering data at the FreeNet gateway

   *  Jonathan Morton and Rodney Grimes, for helping to analyze the
      results

   *  FreeNet Liberec, for allowing access for data collection

10.  Informative References

   [IPTABLES-ECN]
              Heist, P.G., "iptables-ecn GitHub Repository",
              <https://github.com/heistp/iptables-ecn/>.

   [RFC1349]  Almquist, P., "Type of Service in the Internet Protocol
              Suite", RFC 1349, DOI 10.17487/RFC1349, July 1992,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1349>.







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   [RFC2481]  Ramakrishnan, K. and S. Floyd, "A Proposal to add Explicit
              Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP", RFC 2481,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2481, January 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2481>.

   [RFC3168]  Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
              of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP",
              RFC 3168, DOI 10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3168>.

   [RFC3540]  Spring, N., Wetherall, D., and D. Ely, "Robust Explicit
              Congestion Notification (ECN) Signaling with Nonces",
              RFC 3540, DOI 10.17487/RFC3540, June 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3540>.

   [RFC3948]  Huttunen, A., Swander, B., Volpe, V., DiBurro, L., and M.
              Stenberg, "UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP Packets",
              RFC 3948, DOI 10.17487/RFC3948, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3948>.

   [RFC6040]  Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
              Notification", RFC 6040, DOI 10.17487/RFC6040, November
              2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6040>.

   [RFC8290]  Hoeiland-Joergensen, T., McKenney, P., Taht, D., Gettys,
              J., and E. Dumazet, "The Flow Queue CoDel Packet Scheduler
              and Active Queue Management Algorithm", RFC 8290,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8290, January 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8290>.

   [RFC8311]  Black, D., "Relaxing Restrictions on Explicit Congestion
              Notification (ECN) Experimentation", RFC 8311,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8311, January 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8311>.

   [WIREGUARD]
              "WireGuard web site", <https://www.wireguard.com>.

Author's Address

   Peter G. Heist
   463 11 Liberec 30
   Czech Republic

   Email: pete@heistp.net






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